The grouse and wild turkeys of the United States, and their economic value


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The grouse and wild turkeys of the United States, and their economic value
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Judd, Sylvester Dwight, 1871-1905
Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey ( Washington, D.C )
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oclc - 9040332
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I hav Wa8shington, D..0., July 16, 1905.
Li : have the honor to transmit for publication as Bulletin 24
Iibe Biological Survey a report on the Grouse and Wild Turkeys
f the United States, by Sylvester D. Judd. From the earliest set-
Bent of the country to the present time these game birds have been economic consequence. Their value as food was early rec-
.pied, and they played an important r6le by furnishing the pio-
la with no small part of their fare. When found by the Span-
ids domesticated among the Indians of Mexico, the importance
r|the turkey was at once perceived, and the bird was soon carried
| over the world. It is only in comparatively recent times, -how-
6r, that the economic value of grouse and turkeys as insect de-
cyors has been recognized. The results of the present investi-
tions should lead to a wider knowledge of the essential part these
lde play in checking the increase of noxious weeds and insects and
ib importance of preserving them and of increasing their numbers.
Ho Chief, Biological Survey.
Secretary of Agriculture.







** **" ,,in


duion -------------------------------- --------------------------- 7
prairie hen (Tympanuchu. aneriEanus) ............................------------------- 10
;Preservation and propagation -------..-......-----.-------..------------- 11
ii Food habits ---...--...- -..a... .. . . . . . ..-----.. --...--. 18
i Insect food --- ---------- --------------------14
i Vegetable food ....------..-------. ----------------- ---.....-------- 15
Food of the young.----..------.----------..--------..--------. 18
Sheath hen (f7lmpanuchus cupido) --..... ... ..--------------------.................... 18
Sleaser prairie hen (7Tyipanuehus pallidicinetus) ---------------- 19
Ssharp-tailed grouse (Pediceetes phasianellus) ........................ 20
Food habits--- -------------- ---- ------- ---------. .. 21
| Insect food -------- -------------- -----------.. -------- 21
i Vegetable food ----------. ------------------- 22
s age grouse (Centroeercus urophasianua) --------------------------28
Food habitat .--------------------------------------------24
E ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) ---------------------------. 25
L;:1 Preservation and propagation ------------------------------- 28
Food habits --------------------- -------- .-- --------29
S nsect food -......------.-.....-----------------.---------.--------. 29
.. Vegetable food -------- --------- ----------------------- 31
Food of the young ---------------------------------------38
1%e spruce grouse (Canachites canadenuis) ..-..- 8. 8
SFood habits -------------------.....------.--.--...------------- 9.... 9
jhU Franklin grouse (Canaehites franklini).............................. ---------------------------40
:Thse dusky grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) .............................. 41
Food habits -------.---.. -. --------..---..... ------------.. --......--------- 42
S Vegetable food ------- ---------- ---- ------------- 42
The willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopzs) -..------------------------ 44
Food habits------------------ -------------------------- 40
The rock ptarmigan (Lagopus rupestris) .- .-----...--...... 46
S Foodhabits--- .... ....----- ........... .... ... ... ... ........ .. 46
:The white-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus) ------------------------ 47
Food habits --------------- -- ----- ---- ----------------47
the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) -------------- 48
: Food habits .../ ---------------------------------------------49





Plate I. Ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) ----------- FrontisplAece.
II. Sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) -....................... 24

I ^the early settlement of America until the present day the
oothsome qualities, and handsome appearance of the grouse and
d turkeys have given them a place among the most widely known
A ppreciated of our native birds. Throughout the conquest of the
7t they served to eke out the scanty larder of the pioneer, and
H e ~the changed conditions of more recent times have taken an
bllihed place among the most prized luxuries of the table. Their
bits are interesting alike to the country boy and the city sportsman,
both share in the keen pleasure of their pursuit. Their presence
"|,the farm or in woodland is directly beneficial, owing to their
i'turm of harmful insects.
ITwelve species of grouse occur within the limits of the United
s, including Alaska. They inhabit the most varied country,
the rich prairies of the Mississippi Valley, through the heavily
Muiested areas of the Eastern and Northern States, to above timber
mne on the desolate summits of mountain ranges and over dreary
tastess of arctic tundra. While less beautifully marked than some
Of the quails, all the grouse are adorned with pleasing colors, and the
minales of the two species, the prairie hen and ruffed grouse, wear
curiously shaped ornamental tufts of feathers on the sides of the neck.
Some species have sacs on the neck, which they inflate to make the
kve notes more sonorous. The males of several species have over the
eyes fleshy combs that are concealed by the feathers except in the
mating season, when they become brightly colored and are erected to
form conspicuous and attractive ornaments. These combs are espe-
cially noticeable in both the dusky grouse and the ptarmigans.
SThe grouse may be arranged in three groups according to the kind they occupy. The group of the open plains or of regions
severed with a growth of scrubby bushes includes the prairie hens
Mthe western prairies, from Manitoba south to Texas and Louisiana;
t .e lesser prairie hen of the Southwest; the heath hen, once of the
eastern States, from Massachusetts to Virginia, now limited to Mar-
has Vineyard; the sharp-tailed grouse of the Northwest; and the

sage cock of the sagebrush deserts of the Great Basin, a fine bird, :
nearly as large as a turkey.
Next are the species of the forested regions. The most notable
of these, the well-known ruffed grouse, occurs in wooded areas all i
through the eastern and northern parts of the country from Maine to
northern California, and north to Alaska. Within this wide range
it varies sufficiently in color to be separable into four forms. The
Canada grouse, which also has been separated into several local
forms, has nearly the same range in the north as the ruffed grouse,
but does not extend so far south. The Franklin grouse, closely related
to the spruce grouse, occurs only from the Rocky Mountains west, and
north to Alaska. The blue, or dusky, grouse, called 'fool-hen' in the
Rocky Mountains, also varies in color in parts of its range so that
it has been divided into several not strikingly different local forms.
It is the largest of the forest-loving species and is found only in the
wooded mountain areas of the West, from the Rocky Mountains and
Sierra Nevada north to Alaska. The forest-inhabiting grouse are
rarely near neighbors of man, and hence are of less consequence to
agriculture than those of the open country.
The last group of grouse comprises the ptarmigans, which live
above timber line on the high summits of the Rocky Mountains and
thence north over suitable country to the arctic tundras of Alaska.
The ptarmigans are remarkable for the way in which they meet the
seasonal conditions of their arctic home by changing the grays and
browns of their summer dress for the snowy-white of their winter
one. The willow grouse, or common white ptarmigan, a circumpolar
bird, is common on the tundras of Alaska and British America.
With it occurs the rock ptarmigan, which is rather more of a hill
bird, and which is represented on the Aleutian chain by four island
forms that differ slightly in color from it and from one another. The
white-tailed ptarmigan occurs above timber line in the Rocky Moun-
tains from the northern part of New Mexico to British Columbia
and Alaska. Owing to their-arctic or subarctic homes the ptar-
migans have practically no relations with agriculture. They are resi-
dent throughout the year and abound in many parts of Alaska, where
they have long been prized as food by the natives, and now are a
welcome addition to the fare of the more recent population, though,
as a rule, their flesh is dry and without much flavor.
The common tame turkey is a descendant of birds taken to Europe
from Mexico by the Spaniards early in the sixteenth century. The
wild turkeys of the United States originally occupied a large area
extending from the coast of Massachusetts west to Colorado and
south to Florida and the Mexican border. While they are of the
same species as the Mexican bird, they have been modified by-the
varying conditions of their environment into four forms, distinguished

fl,,. 7 r 7 --- ---.. ._ .. ..
ptltuately a number of our game birds are now gone or are
imppeaing from their former haunts. An awakening appre-
p :0c of the real value of some of the species and of the evident
h1r of their extermination is evinced by protective laws that
ii'b en acted in recent years throughout the country. These
| m ...... ainly the outcome of a realization of the value of the birds
.b6portsman's point of view. The investigations upon which
t report is based show that the farmer has a vastly greater
itat stake in the increase and protection of some of these
notably the bobwhite, than has the sportsman. In view of the
.a ..of both bobwhites and prairie hens it is important to know
iiithere is every probability that proper efforts to rear these
id for restocking purposes will be successful. The numbers of
flhite may be readily increased by careful protection, but the heath
i is already extinct in the Eastern States, and the prairie hen is
rIy or quite gone from large areas in the West where it was
onerous a few years ago. The restocking of suitable places in the
-mer range of the prairie hen and even in the former range of the
th hen in the coast region of Virginia and Maryland appears to
i quite practicable. The significance of an experiment made by
sdubon many years ago at Henderson, Ky., is of special interest
this connection. In the fall he secured 60 prairie hens and, clip-
ng their wings, turned them loose in his garden and orchard which
gained about 4 acres. The birds quickly became tame and "walked
out the garden like so many tame fowls, mingling occasionally
*ithe domestic poultry." The importance of the prairie hen as
troyer of weeds and insects has been demonstrated, and its value
food and game bird is well known. As the bird possesses such
656&-No. 24--05 m--2

of its former range will almost certainly be successful, it is hoped't
that the undertaking will not long be delayed. It is unquestionable:::
that the presence of this bird will add appreciably to the value of any
(Tympanuchus anmcricanus.)
The prairie hen, or 'prairie chicken,' inhabits the western prairies
from Manitoba to southern Texas and Louisiana and from Ohio to
Nebraska. The birds of southern Texas and Louisiana a are smaller
and darker than the common bird. This big grouse, resembling a
brownish-gray hen, adds animation to the western prairies and is as
characteristic of them as the mockingbird is of the South. In the
nuptial season the birds assemble every morning at daybreak on little
hillocks on the plains, and the cocks strut about with wings drooping,
tail spread, and the large orange-colored sacs on the sides of the neck
fully inflated. At intervals they lower their heads and emit a singu-
lar booming love note that can be heard more than a mile, and is one
of the most striking bird notes in the general spring chorus. The
rivalry of the males at these gatherings often leads to fierce fights.
Finally all find partners, separate into pairs, and make nests in
grass-lined depressions among standing grass or similar shelter,
where about a dozen eggs are laid to a clutch. Generally only one
brood is raised in a season. The young, like those of other gallina-
ceous birds, leave the nest as soon as they are hatched and run about
with the hen in search of food. In summer prairie hens roost on the
ground in a family covey, as does the bobwhite, but in winter, in
many sections, they roost in trees. In the fall several coveys congre-
gate in a pack, after the fashion of ptarmigans and crested quail.
Prof. F. E. L. Beal informs the writer that at Ames, Iowa, during
the early eighties, he frequently found, packs numbering as many as
a thousand birds, and that they habitually roosted in the long grass
beside sloughs. The prairie hen is migratory in the northern part of
its range, and to a certain extent farther south also. The well-known
authority on migration, Prof. W. W. Cooke, says: b
In Novemiher and I)ecember large flocks of prairie chickens come from north-
ern Iowa and southern Minnesota to settle for the winter in northern Missouri
and southern Iowa. This migration varies in bulk with the severity of the
Fromn a gastronomic point of view the prairie hen deserves high
praise; it is larger than the ruffed grouse, sometimes weighing 3
pounds, and has a delicious flavor. The flesh of young birds is light-
colored, of old ones dark. The estimation in which the bird is held
a Tympanpuich us ameri cajus atticateri (Bendire).
b Bul. 2, Div. Econ. Ornith.; Dept. Agri., p. 105, 1888.

i Minnesota he saw a pointing dog jump and catch a three-
..k rown prairie hen. Late in the fall, however, when gathered
Peacks, they do not lie well.
:rly in the season-that is, during the last two weeks of August
Athe first part of September-the prairie hen affords a better test
4 do0g's ability to hunt fast and to range out a mile or more from
0ie than does the bobwhite. It is for this reason that field trials
ikens' are always well patronized, and the dogs that win are
valued. So highly esteemed is the prairie chicken as the
Ary o* 'facing' dogs that abundant means for the restocking of
.ble places with the species is likely to be forthcoming from field-
W-ppatrons. The ideal conditions for 'chicken' shooting are real-
Sin a fenceless country, where it is possible for the hunter to drive,
%le the dogs range from a quarter of a mile to a mile away from
Sy::agon. As soon as they point game the sportsman hurries up
id shoots. The driver 'marks down' the birds that escape and
thaps fly half a mile before alighting. Then the wagon advances
Where they dropped, and shooting is again in order. In some
irts of the country the sport stops at 10 or 11 o'clock in the morning,
nause of the intense heat during the middle of the day, when the
rds are resting in places difficult of access, and is not resumed
,ore 3 or 4 o'clock in the afternoon.

The prairie hen deserves well of man. It is beneficial to agricul-
Ire, is one of the best table delicacies, and its booming call is the
mninant spring note of the plains, as the bird is their most character-
tic resident. Furthermore, the number of entries to the yearly field
ials 'on 'chickens' speak for it as an object of sport. In view of
I the good qualities of the bird, the causes of its diminished numbers
would be sought, and adequate means applied to preserve it from
l&t the beginning of the nineteenth century the prairie hen was

in both States. A part of the ground it has lost in the East it hat 1
gained by a westward and ,northward movement. It has followed :
the grain fields of the pioneers of the plains, and with the extension j|
of grain culture into Minnesota and Manitoba it has become plentiful 4
there. According to Doctor Hatch, it was by no means common when H
the white man first came to Minnesota, and he says that in Illinois as
late as 1836 a hunter was extremely lucky if he could bag a dozen in
a day. Some years later, with much less effort, one could have shot
50 in a day, and there were records of 100 to a single gun.6 .
The former status of the bird in the East is well indicated by A
Audubon's classic observations at Henderson, Ky., in 1810. Audubon
In those days during the winter the Grous would enter the farm-yard and
feed with the poultry, alight on the houses, or walk in the very streets of the
villages. I recollect having caught several in a stable at Henderson, where they
had followed some Wild Turkeys. In the course of the same winter, a friend
of mine, who was fond of practicing rifle shooting, killed upwards of forty in one
morning, but picked none of them up, so satiated with Grous was he, as well
as every member of his family. My own servants preferred the fattest flitch
of bacon to their flesh, and not unfrequently laid them aside as unfit for cook-
ing. * They could not have been sold at more than one cent apiece.
* * So rare have they become in the markets of Philadelphia, New York,
and Boston, that they sell at from five to ten dollars the pair.
So far as the sportsman is concerned, the prairie hen is now extinct
in Kentucky, and nowhere is the royal game bird even approximately
so abundant as it formerly was in that State. There is little good
chicken shooting east of the Mississippi. The best now to be had is
in Kansas, Nebraska, Minnesota, the Dakotas, and Manitoba. For-
tunately many people are actively interested in the protection and
preservation of the prairie hen and excellent laws in its behalf already
exist. There is a constantly growing sentiment in favor of nonresi-
dent hunting licenses and a legal limit to the day's bag, while some
States afford the bird absolute protection for a period of years,0 c and
their example should be followed wherever it is growing scarce.
The passage of nonexport laws in most of the States has been pro-
ductive of much good. These State laws have been made effective
by a recent Federal law-the Lacey Act-which prohibits interstate
commerce in game killed in violation of local laws. Through its
operation the sale of the prairie hen was virtually stopped in 1902 and
1903 in all the large cities of the East. Absolute enforcement of this
law and successful l)rohib)ition of local sales must be effected before
a Birds of Minnesota, p. 163, 1892.
bOrnith. Biog. II, p. 491, 1835.
c Illinois, Louisiana, and Oregon protect prairie hens until 1909, and Michigan
and the Province of Ontario until 1910.

SMany laid eggs, and a good number of young ones made their appearance.

There is great probability of success in the restocking
b former range of the prairie hen if undertaken in the
md properly sustained by adequate protective laws.
suits would materially add to the assets of every farm.

of much of
proper way

For the purposes of this report the contents of 71 stomachs of
airie hens have been examined. Fortunately this material repre-
sits not only the shooting season, but all other months except July.
iht of the stomachs came from the Dakotas, Minnesota, Iowa, Wis-
I sOrnlth. Blog. II, p. 495, 1835.

(onsin, I4ebraska, and Texas; llmois ana untano turmnshed thec
rest The food consisted of 14.11 percent animal matter and 85.8.9 ,
percent vegetable matter. The former was insects; the latter seeds,
fruit, grain, leaves, flowers, and bud twigs.
The insect food included 12.78 percent of grasshoppers, 0.48 per- i
cent of beetles, 0.39 percent of bugs, 0.12 percent of ants and other ;
Hymenoptera, 0.29 percent of other insects, and 0.05 percent of
spiders. The ruffed grouse takes about one-sixth less and the I
bobwhite about one-third more of insects than the prairie hen. 4
Although the bobwhite destroys injurious grasshoppers, the relative
proportions of grasshoppers and beetles consumed by it and by the
prairie hen are notably different. In the food of the bobwhite the
grasshoppers are to the beetles as 3.71 to 6.92; with the prairie hen
the ratio stands as 12.78 to 0.48. Indeed, grasshoppers constitute
the bulk of the prairie hen's animal diet, the reason being probably
that on the prairies the grasshoppers vastly outnumber all other
sizable insects. For -a gallinaceous bird the prairie hen is highly
insectivorous from May to October, inclusive, insects constituting
one-third of the fare of the specimens shot during this period. The
species is particularly valuable as an enemy of the Rocky Mountain
locust. During an invasion by this pest in Nebraska, 16 out of 20
grouse killed by Prof. Samuel Aughey from May to October, inclusive,
had eaten 866 locusts-a creditable performance, economically rated.
Some ornithologists believe that the diminution in the number of
prairie hens is in a measure responsible for the ravages of certain
insects. Farmers who know these facts must regret the extinction of
the bird in States where it once thrived, and they may well support
measures for reintroducing and protecting it.
Almost every kind of grasshopper and locust appears to be accept-
able to the prairie hen. In the following list are named the species of
short-horned grasshoppers identified in its food:
Opomnala sp. Schistocerca americana.
Merm iria alacris. Cordillacris occipitalis.
Philibostromna quadrimaculatum. Stenobothrus curtipennis.
Leptysma sp. Melanoplus femur-rubrum.
Psolceussa sp. Melanoplus atlanis.
Ageneotettix scudderi. Melanoplus bivittatus.
Spharagemon sp.
The prairie hen eats also long-horned grasshoppers (Xiphidium sp.,
Conorephalus sp., and Orchelimum sp.) and crickets (Gryllus sp.)
and tree crickets ((Eecanthus sp.).
In its beetle diet the prairie hen makes up in variety what it lacks
in quantity. Unlike our common small passerine birds, but like our
other gallinaceous birds, it. feeds on the harmful leaf beetles. It

* 3'i hone stomach.
S eons i insects are eaten in small numbers, but are. inter-
bause they include a number of the worst insect foes, such as
cotton worm (Alabama argillacea) ,a the army worm (Heiophila
r ), several species of cutworms, the yellow bear caterpillar
U ja virginica), cankerworms (Geometridcw), the Angoumois
zdlln oh (Sitotroga cerealellta), and the chinch bug (Blissus
f ). The bird's habits of eating chinch bugs has been re-
eby B. F. Gault, of Chicago, and Prof. F. M. Webster, of
)Iureau of Entomology. Other bugs, including stink bugs (Eus-
'400 sp.) and the tree hoppers (Stictocephalus sp.) make part of
food. In addition to ants, such as Formica exzectoides, the prairie
n occasionally eats other Hymenoptera, including Tiphia inornata
.d gall insects contained in the galls of Cynipide. In its liking for
ti B and their contents the bird resembles the ruffed grouse and the
KBritish pheasant.
Fu ."Frther study of the food habits of the prairie hen will unquestion-
jably add largely to the foregoing enumeration of insects, but our pres-
out knowledge, incomplete as it is, shows the general character of its
insect food, and establishes the value of the species as a destroyer of
Si~nsect pests
1 From October to April, inclusive, the prairie hen takes little but
vegetable food. This element amounts to 85.89 percent for the year.
Fruit constitutes 11.79 percent; leaves, flowers, and shoots, 25.09 per-
nt; seeds, 14.87 percent; grain, 31.06-percent, and miscellaneous
rgtable material, 3.08 percent.
Like the bobwhite and the ruffed grouse, the prairie hen is fond of
hips, and the abundant roses of the prairie yield 11.01 percent
Fourth Rep. U. S. Ent Commission, p. 88, 1885.

other fruit found was of little importance-merely 0.78 percent It
was made up of domestic cherries, woodbine berries, sumac, poison
ivy; huckleberries, strawberries, partridge berries, mistletoe, wild
grapes, the berries of Solanum and Symphoricarpus, and cornel
(Cornus asperifolia). Of the frugivorous habits of the prairie hen
Audubon writes: ,
In the western country, at the approach of winter, these birds frequent the
tops of the sumach bushes, to feed on their seeds, often in such numbers that I
have seen the bushes bent by their weight.
It is important to note that often when deep snow causes scarcity
of other supplies the sumac affords both the prairie hen and the bob-
Swhite abundant food. As with the insect food, further investigation
undoubtedly will extend the fruit list.
The prairie hen eats a much smaller proportion of seeds,, with the
exception of grain, than the bobwhite, and in this respect is less useful
than the latter bird. It is, however, a better weeder than any other
grouse, and its services in this particular are worthy of consideration.
As before stated, seeds make 14.87 percent of the annual diet. Of
these, grass seeds form 1.03 percent; seeds of various polygonums,
8.49 percent, and miscellaneous weed seeds, 5.35 percent. When the
nature of the prairie hen's habitat is recalled it seems strange that the
percentage of grass seed is so small, The bobwhite, in contrast, takes
9.46 percent of grass seed. Like the bobwhite and other granivorous
birds, the prairie hen often eats the seeds of the various species of
panicums, the paspalums, and pigeon grass (Chwcetochloa viridis).
The seeds of different polygonums, or smartweeds, play an impot-
tant part in the economy of the prairie hen. They form 8.49 percent
of the food. These plants grow profusely where illy drained regions
of the plains are under water for a few months in the year. Back
bindweed (Polygonum convolvulus) and smartweed (Polygonum
lapathifolium), with the closely related dock (Rumex crispus), are
included in the bill of fare. Of the 5.35 percent of remaining mis-
cellaneous seeds, ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is the most
important element, but is insignificant in amount when compared
with the same element of the bobwhite's food. Other composite
are eaten by the prairie hlien-wild sunflower, coreopsis (Coreopsis
cardamiuwfolia), and others. The prairie hen has a liking for
legumes, reminding one again of the bobwhite. It selects two of the
latter's favorites-cassia, and the hog peanut (Falcata comosa). It
takes also the seeds of a closely related plant, the prairie mimosa
(Actian). It has been known to feed on seeds of water willow
(Dianthera sp.), the yellow false garlic (Nothoscordum bivale),
a Ornith. Biog., II, p. 501, 1835.

...enmnea in the investigation contained iL.Uto percent or grain.
bobwhite, another busy stubble feeder, takes only 17.38 percent.
1* stomach of a grouse shot in June in Nebraska contained 100
of corn and 500 grains of wheat. J. A. Loring, formerly of
SBiological Survey, during December in Nebraska found prairie
r"hln feeding in wheat stubble, about straw stacks, and along the edges
f cornfields. Doctor Hatch, in writing of their granivorous habits,

TW" he grain fields afforded both food and protection for them, until the farmers
memInplalned of them bitterly, but not half so bitterly as they did afterwards of
ltebird destroyers who ran over their broad acres of wheat, oats, and corn
m the order of their ripening.
C Buckwheat, barley, oats, and millet are relished; but corn appears
J. "be the favorite cereal, amounting to 19.45 percent of the annual
:fod. Other grain, principally wheat, was in the ratio of 11.61 per-
|iee t. Amos W. Butler reports that in Indiana, during September,
I fields of ripening buckwheat are favorite feeding grounds.' There is
j.reqson, to believe that sprouting grain is sometimes injured. Audubon
Speaks of such injury in Kentucky, where the bird was extremely
iLike other gallinaceous birds, the prairie hen likes mast, though
naturally it obtains much less than the ruffed grouse. The stomach
contents showed the beaked hazelnut (Corylus rostrata) and acorns.
..including, among others, those of the scrub oak (Quercus nana) and
the scarlet oak (Q. coccinea). Like the ruffed grouse, it swallows
acorns whole. A bird shot in Minnesota in March had bolted 28
scarlet-oak acorns.

I Like other grouse the prairie -hen is an habitual browser, to the
i extent of 25.09 percent of its food. This is divided as follows / Twigs
( m Birds of Minnesota, p. 163, 1892.
I b Ann. Rept. Dept. Geol. Ind., 1897, p. 758.
itm 0 Ornlth. Blog., II, p. 491, 1835.

6568-No. 24-05 M-3

This is only half the amount of similar food taken by the ruffed ...
grouse. Naturally the prairie hen is much less given to budding than |
the ruffed grouse, but it ha: been known to pluck buds of poplar, 4
elm, pine, apple, dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa), and black birch I
(B. lenta). "I have counted more than 50 on a single apple tree," 4
writes Audubon,' "the buds of which they entirely destroyed in a few
hours. They were, in fact, looked upon with more abhor-
rence than the crows are at present in Massachusetts and Maine, on
account of the mischief they committed among the fruit trees of the |
orchards during winter, when they fed on their buds, or while in the
spring months, they picked up the grain in the fields." This mischief
was due largely to the abundance of the birds, a condition never
likely to return.
The prairie hen shows a marked taste for flowers. A delicate pink
rosebud had been plucked by a bird shot at Omega, Nebr., inll June.
More than a thousand golden-rod heads were found in another.
Additional composite flowers devoured were Amphiachyris (Amphia-
ehyris dracunculoides), sweet balsam (Gnaphalium obttusifolium),
and others. The flower and leaf buds of birch and apple also are
taken. Small green ovaries of Ruellia and blue-eyed grass were noted
in a few cases. These birds eat leaves, including those of the butter-
cup, everlasting (Antennaria), red and white clover, and the interest- i
ing water milfoil (Myriophyllum), often grown in goldfish globes.

The economic value of the prairie hen is due mainly to its destruc-
tion of weeds and harmful insects, the latter constituting almost the
sole food of the downy chick. Unfortunately only two stomachs of
young birds were to be had for examination. The chicks were re-
cently hatched Texas prairie hens (Tympanuchus amvericanus att-
",ateri). They had eaten 1 tree cricket, 5 undetermined caterpillars,
1 imago of the very destructive Angoumois grain moth, 1 leaf beetle
(.lonoxia pticticollis), and 19 12-spotted cucumber beetles (Dia-
brotioa 12-pinctata), which do not always confine themselves to
cucumbers, but injure more than a dozen other cultivated plants.

(Tympanucih us cupido.)

The heath hen, which, to casual view, appears like a small-sized
prairie hen, inhabits the scrub oaks of the island of Marthas Vine-
yard, on tihe coast of Massachusetts. It was formerly abundant in
a Ornith. Biog., II, pp. 491 and 501, 1835.

0iM u Brewster in 1890 ascertained that, all told, there were
ably only about 200 heath hens, and that they were confined to
r iq : 40 square miles of the island of Marthas Vineyard. In speak-
jof their habits, he says:'
it a season the heath hens live almost exclusively in the oak woods,
0r0 the acorns furnish them abundant food, although, like our ruffed grouse,
Il oc.aBsionally, at early morning and just ifter sunset, venture out a little
|..:a the open to pick up scattered grains of corn or to pluck a few clover
r 1of which they are extremely fond. They also wander to some extent
.|Wr the scrub-oak plains, especially when blueberries are ripe and abundant.
winter, during long-continued snows, they sometimes approach buildings to
Ijnx a-u. the grain which the farmers throw out to them.
U This bird can be saved from extinction and introduced into many
4,thAbe Eastern States, 4it will be much more likely to succeed, on ac-
raue t of its woodland habits and narrow range, than the prairie hen,
4_Mhive n requires a more open country and usually does not take refuge
:iin woods from its enemies. Experiments with the heath hen must be
tm.nadesoon, however, or it is likely to become extinct.

(Tympanutchus pallidicinctus.)
The lesser, prairie hen is a smaller bird than the common species
of the Mississippi Valley and is found from western Texas north
to western Kansas. But little of its life history is known. It
has been found breeding abundantly the first of June at Fort
Cobb, IAd. T., and William Lloyd observed this grouse wintering
rin Concho and Tom Green counties, Tex. H. C. Oberholser, of
the Biological Survey, found them common in August, 1901, in
!Wheeler County, Tex., where they frequented rolling plains over-
grown with oak brush from 1 to 4 feet high. These oaks are ever-
gre, and the prairie hen feeds upon the buds and young shoots.
Mit.the time of Oberholser's visit the birds were in coveys of from
a Ornith. Biog., II, p. 500, 1835.
b Forest and Stream, XXXV, p. 188, 1890.

15 to 20, but, according to the people of that section, the prairie hens $
gather in flocks of hundreds in the late fall. At this season they are IH
destructive to unthreshed wheat and oats, tearing off the surface of
the stacks. In winter they visit cattle pens and corrals in search of
food. During severe winters they are sometimes so numerous that
they become a nuisance. Some idea may be had of their abundance
during winter from the information secured by Oberholser that one
man shipped 20,000 of them from this section in a single season.

(Pediw etes phasianellus.)a

The sharp-tailed grouse is about the same size and has the general
appearance of the prairie hen. Its range is wide, extending from
Lake Michigan to northeastern California, and from northeastern
New Mexico to Alaska. In the northern part of the Mississippi
Valley its range overlaps that of the prairie hen, and mixed flocks are
sometimes seen, but the' spike tail' is seldom found in such large num-
bers as that species. It shows also much less adaptability to changed
conditions and disappears more rapidly after the subjection of its
range to agriculture. In regard to its curious courtship, Professor
Macoun writes of the Columbian sharp-tailed grouse: b
The males collect in large numbers on some hill about the end of April or
beginning of May to have their annual dance, which they keep up for a month or
six weeks. It is almost impossible to drive them away from one of their hills
when they are dancing. One day about the middle of May, I shot into a dancing
party, killing two, and wounding another, which flew a short distance. I went
to get it, and before I got back to pick up the dead birds, the others were back
dancing.around them.
About a dozen eggs generally make a clutch, and but one brood is
reared in a season. The eggs vary from buff to olive-brown and arc
usually lightly spotted with brown.
From two to three months after hatching, the young are full grown
and afford quite as good if not better sport than the prairie hen.
They lie well to the dog and usually rise with a noisy, clucking cry;
after a short distance the flight changes to an alternation of rapid
vibrations of the wings and gliding or sailing on stiffly outspread
pinions. The flesh of the young, like that of young prairie hens, is
a The shliaIrp-taiiled grouse varies in different parts of its range, and has been
divided into two geographic forms in addition to the typical bird. These are the
Columbian shalrp)-tailed grouse (Pcdicrcelcs pha.iaiiellis coltmbianmte), occupying
the western part of the bird's range In the United States, and the prairie sharp-
tailed grouse (Pediwcete8 phasiancllua camtpesfris) which covers the plains east
of the Rocky Mountains.
b Cat. Can. Birds, pt. 1, p. 212, 1900.

ph*la habit of plunging into the snow to spend the wintry night.
Ms4: many natural enemies in the winter, and in summer the golden
Shas been known to feed its young very largely upon its flesh.
itsstruggle for existence is unusually severe. Wherever it abounds,
in accessible districts, it is pursued relentlessly by the sportsman; but
Swhaere diminished to a certain point, as on its western and northern
|nnges, hunting it is largely abandoned. Probably some decades
will pass, therefore, before it will be in danger of total extinction.
|As it does not readily accept civilization, it is not likely to become a
Spojular bird in our growing game preserves, which each year become
lof greater economic importance.
. The food habits of the sharp-tailed grouse have been studied in
l'icsonnection with the present paper by the examination of 43 stomachs.
,:tese were collected in every month of the year except January and
IIMarch; most of them in Nebraska and the Northwest Territories, but
Isome in Minnesota, North Dakota, and Manitoba. The investigations
IShowed that animal matter (insects) formed only 10.19 per cent of
'the food, while vegetable matter (seeds, fruit, and 'browse') made
r89.81 percent. If subsequent study proves that these figures apply
" generally to the species, the sharp-tailed grouse is to be classed among
*the birds most largely vegetarian.
The insect matter consists of bugs, 0.50 percent; grasshoppers,
4.62 percent; beetles, 2.86 percent, and miscellaneous insects, 2.21
percent in a total of 10.19 percent of the food. Vernon Bailey, of
the Biological Survey, found that three birds shot by him in Idaho
August 29 had eaten chiefly insects, including grasshoppers, small
bugs, and small caterpillars. Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway state
.that the Columbian sharp-tailed grouse has been known to feed on
caterpillars and other insects that have been scorched by prairie
The young of the sharp-tailed grouse, like those of other gallina-
c|eous species, are highly insectivorous. A downy chick from 1 to 3
days old, collected on June 27, in Manitoba, by Ernest Thompson
Seton, had eaten 95 percent of insects and 5 percent of wild straw-
,,, Hist. N. A. Birds, Land Birds, III, p. 439, 1874.

and the remains of beetles and black ants (Camponotus pennayl- 4
,anicus). Another young bird, about 8 days old, taken by the same
collector, had been exclusively insectivorous. It had eaten such
beetles as weevils, ground beetles (Harpalus herbivagus), the lady-
bird (Anisosticta seriata), and the click beetle (Dolopius lateralis), '
also 2 cutworms, 9 sawfly larvae, such leaf hoppers as Tettegonia sp.
and Helochara communis, and 1 leaf spider. The sharp-tailed grouse
is fond of grasshoppers. Vernon Bailey shot 3 birds at Elk River,
Minn., September 17, 1894, which had eaten, respectively, 7, 23, and
31 grasshoppers. The species is a destroyer also of the Rocky Moun-
tain locust. Of 9 birds collected by Professor Aughey from May to
October, inclusive, 6 had eaten 174 of these pests." The bird eats
also a few crickets and, like other gallinaceous game birds, devours
the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata). It has been
known to feed on the bugs Oncometopia lateralis and Oncometopia
costalis. The lack of sufficient material to determine exactly the
bird's relation to insects is to be regretted, but enough is at hand to
demonstrate the fact that its insect food is much like that of its

The vegetable food of the sharp-tailed grouse, so far as ascertained
in the laboratory, comprises weed seeds, 7.39 percent; grain, 20.50
percent; fruit, 27.68 percent; leaves, buds, and flowers, 31.07 percent,
and miscellaneous vegetable food, 3.06 percent; making a total of
89.81 percent. The weed-seed element consists of the seeds of black
bindweed (Polygonumn convolvulus) and other polygonums, wild
sunflower (Helianthus sp.), ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiwfolia),
peppergrass (Lepidium), blue-eyed grass, sedge, and catchfly (Silene
antirrhhina). The seeds of a number of leguminous plants are eaten,
including those of alfalfa. Like many other game birds, the species
feeds on mast (largely acorns), including acorns of the scarlet oak
(Quercus coccinea). Corn is eaten, but wheat is the favorite grain.
It formed 17.21 percent of the food. A thousand kernels of wheat
were sometimes found in one stomach.
The sharp-tailed grouse is a great browser. It makes 31.07 percent
of its food of leaves, buds, and flowers. Ernest Thompson Seton
found it eating the buds of willow and birch. It feeds on the leaves
of cottonwood, alder, blueberry, juniper, and larch; also leaves of
quillwort (Isoetes), vetch, dandelion, grass, and rush (Juncus).
Ilearne says that in winter it eats the tops of the dwarf birch and the
buds of poplars. Flowers form 19.90 percent of its diet, the species
a First Rep. U. 8. Entomin. Comm., Append. II, p. 47, 1877 (1878).

vey,.J:.; tomia rose sees in many or1 te stomachs examine, Dut in
SIM.neroUs instances it has recorded their absence. The fruit of both
rose and the sweetbrier (Rosa rubiginosa) are eaten. Mr.
to estates that in places in Manitoba where he has collected dur-
1bthe winter, gravel to pulverize the food is not to be had, and the
ipmm..y rose seeds act in its stead. Rose hips appear difficult to digest, and,
ermore, are sometimes thickly set with bristles that would irri-
tLhe human stomach, but appear to cause no inconvenience to the
u The persistent bright-colored hips are readily seen above the
wand they are a boon to the birds in wintry northern regions,
the struggle for existence is .bitter. Other plants of the rose
y furnish food for the sharp-tailed grouse, such as the thorn
spple (Cratqgus sp.), the wild strawberry, and the wild black cherry
tu asertotina). It feeds on blueberries and cranberries and on the
i|owberry (Symphoricarpus racemosus), various species of manza-
its brberry (Arctostaphylos uva-urni), buffalo berry (Lepargyrea
renea), juniper berries, huckleberries, and arbutus berries. It
,.ti kes klso the partridge berry (Mitchella repens), a favorite with the
E ruff&d grouse. Like many other species, it eats with relish the fruit
of cornel (Comrnus stolonifera) and poison ivy (both Rhit radicans
and BRhus diversiloba).
I (Centrocercus urophasianus.)
||| With the exception of the wild turkey, the sage grouse is our largest
:game fowl. It is a fine-looking bird, with gray back, black breast,
.and long tail, and attains a maximum weight of 8 pounds. It breeds
Sthe sagebrush plains of the Upper Sonoran and Transition zones,
vm the east slope of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade mountains in
qivada, California, and British Columbia, east to Assiniboia, Dakota,
braska, and Colorado. At mating time the cock inflates the sacs
Sa PProc. U.S B. Nat Mus. XIII, p. 519, 1890 (1891).

almost completely worn away. The hin is captivated by these
grotesque antics, and in due time chooses a mate and nests in a small
depression in the ground under the shelter of a bush, where she lays
about ten olive-buff eggs with chocolate markings. The cock leaves
her before incubation begins, and in about three weeks the chicks are
out. A young covey roosts in a circle on the ground, bobwhite-
fashion. In winter, coveys unite in packs which sometimes number
a hundred or more.

The feeding habits of the sage grouse are peculiar, and its organs
of digestion are unlike those of other grouse. The stomach is not
differentiated into a powerful grinding gizzard, but is a thin, weak,
membranous bag, resembling the stomach of a raptorial bird. Such
an organ is evidently designed for the digestion of soft food, and we
find that the bulk of the sage grouse's diet consists of leaves and
tender shoots. A stomach collected September 7, 1890, in Idaho, by
Dr. C. Hart Merriam, contained leaves of sage and other plants, I
seeds, and a ladybird beetle (Coccinellida). Four birds shot in .2
Wyoming during May and September by Vernon Bailey had gorged
themselves with the leaves of sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata).
This and other sages, including A. cana and A. frigida, furnish the
bulk of the food of the sage grouse. Other food is taken, but it is
comparatively insignificant. B. H. Dutcher, formerly of the Bio-
logical Survey, examined a stomach which, besides sagebrush leaves,
contained seeds, flowers, buds of Rhus trilobata, and ants and grass-
hoppers. Three birds collected by Vernon Bailey on September 5,
in Wyoming, had varied their sagebrush fare with ladybird %beetles,
ground beetles (Carabidce), fly larvae, ants, moths, grasshoppers
(.Melanoplus sp.), and the leaves of asters and yarrow. Of two birds
killed in May, one had fed wholly on the leaves of sagebrush (Arte-
misia tridentata), while the other in addition had taken insect galls
from sagebrush and the flowers and flower buds of a phlox (Phlox
dougf/lasii), together with some undetermined seed capsules, pieces of
moss, and several ants. A third bird, killed in July, had eaten a
few plant sterns and numerous grasshoppers.
Major Bendire writes that the diet of the sage grouse includes
grass spikes, the tops of leguminous plants, including blossoms and
pods of vetch (Vicia) and astragalus; also, that the bird eats golden-
rod, and will go far to get a morning feed of wheat. He notes that !
also berries, grasshoppers, and crickets (Anabris simplex) areeaten.'"
a Life Hilst. N. A. Birds, [I], pp. 107-108, 1892. .2




O I ,


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contrasted black and reddish brown colors, set ott by immacouate
The ruffed grouse is one of the most highly prized of American
- game birds. It is known in New England as the 'partridge,' but in
the Southern States it is usually called pheasant.' It is distinctly
a bird of the woods, imparting the spirit of the wilderness to every
sylvan retreat that it inhabits. In Virginia and Maryland, near the
city of Washington, the species is, or was until recently, not uncom-
mon along the rocky palisades of the Potomac and in deep gorges
lined with laurel thickets. In Essex County, N. J., it frequents the
crest of a wooded basaltic dike known as the Orange Mountains,
where the picturesque rocky woods with a good stand of deciduous
trees and an undergrowth of blueberry, second-growth white oak,
wild grape and bittersweet vines, and beds of partridge berry
(Mitchella repens) furnish a congenial home. That ruffed grouse
usually prefer deciduous to evergreen growths was particularly no-
ticed by the writer in 1892 and 1898 at Chocorua, N. H., a hamlet
between Lake Winnepesaukee and the White Mountains. On his
tramps through heavy spruce forests remote from houses or clear-
ings he seldom came across grouse. He frequently met them, how-
ever, in woodland near farms or in clearings, and particularly along
wood roads. A favorite ground in August was the clearing of an
abandoned farm, 200 feet above Chocorua Lake, which lies at the foot
of Chocorua Mountain. The fields are separated from one another
by little trout brooks and have grown up to young spruces. Here in
bowlder-strewn pastures was an abundance of blackberries, blue-
berries, and grasshoppers, with old apple trees, birches, and poplars
for winter budding. On this old farm the writer never failed to flush
from three to eight grouse, and on several occasions he saw hen birds
with young. In a sandy spot of the road leading up to the house
the grouse had dusting wallows, which they used habitually. Dur-
ing October birds were often found in hemlock woods with an under-
growth of osmunda ferns or other vegetation.
The ruffed grouse does not congregate in large coveys, like the
plumed quails or the prairie chicken, but is found in companies of
from two to eight, usually members of a single brood. It does not
spend the night on the ground, but perches on a tree. When the
weather is very cold, however, it often plunges into the snow and
passes the night as snugly as an Eskimo in his igloo.
The bobwhite whistles, the prairie chicken booms, and the blue
grouse hoots, but the ruffed grouse drums. The drumming is one of
the most interesting and attractive of all bird performances. It may
be heard at every season, but is at its best in spring. The cock, then
in full vigor, mounts his drumming log, droops his wings, raises his
fantail, and struts along the log with his crest and glossy black neck

Sleghorn chicks. Only one brood is raised in a season. On
4i : ,:4, in New Jersey, the writer has seen young birds as large as
JI ndamoek. The cock grouse assist neither in incubation nor in rear-
.': young, but after the eggs are laid assemble in small companies
|&$.4euasiselves. The hen is amply able to care for her little family,
I0.' sld Mr. Sandys tells how a mother forced to headlong and unvalorous
Slghit a young pointer that had designs on her brood." The notes
ol th grouse during the.breeding season are interesting. When the
rood is surprised the hen utters several clucking sounds, one of
wh AFich may be described as 'quit, quit, quit.' Mr. Sandys, in writing
S hiiiiiii te call of the parent birds to scattered chicks, says: b
InS a about ten minutes there sounded a low musical chirruping, 'very like the
*i omnd emitted by a red squirrel between the coughing, sputtering notes.
... Major Bendire, quoting Doctor Ralph, says that a disturbed mother
ro: use utters a sound like the whine of a young puppy."
: Of the habits and general attractiveness of the ruffed grouse Major
Bendire writes as follows:'
I The Ruffed Grouse is naturally tame and unsuspicious, and let it once realize
That It is protected, it becomes almost as much at home in the immediate vicinity
of man as a domestic fowl, and quickly learns to know its friends. At the fine
e.ountry residence of the Hon. Clinton L. Merriam, near Locust Grove, N. Y.
especially during the winter, it is not an unusual sight to see several of these
handsome birds unconcernedly walking about the shrubbery surrounding his
borne, and even coming on the veranda of the house to feed. They, like many
other animals about the place, have learned that here at least they are among
friends, and plainly show their full confidence in them. Even during the mating
season a cock Grouse may frequently be seen in the act of drumming within
50 yards of some of the outbuildings.
Bird Lore, for May-June, 1904, has an account of a wild hen
grouse which was so tame that it would come out of the woods at
call and allow itself to be picked up, thus displaying the most un-
bounded confidence in its human neighbors. To lovers of nature the
maesthetic value of this beautiful bird is very great, and its value is
Snone the less, although it can not be measured in cash.
I:, a Upland Game Birds, pp. 118-119, 1902.
,* Ibid., p. 119, 1902.
........ ... . Life Hist. N. A. Birds [I], p. 02, 1892.
pI Ibtd., p. 60, 1892.

sportsmen it holds higher place even than bobwhite. In flight it is
one of the swiftest of upland game birds, and considerable skill, a
quick eye, and a steady hand are needed to shoot it on the wing.
Most shots must be made in cover, and the bird's habit of putting
a tree between itself and the sportsman as it flies away adds to
the difficulty. As a rule it does not lie nearly so close to a dog as bob-
white, but before a well-trained, cautious animal it lies fairly well.
When brought to bag the grouse is a noble prize. From six to nine
birds may be called a good day's bag, worth more than several times
as many bobwhites. The excellence of this grouse as a table delicacy
causes the market supply generally to fall far short of the demand,
and the price is always high. If the bird could be successfully bred
in captivity, it would furnish a most valuable food.


The ruffed grouse has a number of potent enemies. Most dan-
gerous of all is probably that destructive biped, man. Writing from
Minnesota, Dr. P. L. Hatch says: a
Nowhere was the ruffed grouse more abundant than in all the deciduous
forests of this State, until mercilessly slaughtered by the pot hunters. * *
But their glorious day is passing away as fast as about 300 dogs and 700 double-
barreled breech-loading shotguns can accomplish their annihilation.
Many market hunters of the grouse use a little cur dog trained to
tree the game and to bark until the gunner approaches within range.
Of the numerous natural enemies, hawks, owls, crows, skunks, minks,
wild cats, and foxes are very destructive, and in certain localities a
species of tick often infests the birds. Among the birds of prey, the
Cooper hawk, goshawk, red-shouldered hawk, barred owl, and great
horned owl are their worst enemies. At Marshall Hall, Md., the
writer found a crow plundering the nest of a grouse. Almost every-
body who is personally familiar with the habits of the fox has found
it feeding on game birds. At Chocorua the writer came upon the den
of a red fox about which were strewn tail feathers of the ruffed
grouse. Owners of shooting preserves will do well to destroy sys-
tematically all vermin injurious to game. The bird should have
better protection also from man. Massachusetts still permits land-
owners to snare grouse on their own lands during October and Novem-
ber. Such destructive and unsportsmanlike practices should be pre-
vented everywhere by well-enforced laws. The abominable practice
by sunmmner campers of potting grouse when they have young should
also be punished by a strict enforcement of the law. In sections
a Birds of Minnesota, p. 160, 1892.

:i;lg miiy to the tennouse. it nas laid in captivity, and its eggs
in.. mthe woods have been hatched under domestic hens, but thus
Nothing like successful grouse, culture has been approximated,
th there appears to be no reason why under proper conditions
ji"t should not be successful. Comprehensive knowledge of the bird's
4p,:4d habits should assist in solving the problem.

.. Te food habits of the ruffed grouse have been investigated in con-
.... .t with the present paper by the examination of 208 stomachs
... a.d ops This material represents food taken in every month, but
4hiefly in the colder half of the year. New York supplied more
! material than any other section; Canada, Pennsylvania, and Massa-
hi:usbts came next; and Nebraska, Virginia, Maryland, Kentucky,
SNew Hampshire, Iowa, Illinois, Minnesota, Michigan, Wisconsin, and
: South Dakota each contributed a smaller part. Analysis of the food
^ Ephwed 10.92 percent of animal matter and 89.08 percent of vegetable
IPa..mtter. The animal food is almost all insects. The vegetable food
consists of seeds, 11.79 percent; fruit, 28.32 percent; leaves and buds,
i 48.11 percent, and miscellaneous vegetable matter, 0.86 percent. The
Insect food proper includes grasshoppers, 0.78 percent; caterpillars,
1.15 percent; beetles, 4.57 percent, and miscellaneous insects, 3.86 per-
Scent. Some miscellaneous animal matter, made up of spiders and
| mails, is also'eaten. The ruffed grouse eats a somewhat smaller pro-
Sportion of insects than the bobwhite, but, like it, feeds on them to a
Large extent in the breeding season.

| Grouse shot by the writer at Chocorua, N. H., in September, 1898,
I!:were feeding largely on the red-legged grasshopper (Melanoplus
:in Ohio the season has been closed until 1908, In Illinois until 1909, and mn
f Missouri until 1910.-

birds foraged. They had picked up also long-horned grasshoppers
(Xiphidium sp.) and a few black crickets. Crickets often swarm in
fields during fall, and offer tempting morsels to birds. The ruffed
grouse occasionally eats such caterpillars as cutworms, army worms,
cotton worms (Alabama argillacea), the red-humped apple worm
(jSchizura concinna), and the oak-leaf caterpillar (SymMerista albi-
froPns8). A number of observers, among them Doctors Fisher and
Weed, report that it feeds on oak caterpillars.
The ruffed grouse, like the bobwhite, prefers beetles to any other
insects. It takes almost as many of them as of all other kinds put
together, including even such small ones as the clover weevil (Sitowes
hispidulus). It likes also the injurious leaf-eating beetles (Chryso-
melidce), destroying even the notorious potato beetle (Leptinotarsa
decemlineata). It eats the pale-striped flea beetle (Systena blanda),
as well as many other leaf beetles, including Systena hudsonias,
Disonycha caroliniana, Chcetocnema sp., Galerucella sagittarice, and
the grapevine pest, Adoxus vitis. By scratching, the grouse unearths
many pests not found by other birds, notably beetle larvae, click
beetles, and May beetles, including Lachnostewa hirsuta. It also
consumes another injurious beetle, Dichelonycha sp., closely related to
the May beetles and resembling them in habits and appearance. It
scratches up many ground beetles belonging to Pterostichus, Aniso-
dactyl1us, Harpalus, and other genera. Beetles of other families
also-fireflies (Lampyridce), metallic wood borers (Buprestidwe), and '
Calitys scabra (Trogostidae) the food list.
The grouse feeds also on such miscellaneous insects as flies, bugs,
ants, and such other Hymenoptera as sawflies and ichneumon flies.
A large p)rol)ortion of the flies are slow-flying species, like crane flies,
which are preyed upon by many other kinds of birds. Bugs, how-
ever, are much more often destroyed by bobwhite and the ruffed
grouse than by other birds. The ruffed grouse has been known to
prey on the chinch bug, which at times is the most injurious insect
in our country, and seldom destroyed by any except gallinaceous
birds. Farmers who permit market hunters to rob them of their
game should remember this fact. The grouse picks up also many
other bugs, among them predaceous species like the ambush bug
(Phymata sp.) and the assassin bug (Reduviide). They eat also
honmopterous insects, including leaf hoppers (Jassidce) and buffalo
tree hoppers (Membracidwe).
Like many other birds, the ruffed grouse eats ants, frequently
including such large species as Camponotus pennsylvanicus. Among
small ants may be mentioned the pavement ant (Tetramorium

Hi.!produced by species of the genus Amphibolips. A bird shot
. b m..burg, Mass., in October had eaten 12 of these oak galls,
. gh at.' that time other food was abundant.
.i vertebrates other than insects were found in the investiga-
|Mp o the food of the grouse. The miscellaneous animal food, how-
or, included representatives of such Myriapoda as the thousand-legs,
ithe order Diplopoda, and such Arachnida as harvest spiders
(Phakmgida), jumping spiders (Attidce), and ground spiders
Aifpyceidiw); snails of the genus Helix, and also shell-less snails, or
Awii s, including Limax sp. and Tebennophorus carolinensis.

.Ei..ii im::......... .E:.... ..
A :i:? ::
|: T vegetable food examined consisted of 11.79 percent of seeds,
I2&82 percent of fruit, 48.11 percent of buds and leaves, and 0.86
pErcent of miscellaneous vegetable matter. Grain was not found,
though no doubt it would be eaten if obtainable. In fact, Major
Bendire says that grouse procure it.along roads from the droppings
of horses.
' The seed element of the food is mast and miscellaneous seeds. The
Smast-5.33 percent-consists of hazelnuts, beechnuts, hornbeam seeds,
chestnuts, and acorns. The last, furnishing by. all odds the
largest supply, includes those of the scrub oak (Quercus nana), scrub
chestnut oak (Q. prinoides), white oak (Q. alba), and red oak (Q.
rubra). Acorns are often swallowed Whole, half a dozen to a dozen
at a meal being not uncommon. Beechnuts also are taken whole, and
from 20 to 60 are sometimes found in a crop.
Miscellaneous seeds make up 6.46 percent of the entire food. Like
many other gallinaceous birds, the ruffed grouse takes some legumi-
i nous seeds, though fewer than might be expected. The kinds known
to have been eaten are the tick-trefoil (Meibomia sp.), so abundant
in the edge of woods frequented by grouse, and vetch (Vicia caro-
i lnianna). Winged seeds are often sampled, such as those of the hem-
I a Life Hist. N. A. Birds, [I], p. 62, 1892.

seeds are taken by the ruffed grouse:
Blackberry lily (Belamcanda chi- Beech-drops (Leptamnium virgini-
nensis). anum).
Beggar-ticks (Bidens frondosa). Avens (Geum sp.).
Chickweed (Alsine media). Persicaria (Polygonum pennsyl-
Sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella). vanicum).
Sedge (Carcr lupulina). Frost weed (Helianthemum cana-
Sedge (Cypcrus sp.). dense).
Violet (V'iola sp.). Jewel weed (Impatiens sp.).
Witch-hazel (Hamamelis virgini-
The list is interesting mainly for what it does not contain. Fur-
ther investigations may show that the ruffed grouse, like the bob-
white and other so-called granivorous species, is fond of ragweed,
sunflower, and grass seed. A grouse taken in British Columbia dur-
ing October showed a peculiar liking for the apparently dry husks
of geum seeds, no fewer than 500 appearing in its crop.

The ruffed grouse spends most of its feeding time in browsing and
berry picking. It thus secures, respectively, 48.11 percent and 28.32
percent of its food. The country boy knows where it resorts for
budding, and often bags it without the aid of a dog or hammerless
gun. The buds and foliage of poplar, birch, and willow form 20.20
percent of the entire food. Budding is most practiced in winter
and early spring, when many other kinds of food are buried in snow.
Birch and poplar buds afford by far the largest share of this cold-
weather diet. Edward A. Preble says that in Canada in spring the
sitting hen grouse leave the nest, fly to poplar trees, rapidly fill
their crops with buds, and then hurry back to their eggs. He thinks
that the males, having plenty of time to spare at that season, prefer
to search for choicer food. The crop of a hen bird that he shot at
Fort Chipewyan, Athabasca, May 29, 1901, was filled with young
leaves of poplar (Populus balsamifera). The number of buds to a
meal is surprising. A grouse shot at Palmer, Mich., December 15,
1894, contained 300 poplar buds. When engaged in budding, grouse
take both flower buds and leaf buds; grown leaves of poplar also are
eaten, and, not infrequently, the flattened petioles that catch the
wind and give the leaves their characteristic quiver. Popuius bal-
samifera, P. tremuloides, and P. grandidentata are among the species
on which they feed. Birch buds also are a staple; they are taken
from the canoe birch (Betula papyrifera), the gray birch (B. populi-
folia), the yellow birch (B. lutea), and the black birch (B. lenta).
Everybody who is familiar with New England woods has seen the

I : the grouse often clips from a fourth to half an inch of a twig.
;fi t bears tyo or three buds.
.: i K addition to the buds and leaves of willow, birch, and poplar,
1.*wse from miscellaneous plants provides the bird with 27.91 per-
S.of its food. Such relatives of the willow as the alder, hazel,
;e ,ironwood, and hornbeam furnish a part of the above. Apple
bs on outlying parts of farms are favorite sources of supply. This
t*ct, noted by many observers and confirmed by the present investiga-
h, has given rise to considerable discussion as to whether or not the
0"r "'are seriously injured by the budding. Dr. diarence M. Weed

T.h. ruffed grouse, however, is capable of inflicting real damage by a too
.e: pruning of buds, and cases are known where apple orchards located hear
woo&. have been rendered useless by them.
IEE: ."
- Mr. C. J. Maynard states that he took 180 apple buds from one
iciiroHp, and says that in Massachusetts at one time a bounty of 25 cents
..Was offered by certain towns for the birds' heads.c Miss M. E.
Paine, of Royalston, Mass., in a letter to the writer describes her
observations on the budding of apple trees by grouse as follows:
The ruffed grouse eats the buds of apple trees, but it is a help rather than a
damage. Last year a wild apple tree on top of a hill, between pasture and
Showing, was almost entirely budded. I thought entirely at first, but the ter-
mainal buds were almost always left uninjured, also many minute buds on each
limb. The result was the terminal buds were pushed out and grew rapidly and
Strongly. The tree blossomed abundantly and the fruit hung in clusters toward
the ends of the branches. The tree is of medium size and the branches droop
1:to the ground. In the fall the golden apples occupied fully as much room as the
green leaves, and as one looked- at the tree a few rods away-a perfect pic
:ture, barrels of apples on it, all nearly perfect and fair, Just the result of a
Vigorous trimming. This year it was not so badly budded-less snow in
.. winter. Many small buds farther back in the branches have started again this

|a Life Hist. N. A. Birds, [I], p. 66, 1892.
Ib Birds in Their Relation to Man, p. 40, 1903.
Birds of Eastern N. A., p. 353, 1881.

year and grown, and it is well fruited, owing to the budding two yeas I..
succession. No tree could have been more entirely budded, but the grouse
not stand so as to reach the outmost terminal buds, as a rule; their weight to
too great.
The present investigation of stomachs revealed only an insignificant ::.
percentage of apple buds, probably because most-of the grouse exam-|
ined were shot in places remote from orchards. The bird has been..
known to eat also pear and peach buds, and probably would not '|
refuse cherry buds. From one crop, leaves of blackberry or raspberry
(Rubus sp.) were taken, and bud twigs of blueberry (Vaccinium
pennsylvanicum) and other species were not at all uncommon. The'
twigs severed by the sharp-edged bill of the grouse are all about the
same length, one-third of an inch. They appeared in the stomachs
as little whitish sticks, from which digestion had removed the bark.
The extent to which the ruffed grouse browses on leaves and twigs
suggests an herbivorous mammal rather than a bird.
The ruffed grouse feeds on leaves and buds of the mayflower
(Epigwcea repens), and likes exceedingly the leaves of the partridge
berry (Mitchella repens). It nips off also leaves of both red and
white clover, to the extent of 1 percent of its food. It is partial to
the leaves of sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella), which it cuts across as
sharply as if by a pair of scissors, but it eats yellow sorrel (Oxalis ,.
stricta) with less relish. It appears to like dandelion greens, and
has a queer taste for the fronds of ferns (Dryopteris spinulosa,
Botrychium obliquum, and Polypodium vulgare). In its relation
to conifers it differs widely from the spruce grouse, for it derives 1
therefrom only an insignificant percentage of its food, while the i
spruce grouse obtains nearly 50 percent. Spruce needles and foliage
of arborvitae (Thuja occidentalis) have been seen in several stomachs, i
Edward A. Samuels believes that the ruffed grouse will eat leaves of
evergreens only when all other food is lacking.a In Alaska, E. W.
Nelson found the bird feeding exclusively on spruce buds. He states
that the flesh becomes disagreeable from this pitchy diet.b The effect
of highly flavored food on the flesh of game birds has already been
referred to.
The ruffed grouse buds the highly poisonous laurel (Kalmia lati-
folia). On this subject Alexander Wilson writes: c
During the deep snows of the winter, they have recourse to the buds of alder,
and the tender buds of the laurel. I have frequently found their crops dis-
tended with a large handful of these latter alone; and it has been confidently
asserted, that, after having fed for some time on the laurel buds, their flesh
becomes highly dangerous to eat, partaking of the poisonous qualities of the
a Our Northern and Eastern Birds, p. 387, 1883.
b Nat. Hist. Coll. in Alaska, p. 131, 1888.
c Am. Ornith., vol. II, p. 319, 1831.

. u 1790 the public was alarmed over the possibilities of laurel
,gand the sale of these birds was for a time forbidden. Dr.
Warren shot 10 birds when the ground was deeply covered with
td ~found their crops Stuffed with laurel buds.0 Not more
kWf: a dozen stomachs of the 208 examined by the Biological
i.optained fragments of this plant, the explanation probably
tht ~only a few stomachs were collected in 'late winter, when
mot resort to it. Four of the birds that contained laurel were
41ii6r food, with no evident ill effect. One of these had eaten 14
Ii of laurel, nearly all leaves, with only a few buds. The leaves
4i ea clipped into bits as if by scissors. Investigation of this
It i the grouse, known to be a common one, is much needed. The
.pie is often selected. 'for budding, and sometimes the spicebush.
wies are sometimes plucked by browsing grouse. Asters and red
. vr have been identified in their food, and the green ovary of
odroot (Sanguinaria) was found in a bird's crop by Amos W.

":E ":I S ".:. :.: :.
: 0 following plants also are in the
'1IgP.l He ra (Heuckera americana).
. C ..:0 hi ckweed (Alsine pubera).
rf X Catnip (Nepeta catdria).
. Cinquefoil (Potentilla argentea).
i Buttercup (Ranunculus bulbosa
and R. artis).
S Speedwell (Veronica officinalis).
:: Saxifrage (Saaifraga sp.).
: Live-forever (Sedum sp.).
:..: FRUIT.

list of browse of this bird:
Meadow rue (Thalictrum sp.).
Smilax (Smilax glauca).
HIorsetail rush (Equisetum sp.).
Azalea (Azalea sp.).
False goat's beard (Astilbe sp.).
Aster (Aster sp.).
Cud weed (Cnaphalium purpu-

The ruffed grouse is preeminently a berry eater. Not only does it
coume more fruit than the bobwhite, but it is our most frugivorous
game bird. More than one-fourth of its yearly food-28.32 percent-
consists of fruit, distributed as follows: 3.82 percent rose hips, 2.46
percent poison ivy and sumac, 3.01 percent'grapes, and 19.03 percent -
miscellaneous fruits.
...'- a Warren, Birds of Penn., p. 108, 1890.
I b North Am. Med. Journ., I, pp. 821-22, 1826.
|7 Birds of Pennsylvania, p. 108, 1890.


The taste for rose hips, seedy and husky as they are, and oftenuii
beset with fine bristles which irritate the human skin and would seem1
really dangerous to internal .tissues, is one of the singular freaks of
bird feeding. It reminds one of the cuckoo's liking for caterpillars|
which are so bristly that its stomach becomes actually felted and.
sometimes pierced by the stiff hairs. Rose hips hang on the bushes
throughout the winter, accessible to the hungry grouse as they journey
about in the snow for food, and are usually swallowed whole.
The bird likes grapes also. No less than 3.01 percent of the year's
diet consists of them, and in November they make 17.2 percent of the
total food for the month. All experienced sportsmen know of this
taste, and during this month they always count on getting their best
shooting in the vicinity of heavily fruited grapevines. The wild
grapes with small berries, such as Vitis cordifolia, are especially liked,
but also large grapes are greatly relished. The species from which
cultivated varieties have been derived (Vitis labrusca) appears to be
commonly selected. Thirty to forty grapes are often swallowed at t
a meal. From this taste one might expect the grouse to commit dep-
redations on cultivated grapes, but no reports of such damage have
come to the Biological Survey.
Like many other birds, the ruffed grouse eats the berries of sumac
and other species of Rhus. This food contributes 2.46 percent of the
year's diet. Among the nonpoisonous sumacs selected are the dwarf
sumac (Rhus copallina), the staghorn sumac (R. hirta), and the
scarlet sumac (R. glabra). Not uncommonly from 300 to 500 berries i
of the dwarf sumac are swallowed at a meal. This liking for the dry
and apparently nonnutritious sumac is another curious freak of bird
appetite. Probably, as with the bobwhite, the seeds are broken up in
the gizzard and the inclosed meat, or endosperm, set free for diges-
tion. The immunity of the bird from poisoning by poison sumac
and poison ivy, which also it eats, is interesting. That these seeds
retain their virulence after being eaten was shown in the case of an
investigator in the Biological Survey who was poisoned while exam-
ining stomachs of crows that had fed on poison-ivy berries. At times
the ruffed grouse eats many of these berries, as proven by one col-
lected by Prof. S. A. Forbes, at Jackson,, Ill., December 9, 1880,
which had eaten 280 of them. Where grouse are numerous, poison
sumac is usually less abundant than poison ivy, and consequently it
appears less frequently in stomach examinations. One hundred and
sixty poison-ivy berries were taken from the crop of a ruffed grouse
shot by Dr. A. K. Fisher at Lake George, N. Y., October 24, 1892'
Miscellaneous fruits amount to 19.03 percent of the annual food.
The two favorite kinds are the partridge berry (Mitchella repens)
and the thorn apple (various species of Cratagus),.both of which
were eaten by 40 of the 208 grouse examined. At least two species

gmies contained in the waxy drupes ot this berry. Blueberries also
.: ......eaten in large quantities. A bird killed at Chocorua, N. H., July
N.6 51892, had eaten a hundred blueberries (Vacciniumn pennsylvani-
;io and one killed at Chateaugay, N. Y., in September, contained
a ut three hundred. The high-bush blackberry and the huckle-
bry; .also are eaten, as well as the cranberry. Dr. A. K. Fisher
Oi: nd 21 whole cranberries in a bird shot at Lake George, N. Y.,
)ovember 2, 1901. The extent to which blackberries are sometimes
tenm is shown by the fact that the stomach of a grouse contained
Seboi1ut 800 blackberry seeds. Another bird had eaten over a hundred
,, aparrilla berries. An explanation of the delicious flavor of the
railed grouse appears in its varied and highly flavored diet of fruit,
Sherbs, and seeds. In addition to the fruits already noted the follow-
i ing kinds found in the birds examined may be named, though the
Total number mentioned in this bulletin is probably not a fourth of
Sthe: complete list of fruits eaten by this bird:
Greenbrijer (Smilaw sp.). Wild black cherry (Prunus sero-
q Hairy Solomon's seal. (Polygona- tiua).
turn biflorum). Wild red cherry (Prunus pennsyl-
Smooth Solomon's seal (Polygons- vanica).
turn commutatum). Elder (Sambucus canadensis).
Blackberry (Rubus nigrobacoue). Red eller (Samnbucus pubens).
Black raspberry (Rubus oce'iden- Black haw (Viburnum prunifo-
,alis). Hum).
Raspberry (Rubus strigosus). Nannyberry (Viburnum lentago).
Domestic cherry (Prunms avium). Withe rod (Viburnum cassinoides).
Cultivated plum (PrunuS domes- Maple-leaved arrow wood (Vibur-
tiCa). num acerifolium).
aAuk, XVII, p. 351, 1900.


High-bush cranberry (Viburnum Bunchberry (Cornus endr:i)..
opulus). Cornel (Comus paniculata). .
Mountain cranberry (V'ainium Silky cornel (Comrnus amonum). '
vitis-idwa). Pepperidge (Nyssa sylvatica). ji
Snowberry (Symphoricarpus sp.). Mulberry (Morus rubra). |
Feverwort (Triosteumn perfolia- Bittersweet (Celastrus scandena). ii
turn). Manzanita (Areost(aphyloe sp.).
Black huckleberry (Ga ylussacia Barberry (Berberis vulgaris). :
resinosa). Virginia creeper (Parthenocissu is
Black alder (lic: verticilla ta). quinquefolia).
Flowering dogwood (Corn us flor-
The seeds of most of these berries pass through the digestive tract
unharmed and are capable of germinating. Thus the grouse assists
in planting many fruiting trees and shrubs, the heavy seeds of which
must be disseminated mainly through the agency of animals that feed
on them. I |

The young of most birds are far more insectivorous than adults, a I
statement that applies to gallinaceous birds, though to a less extent I
than to passerines. More than 95 percent of the diet of eight grouse
chicks examined, none of which was more than a fourth grown, was
insects. Seven adults collected in the breeding season had consumed A
only 30 percent of insects. Newly hatched chicks eat the largest
proportion of insects. As they grow older they gradually become
more frugivorbus and granivorous. Three chicks, only a day or
two old, collected by Prof. S. A. Forbes, at Waukegan, Ill., June- 9,
1876, proved to have been exclusively insectivorous. They had eaten
cutworms, grasshoppers, Lampyrid beetles, ants (Tetramorium
caespitum), parasitic wasps, buffalo tree hoppers, and spiders (Attidw j
and Phalangidac). A grouse about a week out of the shell, collected
by F. H. King, had eaten a white grub, 7 spiders (Phalangidce),
and 13 caterpillars.a It should be noted, therefore, that the ruffed
grouse, though only slightly insectivorous when adult, as a chick |
destroys great numbers of insects, and deserves much more credit
from farmers than it usually receives.

(Canach items canadensis.)b
The spruce, or Canada, grouse inhabits the transcontinental conif-
erous forests from the northern border of the United States, east of
a Trinrs. Wis. Ag. Soc., vol. 24, pp. 472-473, 1886.
b The spruce grouse (Canachitcs canadensis) is separated into three geographic
forms, of which two occur within our territory; these are the common spruce
grouse (C. c. can ace) of the northern border from Maine to Minnesota, and the
A1:iska spruce grouse (C. c. osgoodi) of Alaska and western Canada.

ijof them in Canada, 1 in Michigan, and 1 in Minnesota. The
b the stomachs consisted of 100 percent vegetable matter-
I i-.percent seeds, 19.73 percent fruit, 61.94 percent coniferous
SThe seeds were of spruce, thistle, and several unidentifi-
$aIlts. In its frugivorous habits the spruce grouse closely
i.*. its relative, the blue grouse. The proportion of bear-
= go was 16.67 percent, and Uf other fruit 3.06 percent. Solomon's
.i(PJolygonatur), blueberries (Vaccinium), bunchberries (Comus
d ), crowberries (Empetrum), and juniper berries are among
h.1i*i'berries principally eaten. Dr. C. Hart Merriam, Chief of the
oI~ Survey, has informed the writer that the spruce grouse
ites largely on the bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) and the
... ...r.:r.. ant .(Ribes cereum).
* When. cold weather comes the spruce grouse usually abandons a
riry diet and eats nothing but its favorite food-the leaves, buds, and
tender shoots of conifers. This kind of browse formed 61.94 percent
Sthe food of the eight birds examined in the laboratory. It is
ate to assume that more than half the year's food of this grouse is
iobtaied by browsing, and that nearly half consists of the foliage
of conifers. Wilson and Bonaparte state that in winter this species
'eeds on the shoots of spruce," a habit so generally known that it has
:given to the bird its name. According to Major Bendire, this grouse
needss also on the needles of tamarack (Laria laricina), and in certain
localities feeds upon them exclusively.' It. has been known also to eat
*the needles of Pinu8 divaricata and the fir balsam (A bien balsamea).
As with the blue grouse, resinous food imparts to the flesh a decidedly
Iitchy flavor.
|ii W. H. Osgood, of the Biological Survey, informs the writer that
lb examined crops of the Alaska grouse which contained the leaves
L. Am. Ornith.iL, vol. 4, p. 208, 1831.
b Lifte Hist. N. A. Birds, [I], p. 52, 1892.

of blueberry (Vaccinium) and horsetail (Equisetum). The Alask. 1
spruce grouse, according to Dr. W. H. Dall, was found at Nulato it.
winter feeding exclusively on the buds of willow.e
The flesh of the spruce grouse is dark and for the table is in no wayI
comparable to that of the blue grouse. Nor is the bird equal to the')
latter as an object of sport. It is, however, a thing of beauty in the
dark northern coniferous forests, where its aesthetic value must impress
every lover of nature. This grouse is strictly a forest bird, and no-
where appears to come into contact with agriculture.


(Canachites franklini.)

The Franklin grouse is very similar to its near relative, the spruce
grouse, and differs mainly in the conspicuous white marking on its
utipper tail coverts and in lacking the rufous tip to the tail. It is
found in the mountains of western Montana and Idaho, westward to
the coast ranges of Oregon and Washington and northward through
British Columbia to southern Alaska. Major Bendire records
that nidification occurs during the lost of May and in June. The
food habits of the bird are similar to those of the spruce grouse. In
Alberta, between August 25 and September 1, 1894, J. A. Loring, a
field agent of the Biological Survey, examined the crops of several
Franklin grouse and found in them berries and leaves. A. H. How-
ell, also of the Survey, examined crops and gizzards in Idaho during
the last of September, 1895, and found in them large quantities of the
leaves of the lodge-pole pine (Pinus murrayana) broken into bits
from'one-fourth to three-fourths of an inch long. Major Bendire
notes that in summer they furnish Indians and packers with
their principal supply of fresh meat. Their flesh is palatable then,
because they eat grasshoppers and berries and feed less freely on the
buds and leaves of spruce and tamarack.0
Hon. Theodore Roosevelt writes of this bird in Montana:c
The mountain mien e call this bird the fool-hen; and most certainly it deserves
the name. The members of this particular flock, consisting of a hen and her
three-parts grown chicks, acted with a stupidity unwonted even for their kind.
They were feeding on the ground amniong some young spruce, and on our
approach flew up and( perched in the branches, four or five feet above our heads.
There they stayed, uttering a low complaining whistle, and showed not the
slightest suspicion when we came underneath them with long sticks and knocked
them off their perches.
a Nelson, Nat. lHist. Coll. Alaska, p. 130, 1887 (1888).
b Life list. N. A. Birds, [I], p. 58, 1892.
c The Wilderness Hunter, p. 116, 1893.

:,-Jsts. It lies.well to the dog, flies swiftly, and affords shots in heavy
timber that test the sportsman's highest skill.
I,:.. In addition to the common dusky grouse (Dendragap= obacurus) of the
i t :.0y Mountains from New Mexico to Montana, three other geographic forms
'oat known. These are the sooty grouse (D. o. fuliginosus) of the northwest
4hesOKt, from California to southern Alaska; Richardson grouse (D. o. richard-
Ffs nS), from Montana to-northwestern British America; and the Sierra dusky.
S 1 gimf (D. o. sierra) of the Sierra Nevada In California and east slope of Cas-
Sacde Mountains in Oregon.
:,,, Birds of Wyoming, p. 5. 1902.
: Auk voL 6, p. 38, 1889.
:.I Hst. N. A. Birds, vol. pp. 424-425,1874.
Forest and Stream, vol. 12, p. 385, 1879.

spicuous, the large, yellow wind sacs on the sides of its neck are fultj
inflated, and it struts about like a turkey cock, with drooping wings '
and spreading tail, emitting a sound that closely resembles the hoot:
ing of the great horned owl. The nesting takes place during the last:
half of May, when the hen bird scratches a slight hollow in the earth
and lays from 6 to 12 cream-colored, brown-spotted eggs. Usually.
but one brood is reared in a season. Prof. W. W. Cooke, in writing of
the habits of the specie in Colorado, says that it breeds from 7,000
feet altitude to timber line, 4,000 feet higher. At the former altitude
it lays about the middle of May. In August the birds gather in
flocks and visit grainfields, or frequent the more open gulches and
foothills for berries. In September they wander above timber line
to feed on grasshoppers, reaching an altitude of 12,500 feet. In
severe winter weather some of the birds come down into the thick
woods, but many remain the whole year close to timber line.s

The food habits of the dusky grouse have been studied by examina-
tion of the contents of 45 crops and stomachs, representing every
month of the year except May, June, and November. Most of the
birds were shot in British Columbia, Colorado, and Idaho, but a few
came from Montana, Utah, Wyoming, and California. The food
consisted of 6.73 percent animal matter-insects, with an occasional
spider-and 93.27 percent of vegetable matter-seeds, fruit, and
leaves. Grasshoppers constitute the bulk of the animal food, amount-
ing to 5.73 percent. Beetles, ants, end caterpillars form the rest of
the insect food. One stomach contained the common land snail
(Polygyra sp.). Major Bendire, Vernon Bailey, and Walter K.
Fisher have shown that the young birds feed largely on grasshoppers.
Mr. Fisher shot a young bird at Forest Grove, Oreg., July 6, 1897,
which had eaten 20 grasshoppers and several smooth, green larvae.


The dusky grouse and its near relative, the spruce grouse, are
among our chief foliage-eating birds. Browse is eaten by the blue
grouse to the extent of 68.19 percent of its annual food, and is dis-
tributed as follows: Buds and twigs, 5.28 percent; coniferous foliage,
54.02 percent; other leaves, 8.89 percent. The species spends most of
a Birds of Colorado, p. 70, 1897.

V(WI6M08 ckryrokepkq).
Tie blue grouse is one of the most highly frugivorous of our gal-
iaceous birds. Fruit formed 20.09 percent of the food of the 45
irds whose stomachs were examined in the laboratory. Manzanita
eres constituted a large part, amounting to 13.48 percent of the
iotal. During the summer and early fall they were eaten in great
quantities. The manzanita often forms tangled areas of chaparral
a.nd includes a number of species which furnish birds and mammals
'an abundant supply of berries. The berries eaten by the blue grouse
Hi aAuk, vol. 6, p. 83, 1889.
|i tCondor, vol. 8, p. 160, 1901.
I. Am. Ornith., vol. 4, p. 191, 1831.

K, I .M
include ArctostapAylos pungens, A. nevadrnui, and A. u v.a-n iX
list of fruits also includes the following:
Mountain twin berry. Service berry (Amelanwhier
Red elder (Sambucus pubens). foliUa). il
Honeysuckle (Loneioera involu- Salal (GauUtheria tahoUon). ^
crata; Lonicera conjugialis). 'Huckleberry (Vacciniusm occi '!
Cherry (Prunus sp.). tale). '. :3
Mountain ash (Sorbus sambuci- Currant (Ribes cereum, R*V @e'n!.
folia). guineum). I
Salmon berry (Rubus parviflorus). Gooseberry (Ribes mensieS).
The food habits of all young birds differ more or less from those of ::.:
their parents. Young blue grouse at first live chiefly on grass-
hoppers and other insects and on tender plant tops. Later in the.sea-
son they subsist on berries, such as gooseberries and salal-berries, and'
some seeds, such as those of the wild sunflower. Florence Merriam
Bailey, in writing recently of the habits of the dusky grouse in New
Mexico, says:a
Near our camp at the foot of Pecos Baldy, Mr. Bailey discovered a winter
roosting tree of the grouse. ,The tree was on a sheltered part of the wooded
slope and was so densely branched that after a prolonged rain the ground
beneath was perfectly dry. The earth was strewn with winter droppings, com-
posed entirely of the leaves of conifers. Conifer needles had also been eaten
by three of the grouse that were taken * 4 in July and August but at
this season the birds were living principally on ,uch fresh food as strawberries,
bearberries (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), sheperdia berries, flowers of the lupine
and paint brush, seeds, green leaves, grasshoppers, caterpillars, ants, and other
insects. One crop contained twenty-seven strawberries, twenty-eight bear-
berries, and twelve sheperdia berries, besides flowers, leaves, and insects, while
the accompanying gizzard was filled with seeds, green leaves, and Insects.

(Lagopus lagopu.s.)

Ptarmigans are characteristic of the arctic and arctic-alpine
regions. During summer they are mainly gray and brown, resem-
bling the mottled colors of the bare earth, but at the approach of
winter they change this plumage for one of pure white. Thus they
harmonize with their surroundings at all seasons and are better
able to escape their numerous enemies. There are four species of
these birds in the United States and Alaska. Of these the willow
ptarmigan, white ptarmigan, or willow grouse, as it is variously
known, is the largest, most abundant, and consequently the most
important. It is found in the arctic regions of both hemispheres,
and is widely spread and abundant throughout the tundra country
of Alaska, except on the Aleutian Islands. Throughout its range,
especially in winter, it is an important food bird. In the north
a Auk, vol. 21, p. 351, 1904.


Stewdy of the food of the willow ptarmigan unfortunately has
slight, for only five birds were available. Their food was
trely vegetable. Three shot in January in Labrador had eaten 10
Ba~entof berries' and 90 percent of buds, more than half the buds
S inwillow. One stomach contained about 300 willow-flower buds.
I The two other birds were collected in December in Labrador and had
Stan-fl -o* buds exclusively. Though the data are so scanty, the
w nsiults agree with those of other students. Ludwig Kumlien, for
Sinstance says:'
They [willow ptarmigans] are quite common in the larger valleys, where
A tbe is a ranker growth of willows. The stomachs of those I examined of this
J contained willow buds and small twigs.

'Proc. U. S. Nat Mas., vol. 13, p. 514, 1890.
H* earned, Journey to the Northern Ocean, pp. 413-415, 1795.
o Nat Hist Coll. In Alaska, p. 132, 1887 (1888).
6 Bull 15t U. S. Nat Mus., pp. 82-8", 1879.

.... ....
...... .....

** :'- -::..;.. : ^
46GROUSE A&ND.WL flEEUW .OP 'U'flf. nm,+.:......+::.:. -

Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway have stated that tlw < B> {l|
migans were often found to contain a double handful of wili 6w
L. M. Turner writes thus of the bird in Alasks:b :
During the winter these birds subsist on the past year'S twigs of willow ani,,:
alder or other bushes. I have cut open the crops of many of these winter-killeSd.
birds and found them to contain only pieces of twigs about one-third of an lnck
long, or just about the width of the gape of the posterior horny part of the bill,1
'as though this had been the means of measurement in cutting them off. The
flesh at this time is dry and of a peculiar taste. In spring the ptarmigans con-
gregate in great numbers on the willow bushes and eat the tender, swelling buds.
The flesh then acquires a bitter but not unpleasant taste. As open weather
advances they find berries that have remained frozen the entire winter, and
tender grass shoots, and later, insects. The young are insectivorous to a great
degree in their youngest days. They consume great numbers of spiders that
are to be found on the warm hillsides.
In writing of the food of the willow grouse, Major Bendire says
that the buds and tender leaves of birch are eaten, and the berries of
cranberry, whortleberry, and arbutus.c Wilson and Bonaparte state
that it feeds on berries, including the crowberry (Empetrum nigrum)
and the mountain cranberry (Vaccinium vitis-idta).d


(Lagopus rupestris.) e

The rock ptarmigan inhabits arctic America from Labrador to
Alaska (including the entire Aleutian chain, where the willow ptar-
migan is unknown). It is similar to the latter bird, but smaller and
has a black line from the bill to the eye by which it may readily be
distinguished. This bird is less common than the willow ptarmigan
and prefers more rocky and elevated situations. Owing to its smaller
size and fewer numbers it is far less important to the people of the
north as an article of food than the willow ptarmigan.


No stomachs of the rock ptarmigan have been available for exami-
nation. In Alaska, during May, E. W. Nelson found it feeding on
berries of the preceding season. f Major Bendire says that the sub-
a Hist. N. A. Birds, Land Birds, III, p. 461, 1874.
b Nat. Hist. Alaska, p. 153, 1886.
c Life Hist. N. A. Birds, [I], p. 74, 1892.
d Am. Ornith., IV, p. 328, 1831.
e Besides the typical Lagopus rupestris of arctic America, the rock ptarmi-
gans of North America include the Reinhardt ptarmigan (L. r. reinhardi), of
Greenland and northern Labrador; the Welch ptarmigan (L. welchi), of New-
foundland; and four forms found in the Aleutian Islands-L. r. nelsoni, L. r.
atkhensix. L. r. totinscndi, and L. crermanni.
f Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, p. 136, 1887 (1888).

'. .."...Uj opIM .e.u rus.)
w.bhite-tailed ptarmigan is found above timber line in Alaska,
*'*' miountains of British Columbia, and in the higher Cascades
MS to Mounts Hood and Jefferson. 'It ranges south along the
|.iej:ky !Mountains through Colorado to northern New Mexico. Unlike
.. ........'er species, this ptarmigan has no black feathers in the tail.
I tinlffPg of this bird in Colorado, W. W. Cooke says that it breeds
Si, n timber line, virtually under arctic conditions, and that only in
Si~w~ ~-severe winters does it descend into timber. He records that it
twr-eed "at from 11,500 to 13,500 feet altitude, and wanders up to the
i.iisummits of peaks 1,000 feet higher. Nesting takes place early in June
and is similar to that of other ptarmigans. In winter, when the birds
Sdescend to lower altitudes, the sexes are in different flocks.
S'The white-tailed plitarmigan is a trusting creature, lacking the fear
AI necessary for self-prescrvation. Clark P. Streator, while employed
:" :by the Biological Survey in the Cascade Mountains of Washington,
Reported that one could approach within 10 feet of it, that miners
killed it with stones, and that it was very good for food.
S In Colorado public sentiment is strongly in its favor, and it is
V* jroteeted by an absolutely prohibitory law. The ptarmigan is one
of the sights pointed out to tourists in the Colorado mountains. It-
status here may be contrasted with that of the willow grouse in the
north, where thousands are killed by Eskimos and Indians. Killing
birds for food, however, even by wholesale, has its excuse, but whole-
sale slaughter for millinery purposes, such as has overtaken the
ptarmigans in the Old World, is unpardonable. A single shipment
of ptarmigan wings in Russia consisted of 10 tons.'


S During winter in Colorado, according to Professor Cooke, they
: subsist, like other ptarmigan, largely on willow buds. The stomachs
a oLife Hist. N. Am. Birds, [I], p. 80, 1892.
SJourney to Northern Ocean, p. 416, 1795.
SBull. 15, U. S. Nat. Mus., p. 83, 1879.
SfEngelhardt, A Russian Province of the North, 1899.

::iL~i,, .

|~~iii. ..

came could not be determined: Doctor Coues, quoting T. M. TrippG
states that the food of this bird is insects, leguminous flowers, and..:,
the buds and leaves of pines and firs.' According to Major Bendire,
the flowers and leaves of marsh marigold (Caltha leptosepala) and-
the leaf buds and catkins of the dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa) are.
eaten.b Dr. A. K. Fisher examined the stomachs of two downy :1j
chicks collected on Mount Rainier, Washington, and found beetles .7
and flowers of heather (Cassiope mertensiana) and those of a small
blueberry. T
(Meleagris gallopavo.) c
SThe wild turkey, our biggest game bird, was formerly abundant
over a wide area. It has been exterminated throughout much of its
former range, and unless radical measures are taken it will become
extinct in a few years. In early colonial days it was numerous in
Massachusetts, coming about the houses of the settlers in large
flocks. It is now totally extinct in New England. It is hard to
realize that at the beginning of the nineteenth century turkeys were
so abundant that they sold for 6 cents apiece, though the largest
ones, weighing from 25 to 30 pounds, sometimes brought a quarter of
a dollar. A big wild turkey nowadays would not long go begging
at $5. It is their value as food that has made it worth while to
hunt turkeys to the very point of extermination. So-called sports-
men go out in the late summer ostensibly to shoot squirrels, but really
to pot turkeys on the roost. Another practice is to lie in ambush and
lure the game by imitating the call note of the hen in spring. The
writer has personal knowledge of such methods of hunting in Vir-
ginia and Maryland, and they are largely responsible for the exter-
mination now imminent. Trapping turkeys in pens-a very simple
matter-has also accelerated the destruction of the species.
William Brewster found the turkey breeding in North Carolina
among the conifers at 5,000 feet altitude, and also in the hardwoods
at low altitudes. Edward A. Preble, of the Biological Survey, dis-
o Birds of the Northwest, p. 427, 1874.
b Life H1ist. N. A. Birds, [I], pp. 85-86,1892.
c The typical Meleagris gallopavo is restricted to Mexico; but four geographic
races have been recognized within the United States. These are the wild tur-
key of the Eastern States and the Mississippi Valley (Meleagris gallopavo sil-
vestris); the Florida turkey (M. g. osceola); the Rio Grande turkey (M. p.
intermedia); and the Merrlam turkey of Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, and
the table-land of northern Mexico (M. g. merriami).

At this age they have weathered most of their early perils.
the last of December, 1902, along the Roanoke Rivet, near
t.t Carolina line, the writer found turkeys in typical turkey
b Few of the plantations here are under a thousand acres,
*4"- wasy include three or four thousand. Along the river are low-
ii.......... often flooded during high water. Several hundred yards far-
tkqiiniick-.b is a bluff, the old river terrace, which marks the beginning uplands. A part of this bluff, half a mile long by an eighth of
iilo wide, consists of a slate outcrop, much elevated above the rest
....: varying from 50 to 150 feet above the river. It is locally known
.i ..' mountain,' and is heavily forested with pine and oak. The
hhark ys were found on the backbone of the 'mountain,' among white
Hi e ..trees, where fresh droppings and places where the birds had
i hiisemtced in the dry oak leaves to the depth of 2 or 3 inches were
.'.RUN"hTl. So recently had the birds been there that the humus had
not dried. The scratching places were from 15 to 18 inches in diam-
a:; eand circular in shape. In the growth of white oaks there were
fulyy scratching hqles, as many as five being found within one
where the birds had made diligent search for acorns. A
ii ...,.:. w hereatc i gh oe s, a a y a i e b i g f u d w t n
tue was sent ahead and soon flushed a bird, which came flying
by," like a giant ruffed grouse. All through the woods were
turkey: ds, some made of young pine trees and others, more elab-
orate, !'jogs. Most of the turkeys killed here are shot by calling
them up.. these blinds. In a patch of rank broomsedge and briers a
*20-pound gobbler sprang into the air and was shot while making off in
clumsy fashion. It had not had time to eat much, and the stomach
and crop contained seven dipterous larvae, the remains of white-oak
Sao:wrns, and about a hundred flowering dogwood berries. On the 15th
of June, 1903, two broods of young about the size of game hens were
i The Biological Survey has examined, in all, 16 stomachs and crops
wof ild turkeys. These were collected during February, March, July,
BSeptember, November, and December. They contained 15.57 percent
,, Ornlth. Biog., vol. 1, p. 7, 1831.8L
i ...

of animal matter and 84.43 percent of vegetable matter. The
food consisted of insects-15.15 percent-and miscellaneous invts
brates, such as spiders, snails, and myriapods-0.42 percent. Graw..
hoppers furnished 13.92 percent, and beetles, flies, caterpillars, at
other insects 1.23 percent. -
The 84.43 percent of the bird's vegetable food was distributed
follows: 'Browse,' 24.80 percent; fruit, 32.98 percent; mast, 4.60 pert
cent; other seeds, 20.12 percent; miscellaneous vegetable matter, 1.984
percent. ::,
The wild turkey is very fond of grasshoppers and crickets. Wile
liam Hugh Robarts has observed a flock of a hundred busily catching]
grasshoppers.a Vernon Bailey, of the Biological Survey, killed a-
turkey at Corpus Christi, Tex., in May, 1900, that had eaten a large:
number of grasshoppers and a sphinx moth. During the Nebraska
invasion of Rocky Mountain locusts, Professor Aughey examined the.
contents of six wild turkey stomachs and crops collected during
August and September. Every bird had eaten locusts, in all amount-
ing to 259.? The wild turkey has been known also to feed on the
cotton worm c (Alabama argillacea), the leaf hoppers, and the leaf-
eating beetles (Chrysomela suturalis). The grasshopper (Amaiia
sp.) and the thousand-legs (Julus) form part of the turkey's bill of
fare. Tadpoles and small lizards also are included.
Besides the bird shot on the Roanoke, already mentioned, the stom-
achs and crops of four other Virginia turkeys have been examined by
the Biological Survey. One of these contained only small quartz
pebbles. Another bird had eaten only a few grapes and flowering
dogwood berries. A third had made a respectable meal. Ten percent
of its food was animal matter and 90 percent vegetable. The animal
part consisted of 1 harvest spider (Phalangide), 1 centipede, 1 thou-
sand-legs (Julus), 1 ichneumon fly (Ichneumon unifasicl.ata), 2
yellow-jackets (Vespa germanica), 1 grasshopper, and 3, katydids
(Cyrtophyllus perspiculatus). The vegetable food was wild black
cherries, grapes, berries of flowering dogwood and sour gum, 2
chestnuts, 25 whole acorns (Querous palustris and Q. velutina), a few
alder catkins, seeds of jewel weed, and 500 seeds of tick-trefoil
(Meibomia nudiflora). Another turkey, also shot in December, had
eaten a ground beetle, an ichneumon fly, 2 wheel bugs, 10 yellow-
jackets, a meadow grasshopper, 75 red-legged grasshoppers, a few
sour-gum berries, some pine seeds (with a few pine needles, probably
taken accidentally), several acorns, a quarter of a cupful of wheat,
and a little corn.
a Am. Field, vol. 55, p. 42, 1901.
b First Rep. Ent. Corn., App. II, p. 46, 1878.
c Fourth Rep. Ent. Corn., p. 88% 1885.

g.. The Florida bobwhite also is very fond of these pine
-i same bird had eaten three thimblefuls of grass seed
11:'f m"imumM), 12 spicebush berries (Benzoin benzoin), 20
the wax myrtle (Myrica cerifera), 2 live-oak acorns (Quer-
and 15 acorns of the Spanish oak (Quercue digitata).
turkey had taken 25 tubers of the ground nut (Apios
)Aom of them exceeding an inch in length-and the berries
.I.BSoiomon.'s seal (Polygonatum sp.), southern tupelo, and wax
Half a pint of the fruiting panicles of a grass (Muhlen-
:) was taken from the crop of a New Mexican turkey shot
in the Manzano Mountains. It had eaten also grass
*% mdi of cheat, pifion nuts, and seeds of other pines.
M mioighigraig n Was found in only one stomach, the writer observed
lB the Roanoke bottoms in December, 1903, feeding on corn
tW:V drop had been harvested. During November and Decem-
*ibs o fie food of the turkey is fruit. The kinds most frequently
qm...... ...l.dude, besides those already mentioned, myrtle holly (Oreo-
AiG. mrtifoia), mulberries, wild strawberries, blackberries, cedar
OF-iAulzid holly berries. On San Francisco Mountain, Arizona, Dr.
0' ~l~I~nMrriam found turkeys in August feeding on wild goose-
i bSiS. iAX month later, at the same locality, he found them living on
.pilo. nuts.* In Arizona E. A. Goldman found a flock of 150 young
A.t old turkeys that roosted in oni place. The gobblers were at this
. 7iii a separate flock. These birds were feeding on nuts of the
Ila (Pins edulis), a staple Indian food of the West. They ate
,IS juniper berries (Juniperus utakensia).' On the upper Gila
timi New Mexico, in November, 1873, H. W. Henshaw found turkeys
I0 *-aunmeromus and feeding almost exclusively upon grass seeds
,, grasshoppers, the crops of many birds being fairly crammed with
.-iomer. Major Bendire says that the Florida turkey feeds on
N. A. Fauna, No. 3, p. 89,1890.
Kf i Auk,Yvol. 19, p 12, 127, 1902.

white-oak acorns, chinquapins, chestnuts, pecan nuts, black- persi
mons, fruit of prickly pear, leguminous seeds, all cultivated
and tender tops of plants.a -Wild turkeys feed also on mountain ri
(Oryzopsis, pringlei), mesquite beans, sedge, poa grass, and cmposi
flowers. t
Florence Merriam Bailey, in writing of the wild turkey in N
Mexico, says: b
Mr. Vilas, a cattleman of the country, told us that in the fall they go do
to the nut pine and juniper mesas in the Glorieta region and, gathering at t
few springs that furnish drinking places, are shot by wagon loads by the Mexlt:
cans. The only specimen we obtained was taken July 27, at over 11,000 feet
Its crop and gizzard held mainly grasshoppers and crickets, but also grass seed
mariposa lily buds, and strawberries, while its gizzard contained in additlou)
a few beetles.
The wild turkey consumes both insect pests and seeds of weeds, but.
now is nowhere abundant enough to have much effect on agriculture.
The domestic turkey's habit of hunting grasshoppers and of 'worm-
ing' tobacco shows what might be expected from the wild species 1
were it sufficiently numerous.

a Life Hist. N. A. Birds, [I], p. 114, 1892.
b Auk, vol. 21, p. 352, 1904. .

Trs*a*fts -------------- 4-'S---------------------- 4u
ur op ianus ------------------- 23-25
H law protecting ptarmigan-------------------------------- 47
Ip ofkliage eaten by grouse and wild turkeys-.. 34,39,40,41,42, 43,48,51
-.o....d of grouse, effect on flavor of flesh----------- 41
.eatin g by wild turkeys---- 51
Sobacur ------------------------ 41-44
gnawu, breeding habits -------------- 42
| M. .. distribution---------------- ----------------------- 41
food for man, use----------------------------------- 41
,. *habits------------ ------------- ---- 41-44
.. ... .... of young ----------------------------- 41.44
.. general -------------------- 41-44
Subject of sport------------------------------ ------41
i: :: .. vegetable food---------------------------------- 42-44
rung, relations of grouse and wild turkey ----------- 8,9,14,40,52
: .:'bird, effect on flavor of flesh, notes-------------- 25,34,37,39,40.41,46
,,.* habits, grouse, Dusky ------------------------------------41-44
|:' Franklin ------------------------------------- 40
B uffed ------------------------------------29-38
S age -------------------------- 24-25
SSharp-tailed -------------------------------- 21-23
S.-Spruce ------------------------------------39-40
heath hen------------- ---------------------------18-19
.' prairie hen ----------------------------------13-18,19,20
i. use of grouse------------------ 10-11, 20-21,25,40, 41, 44, 45,46, 47, 48
wild turkey---------------------------------------- 48
]iool hen. See Franklin grouse.
Franklin grouse, distribution, habits, quality of flesh------------------- 40
-ut buds, eating by grouse---------------- ---------- 18,3-34
eating by grouse and turkey------------------- 18,23,35-38,44,51
Game, destruction ------------------------------------- 7,28,45,47,48
: laws -----------------------------------------------12,2-9,47
G'is, oak, eating by grouse-------------------------------------- 31
Gooseberries, food grouse, effect on flavor of flesh------- -------------41
.Grain, eating by grouse and wild turkey--------------- 17,20,22,24,31,51
i Grouse, distribution, usefulness, various species of United States--------- 7-8
Dusky, distribution and general habits--------------------- 41-44
S forest regions, occurrence----------------------------------- 8
S Franklin, distribution and general habits-------------------- 40
SRuffed, distribution and habits-------------------------- 25-38
S. Sage, distribution and general habits- --------------------- 23-25
: Sharp-tailed, distribution and general habits---------------- 20-23
i See also Heath hen and Prairie hen.
SBeath hen, distribution, food habits, and danger of extinction ----------18-19
baeetfood, prairie hen and grouse--------------------- 14-15, 21-202, 294.31
wild turkeys-------------,------ ---------- 50,51,52
-biseetB, injurious, destruction by grouse and turkeys----------- 14,22,30, 50

..... .L..

Kentucky, early abundance of grouse :
Lacey Act, game protection----- -------------------i
Lagopus lagopus ----.----------------- -
leucurus ---------------- ----- --- 47-4
lupestris ----------------------------------------------------4-
Laws protecting game ---------------------------------------12,29,4i1
lesser prairie hen, abundance, distribution, and food habits------------ 19-2-1
Locusts destroyed by grouse and turkeys--------------------------- 14,i'
Maryland, trapping turkeys------------------------- ------------- 8:--
Mast. eating by grouse and wild turkeys--------------------------- 31,52.:
Meleagris gallopavo----------- ----------------------------- 48-
Minnesota, grouse, destruction------------------- -------------------- 2:!
New England, destruction of turkeys--------------------------------- 48 'i
North Carolina, turkey huriting-------------------------------------- 401
Oats, destruction by grouse --------------------------17,20,22,24,431
Partridge. See Bobwhite and Ruffed grouse.
Pediocetes phasianellus ------------------- --------------------- 20-23
Pheasant See Ruffed grouse..
Plants eaten by grouse, list------------------------------- ----------35
Poisonous plants, effect of eating on flesh of grouse---------------- 34, 35,36
Prairie hen, breeding habits, migration, description, distribution-- ------- 10,20
domestication 1----------------------------- 13
enemies--------------------- -------------------------- 13
food for man, use ------------------------------------10-11
grain food--------------------------------- ------------17
habits -------------------------_---------------------- 13-18
of young -----------------------------------------18
insect food ---------------------------- ------------- 14-15
leaves, flowers, and shoots as food --------------------- 17-18
Lesser, distribution and habits------------------------ 19-20
man's ally------------- ----------------------------- 11
object of sport ---------------------------- 11
propagation and preservation -------------------------- 11-13
vegetable food----------- ----------------------------15-18
Ptarmigan, Rock, distribution, value, and general habits ------------- 46-47
White-tailed, distribution and general habits---------------- 47-48
Willow, distribution, habits, and use as food for man------- 44-46
Quail. See Bobwhite.
Restocking, grouse and turkey, importance ---------------------------- 9
Rock ptarmigan, distribution, value, habits------------------------ 46-47
food for man, use ----------------------------------46
habits --------------------------------------46-47
Ruffed grouse, esthetic value _-------------------------------- --------27
breeding habits ------------------------------------ 26-27
buds and leaves as food-----------------------------32-35
color differences----------------------------------- 25
description, general habits, food, etc---------------- 25-38
distribution -------------------------------25
domestication, problem ---------------------------- 29
drumming habits ----------------------------------- 26-27
enemies ---------------------------------------------- 28
food for man, use -------------------------------------28
habits ---------------------------------------- 29-38
of young---------------------------------- 38
fruit food----------------------------------------- 35-38
insect food---------------------------------------- 29-31
note ------------------------------------------------ 27
object of sirt ----------------------------------- 28
preservation and ropagation--- ------- --------28-29
vegetable food- -----------------------31-88
Sage grouse, breeding habits ;nd food habits----------------------- 23-25
(distribution ---------------------------------------------- 23
dolestiCtiion ------------------------------------------ 25
food for Uin, use---------------------------------------- 25
ha)itts ------------------------------------------- 24-25
propagation ------------------ 25

breeding habits -----------------------------------39
HI distribution, food habits-------------------------- 38-40
0.. drumming ----------------------------------------39
food for man, use------------------- 40
habits ---- ---------- 39-40
object of sport -------------------------- 40
relation to agrlculture_------------------------- 40
rlntlrIe hen food--------------------- ------------------- 16
Astretlon of prairie hen----------------------------------- 20
*"worming," by turkeys---------------------------------- 52
" tam, origin ---------------------------------------------8
wiPld, abundance --------------------------------------- 8-9
breeding- ----------------------------------------48-49
destruction -------------------- -----------------9,48,52
Distribution -------------------------------------- 8-9,48
Sfood* for man, use and value---------------------------- 48
Habits ---- ----------------------------- 49,52
insect food ------------------------------------ 50,51,52
i d' i":: ,! ... | cA *- *f w i 1 ^
4 relation to agriculture------------------------------ 9,52
shooting from blinds---------------- 49
species ------------------------------------------- 8-9,48
vegetable food------------------------------- 50,51,52
|mme-------mer--i-- ----------------------- 10-18
O o ------------------------------------------------18-19
Bl^^,...." *'":-*" Alftftitfj 1 Q -1
--- -- pW- ------------------------------- 19-20
|Mtble food, grouse, and turkey ---------- 15-17,22-23, 31-38,42-44
ies traction by grouse and turkey----------------------- 16,22,52
|les, eating by grouse---------------------------------- 17,20,22,24
1E.its-talled ptarmigan, breeding 'habits ----------------------------- 47
HMa .*distribution --------------------------------47
S .. food for man ------------------------------ 47
..habits ------- ----------------------- 47-48
.ii. ." habits, general------------ ------------------47
r...- legislation --------------------------------- 47
ii ieberry, effect o0 eating, on flesh of grouse----------------------- 41
Wi1d turkey, abundance------------------------------------------ 48
;. breeding habits----------------------------------- 48-49
It:'i,-' decrease in numbers ------------------------------- 9,48
distribution ------------------------------------- 9,48-49'
Sfood for man, use---------------------------------- 8,48
.... .. .habits --------------------------------------49-52
. B ....... .. +; ""
.bts, general------------------- --------------- 48-49
EWlio ptarmigan, abundance ----------------- ------------------ 44-45
breeding habits----------------- ---------------- 45
distribution ---------------------------------- 41-45
food for man, use-----------------------------445
Habits ---------------------------------41-45
*:!.. habits, general------------------------------- 44-45
snaring, method--------------------------------- 45

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