Distribution and migration of North American shorebirds

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Distribution and migration of North American shorebirds
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Cooke, Wells Woodbridge, 1858-1916
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U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey ( Washington )
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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
BIOLOGICAL SURVEY--BULLETIN No. 35
H. W. HENSHIIAW. ACh'


DISTRIBUTION AND MIGRATION OF

NORTH AMERICAN SHOREBIRDS






BY

WELLS W. COOKE


Assistant, Biological Surrey


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WASHINGTON
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1910


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Imued October 6. 1910.


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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AURIOULTUAN,
BIOLOGICAL SURVEY,
Washington, D. C., June 22, 1910.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith, for publication.
Bulletin No. 35 of the Biological Survey, a report on the Distributi
and Migration of North American Shorebirds, by Wells W. Coo
assistant, Biological Survey. Many species of shorebirds inhabit t
United States or pass through our territory in migration. TheJ
birds possess considerable economic importance, and as other wl
game like ducks, geese, and swans diminish in numbers their val
for food and as a means for sport will increase. Large numbers
annually killed, and unless prompt measures are taken adequate,
to protect them some of the larger and more important kinds
likely to become extinct, especially in the region east of the ..
sippi River. A knowledge of the summer and winter abodes of
several species and of the routes they take in migration is essential
intelligent legislation in their behalf, and, accordingly, all the knoi
facts in regard to this part of their life history are here broug
together. 7].
Respectfully, H. W. HENSHAW,
Chief, Biological Survey. .::
Hon. JAMES WILSON,
Secretary of Agriculture.
2





U"f









CO NTENTS.

Page.
Introduction .............................................................. 5
D istribution .............................................................. 6
M igratio ................................................................. 10
North American shorebirds .................................................. 14
R ed phalarope ........................................................ 14
Northern phalarope..................................................... 16
W ilon phalarope...................................................... 18
A vocet............................................................... 19
Black-necked stilt ..................................................... 2o
European woodcock................................................... 21
W oodcock.......................................................... .. 21
European snipe ......................................................... 23
W ilson snipe.......................................................... 23
Great snipe ........................................................... 26
Dowitcher ............................................................ 26
Long-billed dowitcher................................................. 28
Stilt sandpiper ............... ......................................... 29
Knot....-...................................................... 31
Purple sandpiper..................................................-.... 33
Aleutian sandpiper.................................................... 34
Pribilof sandpiper..................................................... 34
Sharp-tailed sandpiper .......................... ........................ 34
Pectoral sandpiper .................................................... 35
W hite-rumped sandpiper...................... ........................ 37
Baird sandpiper ........................................................ 39
Least sandpiper ........................................................ 41
Long-toed stint ......................................................... 42
Cooper sandpiper ..................................................... 43
Dunlin............................................................... 43
Red-backed sandpiper .................................................. 43
Curlew sandpiper...................................................... 45
Spoon-bill sandpiper.................................................. 45
Semipalmated sandpiper............................................... 46
Western sandpiper ..................................................... 47
Sanderling ............................................................. 48
Marbled godwit ........................................................ 50
Pacific godwit .......................................................... 51
Hudsonian godwit ...................................................... 52
Black-tailed godwit .................................................... 53
Green-shank.......................................................... 54
Common red-shank .................................................... 54
Greater yellow-legs............ .... .................................... 54
Yellow-legs........................................................... 56
Solitary sandpiper ..................................................... 58
W western solitary sandpiper............................................. 60
Green sandpiper....................................................... 61
Wood sandpiper ......................................................... 61
W illet................................................................. 61
3






CONTENTS.


North American shorebirds-Continued.
W western willet.................................
Wandering tattler.............................
Ruff.... .....................................-.
Upland plover................................
Buff-breasted sandpiper........................
Spotted sandpiper..............................
Long-billed curlew...........................
Hudsonian curlew._...........................
Eskimo curlew .......--.........................
European curlew............................
Whimbrel----------------------------.....................................
Bristle-thighed curlew........................
Lapwing .....................................
Dotterel .....................................
Black-bellied plover..........................
European golden plover........................
Golden plover ..............................
Pacific golden plover..........................
K illdeer.......................................
Santo Domingo killdeer........................
Semipalmated plover.........................
Ringed plover...............................
Little ringed plover...---..-. ................


e


---------...........
. . . . . .



....................


. .. ... .".--. .. . ..-.

." . . .. '.-. -.-.-. -. -. .
. .. .. .. .. ... .. ..'. .
.---.- ...--. . . . .. e. .
. ... .. ... .. .. .. .. .


Piping plover......................................
Snowy plover......................................
Mongolian plover ..................................
Azara ring plover.................................
W ilson plover....................................
Rufous-naped plover.............................
Mountain plover....--..........--.------............
Surf bird..................................... ...
Turnstone-...............--.-- ....-....----........
Ruddy turnstone ...................................
Black turnstone---.........--.......-....--.........
European oyster-catcher..........................
Oyster-catcher..........--.-...---.................
Frazar oyster-catcher.............................
Black oyster-catcher..............................
Stone curlew ................... ....................
Mexican jacana.....--...---..--......----......------.....
Black jacana.........-- ....-................-....-- .
Colombian jacana .................................


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


PLATE I. Yellow-legs (Totanusflavipes)....................................
II. Upland plover (Bartramia longicauda) ............................
III. Spotted sandpiper (Actitis macularia).............................
IV. Killdeer (Ozyechus vociferus) ....................................


64

" 4,



74
76
77
77
77
77
78
79
80
85


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. . . . . . . .* . .
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DISTRIBUTION AND MIGRATION OF NORTH AMERICAN
SHOREBIRI)S.


INTRODUCTION.
Shorebirds form a valuable national resource, and it is the plain
duty of the present generation to pass on to posterity this asset
undiminished in value. Consistent and intelligent legislation in
favor of any group of birds must be founded on extended, accurate
information, and must include knowledge of the breeding and distri-
bution of the birds-where they spend the summer, whither they
retire in winter, and when and by what routes they migrate. The
Present bulletin supplies this needed information so far as it is now
available.
Consideration of our shorebirds (Limicola?) from an economic point
of view is recent. The early settlers found ducks, geese, and swans
swarming in certain sections of the United States, and grouse and
turkeys very abundant. The size and toothsomeness of these birds
made them important objects of pursuit for food, while the shore-
birds were considered unworthy of notice. As the great flocks of
Ducks and geese along the Atlantic coast diminished in numbers, the
attention of gunners, especially of market hunters, was turned to
the shorebirds, then in countless numbers. A generation of constant
harassment spring and fall has almost exterminated some of the
larger species and has very greatly reduced even the smaller ones.
The time has come when this indiscriminate slaughter must cease if
the present remnant of the shorebirds is to be preserved.
The range of our shorebirds extends from ocean to ocean, so that
all parts of the United States have an interest in their preservation.
These birds feed naturally in the open country or along the open
shore, where they are easily found and are constantly subject to
attack. The prairies of the Mississippi Valley in past years formed
the great highway of spring migration. Flock followed flock in
almost endless succession across the prairies of Kansas, Nebraska,
and the Dakotas, over a region that of late years has passed under
the plow. As this area becomes more densely populated the shore-
birds, once so abundant, are likely to become extinct unless active
measures are taken for their preservation.
There are excellent reasons for protecting and preserving the
shorebirds. Some of them, especially the several kinds of plovers,
5





6* S
6 ~ ~~~~...... .': i~:.':.L.....
6 NORTH AMERICAN SHOREBIRDS. ....
.:...^
perform important service in destroying noxious insects. Thr I.
of many of them, even of the smaller kinds, has a high food value,
and some of the larger species-the upland, golden, and black-belid:
plovers, and the curlews-were in the times of their adM f
important articles of diet. Their pursuit for sport, when they ti.t
shot over decoys, demands a high degree of skill, and is a favorite pa=
time of many hunters. Nor should the esthetic side of the question be
ignored. The graceful forms and motions of these -birds as they feed
at the edge of the breakers are an interesting sight to thousands of
seashore visitors. The silencing of their melodious calls would l a
loss to every lover of nature. Finally, it may be said in their favq
that not one of the shorebirds ever does any harm, while may N...
proved of great value to agriculture. Their accounts have only ..
credit side. .
The shorebirds are among the most widely distributed of all birds.
As far to the northward as man has found land shorebirds breed:
while in winter they visit the tropical and Antarctic shores. Tbr:
distances traversed in their migrations probably average aty
than those of any other family, and the shorebirds probably exceed
all others in the number of miles traveled in a single flight.
DISTRIBUTION.
The shorebirds are represented in North America by 76 oeftis'
and 9 subspecies, a total of 85 recognized forms; but the following 7A
of these do not range so far north as the United States: .4...
SOUTHERN SPECIES NOT RANGING NORTH TO THE UNITED4STA ..::
Rufous-naped plover (Ochthodromus tril- Cayenne lapwing (Hop oyptenawasynu4t
sonius rufinuchus). Azara ring plover (jguialitis coi4ren). "
Stone curlew ((Edicnemus bistriatus). Santo Domingo killdeer (Oxyedau woi
Colombian jacana (Parra melanopygia). erus torquatus).
Black jacana (Parra nigra).
There remain 78 species and subspecies that occur in the tJnitewi
States and northward, but 5 of these are found only in Greelan,
as follows:.
EUROPEAN SPECIES OCCURRING IN NORTH AMERICA ONLY IN GREENLANDI .i
European snipe (Gallinago gallinago). Golden plover (Charadrius aprianus a) "
Black-tailed godwit (Limosa limnosa). Oyster-catcher (Hanmatopus ostMlegw4^'
Whimbrel (Numenius phzopus). i
Fifteen other species from the Eastern Hemisphere arem: kno
as stragglers on the mainland of North America: '
STRAGGLERS IN NORTH AMERICA FROM THE EASTERN HEMISPHERE.
European woodcock (Scolopax rusticola). Red-shank (Totanus totanmus).
Great snipe (Gallinago media). Green sandpiper (Helodromas oa m
Long-toed stint (Pisobia damacensis). Wood sandpiper (Rhyacophilus glareoLa)
Dunlin (Pelidna alpina). Ruff (Pavoncella pugnax).
Curlew sandpiper (Eroliaferruginea). Lapwing ( Vanellum andlus). .
Spoon-bill sandpiper (Eurynorkynchu Dotterel (Eudromus morine.llu). .
pygmeus). Little ringed plover (*gialitis dubi64..,:'1
Green-shank (Glottis nebularia). Mongolian plover (Agialitis mongola). :





DISTRIBUTION.


= Deducting these, there are 58 species of shorebirds that belong to
Regular avifauna of North America north of Mexico. Not all of
|n, however, occur in the United States. The sharp-tailed sand-
pr is a regular migrant through Alaska, but is not found elsewhere
SNorth America. The Pacific godwit, bristle-thighed curlew, and
tacfic golden plover breed in Alaska and migrate thence to Asia and
SPacific islands. The ringed plover breeds in northeastern North
'cs iad migrates to Europe. The turnstone breeds in both
rtheastern and northwestern Arctic America, but migrates to
rope, Asia, and the Pacific islands without coming regularly to
United States; while the Aleutian and the Pribilof sandpipers
both breed and winter in Alaska. A further deduction of these S
Species leaves 50 species which regularly visit the United States
during some part of the year.
The shorebirds as a group are far northern breeders. The ma-
jority of them breed in the region of the Arctic Circle, and several
rang. north to the known limits of land. The majority do not breed
no far south as the United States, and hence are known there only as
migrants, or in the winter season.
SPECIES THAT BREED WHOLLY NORTH OP THE IGNITED STATES.


Red phalarope (Phalaro us fulicarius).
Northern phalarope (Lo peslobatus).
Dowitcher (Macrorhamphus griseus).
Lonq-billed dowitcher (Macrorhamphus
ffrmus scolopaceus).
Stilt sandpiper (Micropalama himanto-
ps).
not (Trings canutus).
Purple sandpiper (Arquatella maritime).
Aleutian sandpiper (Arquatella maritime
MueM).
Pribilof sandpiper (Arquatella maritima
ptitSnemii).
Sharp-tailed sandpiper (Pisobia aurita).
Pectoral sandpiper (Pisobia maculata).
White-rumped sandpiper (Pisobia fusci-
moli).
Baird sandpiper (Pisobia bairdi).
Least sandpiper (Pisobia minutilla).
Red-backed sandpiper (Pelidna alpine
sakhalina).
Semipalmated sandpiper (Ereunetes pu-
sYius).
Western sandpiper (Ereunetes maun).
Sanderling (Calidris leucophaa).


Pacific godwit (Limosa lapponica bauerQ.
Hudsonian godwit (Limosa hrmastica).
Greater yellow-legs (Totanus melanoleu-
cus).
Yellow-legs ( Totanus flavipes).
Wandering tattler (Heteractitis incanus).
Buff-breasted sandpiper (Tryngites subru-
ficollis).
Hudsonian curlew (Numeniushudsonicus).
Eskimo curlew (NVumenius borealis).
Bristle-thighed curlew (Numenius tahiti-
ensis).
Black-bellied plover (Squatarola squata-
rola).
Golden plover (Charadrius dominicus).
Pacific golden plover (Charadrius domini-
cusfulvu).
Semipalmated plover (Egialitis semipal-
mata).
Ringed plover (ZEgialitis hiaticula).
Surf bird (Aphriza virgata).
Turnstone (Arenaria interpres).
Ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpret to-
rinella).
Black turnstone (Arenaria melanocephala).


SPECIES THAT BREED IN BornH THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA.


Wilson phalarope (Steganopus tricolor).
Avocet (Recurostra amnencarna).
Woodcock (Philohela minor).
Wilson snipe (Gallinago delicate).
Marbled godwit (Limosafedoa).
Solitary sandpiper (Helwdromas solitar-
ius).
Western solitary sandpiper (Helodromas
saditarius cinnamomeus).
Willet (Catoptrophorus semipalmatus).


Western willet (Catoptrophorus semipal-
matus inornatus).
Upland plover (Bartramia longicauda).
Spotted sandpiper (Actitis macularia).
Long-billed curlew (Nunmenius america-
nus).
Killdeer (Oryechus vociferus).
Piping plover (Lgialitis midoda).
Black oyster-catcher (Hrmatopus bach-
mani).





NORTH AMERICAN SHOBEBIRDS.


SPECIEs THAT DO NOT BREED NORTH OF THm UNITrD STATES, WIw
LmrIT oP BREEDING RANGE.


Black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexica-
nus), Oregon.
Snowy plover (Sqialitis nivosa), Nevada.
Wilson $lqver (Ochthodromus wilsonius),
Virginia.
Mountain plover (Podasocys montanuw),
Montana.


... : .i .L i,F ....
Oyster-catcher (H a0topuus
South Carolina. .: ...
Frazar oyster-catcher (H .uaebp. .
)an), California. :. ..
Mexican jacana (Jacana .pvrw..'.
,- *m :.-


SPECIES THAT BREED CHIEFLY NORTH'O0 THE ARCTIC CIrCLE, wrI THE Nc


MOST LATITUDE AT WHIrCH THE SPECIES
HEMISPHERE.
Red phalarope (Phalaropus fuliwarius),
82.
Northern phalarope (Lobipes lobatus), 74.
Long-billed dowitcher (Macrorhamphus
griseus scolopaceus), 71.
Stilt sandpiper (Micropalama himnanto-
pus), 69.
Knot (Tringa canutus), 83.
Purple sandpiper (Arquatella maritima),
74.
Pectoral sandpiper (Pisbbia maculata),
71.
White-rumped sandpiper (Pisobia fusdci-
collis), 69.
Baird sandpiper (Pisobia bairdi), 71.
Least sandpiper (Pisobia minutilla), 70.
Red-backed sandpiper (Pelidna alpina
sakhalina), 72.
Semipalmated sandpiper (Ereunetes pusil-
lus), 71.


HAS BEEN OBSERVED IN TUB I


Sanderling (Calidris leuwphmi), 82? ."
Hudsonian godwit (Limosa NmCOi":
690.
Buff-breasted sandpiper (Thjngito xwsaubn
ficollis), 71. *
Hudsonian curlew (Numenius hwtswi 1
cus), 69. :
Eskimo curlew (Numenius borealis), I
Black-bellied plover (Squaatrola swui-,
rota), 71.
Golden plover (Charadrius domvnis)
77. ,
Pacific golden plover (Choadrius dmnipf-
cusfulvus), 65.
Semipalmated plover (tgialitis semipal-
mata), 75.
Ringed plover (Egialitis hiaticula), 78, .
Turnstone (Arenaria interpret), 83.. .
Ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres vwsi-
nella), 74.


SPECIES THAT BREED IN BOTH EASTERN AND WESTERN HEXISPHERUS.


Red phalarope (Phalaropus fulicarius).
Northern phalarope (Lobipes lobatus).
Knot (Tringa canutus).
Purple sandpiper (Arquatella maritima).
Sanderling (Calidris leucophea).
Pacific godwit (Limosa lapponica baueri).


Black-bellied plover (Squatarola squta-
rola). :.
Pacific golden plover (Charadrius dosis-.
cuefulvuw).
Ringed plover (sgialitis hiaticula).
Turnmstone (Arenaria interpret).


SPECIES THAT WINTER IN THE UNITED STATES AND SOUTHWARD.


Avocet (Recurtirostra americana).
Black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexi-
canus).
Woodcock (Philohela minor).
Wilson snipe (Gallinago delicate).
Dowitcher (Macrorhamphus griseus).
Long-billed dowitcher (Macrorhamphus
griseus scolopaceus).
Purple sandpiper (Arquatella maritima).
Least sandpiper (Pisobia minutilla).
Red-backed sandpiper (Pelidna alpina
sakhalina).
Semipalmated sandpiper (Ereunetes pusil-
tus.)
Western sandpiper (Ereunetes mauri).
Sanderling (Calidris leucophea).
Marbled godwit (Limnosafedoa).
Greater yellow-legs (Totanus mnelano-
leucus.)
Yellow-legs (Totanusflavipes).
Western willet (Catoptrophorus semipal-
matus inornatus).


Spotted sandpiper (Atitis mtnuzaria).
Long-billed curlew (Numenius amasi-
canus).
Black-bellied plover (Squatarola squatr-.:
arola).
Killdeer (OxyechAus vocferus).
Semipabnlmated plover (&Jgialitis semipal-
mata).
Piping plover (Egialitis meloda).
Snowy plover (4Egialitis nivosa).
Wilson plover (0hthodromu wilsonius).
Mountain plover (Podasocys montenus).
Ruddy turnstone (Arenari inteprea
morinella).
Black turnstone (Arenaria melanocephala).
Oyster-catcher (Hrmatopus palliatus).
Frazar oyster-catcher (Hainmatopus fr-
zari).
Black oyster-catcher (Hzmatopus back-
mani).
Mexican jacana (Jacana spinosa).




DISTRIBUTION.


SPnCIzS THAT Io mOT WINTrRi NORTH orO SOtr AMBERICA.


Red phalarope (Phalaropus fulicarius).
.Nothern phaidrope (Lobipe, iobaltu).
Wilsllonhlarope (St"gan7pus tricolor).
Stilt andpi per( Micropala ah im natopus).
SKnot(Trnae canutus).
I: Pectoral sandpiper (Pisobit inuerulata ).
SWhite-rumped sandpiper (Pisobia fusri-
oUie).
Baird sandpiper (Pisobia bairdi}.
Hudaonian godwit (Limosa hrniamstica).


Solitary sand pi per (lfelodromas solitarius j
Wttttrn military sandpilper (llelodromas
sol i tanri us in naninntru Il.
Upland plover (iBartrnania longicauda).
Buff-bri.nsttd sandpiper (Tryngites sub-
ruficofliz .
Eskimo curlew (Numrn inus borralis).
goldenn plover (C'haradrius domintirus).
Surf bird (Aphriza rirgalat.


The three following species winter in the West Indies or central l
America and southward, but are not found at this season in the United
States: Willet ((Catoptrophorus semi falmalutus), wandering tat tier (leter-
actitis incanus), and Iludsonian curlew (Nunu mnius hudxsnicus). The
purple sandpiper (Arguatella maritime) remains in winter as far north
as Greenland and does not range south of tlhe United States; while
the Aleutian sandpiper (Arquatelhla miariUima couei) and the Pribilof
sandpiper (Arguatella maritima ptilocnenmis) do not occur in winter
south of Alaska.

SnPCIs8 THAT RANGE SOUTH IN WINTER TO SOUTH AMERICA, WITH THE SOUTHERN
LIMIT OF THE WINTER RANGE.


Red phalarope (Phalaropus fulicarius),
Falkland Islands.
Northern pbalarope (Lobipes lobatus),
Peru and probably farther.
Wilson phalarope (Steganopus tricolor),
Falkland Islands.
Black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexi-
Scantus), Peru.
Dowitcher (Macrorha mphus griseus),
Brazil.
Long-billed dowitcher (Macrorhamphus
iseus scolopaceua), probably Peru.
Stilt sandpiper (Micropalama himanto-
pus), Uruguay.
Knot (TriWnga canutus), Tierra del Fuego.
Pectoral sandpiper (Pisobia maculata),
Argentina.
White-rumped sandpiper (Pisobia fusci-
collie), Tierra del Fuego.
Baird sandpiper (Pisobia bairdi), Chile.
Least sandpiper (Pisobia minutilla),
Chile.
Semipalmated sandpiper (Ereunetes pusil-
lus), Patagonia.
Western sandpiper (Ereunetes mauri),
Venezuela.
Sanderling (Calidris leucophza), Argen-
tina.
Huds-onian godwit (Limosa hzrmastica.,
Strait of Magellan.
Greater yellow-legs (Tetanus melanoleu-
cus), Strait of Magellan.


Yellow-legs (Totanus flaripes), Strait of
Magellan.
Soli tary sand piper (Ilelodromas solitarius),
Argentina.
Western solitary sandpiper (Helodromas
solitarius cinnamomeus), not known.
Willet (Catoptrophorus semipalmatus),
Peru.
Upland plover (Bartramia longicauda),
Argentina.
Buff-breasted sandpiper (Tryngites sub-
ruJficollis), Argentina.
Spotted sandpiper (Actitis macularia),
Peru.
Hudsonian curlew (Numnenius hudsoni-
cus), Chile.
Eskimo curlew (Niumenius borealis), Pata-
gonia.
Black-bellied plover (Squatarola squa-
tarola), Peru.
Golden plover (Charadrius dominicus),
Argentina.
Semipalmated plover (QEgialitis semipal-
mata), Argentina.
Snowy plover (.Egialitis nirosa), Chile.
Surf bird (Aphriza rirgata), Chile.
Ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres mo-
rinila). Chile.
Oyster-catcher (flrmatopus paUiatus),
Chile.


.. ...... .. ....




.. .. :;.. .:;.! i
10 NORTH AMERICAW SHOREBIRDS. I

SPECIES THAT Occum IN THE UrrNITED STATES ONLY AS MGn3ANS, BnmnUNO ...
FAR NORTH AND WINTERING TO THE SOUTHWARD.
*' ...,*.,..*,....J : :. .!:;,: .,', 1
Red phalarope (Palaropus fulicarius). Hudsonian godwit (Limoaskniu:t
Northern phalarope (Lobipes lobatus). Buff-breasted sandpiper (ThMn:g*9
Stilt sandpiper (Micropalamahimantopus). rqficolli).,;:. i".,
Knot (7Wnga canutus). Hudsonian curlew (Numenfiw Mf .
Pectoral sandpiper (Pisobia maculata). cus). : I
White-rumped sandpiper (Pisobia fusci- Eskimo curlew (Numenius bore ).. .,)i
collis). Golden plover (Charadrius dominia.4
Baird sandpiper (Pisobia bairdi). Surf bird (Aphriza virgata). ;
. ,.. :' ? -
SUMMARY.
Species that do not breed north of the United States ......................... 7
Species breeding in the United States and Canada ..............-............. 15
Total species breeding in the United States ...............................-..-.:
Species breeding wholly north of the United States ...........................
Species breeding north of and wintering in the United States ................. 5
Species breeding or wintering in the United States ........................... IV
Species occurring in the United States as migrants only ..................... 13.
Total species occurring in the United States................................ 50'
Species occurring regularly in Arctic America, but not in the United Statet... 8
Total species occurring regularly in North America north of Mexico ........... -- 5
European species straggling to Greenland ................................... .5
Eastern Hemisphere species straggling to North America -..-------..--------......... .
Southern species not ranging north to the United States ..................... ,7
Total species and subspecies in North America..............................
MIGRATION. I
The shorebirds as a group are among the most wide ranging of
migrants. While a few, for example the jacanas, do not migrate at':
all, most shorebirds migrate more than a thousand miles each season:::'
and many lengthen'-their journeys to 7,000 miles. The most wondme:rqy
ful feature of their migration is the enormous distance covered in a,
single flight. As explained in the account of the golden plover, mah:j...
flocks of plover fly without resting from Nova Scotia to northern.
South America, a distance of about 2,500 miles. Many individual
of other species perform the same flight, notably the Eskimo curlewj:
while in the case of the Hudsonian godwit and the upland plovWr
the principal place of departure in fall migration is the coast of thA
United States north of Virginia, and many of the flocks make stop9
in the Lesser Antilles on their way to South America. :
That the same route is employed by other species is shown by th.
large number of shorebirds annually visiting the Bermudas. Thn
islands lie about 800 miles off the coast of South Carolina and 1
in a nearly direct line from southern Nova Scotia to the Lesser Anti
Years ago, when shorebirds were far more numerous than now, mart
flocks stopped at the Bermudas in fall migration. The most co
species were the pectoral, white-rumped, least, and se pam atha
sandpipers, the sanderling, greater yellow-legs, lesser yellow ...
solitary sandpiper, spotted sandpiper, Hudsonian curlew, semipAIl
mated plover, turnstone, and Wilson snipe. All of these came i.t
sufficient numbers to show that their visits were not accidental, a4;.|
evidently they had merely paused a few days on their journey to t'beij
Lesser Antilles. The killdeer appeared regularly in November a





MIGRATION.


remained through the winter, but since this species scarcely goes
north of New England, the individuals wintering on the Bermudas
must have visited the islands for the purpose of remaining there
through the cold season. Specimens of eleven other species of shore-
birds have been taken in the Bermudas. They are less common vis-
itorsm, and most of these individuals were probably on their way across
the ocean to the Lesser Antilles.
This route, however, is not followed by these species in their return
in the spring, and there seems to be no evidence as yet that any
species of shorebird migrates regularly in the spring across the ocean
from the Lesser Antilles to the coast of New England or to eastern
Canada. Indeed, shorebirds migrating north in spring through the
Lesser Antilles are almost unknown.
Along the Atlantic coast shorebirds are many times more numerous
in fall than in spring, while in the Mississippi Valley there is no such
pronounced difference of numbers at the two seasons. This fact,
taken in connection with the rarity of all species of shorebirds during
the spring migration in the West Indies, where they are abundant fall
visitors, seems to indicate that in the case of most of the species of
shorebirds that migrate south in fall along the Atlantic coast some
individuals pass northward in spring by way of the Mississippi Val-
ley. The Eskimo curlew used to follow this route, as still do most
of the golden plover. The statement applies also largely to the
long-billed dowitcher, stilt, white-rumped, and semipalmated sand-
pipers, and the lesser yellow-legs. This elliptical migration route
is in the case of most species not less than 6,000 miles in its north and
south diameter, nor less than 2,000 miles east and west, while the
winter home of the white-rumped sandpiper is 9,000 miles from its
breeding grounds.
The Hawaiian Islands lie in the Pacific Ocean 2,000 miles from the
nearest mainland to the eastward and more than 3,000 miles from the
Asiatic coast. The nearest point of Alaska is about 2,000 miles north.
Five species of shorebirds that summer in Alaska are found in the
Hawaiian Islands during the winter season. They are the turnstone,
Pacific golden plover, sanderling, bristle-thighed curlew, and wander-
ing tattler. There is every reason to believe that these Hawaiian
birds come from Alaska and that they make the 2,000-mile trip at a
single flight. All of these species occur farther south in Oceania,
but there seems to be no evidence that any of them use the Hawaiian
SIslands as a stopping place on the way to a more southern home. Ap-
parently all the birds that fly to the Hawaiian Islands remain there
through the winter, while the southern islands of Oceania are popu-
lated by individuals that have migrated along the Asiatic coast.
It is remarkable that in the case of both the turnstone and the
plover the first individuals to arrive on the Hawaiian Islands in
.the fall are in good condition or even fat, while the curlew and plover





12 NORTH AMERICAN SHOBEBIRDB.
that reach the Lesser Antilles by a long flight over the AtlautiWill
are reported as emaciated. 1:.:. 5b
Shorebirds present some idiosyncrasies of migration that arm n rk
of mention. The sharp-tailed sandpiper (Pisobia ai).ta) i
on the northern coast of Siberia, and in fall migration crouS"it
Alaska and then back again to Asia and by way of Japau andr O t
reaches its winter home in Australia. The most eastern point dii m |
range in Alaska-Norton Sound-is. some 500 miles east of its .eBI |
home in Siberia. As the species is not known in Alaska in spiinj.
its migration route is probably elliptical, and the northern ou."
in spring is probably across the mainland of Asia. ..
Some individuals of the marbled godwit (Limosa fedoa) have :.U.
unique migration route. From their breeding grounds min North
Dakota and Saskatchewan some of these birds formerly migrated
almost directly east more than a thousand miles to the Atlantic
coast, while others traveled a thousand miles due west to the oa4
of southern Alaska.
Some birds breed in the Western Hemisphere and winter in t .|
Eastern. For example, the Pacific godwit (Limosa lapponica baueri)
breeds on the western shores of Alaska, whence it passes by way of tthe
Commander Islands, Japan, and China to its winter home in Australia.*
The bristle-thighed curlew (Numenius tahitiensis) follows a somewhi
similar route. The wandering tattler (Heteractitis incanws) breed'
in Alaska and some individuals pass in fall migration to Asia, Hawaii,,|
and Oceania, while others continue down the American coast to tbi.
Galapagos. :i.
'A long migration route from the eastern side of North America a.i
followed by the ringed plover (XEgialitis hiaticula). Some individuals
breed in Greenland and still farther west in Ellesmere Land and'`j
about Cumberland Sound, whence they pass east and southeast: te:
the European coast and winter from the Mediterranean to southernif
Africa.
Both these last routes are used by the turnstone (Arenaria inta::i
pres). The individuals that breed in Greenland and Ellesmere Landi
migrate southeast to Europe and Africa, while those that breed :.I1
Alaska, even as far east as Point Barrow, migrate to the west an('I
southwest to winter in Asia and Oceania. "l
Another migration route, probably unique, is that taken by theLi
considerable numbers of the mountain plover (Podasocys moniasu 4,
that winter in the Sacramento Valley and elsewhere in California,
The farthest west and north that the species is known to breed i
Montana; hence whether the California wintering birds come froI
Montana or from the more southern districts, they apparently fo ..
an exception to the general rule that North American birds do tiio
winter farther west than they breed.
Though many of the shorebirds breeding in North America wii-.'.
in the southern part of South America, none of them breed in ...Vii




MIGRATION.


18


winter home. Special attention needs to be called to this fact,
because nearly a dozen species of this famnily---among which may be
noted particularly the greater and lesser yellow-legs and the white-
rumped sandpiper-have been reported as breeding near the southern
end of South America. In no case has it been claimed that the eggs
have been found, and all the records are based on the finding of
young not fully grown or in most cases simply from the presence of
individuals during the usual breeding season of local species. This
latter reason is not even presumptive of breeding. Nearly a hun-
dred species of North American birds escape the winter of the North-
ern Hemisphere by visiting South America, and they remain there
through what is the breeding season of the resident species, but do
not themselves undertake any household cares. It may be stated
positively that none of the Limicole that breed north of the equator
breed also in the southern part of their range.
SPECaS THAT ARE REGULAR MIGRANTS SPRING AND FALL ON THE ATLANTIC AND
THE PACIFIC COASTS AND IN THE INTERIOR.
American avocet (Recurvirostra ameri- Spotted sandpiper (Actitis macularia).
aoma). Black-bellied plover (Squatarola squata-
Wilson snipe (Gallinago delicate). rola).
Least sandpiper (Pisobia minulilla). Killdeer (Oxyechus vociferus).
Greater yellow-legs (Tolanus melanoleu- Semipalmated plover (Eqialitis semipal-
csa). mata).
SPZECIEz8 THAT ARE REGULAR MIGRANTS SPRING AND FALL ON BOTH THE ATLANTIC
AND THE PACIFIC COASTS, BUT ARE RARE OR WANTING IN THE INTERIOR.
Red phalarope (Phalaropusfulicarius). Hudsonian curlew (Numenius hudsoni-
Northern phalarope (Lobipes lobatus). cus).
Red-backed sandpiper (Pelidna alpina Ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres
sakhalina). morinella).
Sanderling (Calidris leuoophza).
SPECIES THAT ARE REGULAR MIGRANTS SPRING AND FALL ON THE ATLANTIC COAST
AND IN THE INTERIOR, BUT ARE RARE OR WANTING ON THE PACIFIC COAST.
Woodcock (Philohela minor). Solitary sandpiper (Helodromas solita-
Knot (Tringa canutus). rius).
Pectoral sandpiper (Pisobia maculata). Piping plover (XEgialitis mneloda).
SPECIES THAT ARE REGULAR MIGRANTS SPRING AND FALL ON THE PACIFIC COAST AND
IN THE INTERIOR, BUT ARE RARE OR WANTING ON THE ATLANTIC COAST.
Wilson phalarope (Steganopus tricolor). Long-billed curlew (Numenius ameri-
Long-billed dowitcher (Macrorhamphus canus).
griseus scolopaceus).
Western willet (Catoptrophorus semipal-
matus inornatus).
SPECIES THAT OCCUR IN MIGRATION PRINCIPALLY ON THE PACIFIC COAST.
Black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexica- Snowy plover (Eqialitis nivosa).
nus). Surf bird (Aphriza rirgata).
Western sandpiper (Ereunetes mauri). Black turnstone (Arenaria melanocephala.
SWestern solitary sandpiper (Helodromas Black oyster-catcher (Hrmatopus back-
solriWius cinnamomeus ). mani).
Wandering tattler (Heteractitis incanus).
WESTERN SPECIES THAT COME EAST IN MIGRATION TO THE ATLANTIC COAST.
Wilson phalarope (Steganopus tricolor). Baird sandpiper (Pisobia bairdi).
Long-billed dowitcher (Macrorhamphus Western sandpiper (Ereunetes mauri).
gieu s8colopaceus).




-a
14 NORTH AIEBIC4A RHOREBIED. .

The data on the breeding and wintering of the shwmsbir4
been collated from all available printed soures, from tb a..
reports of the field naturalists of the Biological Surrey, :sadi;ta...if.
specimens and catalogues of the United States Nai.nal M .m
The dates of migration have been obtained prJinipallyii 1A. .
migration schedules sent in by the several hundred obsee &M
the United States and Canada, who for a quarter of a., sut
have contributed to the Biological Survey spring and fall umskipsr t
their observations. It is a pleasure to testify to the earnest s .d'.eiW
scientious efforts these observers have put forth for the. solvingiMf
some of the phases of Nature's great migration probma t
return thanks to them for their painstaking labors. .
NORTH AMERICAN SHOREBIRDS.
.. t .,*,; ,;, :
Red Phalarope. Phalaroptufulicarius (Linn.). ,...: :
Breeding range.-The summer home of the red phidarope lis
circumpolar, and the species is known at this season from the whole
northern coast and islands of America, Europe, and Asia, except a
few regions, the most notable of which is the eastern coast of Oim*-
land. It has been known to breed south to St. Michael, A1a ,
63 N. (Nelson); to Cape Eskimo, west coast of Hudson Bay, 61P N.
(Preble); Hudson Strait, 62 N. (Turner); and to the south end of
Greenland, 60 N. (Schalow). It has been noted north to 8.3 N.,
north of Spitzbergen (Sverdrup); 82 30' N. on Ellesmere IlJan
(Feilden); Melville Island, 74 30' N. (Parry); and Point BSaow,
710 N. (Murdoch). It is especially abundant as a breeder alopg the
coast and islands of Arctic America.
Winter range.-The Old World winter home of the species extends
south to Morocco, India, China, and New Zealand. Knowledge .of
the winter range in the Western Hemisphere is very meager. Tbe
species has been noted in the extreme southern parts of South
America on the Falkland Islands (Schalow), and Juan Femandez
(Sharpe); in November, when it may have been migrating, at
Coquimbo, northern Chile (Salvin); on December 5 in Chile, "c:ty
not designated (Sharpe); specimens are recorded from Argentina an4
Colombia (Sharpe), without date or locality. The lack of records for:
this species is remarkable. There seem to be no records whatever for
the West Indies nor for the whole of middle America, ecept tM
western coast of Lower California, where the species is ordinarily ;
rare spring and fall migrant, but occasionally is seen in large Ooo
(Kaeding). Stragglers have been noted at Mount Pleasant, 8. #-.:
December 4, 1900 (Wayne); on the coast of northern Lower Cal-
fornia, February 21 (Belding); and occasionally in winter at :San
Diego, Calif. (McGregor). ....
...... .....




RED PHALAROPE.


Migration range.- Enormous flocks of the red lphalarope have been
Noted on the Atlantic Ocean during both spring and fall migration.
These flocks are common and regular around Newfoundland; become
less common southward off the coast of Maine; and are rare off the
coast of Massachusetts, except when driven inshore by storms. The
nd phalarope swims as lightly and easily as any d(ick, andI during
migration has been noted repeatedly gathering its food from the
surface of the ocean. Indeed, it seems to have an aversion to land
except during the breeding season. The migration route by which
these flocks of red phalarope pass south after they leave Massa-
chusetts is unknown. The species is known only as a rare straggler
on the coast of the United States south of Long Island, and as
already remarked is not recorded from the West Indies nor from the
east coast of South America north of Argentina. On the Pacific
coast the species is an abundant breeder in Alaska, and .the flocks
pass along the coast of California both spring and fall, after which
they can no longer be traced. A few occur on the coast of Lower
SCalifornia, and the species is a rare straggler to the coast of Chile.
The principal winter home of the thousands of birds reared each
season in arctic America remains yet to be determined.
The red phalarope occurs as a rare straggler in the interior of the
United States in migration, and has been recorded from Illinois,
Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, Ontario, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Kansas,
and Wyoming. The first and only record for Colorado is that of a
single specimen taken by Edward A. Preble, of the Biological Survey,
July 25, 1895, near Loveland.
Spring migration.-Some early flocks appeared off the coast of
North Carolina the first week in April, 1896 (Thayer); most of the
migration on the coast of Massachusetts occurs during May, especially
May 20-30; the first appeared June 2, 1820, on Melville Island, lati-
tude 74 N. (Parry), and June 3, 1852 (Armstrong), near the same
locality; on June 18, 1883, the first was seen at Fort Conger, Elles-
mere Island, latitude 81 40' N. (Greely); and on June 20, 1876,
the species appeared 1 degree farther north on the same island
(Feilden). Even considering the 1st of May as the time of arrival
on the Massachusetts coast, which is probably too early, there are
left only fifty days for the 3,000-mile trip from Massachusetts to
Ellesmere Island, an average rate of migration of 60 miles per day,
which is exceeded by very few species. In spring migration the red
phalarope has been noted on the coast of California from April 3 to
June 3 (Kaeding), and reached Point Barrow, Alaska, June 4, 1882,
and May 30, 1883 (Murdoch).
Eggs have been taken in Greenland June 3-28 (Hagerup); near
Fort Anderson June 27 (MacFarlane); and at St. Michael June 8
(Nelson).




NORTH AMERICAN SHOREBIRDS.


Fall migration.-The earliest fall birds are seen on th (itt ijt
California during July (Loomis); the larger flocks begin to a
in August and pass south for the next three months. The't
at Point Barrow, in 1882, was on October 10 (Murdoch). Thei .'..:..
was abundant off the coast of MassacBusetts August 4, 187l(aw
i .. '*" ..i
lien); and has been noted on Long Island to the third *9:eV'
November (Braislin). Lm
Northern Phalarope. Lobipes lobatus (Linn.). .
Breeding range.-The northern phalarope breeds in the ar .
region of both hemispheres, but does not go quite so far north as. th
last species. It ranges from the Chuckchi Peninsula of Siberia a i- 0
ward across the whole arctic coast of America to the eastern coast of
Greenland. It breeds north to Upernivik, Greenland, 73 N. (Rum-
lien); Melville Island, 74 N. (Walker); Point Barrow, Alaska, 71*
N. (Murdbch); and Wrangel Island, Siberia, 72 N. (Nelson). Thp
main breeding ground lies farther south on the mainland of North
America, especially in northern Mackenzie and western Alaska. It
breeds south to Ungava Bay, about 59 N. (Turner); near .Rupe4
House, Ontario (Drexler); to near York Factory, Keewatin, 57 N.
(Preble); Fort Anderson, Mackenzie, 68 35' N. (MacFarlane); Pasto-
lik, in the delta of the Yukon, Alaska, 63 N. (Dall and Bannister);
and to Kiska Island, near the west end of the Aleutians, 52 N, (Dall).
In the Eastern Hemisphere it is an abundant breeder from the limit
of tree growth to the Arctic coast, and in eastern Siberiaboccasionally
south to latitude 55.
Winter range.-The winter home of the great flocks of northern
phalaropes that breed in arctic America is unknown. The European
and Siberian birds winter on the coast of Europe and south to Peraja,
India, China, and the Malay Archipelago. For the whole of th
Atlantic coast of both North and South America there is not a single
winter record. A solitary bird was noted at Tumbez, Peru, January
28 (Taczanowski); and the species has been recorded from Chorillos,
Peru, without date (Berlepsch and Stolzmann). These are the only
certain records for the whole of South America. This lack of winter
land records suggests the possibility that both this species and the
red phalarope spend the winter in midocean feeding and sleeping on
the surface of the water.
Migration range.-The northern phalarope comes south along the
eastern coast of North America, and is seen commonly as far south
as Nova Scotia. The flocks seem normally to strike south from
Nova Scotia into midocean, but occasionally they are driven west-
ward by storms and appear on the New England coast, sometimes
by thousands. The birds are not rare south to Long Island, but
farther south can be considered hardly more than stragglers, though
recorded to South Carolina (Loomis).


16




NORTHERN PHALAROPE. 17

The northern phalarope is a regular though not common migrant
ughout the interior of the United States, and has been recorded
0b almost every State north of the Ohio River and south to Kansas
Bw) and New Mexico (Henry). There is no record as yet for any
the Gulf States. The species is a common migrant on thle Pacific
t of America, and is sometimes abundant south to the coast of
otra California. Farther south it is less common, though recorded
t=m San Jose, Lower California, in the fall (Brewster), and from
the west coast of Mexico in the spring (Nelson). The few noted at
Duenas, Guatemala, in August and September (Salvin), and those
at Desamparados, Costa Rica (Salvin and Godman), complete the
record for Central America.
Spring migration.-The northern phalarope was noted in the
Bermudas March 21-22, 1848 (Hurdis), and March 8, 1852 (Reid).
This is almost two months earlier than the species usually appears
on the New England and Long Island coasts. Six years' observa-
tions at Montauk Point Light gives May 13 as the mean date of spring
arrival-earliest, April 30, 1898 (Scott). Almost all the dates for
the coast of Massachusetts are in May. The species arrives at the
northern limit of its range about the middle of June. Some late
records on the Atlantic coast are: Near Charleston, S. C., June 3,
1903 (Wayne); Montauk Point, New York, June 3, 1894 (Scott);
on the coast of Maine to the middle of June (Job).
The northern phalarope was common at Sihuatanejo, on the
western coast of Mexico, April 9, 1903 (Nelson); it usually appears
on the coast of California in early May, reaches the mouth of the
Yukon the middle of May, and was noted in the Kowak Valley,
Alaska, May 22, 1899 (Grinnell); Point Barrow, June 11, 1883
(Murdoch), and June 15, 1898 (Stone); Walker Bay, Prince Albert
Land, June 15, 1852 (Greely). Individuals are occasionally seen
on the California coast in summer, but these are nonbreeders.
Eggs have been taken near Rupert House, Ontario, June 18, 1860
(Drexler); near Fort Anderson, June 16, 1862 (MacFarlane); at
Kiska Island, Aleutians, June 30, 1873 (Dall); St. Michael, Alaska,
June 1-20 (Nelson); and Kowak Valley, Alaska, June 28, 1898
(Grinnell).
Fal migration.-Returning migrants appear on the coast of central
California less than six weeks after the northbound flocks disappear,
and are common by the end of July. The great flocks pass during
August, are less common in September, and cease in October-latest,
Monterey, October24, 1896 (Loomis). The average date of fall arrival
at Montauk Point, New York, is August 28-earliest, August 5, 1803,
latest, October 22, 1888 (Scott). The last one noted at Point Barrow
was seen August 17, 1898 (Stone), and the species usually disappears
from the mouth of the Yukon the last of September.
52928-Bull. 35-10----2




NORTH AMERICAN SHOREBIRDS.


Records of migration in the interior of North Aerica ,
numerous. In southwestern Saskatchewan the fall migration pt
July 13, 1906, with the arrival of a large flock, and a few daqs
the birds were abundant. This is only four weeks lateiz tbhiq
~. . "". i .N'* y
departure of the northbound migrants, which had been seq i4 i
vicinity in 1905 from May 29 to June 15, and the following ypi,
late as June 14 (Bent). A remarkable flight of northern ph:pe
occurred near Terry, Mont., in 1899; during the last ten day0if fIq;
the birds were exceedingly abundant (Cameron). .....'
Wilson Phalarope. Steganopus tricolor Vieill. :
Breeding range.-The northern Mississippi Valley and the adjacent
parts of Canada form the principal summer home of the Wilson
phalarope. It breeds regularly as far east as northwestern Indiana
(Lake County; Butler) and the islands near Green Bay shomG
(Schoenebeck). Macoun records that a pair nested at Dmrvill,
Ontario, near the northeastern shore of Lake Erie. Thence the
breeding range extends west through central Iowa (Newton; Preston)
and northern Colorado (Fort Collins; Cooke) to central California
(Lake Tahoe; Bliss; and Las Banos; Mailliard). Instead of pew
treating the Arctic regions, as do other phalaropes, this species finds
the northern limit of its range in northern Manitoba (Lake Winnipeg;
Thompson), central Saskatchewan (Osler; Colt), central A"lber
(Edmonton; Macoun), northern Washington (Cheney; Johnson),
and probably southern British Columbia.
Winter range.-The few winter records for this species come from
South America-frdm central Chile (Philippi) and central Argentina
(Durnford) south to Patagonia (Durnford) and the Falkaid
Island (Sclater). There is a single record in fall migration for western
Brazil (Pelzeln). and one in May for central Peru (Berlepsch and
Stolzmann). Three specimens were collected January 19, 1890, at
Corpus Christi, Tex. (Sennett), but these were apparently laggards,
for the species is not usually seen in Texas after September. .: :.
Migration range.-During the fall migration individuals wander
eastward to the Atlantic coast and have been noted from New Jesey
to Montreal. There is also one May record for Massachusetts (Baird,
Brewer, and Ridgway) and one June record for Maine (Smith). The
species seems to be unknown on the Atlantic coast between New
Jersey and Argentina. The principal summer home is in western
North America, and most of the species migrate south through
Mexico and along both Mexican coasts, and then apparently cross
directly to the west central coast of South America, since the species
is unknown in Central America east of Guatemala and in South
America north of Peru.
Spring migration.-The Wilson phalarope arrives in central Kansas
on the average April 27, earliest April 23, 1885 (Kellogg); northern


18




AVOCET.


*nolorado about May 1; Chicago, Ill., average May 6; lleron Lake,
., average May 11, earliest May 8, 1889 (Miller); Ilallock, Minn.,
lerMge May 14, earliest May 9, 1896 (Peabody); Reaburn, Manitoba,
imrage May 21, earliest May 16, 1898 (Wemyss); Osier, Saskatche-
Wwan, May 19, 1893 (Colt).
The earliest eggs in northern Iowa are deposited about May 20
iAnderson); eggs nearly hatched have been found in southern Sas-
katchewan June 7 (Macoun): young just hatching, June 16, at Lake
Tahoe, California (Bliss), and at the same stage June 22, at Fort
SKlamath, Oregon (Merrill).
Fall migration.-The Wilson phalarope moves southward so early
that most have left the breeding grounds soon after the middle of
August; the last seen at Lanesboro, Minn., in 1885, was on September
13 (Hvoslef). The species continues passing through Mexico until
October (Ferrari-Perez).
Avocet. Recurvirostra americana Gmel.
Breeding range.-The central western United States is the prin-
cipal summer home of the avocet, but its breeding range extends
north to central Wisconsin (Green Bay; Kumlien), southern Mani-
toba (Souris; Thompson), southern Saskatchewan (Osier; Colt),
southern Mackenzie (Fort Rae; Ross), and central Oregon (Haines;
Haines). It breeds south to northern Iowa (Hawarden; Anderson),
northwestern Texas (Oberholser), southeastern New Mexico (Carls-
bad; Bailey), and to Orange County, Calif. (Santa Ana; Grinnell).
SMany years ago this species was not rare on the Atlantic coast, and a
few are known to have nested at Egg Harbor, N. J. (Giraud). At
the present time it is a very rare visitor to any part of the Atlantic
coast, and has scarcely been seen in New Jersey for the last twenty
years. At various times in the past the avocet has been recorded
along the coast from Florida (Cory) to southern New Brunswick
(Chamberlain); one of the latest records is that of three birds seen
September 13, 1896, at Ipswich Neck, Mass. (Kennard), and a single
bird taken October 8, 1903, at St. Marys, Ga. (Arnow). The species
occurs in the interior east of the Mississippi River, as a rare visitor
from Louisiana (Audubon) to Ontario (Fleming), but is known to
breed only in Wisconsin.
Winter range.-The avocet winters abundantly on the coast of
Texas (Merrill) and in southern California (Newberry); sparingly
through Chihuahua and Lower California and thence south to Gua-
temala (Salvin). During migration it has wandered a few times to
Cuba (Gundlach), Jamaica (Gosse), and twice even to Barbados
(Feilden).
Spring migration.-The month of April is the time of most activity
in spring migration. By the latter part of this month the birds have
reached South Dakota, and their average date of arrival at Great


19




20 NORTH AMERICAN SHOREBIRDS.
''" E ;:" *-
Falls, Mont., is April 24 (Williams). They have even beem noi.oEb t
Salt Lake, Utah, as early as March (Baird), and at Ash MeshilW,|
Nev., March 15, 1891 (Fisher). They appeared April 28 190,at
Okanagan Landing, B. C. (Brooks), May 14, 1892, at Indian ,|
Saskatchewan (Macoun), and June 1, 1864, at Fort Resand,
Mackenzie (Preble). .
SEggs have been taken at Santa Ana, Calif., as early as Mayr3ad 3t
as late as July 6 (Grinnell); eggs nearly ready to hatch were fou-dat a
Hawarden, Iowa, June 2, 1900 (Anderson), and at Crane Lak,
Saskatchewan, June 9, 1894 (Macoun). ', "1.|
Fall migration.-The southward movement begins so early that by
the last of August the first migrants have reached southern Mexi qi
Individuals have been seen in Nebraska as late as October 27, 1809
(Wolcott), and at Salt Lake, Utah, until a month later. Other late
dates are: Cape Elizabeth, Me., November 5, 1878 (Brown); St.
Mary Reservoir, Ohio, November 10, 1882 (Dawson); Oberlin, Ohio,
November 4, 1907 (Jones); near New Orleans, La., November 12,
1889 (Beyer), and Johnsons Bayou, La., November 26, 1882 (speci-
men in United States National Museum).
Black-necked Stilt. Himantopus mexicanus (Mull.). :
Breeding range.-The black-necked stilt is one of the very few
shorebirds that breed in the United States and also in the Tropics.
The breeding range extends north to Florida (Scott), Louisiasa
(Beyer), Texas (Merrill), southern Colorado (Henshaw), northern
Utah (Allen), and central Oregon (Burns; Preble). More than half
a century ago the species nested on Egg Island in Delaware Bay
(Turnbull) and as late as 1881 still bred on the coast of South OCa-
olina (Wayne). At the present time the bird is unknown along the
whole Atlantic coast north of Florida, though formerly it has been
noted locally to northern New England, and in September, 1880, one
was seen at Mace Bay, New Brunswick (Chamberlain). In the interior
of the United States the species is recorded as a straggler north to
Ohio (Langdon), Michigan (Gibbs), Wisconsin (Hoy), Iowa (Rich), and
Nebraska (Bruner, Wolcott, and Swenk), but is not known to breed east
of the Rocky Mountains north of Texas. The southern limit of the
breeding range is not yet well known. The species is a tolerably com-
mon resident of the entire West Indies and the whole northern coast
of South America. It probably breeds south to central Peru and to
the Lower Amazon. It breeds on the islands off the coast of Yucatan
(Salvin), and probably on the coast of northeastern Mexico, and
south to southern New Mexico (Carlsbad; Bailey) and southern Cali-
fornia (Santa Ana; Grinnell). The early explorers of the West
recorded it north to the Columbia River, but there are no definite
breeding records so far north.
Winter range.-A few winter in southern Florida (Myers; Scott)
and on the coasts of Louisiana (Beyer) and Texas (Corpus Christi;





WOODCOCK.


rRhoads), and from southern Sinaloa (Mazatlani; Nelson) and south-
uem Lower California (La Paz; Ridgway), south throughout Central
SAmerica and the West Indies to central Peru (Santa Lucia; Tacza-
mowski) and the mouth of the Amazon (Sclater and Salvin). The
species winters on the Galapagos Islands, and possibly a few remain
to breed (Rothschild and Ilartert).
Spring migration.-The slight northward migratory movements of
this species occur principally in April. Some dates of arrival are:
Titusville, Fla., March 11, 1905 (Worthington); Sioux City, Iowa,
April 20,1902 (Rich); Omaha, Nebr., April 20,1895 (Bruner, Wolcott,
and Swenk); Escondido, Calif., April 13,1896, April 15,1897 (Hatch);
Fresno County, Calif., April 5, 1890 (Eaton); Stockton, Calif., April
13, 1878 (Belding).
Eggs have been taken in southern California from early May to
August, and at Salt Lake, Utah, May 22 (Ridgway). At Fort Gar-
land, Colo., the young were just hatched June 21, 1873 (Henshaw).
Fal migration.-The latest dates in Nebraska are in early October,
and the species has been noted at Riverdale, Calif., as late as Novem-
ber 19, 1891 (Eaton).
European Woodcock. Scolopax rwticola Linn.
The European woodcock is widely distributed in Europe and west-
ern Asia. It breeds in northern Europe and northern Asia from
beyond the Arctic Circle south to England, Silesia, the Alps, the
Himalayas, and the mountains of Japan; also on the Azores, Madeira
and Canary islands. It winters from the British Islands, southern
Europe and China, to northern Africa, India, and Formosa; it wanders
occasionally to eastern North America, and has occurred in Loudoun
County, Va., in 1873 (Coues); Chester County, Pa., the end of Novem-
ber, 1886 (Stone); one was taken near Shrewsbury, N. J., December
6, 1859 (Lawrence); one, September, 1889, somewhere in New Jersey
(Warren); one, probably of this species, near Newport, R. I. (Baird,
Brewer, and Ridgway); one at Chambly, Quebec, November 11, 1882
(Wintle); and one at St. John, Newfoundland, January 9, 1862
(Sclater).
Woodcock. Philohela minor (Grmel.).
Breeding range.-The woodcock breeds locally throughout most of
its range in the United States, at least south to Jacksonville, Fla.
(Brewster), the coast of Louisiana (Beyer), and to Neosho Falls, in
southern Kansas (Goss). It will probably be found breeding in some
of the bottomlands of eastern Oklahoma. The breeding range extends
northward to Pictou, Nova Scotia (McKinlay); Prince Edward Island
(Dwight); Chatham, New Brunswick (Baxter); the city of Quebec
(Dionne); Bracebridge, Ontario (Macoun); the northern peninsula
of Michigan, at Keweenaw Point (Kneeland); extreme northeastern
Minnesota, at Elbow Lake (Roberts and Benner); and to Winnipeg,


L~


21




.." .... .... .. .......... I
... .i .....
22 NORTH AMERICAN SHOREBIRDS.

Manitoba (Thompson). The species has wandered north to MOW
foundland (Bennett); was noted the end of August, 187W a b Yoi
Factory, Keewatin (Bell); and early in August, 1892, on Black R iv
Saskatchewan (Tyrrell), at latitude 59-the most northern and a
the most western record known. The woodcock has been seen sevonS
times in Colorado near Denver (Smith), though its regular ti
extends only to eastern South Dakota and eastern Kansas. % .
Winter range.-The woodcock remains in the north until driveM
away by frost, and the presence of unfrozen ground is the factor thai
determines the northern boundaries of its range through the wvirte
The larger part of the species winter in the Gulf States south at least
to southern Florida (Myers; Scott) and to southern Texas (Victoriaj
Mitchell), but in Texas the species is very rare. Few woodcock winter
north of latitude 370, but these few ara scattered at favorable local-
ities over a wide area north to Long Island (Giraud), Grafton, Mass
(Mackay), and Vincennes, Ind. (Balmer). Woodcock have been
taken several times in December at St. John, New Brunswick, but in
each case they proved to be wounded birds (Gilbert). The species
has been taken once in the Bermudas, in October, 1842 (Hurdis).
Spring migration.-Not only does the woodcock remain as far north
as possible through the winter, but it also pushes northward in spring
as soon as frost releases its feeding grounds. Average dates of spring
arrival are: Renovo, Pa., March 22, earliest March 13, 1897 (Pierce);:
Long Island, New York, March 15, earliest March 10, 1898; central
Connecticut, average of twelve years March 20, earliest February 24,
1891; eastern Massachusetts, average of eight years March 16, earli-
est February 22, 1902; southwestern Maine, March 29, earliest March
23, 1905; Halifax, Nova Scotia, March 25, earliest March 10, 1890
(Piers); St. John, New Brunswick, April 3, earliest March 21, 1898.
(Banks); Pictou, Nova Scotia, April 12, earliest April 6,1892 (McKin-
lay); city of Quebec, average of thirteen years April 17, earliest April 4,
1890 (Dionne); Hillsboro, Iowa, March 17, earliest March 15, 1898
(Savage); Waterloo, Ind., March 11, earliest March 1, 1906 (Link);.
Oberlin, Ohio, March 21, earliest March 10, 1902 (Jones); Petersburg,
Mich., March 17, earliest March 2, 1887 (Trombley); Chicago, Ill.,
March 26, earliest March 22, 1884 (Wentworth); southern Ontario,
April 2, earliest March 26, 1901; Ottawa, Ontario, May 1, earliest
April 20, 1890 (White); Quebec, Canada, earliest April 20, 1907
(Dionne).
One of the most pronounced peculiarities of the woodcock-is the
early date at which it breeds, especially in the Gulf States. Young-
a few days old were found January 29, 1890, at Covington, La. (Beyer),
which requires that the eggs should have been deposited in December.
Young a week old were noted at Jacksonville, Fla., March 10, 1877
(Brewster); young at Sourlake, Tex., March 22, 1905 (Gaut); young.

J





WIL80N SNIPE.


week old at Falls Church, Va., April 18, 1897 (Riley); young just
ed, Norwich, Conn., April 5, 1888 (Rawson) ; young just hatched,
ille, Indl., April 13, 1894 (Barnett); young, Oberlin, Ohio,
April 19, 1901 (Baird); while eggs have been taken at (Caper Island,
South Carolina, February 13, 1903 (Wayne); Raleigh, N. (C., March
O, 1892 (Brimley); Lower Cedar Point, Maryland, February 25,
1891 (Todd); Fallstown, Md., March 30, 1880 (Kirkwood); Law-
r-aceviie, N. J., March 14, 1889 (Phillips); Rockland, Me., April 26,
21886 (Norris); Wheatland, Ind., March 14, 1882 (Ridgway); and at
Vermilion, S. Dak., April 21, 1884 (Agersborg).
The average date of the last woodcock seen at Ottawa, Ontario, is
October 19, latest October 23, 1885 (White); average southern On-
tario October 21, latest November 6, 1889; usually leave Montreal,
Canada, about October 20, but were seen in 1880 to December 16
(Wintle); St. John, New Brunswick, average date of the last seen
November 10, latest November 13, 1888 (Banks); Halifax, Nova
Scotia, average November 6, latest December 4, 1895 (Piers); south-
western Maine, average of nine years October 22, latest November
23, 1900.
European Snipe. Gallinago gallinago (Linn.).
The European snipe is an Old World species breeding in Iceland
and throughout northern Europe and Siberia and south to the Alps,
southern Russia, and Turkestan. It winters south to northern
Africa and to China, Formosa, and the Philippines. It has been
taken twice in the Bermudas-December 24 and 29, 1847 (Reid),
and three times in Greenland-at Nanortalik, September 6, 1840;
at Fiskenaes, October, 1845, both on the west coast of Greenland
(Winge); and the third instance was May 29, 1902, at Angmagsalik,
on the eastern coast (Helms). A specimen in the British Museum
is marked as having come from Canada, but nothing is known of its
history.
Wilson Snipe. Gallinago delicate (Ord).
Breeding range.-The northern limit of the breeding range of the
Wilson snipe extends from Newfoundland (Reeks) and northern
Ungava (near Fort Chimo; Turner) to northern Mackenzie (Dease
River; H-anbury) and (Fort Anderson; MacFarlane), northern Yu-
kon (La Pierre House; Catalogue United States National Museum),
and northwestern Alaska (Kowak River; Grinnell), apparently fol-
lowing closely the limit of trees. Snipe have been noted a few times
on the west coast of Greenland (Winge), but there is nothing to
prove that they breed in that country. The species breeds south to
New Jersey (Trenton; Abbott), northern Indiana (Davis Station;
.Deane), northern Illinois (Waukegon; Nelson), northern Iowa;
(Union Slough, Kossuth County; Anderson), southern Coldrado
(San Juan County; Drew), northern Nevada (Ridgway), and north-
ern California (Eagle Lake; catalogue egg collection, United States
National Museum).


23




m.. .,. :. .:,,,
... ... ....... .. ..
24 NORTH AMERICAN SHOREBIRDS. "

Winter range.-During the winter season some Wilson an'ip isi
the United States and pass even to northern South America*e Va dil
east side to Rio Janeiro (Pelzein) and on the west to Meddllinj Qpozip
bia (Sclater and Salvin). A few winter in the Lesser Antillesn
many in Jamaica, Cuba, and the Bahamas. The species is. cowSwm
in Mexico and Guatemala, less common in the remainder of Central
America. A large part of the species winters in the southern United I
States, where it was formerly enormously abundant.. No at It
limit can be given to the northern range in winter. The' Wilasm.i
snipe can not live where the ground is frozen. Hence the nonai
northern winter limit would extend from North Carolina through
Arkansas to New Mexico and on the Pacific slope to northern Ca&i A
fornia. But many snipe pass the winter much north of the zone of "
frozen ground, feeding about streams or springs. A few can be found
almost every winter on Cape Cod, Massachusetts (Mackay), and a pair
were seen during January and February, 1896, as far north even as
Wolfville, Nova Scotia (Tufts). From the Mississippi Valley-snipe
are reported as wintering north to northern Illinois and northern
Nebraska (Bruner, Wolcott, and Swenk), while in the Rocky Moun-
tains of Colorado at 8,000 feet near Sweetwater Lake, the presence
of warm springs has enabled them to remain the entire winter,
though the air temperature fell to -30 F. (Gilmore). They have
been known also to winter in northern Montana (Coubeaux) and
northern Washington (Snyder). A few snipe appear almost every
fall in the Bermuda Islands (Jardine) and sometimes remain through
the winter, though usually they are rare in spring.
Spring migration.-A series of nearly twenty years of observations
near Alexandria, Va., gives the average date of arrival as March 8,
with the earliest February 17, 1897 (Greenwood); the species is
most common the last week in March. The average date of arrival
in central New Jersey is March 22, earliest March 4, 1877. Some
other dates of arrival are: Central Connecticut, average March 23,
earliest March 18, 1894; eastern Massachusetts, average April 2,
earliest March 21, 1887; southwestern Maine, average April 27,
earliest April 14, 1897; Scotch Lake, New Brunswick, earliest April
5, 1907 (Moore); Pictou, Nova Scotia, average April 19, earliest
April 11, 1889 (Mackinlay); city of Quebec, average April 23,
earliest April 18, 1899 (Dionne).
-The movements in the Mississippi Valley are at closely corre-
sponding dates: Central Missouri, average date of arrival March 13,
earliest February 17, 1897; Oberlin, Ohio, average March 28, earliest
March 19, 1897 (Jones); Chicago, Ill., average April 3, earliest
March 17, 1894 (Blackwelder); southern Michigan, average April 3,
earliest March 21, 1893; southern Ontario, average April 15, earliest
April 1, 1900; Ottawa, Ontario, average April 26, earliest April 12, 190Z .




WILSON SNIPE.


m te); Keokuk, Iowa, average March 23, earliest March 13, 1900
lm er); central Iowa, average March 22, earliest March 11, 1897;
thorn Wisconsin, average March 30, earliest March 18, 1894;
fn Lake, Minn., average April 5, earliest April 1, 1888 (Miller); cen-
SSouth Dakota, average April 11, earliest April 7, 189)0; Aweme,
_itoba, average April 24, earliest April IS, 1896 (Criddle); central
tans, average April 4, earliest Mlarh 27, 18S94; Rathdrum,
o, average April 14, earliest April S, 1899 (Danby); Okanagan
ding, British Columbia, April 8, 1907 (Brooks); Bulyea, Alberta,
ril 27, 1904 (Huck); near Fort Providence, Mackenzie, May 2,
9, and May 1, 1905 (Jones); Fort Simpson, Mackenzie, May 10,
|m (Preble); Nushagak, Alaska, April 25, 18S2 (McKay); Fort
niace, Yukon, May 2 (Sharpe); Fort Kenai, Alaska, May 5, 1869
(Bisehoff); Nulato, Alaska, May 21,1868 (Dall); Kowak River, Alaska,
ay 22, 1899 (Grinnell).
In southern Louisiana the average date of departure is April 19,
latest April 30, 1887; Raleigh, N. C., average April 26, latest
April 28, 1898 (Brimley); central Nebraska, average April 27, latest
May 18, 1899; Chicago, Ill., average May 4, latest May 6, 1904 (Dear-
born); Oberlin, Ohio, average May 5, latest May 16, 1904 (Jones).
'Some late dates of the last seen are: San Jose, Costa Rica, February
16, 1890 (Cherrie); Gainesville, Fla., April 15, 1887 (Chapman);
Lake Ellis, N. C., May 9,1906 (Brimley); Washington, D. C., May
4, 1900 (Preble); Bay St. Louis, Miss., May 10, 1902 (Allison); Dal-
las, Tex., May 1, 1898 (Mayer); Long Pine, Nebr., May 18, 1899
(Bates).
Eggs have been taken at Meadville, Pa., May 13, 1875 (Huidekoper);
young about two days old at Trenton, N. J., May 26, 1876 (Abbott);
eggs at Branchport, N. Y., May 20, 1896 (Stone); near Waukegan,
I1., April 24, 1896 (Deane); Davis Station, Ind., April 24, 1898
(Deane); Pewaukee, Wis., May 12, 1871 (Goss); Elk River, Minn.,
May 24, 1884 (Bailey); Minneapolis, Minn., May 14, 1887 (Cantwell);
American Fork, Utah, April 29 (Jolhnson); Fort Klamath, Oreg.,
May 20, 1883 (Bendire); Yukon River, Alaska, May 28, 1861; Fort
Resolution, Mackenzie, May 30, 1864 (Lockhart); Shumagin Islands,
Alaska, June, 1895 (Call).
Few of the shorebirds suffer so much from spring shooting as the
Wilson snipe. All winter long in the swamps of the southern States
it is persecuted by hunters, and as it moves northward it meets a
fusillade throughout its whole course. In the central parts of the
South shooting is at its height early in March, and just south of the
breeding range the bulk of the birds pass early in April.
FaUl migration.-July birds south of the breeding grounds are very
rare, though they have been noted at Bay St. Louis, Miss., on the
very early date of July 29, 1901 (Allison). Some dates of arrival


25




. .: ........:.. .. .. ... EE.
26 NORTH AMERICAN SHOREBIRDS.

in the fall are: Washington, D. C., August 30, 1894 (Richrond
Frogmore, S. C., September 16, 1885 (Hoxie); northern *IUAJJV
average September 26, earliest September 20, 1904 CWila|
southern Louisiana, average August 29, earliest August ., Ig dit
(Ballowe); Lincoln, Nebr., August 7, 1900 (Wolcott); San Bemiii
dino River, Sonora, August 19, 1893 (Mearns); San Jose delf'Ot Ib
Lower California, August 28, 1887 (Brewster); San Jose, Costt iiei3
October 9, 1889 (Cherrie;) Bermudas, September 13 (Reid); i
bados, West Indies, October 11, 1886 (Manning). The hunter neaw
Newport, R. I., secured scarcely a third as many snipe in the fall sU
in the spring-466 birds in the eight years; earliest July 30, 187Oi I
latest November 14, 1871. The average dates were August 19 toI
October 27 (Sturtevant).
Some dates of the last seen are: Near Jasper House, Alberta,
September 13, 1896 (Loring); Aweme, Manitoba, average October
11, latest November 7, 1907 (Griddle); Lanesboro, Minn., October
31, 1887 (Hvoslef); Keokuk, Iowa, average November 23, latest*
November 28, 1889 (Currier); Oberlin, Ohio, latest November 22,
1890 (Jones); Ottawa, Ontario, average November 2, latest Novem-
ber 18, 1900 (White); Chicago, ll., average October 31, latest
November 13, 1885 (Holmes); St. John, New Brunswick, November
5, 1889 (Banks); Halifax, Nova Scotia, average November 28,
latest December 3, 1894 (Piers); southwestern Maine, average Octo-
ber 21, latest November 8, 1873; Montreal, Canada, average October
30, latest November 13, 1897 (Wintle).
Great Snipe. Gallinago media (Latham). "
The great snipe is a species of wide distribution in the Eastern
Hemisphere. Its breeding range extends from the Scandinavian
Peninsula to the Yenisei River of Siberia and from Prussia north to
at least 71 north latitude. The winter home is from the Mediterra-
nean to South Africa, and during its migration the species occurs
from Great Britain to Persia.
The only record for the Western Hemisphere is that of a skin pre-
sented by the Hudson's Bay Company to the British Museum (Sharpe).
There is no reason for doubting that the specimen was taken in
Canada, but no definite locality can be assigned.
Dowitcher. Macrorhamphus griseus (Gmel.).
Breeding range.-The nest and eggs of the dowitcher are not yet
known to science, nor has the species been seen in summer at any
place where it was probably breeding. The dowitcher is a common;
migrant on the coasts of New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, andj
Massachusetts, and in fall is sometimes very abundant. Farther
north its numbers decrease: New Hampshire, tolerably common. .
fall, no spring records; Maine, tolerably common spring and fallj
Quebec, rare migrant; New Brunswick, no records; Nova Scotia
...." .. .. .. ..i





DOWITCHKR.


S(Sharpe); Prince Edward Island, once; Ungava, a few in
gut, 1860, at Henley Harbor (Coues), one June 10, 1863, at Fort
mo (Turner). North of Ungava, the only record is that of a
accidental occurrence at Fiskenaes, Greenland (Reinhardt).
tly the dowitcher does not breed in any numbers on the
e coast of Ungava. The probability that it does not breed
at all is strengthened by the fact that several first class observers,
during the fall migration were in thle Gulf of St. Lawrence, did
t see any of the birds. It undoubtedly does not go into north-
ftern Keewatin and the islands of the Province of Franklin, for it
Snot reported by the various expeditions that have traveled and
itered in those districts, while the specimens taken on the west
t of Hudson Bay belong to the form called scolopaceus. The
ay district left for the breeding ground is the interior of Ungava
d the eastern shore of Hudson Bay.
Winter range.-The dowitcher ranges south in winter through the
West Indies to the northern coast of South America and to the
Amazon River (Sharpe). It remains at least as far north as northern
Florida (Worthington) and probably a few as far west on the Gulf
eoast as Louisiana.
Spring migration.-The first one seen in 1890 at Darien, Ga., was
on -March 20 (Worthington); the average date of arrival on the
southern coast of South Carolina is March 23, earliest March 17,
1885 (Hoxie); central North Carolina, average April 30; Pea and
Bodie Islands, North Carolina, April 27, 1905 (Bishop); Long Beach,
New Jersey, May 13, 1877 (Scott).
The species is rare west of the Allegheny Mountains, but a few
specimens have been reported: Near Chicago, Ill., May 6, 1893
(Woodruff); Toronto, Ontario, not common May 16-31. This last
locality seems to be about as far west as the dowitcher occurs regu-
larly, though formerly it probably ranged west to Lake Michigan.
The species is not uncommon on the coast of Florida throughout
the summer, but the individuals remaining so far south do not
assume the breeding plumage (Scott). Migrants are common in
Florida until the last week in May, and on the coast farther north
the last leave for the breeding grounds about the first of June (Scott).
Fall migration.-The first migrants appear on the New England
coast early in July: Edgartown, Mass., July 4, 1891 (Worth); near
Newport, R. I., July 7, 1871 (Sturtevant); Long Beach, New Jersey,
July 6, 1877 (Scott); Bone Island, Virginia, July 14, 1880 (Ridgway);
Erie, Pa., July 19, 1892 (Todd); Pea and Bodie islands, North Caro-
lina, July 7, 1904 (Bishop); Barbados, West Indies, August 24, 1888
(Feilden). A market hunter near Newport, R. I., shot 1,058 dowitch-
era during 1867-1874-extreme dates July 7, 1871, and October 20,
1870, and average date of arrival July 17 (Sturtevant). Some dates


27





NORTH AMERICAN SHOREBIRDS.


of the last seen are: Henley Harbor, Ungava, August:l.:i
(Coues); Montreal, Canada, September 27, 1892 (Wintle); Tesuq
Ontario, September 15, 1889 (Fleming). t.
S"..i' ...,.,u
Long-billed Dowitcher. Macevrorhamphus griseus scolopaceus (B y. .. ...
Breeding range.-The long-billed dowitcher was found as a
common breeder in the Anderson River region, Mack6nenie(14c-
Farlane), and breeds thence west along the Arctic coast t', d:YI
Barrow, Alaska (Murdoch), though not commonly. It is an abt
dant breeder at the mouth of the Yukon and on the shores of N6rWI
Sound (Nelson). The species is known from the northern codat'6t
eastern Siberia (Palmen), but as yet has not been found there breeding
Winter range.-The principal winter home seems to be the shoid.
of the Gulf of Mexico; the species is common as far east as the Glf
coast of Florida (Scott), and a few pass on to Cuba (Lawrence). It
is common in Mexico and Guatemala, has been recorded as far soutith
as Costa Rica (Frantzius), and it is probably this form that occurs
in Panama (Lawrence).
Some form of the dowitcher occurs op the coast of Ecuador (NSO-
vadori and Festa) and in Peru as far south as Tumbez (Taczanowsld),
but whether the eastern or western form has not yet been ascertained.:
Migration range.-There is a decided easterly fall migration which
brings quite a number of long-billed dowitchers to the Atlantic coast
of the United States. They are fairly common from Long Islanid
southward, and a few have been taken on the coasts of Rhode Island
(Howe and Sturtevant) and Massachusetts (Brewer); and one,
August 12, 1891, at Hamilton, Ontario (Fleming). This is the forzi
common in the Mississippi Valley and it is also more common than
griseus, at least as far east as Ohio. There is one record of its accident
occurrence in Japan (specimen in United States National Museuim),
Spring migration.-The long-billed dowitcher is only a straggler in
spring on the Atlantic coast, but has been recorded at WashingtoWf,
D. C., in April, 1884 (Smith and Palmer); Cape May, N. J., May,
1848 (specimen in United States National Museum); while on Long
Island, New York, a very early individual was seen March 20 (Law-
rence). The species normally reaches northern Indiana and northern
Illinois late in April, but one was taken in 1889 at English Lake,
Indiana, on the early date of March 11 (Butler). It was enormously
abundant along the west shores of Lake Michigan in the early days
of the settlement of the country, but of late years has become quite
rare. Some dates of arrival farther west are: Fort Brown, Tim.,
March 27, 1853 (Cassin); Corpus Christi, Tex., March 24, 1889
(Sennett); Lawrence, Kans., April 19, 1873 (Snow); Omaha, Nebit 2,
April 28, 1856 (Cassin); Cheyenne, Wyo., May 3, 1889 (Bond);
Fort Kenai, Alaska, May 4, 1869 (Osgood); St. Michael, Alaska"
May 18, 1877 (specimen in Sennett collection); Fort Anders6n,


28




STILT SANDPIPER.


emnie, May 28, 1865 (MacFarlane); Point Barrow, Alaska,
k 19, 1882 (Murdoch).
Alg were taken at St. Michael, Alaska, May 23, 1980 (Nelson);
MtFort Anderson, Mackenzie, June 21, 1864, and June 15, 1865
.. Farlane); incubating birds were taken at Point Barrow, Alaska,
28, 1883 (Murdtoch).
i. v nigration.--Southward-bound migrants were abundant July
|1, 1900, on the west shore of Hludson Bay near Fort Churchill
( ble), and this must have been nearly the last of the migration,
none were seen after three days later. By this d(late the earliest
igranta were already far south, as shown by the following dates of
arrival: Fort Kanai, Alaska, July 20, 1869 (Osgood); Tulare Lake,
Vaii., July 8, 1907 (Goldman); Hay ('reek, Saskatchewan, July 3,
1906 (Bent); Denver, Colo., July 24, 1873 (Henshaw): Long Island,
...ew York, July 23, 1884 (Dutcher); Pea and Bodie islands, North
Carolina, July 7, 1904 (Bishop); San Mateo, Oaxaca, August 12,
1889 (specimen in United States National Museum).
The last were seen at Point Barrow, Alaska, August 17, 1882
(Murdoch), and August 26, 1897 (Stone); Chilliwack, British Colum-
bia, October 29, 1888 (Brooks); Hutton Lake, Wyoming, October 14,
1899 (Knight); Mimbres, Ariz., October 22, 1873 (Henshaw); Souris
River, North Dakota, October 1, 1873 (Coues); Lincoln, Nebr.,
October 20, 1900 (Wolcott); Long Island, New York, October 15,
1884 (Lawrence).
Stilt Sandpiper. Micropalama himnantopus (Bonap.).
Breeding range.-Information concerning the nesting of the stilt
sandpiper is very meager. Several sets of eggs and some young
birds were taken at Franklin Bay on the Arctic coast of Mackenzie
and one nest was found at Rendezvous Lake, a few miles back from
the coast (MacFarlane). A Biological Survey party found young of
the year (probably migrants) July 19, 1900, near York Factory,
Keewatin, and noted old birds August 12 near Cape Eskimo (Preble).
The young were probably hatched somewhere on the Barren Grounds
north of York Factory. The record from these regions seems to be
the only data so far obtained bearing on the summer home of the
species. It is probably safe to say that the breeding range extends
along the Aictic coast and the adjoining tundras from near the mouth
of the Mackenzie to the tree limit on the western shores of Hudson
Bay.
Winter range.-If the winter home is to be determined solely by
specimens noted or taken in winter, then it must be said that the
winter home of the stilt sandpiper is unknown; for there seem to be
only two records of the species anywhere for the months of November,
December, and January. One of these is in Mexico (Ferrari-Perez)
and the other in Texas (Sennett), and probably both were accidental


29




NORTH AMERICAN SHOREBIRDS.


occurrences. This is one of the rarer sandpipers and tqlx.
number of individuals is not great. The species is apprn d ...
common on the Atlantic coast, while a smaller number ourw
the Great Lakes and along the eastern edge of the Great& PRaiSrw
line leading to the coast of southern Texas. The winter-4ll.fi
therefore to be sought in a southerly direction from -the R.. l
United States. The total records for the whole of Central A -iis
are only three, one each in Guatemala (Sclater and Salvin), Nioga gl
(Sharpe), and Costa Rica (Zeledon); while the species is record& i
a tolerably common migrant in each of the Greater Antilles and i.
six islands of the Lesser, but as more common in the Lser thantim.
Greater Antilles. This latter fact indicates that the principal '&winter
home lies along the Atlantic coast of South America, although rmords
to substantiate this supposition are lacking. The South Amerc. a
records are as follows: Cienega, Colombia, September 13 (Alse);
Barbahoyo (Sclater) and Vinces (Salvadori and Festa), Ecuador,
each in September; Yquitos, Peru, September and August (Shaqe);
Chorillos, Peru (Taczanowski); Nauta, Peru, September, October,
March, and April (Sclater and Salvin); Falls of the Madeira, Bolivia,
October (Allen); Ilha Grande, Brazil, August (Sharpe), and Mat.
Grosso, Brazil, October (Pelzeln). There remain the records of
specimens taken in Chile (Sharpe) and at Colonia, Uruguay (Sharps),
without date of capture. Present knowledge is therefore summed up
by the statement: It winters in South America, south to Childe :and
Uruguay. One specimen is recorded as taken at Laguna del Rosario,
Mexico, in January (Ferrari-Perez), and one at Corpus Christi, Tex.,
January 19, 1890 (Sennett). As already stated, it is not prpba-bl
that the stilt sandpiper winters regularly at either of these localities.
One taken February 8, 1892, at Manzanillo, Mexico, by Nelson aud
Goldman of the Biological Survey, may have been an early sprng:j
migrant.
Spring migration.-The species is rare in spring migration along the..
Atlantic coast-indeed, the records are so few that it might be called
occasional or even accidental. Some of these records are: Jamaica,
April (March); Cuba, April (Gundlach); Sullivan Island, South Caro-
lina, May 11, 1885 (Sennett); Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, May 19,
1898 (Pearson); Long Island; New York, once in May (Chapman),
one June 16, 1863 (specimen in United States National Museum);
Rhode Island, May 9, 1895 (Howe and Sturtevant). The principal
route of spring migration seems to be up the Mississippi Valley and|
particularly along the direct course from the coast of Texas to Great.
Slave Lake. Most of the dates of arrival are in May. Some of the.l
more northern are: Indian Head, Saskatchewan, May 18, 1892i
(Macoun); Fort Resolution, Mackenzie, May 19, 1860 (KennicotQ;,
Cheyenne, Wyo., May 25, 1889 (Bond); Fort Chipewyan Albw4^J


80




KNOT.


e6, 1893 (Russell); the last one noted at Indian Head in 1892 was
5 (Macoun). Eggs were taken on Anderson River, Mackenzie,
S24, 1863; at Rendezvous Lake, June 27, 1865; and young at
rBay, July 8, 1865 (MacFarlane).
i Fall migration.-That fall migration begins as early as possible is
a}nced by the presence of the species in Peru and Brazil by
gt. It is said to arrive on Grenada and Barbados, West Indies,
4July, and the earliest records on the Atlantic coast of each of the
oew England States is in the same month-earliest July 6, 1874,
r Newport, R. I. (Sturtevant). As late as 1879 Doctor Brewer
ted "that it was not yet known to be a regular migrant in this
eion, while a gunner near Newport, R. I., had listed 279 individu-
shot in 1867-1874, the dates ranging from July 6 to September
P (Sturtevant), but these records were not published until 1901.
iong this part of its course the species is most common in August,
most have departed by early September. Some late dates are:
*ewfoundland, one September, 1867 (Reeks); St. John, New Bruns-
wik, September 8, 1881 (Chamberlain); Portland, Me., October 13,
.1906 (Eastman); Key West, Fla., November 1, 1888 (Scott); Bar-
bados (Feilden), Grenada (Wells), and in Trinidad (Leotaud), a few
remain until October. The species has been noted as casual or acci-
dental in Colorado (Thorne), Montana (Coues), British Columbia
(Brooks), and Bermuda (Hurdis).
Knot. Tringa canutus Linn.
Breeding range.-The summer range of the knot is almost circum-
polar, extending from Iceland across the whole of Arctic America and
westward to northwestern Siberia. The species has also been taken
once in Spitzbergen, but seems in general to be lacking in the Arctic
regions north of Europe. There is every reason for believing that
the species breeds locally throughout its summer range, but authentic
eggs are a great desideratum. Eggs claimed to be positively identi-
| fled have been collected at four localities: Fort Conger, Grinnell Land,
SJune 9, 1883 (Greely); Disko, Greenland, 1875 (Seebohm); Iceland,
SJune 17, 1898 (Ottosson); Taimyr Peninsula, Siberia, July 6, 1901
(Dresser). These eggs differ so much in size, shape, and coloration
that some of them must have been wrongly identified. One of the
late expeditions into the Arctic regions saw young at Goose Fiord,
Latitude 76 30' N., but found no eggs (Sverdrup). The species was
found breeding commonly at Igloolik on Melville Peninsula, latitude
69, in the summer of 1823 (Parry), but none of the many eggs col-
lected were preserved. Three years earlier it had been noted as an
abundant breeder on Melville Island (Sabine). At that time the bird
was undoubtedly many times more common than now. The Iceland
record at 66 latitude is the most southern breeding record, and nest-
lings have been taken on Grinnell Land at 82 44' latitude. These
represent the extremes of the breeding range.


31




NORTH AMERICAN SHOREBIRDB.


Winter range.-The breeding knots of Siberia go south ink i
to southern Africa, India, Australia, and New Zealand; tIi .o..
Arctic America winter in South America, south to Tierra del 1tV P, 4
where they were found to be common February, 1895 (SAehuwf-|
The species is recorded locally from the coasts of South Ameriab, binj
present data are not sufficient to define the northern limits ef
winter range. It is not probable that the knot winters reguf'1
anywhere north of South America, and all records to the contrny:4
as the three seen in January, 1890, on Muskeget, Mass. (Macht,),
must be considered as accidental. On Barbados the species has boefS
noted as late as December 27, 1886 (Manning), but it is three con-
sidered to be only a migrant. *
Migration range.-The principal migration route is along the Atiaa: -
tic coast, where the knot is known locally from Florida to Newfound-I
land, and was formerly quite common. There are notable gaps in:
the records of this species. It is known locally as a tolerably cornm-
mon migrant throughout the Mississippi Valley east of the ninety-
eighth meridian, but apparently these Mississippi Valley birds pass
north and a little east to Hudson Bay and thence to the Arctic
islands, for the species is unrecorded in the whole interior of Canada
west of Hudson Bay, and has not been found even on the Arctic
coast of Mackenzie. Southward there is another break in the p-1
ords, for the specimen taken April 13, 1904, at Rivera, Veracruz
(Piper), seems to be the first and only record for Mexico, and there
is none for Central America, though the species is moderately com-
mon in Texas south to Corpus Christi (Sennett). A few individuals
of this species have been seen in migration on the Pacific coast from
San Diego, Calif. (Dwight), to Cape Blossom, Alaska (Giimell).
Spring migration.-The knot arrives on the United States coast in
April, but the larger flocks come about the middle of May, and then'
is no apparent difference in the dates for the whole coast from Florida
to Massachusetts. An early date is March 28, at Grand Isle, Louisi-
ana (Beyer, Allison, and Kopman). Near the northern limit of the
range some dates of arrival are: Point Barrow, latitude 71 20' N.,
May 30, 1883 (Murdoch); Fort Conger, latitude 81 40' N., June 3,
1883 (Greely); Floeberg Beach, latitude 82 30' N., June 5, 1876
(Feilden), while far to the southward at Winter Island, latitude 66
N., the first was not noted until June 16, 1822 (Parry), and the next
year at Igloolik, a few miles farther north, not until June 14 (Parry).
Fall migration.-Birds from the north arrive on the coast of Mas-
sachusetts, on Long Island, and in some seasons, even on the coast
of South Carolina (Wayne), by the middle of July; the first was seen
at the Olympiades, Wash., July 7, 1905 (Dawson). It seems scarcely
possible that these early arrivals can have bred the same year, for
earliest dates of young are in July and that at places 2,000 miles or


32






to the northward. August is the month of principal migras-
Sfrom Maine to South America, and this month also witnesses
departure from the breeding grounds. The last one seen at
wrg Beach was August 29, 1875 (Feilden); Point Barrow, August
|1898 (Stone); Homer, Alaska, August 23, 1901; Winter Island,
Ille Peninsula, August 17, 1822 (Greely). During the summer
.1822 the entire stay of the knot on Winter Island was only sixty-
Sdays-one of the shortest nesting periods of any species.
: ..Purple Sandpiper. Arquatella maritima (Brflnn.).
Jin range.-The purple sandpiper is principally a bird of the
World, breeding on the Arctic coast anti islands from north-
..emSiberia to Iceland. In Greenland it is known on the east
Bt to Shannon Island, latitude 75 N. (Schalow); and on the
to Thank God Harbor, 81 40' N. (Bessels); and probably it
at least as far north as latitude 72. A few were seen at Fort
lger, on Grinnell Land (Greely); several at various times in the
around Wellington Channel (McCormick); and the species was
d common in summer on Banks (Armstrong) and Melville (Ross)
.ds. The Banks Island record at latitude 74 N., longitude
30 W., marks the extreme northwestern range of the species. To
e westward of this it is replaced by couesi. The southern limit of
e breeding range appears to extend from the southern end of
Imeenland to the base of the Melville Peninsula, and possibly to the
themm shores of Hudson Bay. The species breeds most commonly
n the shores of Baffin Bay and Davis Strait.
Winter range.-The purple sandpiper remains the farthest north
Winter of any of the shorebirds. It is said to winter sometimes
ven in southern Greenland (Hagerup), and it is common in winter
r0m Nova Scotia (Sharpe) and New Brunswick(Macoun) southward
Sthe coast of Rhode Island (Howe and Sturtevant). It is a rare
lut regular winter visitant to Long Island, New York (Dutcher), and
as occurred casually thence south to the Bermudas (Reid), Georgia
3ennett), and Florida (Scott). The species is rare anywhere away
mom the ocean, but has been noted a few times in the vicinity of the
treat Lakes.
Spring migration.-Some dates of spring arrival are: Winter Island,
une 10, 1822 (Greely); Igloolik, June 14, 1823 (Greely); Cam-
ridge Bay, June 10, 1853 (Greely); Bay of Mercy, June 3, 1852
Armstrong); Cumberland Sound, June 4, 1878 (Kumlien); Prince
f Wales Sound, Ungava, May 27, 1886 (Payne); west coast of
Ireenland at latitude 72 N., May 29, 1S50 (Sutherland). The last
usually desert the New England coast in March.
Fall migration.-Occasionally a stray bird appears in September
n the New England coast, but the main flocks do not arrive until
52928-BuU. 35-10---3


38


PURPLE SANDPIPER.





NORTH AMERICAN SHOREBIRDS.


November or December. The species is not late in desertiug-tt
North, as evidenced by the following dates of the last oest i|
Thank God Harbor, Greenland, September 11, 1871 .....e
Possession Bay, Franklin, September 1, 1818 (Sabine); W. ..
Channel, August 28,1852 (McCormick). At Cumberland Soundt:4
remained in 1877 until November (Kumlien). :''i:
Aleutian Sandpiper. Arquatella maritima couei Ridgw. .
The western coast of Alaska and the Aleutian Islands seem td
the principal home of the Aleutian sandpiper. It breeds throu
the whole of the Aleutian Chain, east to the Shumagin Islands (Nl|
and also to the westward on the Commander Islands of Asia (t
neger). It winters on the Aleutians and south along the ma
of Alaska to Sitka (Bischoff). A few of the breeding birds of
Commander Islands remain throughout the winter, but most of thei
go south as far as the Kurile Islands (Sharpe). i
Early in August, when the young are strong of wing, great floemj
move north and appear on the west coast of the mainland of Alask
at least as far north as Kotzebue Sound (Nelson); they occur :
inland to Nulato (Dall), and on the Asiatic side at least to Plover B
(Dall). This northward migration takes them also to the Pri*bV
Islands (Seale). They remain in this northern part of the range up
driven south by the gathering ice; the last leave Norton Sound sab
the middle of October (Nelson). The earliest records of eggs ta
on Bering Island are about the middle of May (Stejneger), and
Unalaska Island the first week in June (Reed). .4
Pribilof Sandpiper. Arquatella maritima ptilocnemis (Coues). -t
The name Pribilof sandpiper indicates the principal breeding pll
but in addition, the species has been found breeding on the is
of St. Lawrence (Nelson), St. Matthew (Elliott), and Hall (Orie
It has been taken from July 17 to August 29 on the shores of Nort
Sound (McGregor), but there is nothing to indicate that it breeds
the vicinity, and its occurrence there is probably due to a north
migration after the breeding season. The main winter home has -i
yet been ascertained, and the only winter records to date are thd
of a few seen in December and January at Portage Bay, near the bl
of the Alaska Peninsula (Hartlaub). In spring migration the Pribil
sandpiper has been taken April 1-14 at Nushagak, Alaska (Palmer
and in fall migration August 5-14 near Unalaska Island (MeGrego
Eggs have been found on the Pribilof Islands from June 19 to Jul
(Prentiss).
Sharp-tailed Sandpiper. Pisobia aurita (Latham). '
The breeding range of the sharp-tailed sandpiper is not wellkn'
The bird occurs in summer on the north shore of Siberia at
Waukarem (Nelson) and the Chuckchi Peninsula (Palmen), andl


84





PECTORAL SANDPIPER.


is probably the principal breeding range. The species winters in
Australia and New Zealand and migrates through the Commander
Islands, Japan, China, and the Malay Archipelago.
SAll the records for North America seem to be during the fall migra-
ktion, at which period-crossing to America on the way to its winter
home in Asia-it is fairly common in Alaska on the shores of Norton
Sound, andti has been noted north to Port Clarence antd Ilotham Inlet
(Nelson). It has been taken a few times on the Pribilof Islands, once
on Unalaska Island (Bishop), once on Queen Charlotte Islands
(Famin), and once on Vancouver Island (Brooks). The period of
occurrence on the coast of America extends from August 17, when
the first was seen on the Pribilof Islands (Grinnell), to October 12, the
date of the last seen in Norton Sound (Nelson). The two individuals
taken December 27, 1897, on Queen Charlotte Islands (Fannin),
were probably stragglers.
Pectoral Sandpiper. Pisobia inacdulata (Vieill.).
Breeding range.-The principal known summer home of the pectoral
sandpiper is the coast of northwestern Alaska, from the mouth of the
Yukon (Nelson) to Point Barrow (Murdoch). The principal authority
on the birds of the Arctic coast east of the Mackenzie is MacFarlane,
and he reports that the pectoral sandpiper was rare in the vicinity of
Fort Anderson and Franklin Bay, and that he was never able to find
the nest. This must have been a local peculiarity of distribution, for
SEdward A. Preble, of the Biological Survey, found the species abun-
dant in August, 1900, on the barren grounds of the western shore of
Hudson Bay; the species is also a common fall migrant on the coast of
Ungava (Coues). Undoubtedly all these birds of Keewatin and
Ungava nest along the neighboring Arctic coast, where, indeed, the
eggs have been taken at Cambridge Bay, Franklin (Collinson).
S Winter range.-In winter the species passes to southern South
America, at least as far south as Port Desire, Argentina, latitude
40 30' S. (Sharpe), and to Antofagasta, Chile, 23 30' S. (Philippi).
It winters in northern Argentina (Durnford) and as far north as
Bolivia (Salvadori) and Peru (Sharpe). Though confined in summer
to the seacoast, yet in its migrations it has been noted in Colorado
at 13,000 feet (Morrison), and in its South American winter home it
is not uncommon in the mountains to 12,000 feet (Sclater).
Migration range.-The pectoral sandpiper has a very pronounced
southeastward migration in the fall. How far west the range extends
Sin the Arctics is not yet known, but the bird has been found in late
July and August along the northern coast of Siberia as far west as the
STaimyr Peninsula (Palmen), and it may sometimes be found on this
Coast as a breeder. From these far western localities, it starts east
and south along the Alaska coast, and a few visit the Pribilof Islands
(specimen in United States National Museum) and the eastern


35





36 NORTH AMERICAN SHOREBIRDS.
Aleutians (Bishop), but the species is nowhere common on the: PaMi.
coast south of Alaska, showing that most of the Alaskan and Siberi
birds cross the Rocky Mountains and migrate southeastward to. til
winter home. A few pass south along the Pacific coast to the tat o
Washington (Suckley), and there are two records for Califoraia-MilI
Valley Junction, September 14, 1896 (Mailliard), and Farallon IMads,
September 4, 1884 (specimen in United States National 1Musem)
The species reappears again in Lower California, where it is fairly co m.
mon during fall migration in the Cape Region (Brewster).
The species is well known as a migrant on the west coast of Gree-
land as far north as Upernivik, latitude 73 (Winge). It is a comm a
migrant throughout the whole of North America east of the Rocky
Mountains, and of the West Indies and Central America. It is
strangely rare in the northern part of South America, where it seems
to be unrecorded in Venezuela and Guiana, and to have been recorded
only once from Colombia (Allen). It is common in migration in
Ecuador and Brazil.
Spring mnigration.-The start from the South American winter home
must be very early-February, or more likely January-for the aver-
age date of arrival at Raleigh, N. C., is March 23; earliest March 21,
1889 (Brimley). Raleigh is full 2,000 miles from the nearest boundary
of the winter range, and probably these birds had already traveled over
3,000 miles when they appeared at Raleigh. Some other spring
dates are: Beaver, Pa., average April 4, earliest April 1, 1890 (Todd);
Erie, Pa., March 23, 1895 (Todd); New Orleans, La., March 7, 1896
(Allison); Hidalgo, Tex., March 16, 1890 (Sennett); St. Louis, Mo..
March 17, 1884 (Widmann); Chicago, Ill., average of seven yea=s,
March 31, earliest March 27, 1897 (Blackwelder); Terre Haute, Ind.,
average March 26, earliest March 17, 1887 (Evermann); Ottawa,
Ontario, average April 30, earliest April 27, 1894 (White); Keokuk,
Iowa, average April 1., earliest March 17, 1893 (Currier); Fort Reso-
lution, Mackenzie, May 19, 1860 (Kennicott); Fort Providence,
Mackenzie, May 14, 1905 (specimens in collection Biological Survey);
Fort Simpson, Mackenzie, May 16, 1904 (Preble); Dawson, Yukon,
May 19, 1899 (Cantwell); St. Michael, Alaska, May 24, 1879 (Nelson);
Kowak River, Alaska, May 27, 1899 (Grinnell); Point Barrow,
Alaska, May 30, 1883 (Murdoch), and May 30, 1898 (Stone). Eggs
were secured at Cape Lisburne, Alaska, June 5, 1885 (Woolfe), and at
Point Barrow, June 20-July 10, 1883 (Murdoch).
Fall migration.-In common with many other shorebirds, the
pectoral sandpiper begins its fall migrations in July; indeed, it is
probable that some start southward in June, for the average date
of arrival on the coast of Mississippi is July 19, earliest July 15, "
1903 (Allison); and at New Orleans, La., earliest July 17, 1895 ::|!
(Blakemore). These birds wore already more than 2,000 miOle




WHITE-BUMPED SANDPIPER.


south of their breeding grounds, and haul probably traveled all of
this distance, for the pectoral sandpiper is not one of the species
whose nonbreeders remain through the summer far south of the
nesting grounds. If the fall migration was made at thle same speed
as the spring migration, about 35 miles per day, these July Gulf
coast birds would have had to start on the return trip thle middle of
May, or earlier than they reach their breeding grounds. The records
of this species combined with those of many others seem to indicate
that the earliest fall migrants travel at aL higher speed than the
earliest spring migrants. This high speed in the case of the pectoral
sandpiper is continued to South AmericaL and brings the first to
Argentina by the end of August (Sclater and Hudson).
The regular fall migration of the young birds is a full month later,
and they reach the coast of Ungava after the middle of August
(Coues). Some late dates are: Northern coast of Siberia, August 20
(Pelzein); Point Barrow, September 6, 1882 (Murdoch); St. Michael,
September 6, 1899 (Osgood); Unalaska Island, October 5, 1899
(Bishop); Nushagak, Alaska, October 15, 1884 (Osgood); southern
British Columbia, average October 16, latest October 25, 1905
(Brooks); Terry, Mont., October 21, 1905 (Cameron); Great Bear
Lake, August 29, 1903 (Preble); Montreal, average October 25, latest
November 1, 1890 (Wintle); Ottawa, Ontario, average October 29,
latest November 5, 1895 (White); Lincoln, Nebr., November 4, 1899
(Wolcott); Keokuk, Iowa. November 24, 1900 (Currier); Carlisle,
Pa., November 2, 1844 (Baird); Raleigh, N. C., November 15, 1894
(Brimley). A gunner near Newport, R. I., who shot 2,337 birds in
1867-1874, killed most of them between August 10 and October 10-
extreme dates July 16, 1870, and October 20, 1874 (Sturtevant).
White-rumped Sandpiper. Pisobiafuscicollis (Vieill.).
Breeding range.-The only nests and eggs of the white-rumped
sandpiper so far reported are those taken near the coast of Franklin
Bay, Mackenzie, and on the neighboring Barren Grounds (MacFar-
lane). The species was seen near Cumberland Sound July, 1878
(Kumlien), under such conditions as to make it probable that it
was breeding, and is recorded as breeding at Cape Fullerton, Hudson
Bay (Low). Many specimens have been taken on the west coast of
Greenland from near the southern end north to Upernivik, latitude
73 (Winge), but there is no proof that any of these were breeding.
At Point Barrow, Alaska, the species was noted June 6-July 6, 1883
(Murdoch), and June 2-14, 1898 (Stone), but again there is no cer-
tainty of breeding. None of the expeditions that lived and collected
on Boothia Peninsula and Melville Peninsula mention this species,
and it is not known to breed south of Hudson Strait. It is evident,
therefore, that the thousands of individuals of this species are crowded
during the breeding season into a rather narrow belt of tundra


37





38 NORTH AMERICAN SHOREBIRID. .'
extending from near the mouth of the Mackenzie east to the soi U
end of Baffin Land. 4. 'i .:i:
Winter range.-Few species of shorebirds have so many.:. roe
for Patagonia as the white-rumped, and this is also one of the-VpOWi
that is erroneously said to breed in the Southern Hemispher.it M..
winters abundantly from Paraguay and Argentina to the Falkand .
Islands (Sclater and Salvin) and the southern coast of Tierra l ild"
Fuego (Schalow). It is rare or casual on the coast of Chile (G $
and unknown on the rest of the western coast of South Amerir, j
except one seen at Chorillos, Peru (Taczanowski), and one: take
October 12, 1864, near Huanaracama, Peru (specimen in United "
States National Museum). .
Migration range.-During migration the white-rumped sandpiper :
is common along the whole eastern coast of South America, in the. |
West Indies, and in the United States east of the Rocky Mountains. "
The western edge of the migration route extends from the upper
Mackenzie through western Saskatchewan and eastern Colorado to
the coast of southern Texas and then turns east to northern Yucatatn
and the island of Trinidad. The species is only an accidental visi-
tant to Mexico (Salvin), Central America, and the whole of -north-
western South America. Accidental once in California (Bryant)
and several times in Europe.
Spring migration.-The species arrives in Cuba in April (Gundlach)
and has been recorded in northern Yucatan April 15 (Salvin). Nearly
all the dates of arrival in the United States are in May, from Florida
to Maine and from Massachusetts to Colorado. The first was seen at,
Indian Head, Saskatchewan, May 9, 1892 (Macoun); Fort Chipew-
yan, Alberta, May 30, 1893 (Russell); Fort Resolution, Mackenzie,
May 19,1860 (Kennicott); Cape Fullerton, Hudson Bay, May 22,1904
(Eifrig). There are indications that the larger number pass north in
spring by way of the Mississippi Valley and return in fall along the
Atlantic coast; but some individuals are found on the Atlantic coast
in spring, though rare north of Virginia, and a few occur in the eastern
Mississippi Valley in fall. The most surprising feature of this bird's
migration is its late stay in spring south of its breeding grounds.
Near Cape Horn, South America, it was abundant the winter of
1882-83 and remained until March 7, 1883 (Oustalet). It remains in
southeastern Argentina until late April (Holland), and a single sped-
men was taken at Colonia, Uruguay, in June (Sharpe). The species
remains regularly in Brazil until May (Pelzein); one was taken on
Inagua. Bahamas, May 27, 1879 (Cory); Amelia Island, Florida,
May 30, 1906 (Worthington); Erie, Pa., June 4, 1875 (Sennett);
Stafford County, Kans., June 6, 1907 (Peabody); Waukegan, Ill.,,
June 9, 1876 (Nelson); Toronto, Ontario, June 21, 1898 (Nash); and
at Indian Head, Saskatchewan, the last did not leave for the north
until July 1, 1892 (Macoun).




BAIRD SANDPIPER.


-A migraiton.-By early July the species is already moving south
kd arrived soon after July 1, 1886, at Prince of Wales Sound, Ungava
slyne), just south of the breeding grounds. During tlhe month of
the van appears all along the New England coast, and even
-es Barbados (Feilden). August finds the species in Brazil
elshIn), and the collectors near Cape Horn in 1882 recorded the
fval of the first September 9 (Oustalet).
SThe main part reaches the northern United States in August, usu-
about the second week; the last leave the breeding grounds soon
r the e1st of September, and the birds are seldom seen on the New
gland coast after the middle of October. One was taken at Ossin-
N. Y., October 21, 1879 (Fisher), and a late migrant was taken
tIake Drummond, Virginia, November 5, 1898 (Fisher).
f- Baird Sandpiper. Pisobia bairdi (Coues).
SBreeding range.-The Baird sandpiper has been found breeding at
point Barrow, Alaska (Murdoch), in the vicinity of Franklin Bay,
kacenze (MacFarlane), and at Cambridge Bay, Franklin (Collinson).
pese localities probably represent the real extremes of the breeding
e, for east or west of these limits the species is known very
rarely even in migration.
Winter range.-During migration the Baird sandpiper has been
noted near the summit of one of the highest mountains of Colorado at
14,000 feet (Drew). The same tendency to seek a high altitude is
shown in the winter home, for this species has been taken repeatedly
the high mountains of northern Chile at 10,000 to 12,000 feet, and
one specimen was secured at over 13,000 feet altitude (Sclater).
Chile seems to be the principal winter home of the species, and it has
been recorded here south to Talcahuano, latitude 36 30' S. (Sharpe).
It is said to have occurred in Patagonia (Carbajal), but no definite
locality is given, and in Argentina it seems not to have been recorded
south of Buenos Aires (Sclater and Hudson).
Migration range.-The route the Baird sandpiper traverses between
its winter and summer homes is yet to be determined. In spring
migration the species is practically unknown cast of the Mississippi
River, and is abundant on the coast of Texas, on the plains, and in
the Rocky Mountain region. Though many individuals occur in the
eastern United States in fall, yet the bulk retraces its spring course
and leaves the United States to the southward of the plains region.
It has been noted in a few places in Mexico in fall: Colonia Garcia,
Chihuahua, September 4; Chihuahua City, October 3 (Nelson); San
.Jose del Cabo, September 3-13 (Brewster); Janos River, Chihuahua,
September 5 (Wolfe); Las Vigas, Jalapa, September (Sharpe); and
SZacatecas, August 16 (Sharpe); here the record ends. The species is
not recorded for Guatemala, Honduras, or Nicaragua. It is a common
[fall migrant in Ecuador (Salvadori and Festa), but the only records
Ii.


89




*1
40 NORMT AMEICAN SHOREBIRDS. .i .1....
.-between Mexico and Ecuador are: Volcano Irazu, Costa Bil i
(Cherrie); La Estrelle de Cartago, Costa Rica, Novemiber:
(Carriker); and Medellin, Colombia (Sclater and Salvin), wit i
of observation. , ";j'
Not many years ago the Baird sandpiper was considered: .:il
accidental on the Atlantic coast. The past few years have 166
a great increase of data. It is now known to be a regular nil:auJ
rare migrant east to Lake Huron (Wood), Lake Erie (Todd) atd'th|
western end of Lake Ontario (Nash), and there are 50 or-moat
records for the Atlantic coast region, from 'Four MiWe Rn, iBa
(Matthews), north to Digby, Nova Scotia (Macoun). What beoe
of these Atlantic coast birds is not yet known, for the species'seez ti
be unrecorded in the United States south of the Ohio River and MOa
of Mississippi, and is not known in the West Indies. It ranges regu.
larly west to British Columbia (Brooks), but to the southward thd
flocks seem to pass inland west of the Sierra and are common i0
Nevada (Ridgway) and Arizona (Henshaw), but rare in Califorian
where it has been taken at Point Pinos (Mailliard) and September i,
1904, at Pacific Beach (Bishop).
Spring migration.-The Baird sandpiper is a much earliermigrant
than its eastern relative, the white-rumped. It appears on the coast
of Texas in early March (Brown); the average date of arrival in central
Nebraska is March 24, earliest March 19, 1890 (Powell); lboveland
Colo., March 29, 1890 (Smith); southern British Columbia, Aprl 29,
1889, and 1905 (Brooks); Indian Head, Saskatchewan, May 9, 1.29
(Macoun); Fort Resolution, Mackenzie, May 19, 1860 (Kennicdtt)i
near Dyer, Alaska, May 15, 1882 (Hartlaub); Kowak River, Alaska,
May 20, 1899 (Grinnell); Point Barrow, Alaska, average of three yearn
May 29, earliest May 28, 1898 (Stone). The date of arrival at Point
Barrow is worthy of notice, for at this time the birds' breeding grounds
on the tundra were covered deep with snow, and it had to wait some
weeks before it could begin nesting. The earliest eggs Pat Fort
Anderson were found June 24, 1864 (MacFarlane); the next year,
young were noted July 5, and downy young were taken at Point
Barrow July 16, 1898 (Stone).
The species remains in Chile until the last of March (Lane), and is
common in Texas to the middle of May (Lloyd). A late migrant was
taken June 1, 1903, at Iguala, Guerrero (Nelson and Goldman). The
last usually leave Nebraska before the first of June, but in 1900 one
was seen at Lincoln on June 29 (Wolcott). The last was noted at
Indian Head, Saskatchewan, June 2, 1892 (Macoun), and at Fort
Chipewyan, Alberta, June 1, 1893 (Russell). ':
Fall migration.-Several flocks already in fall migration were see.
at Great Slave Lake, Mackenzie, July 10, 1901 (Preble). Since th.
earliest young are not hatched until the first week in July, it is evidueti
*:J





LEAST SANDPIPER.


That these flocks of July 10, already several hundred miles south of
: the breeding grounds, must consist either of barren birds or of those
.that had suffered loss of their eggs. In southern British Columbia,
the average date of arrival is August 11, earliest August 6, 1888
I (Brooks); near Monterey, Calif., August 25, 1897 (Mailliard); southern
Saskatchewan, July 17, 1906 (Bishop); southern Manitoba, July 23,
1881 (Macoun); Lincoln, Nebr., August 9, 1900 (Wolcott); southern
Ontario, July 28, 1891 (Nash); Locust Grove, N. Y., August 18, 1885
(Henshaw); Boston Harbor, August 27, 1870 (Henshaw); Montauk,
N. Y., August 14, 1907 (Braislin). In September it reaches its
winter home in southern South America.
The last were seen at Point Barrow, Alaska, August 12, 1883 (Mur-
doch), and September 4, 1897 (Stone); southern British Columbia,
September 15, 1903 (Brooks); Fort Lyon, Colo., September 28, 1885
(Thorne); Lincoln, Nebr., November 3, 1900 (Wolcott); southern
Ontario, October 20, 1893 (Elliott); New Haven, Conn., October 28,
1887 (Woodruff); Galapagos Islands, October 6, 1897 (Rothschild and
Hartert).
Least Sandpiper. Pisobia minutilla (Vieill.).
Breeding range.-The least sandpiper nests in the far north to
northern Ungava (Turner); at Cambridge Bay in southern Franklin
(Collinson); the coast of Maickenzie (MacFarlane); and Kotzebue
Sound, Alaska (Grinnell). Unlike most of the Arctic breeding shore-
birds, it breeds also quite far south to Sable Island (Oates); Magdalen
Islands (Job); northeastern Quebec (Audubon); upper Hamilton
River, Ungava (Low); Fort Churchill, Keewatin (Preble); Lake
Marsh, southern Yukon (Bishop); and in Alaska south to Yakutat
Bay (Merriam). The western limit of the breeding range in Alaska
is not yet definitely settled.
Winter range.-The species is recorded without exact locality from
Chile (Salvin), has been taken at several places in Peru (Tacza-
nowski), and ranges south in Brazil to Pernambuco (Allen). Thence
it is known throughout northern South America, Central America,
Mexico, and the West Indies, the coast of Georgia (Helme), rarely in
winter to North Carolina (Bishop), southern Texas (Merrill), southern
Arizona (specimen in United States National Museum), and southern
California, north at least to Owen Lake (Fisher) and Humboldt Bay
(Townsend).
Migration range.-Beyond the known breeding range, the least
sandpiper is found in fall on the west coast of Greenland north to God-
haven, latitude 69 (Walker); at Plover Bay, Siberia (Bean). It
occurs during most if not all the summer on the Alaska Peninsula
(Osgood) and on the Aleutian Islands west to Unalaska (specimen
in United States National Museum).
Spring migration.-Though wintering so far north, this species is
one of the later shorebirds to migrate. Most of the migrants cross


41




....... ..
42 NORTH AMERICAN SHOREBIRDS.
the United States in early May, as shown by the followlngdM S.
arrival: Long Island, New York, average May 4, earliest AprAi I
1906 (Latham); eastern Massachusetts, average May 8; c .tys..f
Quebec, average May 2, earliest April 28, 1900 (Dionni); (iagt
Ill., average May 8, earliest May 4, 1898 (Gault); Oberlin, Ohio, aa.:
age May 12, earliest May 8, 1905 (Jones); southern Ontario, aseom
May 15, earliest May 8,1889 (Mcllwraith); Ottawa, Ontario, a rap
May 18, earliest May 10, 1888 (White); Onaga, Kans., average Mayl1,
earliest May 9, 1904 (Crevecoeur); southern Saskatchewan, average
May 17, earliest May 12, 1903 (Harvey); Fort Resolution, May 1%.
1860 (Kennicott); Fort Providence, May 15, 1905 (Mills); Fort Simp-
son, May 17, 1904 (Preble); Loveland, Colo., average April 21, earliest
April 19, 1890 (Smith); Cheyenne, Wyo., average April 28, earliest
April 23 1888 (Bond); Newport, Oreg., average April 29, earliest April
21, 1901 (Bretherton); southern British Columbia, average April 22?,
earliest April 20, 1905 (Brooks); Nulato, Alaska, May 11, 1867 (DalI);
Kowak River, Alaska, May 15, 1899 (Grinnell). ..
Eggs were taken near Fort Anderson, Mackenzie, June 21, 1862i;
June 24, 1863, and June 30, 1864 (MacFarlane); Yakutat Bay,
Alaska, June 21,1899 (Merriam); downy young at Lake Marsh,
Yukon, July 2, 1899 (Bishop), and an egg ready to lay at the Kow-ak
River, Alaska, June 1, 1899 (Grinnell).
Fall migration.-The following dates of arrival show how very
early some individuals of the species must start southward: Sitki,
Alaska, common July 2, 1896 (Grinnell); southern British Columbia,
July 2, 1889 (Brooks); North Dalles, Wash., July 4, 1897 (Fisher);
near San Diego, Calif., July 13, 1894 (Mearns); Fort Bridger, Wyo., i
July 13, 1858 (Drexler); Lincoln, Nebr., July 14, 1900 (Wolcott);
Detroit, Mich., July 9, 1905 (Swales), July 7, 1906 (Taverner); near
Toronto, Ontario, July 4, 1891 (Nash); Lexington, Ky., July 16,
1905 (Dean); Long Island, New York, average July 8, earliest July
6, 1898 (Worthington); Bahamas, July 16, 1903 (Riley), July 18,
1904 (Allen); the Lesser Antilles, the middle of July (Feilden); off
the coast of Venezuela, July 23, 1892 (Hartert).
Some dates of the last seen are: Cape Blossom, Alaska, August 10,
1898 (Grinnell); southern British Columbia, average September II,
latest September 18, 1903 (Brooks); Aweme, Manitoba, average Sep-
tember 4, latest September 26, 1899 (Criddle); Long Island, New York,
September 17, 1905 (Latham); Erie, Pa., October 3, 1895 (Todd);
Back River, Maryland, November 3, 1894 (Kirkwood).
: J.
Long-toed Stint. Pisobia damacensis (Horaf.).
The long-toed stint is a species of eastern Asia, accidental in
North America. It breeds in eastern Siberia, Kamchatka, Bering
Island, and south to the Kurile Islands; west probably to the valley
of the Lena River. This statement of breeding range is based on
.AGii





RED-BACKED SANDPIPER.


occurrence of the species in summer, since the nest and eggs are
unknown. The species passes south for the winter, through
a and Japan, to Australia, the Malay Archipelago, Burma, and
*i. The only record in North America is of a single specimen
en June 8, 1885, on Otter Island, Alaska (Ridgway).
I ..[Cooper Sandpiper. PisobiTi cooperi (Baird).
Ube Cooper sandpiper im known only from thte single specimen now in the National
BMK, taken in May, 1833, on Long Island. The status of the species is still in
|: Dunlin. Pelidna alpina (Linn.).
The dunlin, an Old World species., has been noted a few times in
orth America. A specimen was taken October 20, 1842, at Wash-
ton, D. C., and two days later a second was secured (Smith); one
Captured September 15, 1892, at Shinnecock Bay, Long Island,
ew York (Young), and one August 11, 1900, at Chatham, Mass.
owe and Allen). There are less certain records of its occurrence
k the region of Hudson Bay (Blakiston). There seems to be no
ie record for Greenland, though the regular breeding range extends
rest to England, Scotland, and Iceland. The species breeds east
STurkestan and probably to the valley'of the Yenisei, and north to
he islands of the Arctic coast. It winters from Great Britain and the
laspian Sea south to northern Africa and India.
R ed-backed Sandpiper. Pelidna alpina sakalina (Vieill.).
Breeding range.-The red-backed sandpiper has two well-defined
heeding areas corresponding in general to the Atlantic and Pacific
inter ranges. The birds of the Atlantic coast breed from north-
astern Ungava (Weiz) and Cape Fullerton, Hudson Bay (Low), north
D Bellot Strait (McClintock). A few (of either this form or the last)
reed on the west coast of Greenland, from which country there are
ggs in the United States National Museum. The birds of the Pacific
bast breed in Alaska from the mouth of the Yukon (Nelson) north
b Point Barrow (Murdoch), and on much of the northern coast of
iberia west possibly to Yenisei River (Seebohm). The region of
atergradation along the coast of Siberia is not yet definitely deter-
mined. These two breeding areas are separated by nearly 1,500
ailes of Arctic coast, from Point Barrow to the Boothia Peninsula,
imd throughout this whole region there seems to be no certain record
f the occurrence of the red-backed sandpiper. If it does occur, it
Eust be very rare, and the probability that it does not is increased by
re fact that the species is not known as a migrant in the region
Immediately to the south. It is abundant as a migrant along the
fest coast of Hudson Bay (Preble) and has been taken at Dawson,
rukon (Cantwell), but as yet is unrecorded in the intervening districts.
! Winter range.-Few of the shorebirds go so short a distance to the
buthward as the red-backed sandpiper. It is common in winter


43





NORTH AMERICAN SHOREBIRDS.


as far south as central Florida (Scott), but is unknown in th.D:81.
and the West Indies. On the coast of Texas it ranges to t& tflh
of the Rio Grande (Merrill), but is not yet known in o ii
Mexico. On the Pacific coast it is abundant south to southitmsI.
California (Belding), but seems not to pass farther south. .r:aWS
record south of the region just outlined is that of a specimen, uadwbi
edly a straggler, taken May 23, at Momotomba, Nicaragua (apim
in British Museum). During the winter the -species reman r
to the coasts of North Carolina (Bishop), New Jersey, camall
(Stone), Louisiana (Beyer), Texas (Carroll), and at least to central
Washington (Bowles). The Siberian birds of this form winter fio
Japan and China to the Malay Archipelago..
Spring migration.-Most of the spring movements occur in Ms3
but a few early birds press northward in April: Long BenachN
Jersey, April 17, 1877 (Scott); Long Island, New York, April I
1882 (Chapman); Erie, Pa., April 21, 1900 (Todd). On the Atsuti
coast north of Massachusetts the species is not so commms in spri
as in fall, while around the Great Lakes the reverse is the one. Th
main body of the Atlantic coast birds seem to reach their breedin
grounds by way of the Great Lakes and Hudson Bay. Along thi
route they are late migrants, reaching southern Ontario on thearrag
May 20, earliest May 13, 1905 (Taverner).
The Pacific coast birds appeared in southern British Columbi
April 25, 1888 (Brooks), and April 26, 1889 (Brooks); one was seel
as early as April 2, 1897, at Howcan (Cantwell), in the extrea
southern part of Alaska. Other dates of spring arrival are:
Kenai, May 16, 1869 (Osgood); Kigulik Mountains, May 17v, i91
(Anthony); Dawson, Yukon, May 24, 1899 (Cantwell); Point a
row, Alaska, May 31, 1882 (Murdoch), May 29, 1883 (Murdoch), aj
June 2, 1898 (Stone).'
None were noted in Lower California after May 10 (Beldg), bq
in central Florida they have been recorded as late as June 2, 18
(Scott), and in southern Ontario the average date of the last se
is June 4, latest June 13, 1891 (Nash). 1
Eggs have been taken at the mouth of the Yukon, June 6, 18
(Nelson); Cape Prince of Wales, June 27, 1898 (Grinnell); anda
Point Barrow, June 22, 1883 (Murdoch). At this last locality t'fl
eggs in some seasons must be laid earlier than the above date, for i
1898 downy young were taken July 6 (Stone). .
Fall migration.-Early fall migrants were passing south July l I
1900, along the west shore of Hudson Bay, near York Factory (Prebi1
and two weeks later they were enormously abundant, showing th
this is one of the principal routes in fall migration. Since the sp
is not common in the Mississippi Valley and is comparatively raw.i
western Ontario in the fall, it is evident that many of these Hud


44




SPOON-BI LL SANDPIPER.


y birds turn eastward to the Atlantic coast. An early arrival
eared on Long Island, New York, July 17, 1S97 (Worthington),
t the usual time of arrival is a month or more later; Hayward,
i., August 3, 1889 (Emerson); Point (de Monts, Quebec, August
1883 (Merriam); Plymouth, Mass., September 17, 1852 (Browne);
'e, Pa., September 21, 1875 (Sennett); Washington, I). C., Sep-
tber 25, 1894 (Hasbrouck).
The last deserted the breeding grounds at Point Barrow, Alaska,
ber 7, 1882 (Murdoch); September 4, 1897 (Stone). The
t have been noted at St. George Island, Alaska, October 3, 1899
tihop); Bering Island, October 25, 1884 (Grebnitsky); Chicago,
., November 3, 1906 (Ferry); Oberlin, Ohio, October 27, 1906
ones); St. Clair Flats, Michigan, November 20, 1904 (Blain); Otta-
Ontario, average October 4, latest October 29, 1889 (White);
ortland, Me., November 11, 19U06 (Eastman); Barnstable, Mass.,
ecember 23, 1903 (Howe); Comox, British Columbia, December 5,
003 (Brooks).
Curlew Sandpiper. Erolia frruginea (Brfinn.).
SThe curlew sandpiper breeds only in the Eastern Hemisphere, but
*anders not infrequently to the Atlantic coast of North America.
he only eggs so far known were taken July 3, 1897, in the delta of
he Yenisei River, Siberia (Newton), and June 24-July 6, 1900, on
e northwestern coast of the Taimyr Peninsula, Siberia (Dresser).
t is probable that all Greenland records for this species are erro-
eous, and that the only reliable record in Arctic America is that of
e single individual taken June 8, 1883, at Point Barrow, Alaska
(Murdoch). On the Atlantic coast of America it has been recorded
about twenty times from Halifax, Nova Scotia (Jones), to Cape May,
SN. J. (Abbott). A few dates are in May, but the larger part are in
the fall from August to October. One specimen was taken about
'1886 in the interior at Toronto, Ont. (Fleming). The species has
Been recorded from Grenada Island, West Indies (Cory), and there
Is a specimen in the British Museum said to have been taken in eastern
IPatagonia.
In winter the curlew sandpiper ranges south to southern Africa,
India, the Malay Archipelago, and Australia. During migration it
|has been noted in the Philippines and China, and west to Great
.Britain.
Spoon-bill Sandpiper. Eurynorhynchus pygmeus (Linn.).
The spoon-bill sandpiper inhabits the Eastern Hemisphere and
ranges in summer to northeastern Siberia. It migrates through Japan
Iand China and winters as far south as Burma and India. One was
..taken in 1849 on the Choris Peninsula of Alaska-the only record for
.he Western Hemisphere.
! i: .. '**


45




.... ~ '::* : :; i ::::1:i^~!ijiI
46 NORTH AMERICAN SHOREBIRDS.
Semipalmated Sandpiper. Ereunetes punsillu (Linnu.). ).-.
Breeding range.-The semipalmated sandpiper breeds in i
at Okak (Crandall) and south to Fort George (Drexler), ad am, .O
the Barren Grounds from Hudson Bay (Eifrig) west to Frankli
(MacFarlane), along the Arctic coast to Kotzebue Sound,::
(Grinnell), and south on the western coast of Alaska to St. Mich3
(specimens in United States National Museum). 4 'j
Winter range.-It winters mainly in eastern South America, ".mtl
to Patagonia (latitude 43 S.) (Seebohm), and thence north thang
Central America and the West Indies to eastern Mexico (Sumichraat
southern Texas (Refugio County; Carroll), Florida (Scott), and '.h
coast of Georgia (Helme) and South Carolina (specimen in Unite
States National Museum).
Migration range.-The semipalmated sandpiper is a rare sprin
but an abundant fall migrant along the whole Atlantic coast. It is I
common fall migrant through the Bermudas (Hurdis), Bahamw
(Bryant), and the West Indies east of Cuba. It is common boti
spring and fall in the Mississippi Valley, becoming less common west
ward to the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains, and west of ti
mountains to western British Columbia (Brooks), Sitka, Alaska (Big
choff),, Cook Inlet (Chapman), Norton Sound (McGregor), St, Pau
Island (Palmer), and the coast of northeastern Siberia (Nelson). L
has occurred in migration on the coast of Peru (Salvin).
Spring migration.-Almost all the spring records for the Atlanti
coast are in May, while migration in the Mississippi Valley begins i"
April: Camden, Ind., average of three years April 21, earliest Appi
18, 1886 (Groninger); Keokuk, Iowa, average of eight years Apr|
30, earliest April 19, 1898 (Currier); Fort Lyon, Colo., April 25, 1884
(Thorne); Indian Head, Saskatchewan, May 16,1892 (Macoun); For
Chipewyan, Alberta, May 24, 1901 (Preble); Great Bear Lake, Mac
kenzie, May 24, 1826 (Richardson); Kowak River, Alaska, May .29
1899 (Grinnell). Nonbreeding birds are found here and.there b
summer from Wisconsin (Kumlien and Hollister) to Massachusett
(Howe and Allen).
Eggs have been taken at Fort George, Ungava, June 24, 1861
(Drexler); Franklin Bay, Mackenzie, June 30, 1864 (young July 5
1865), (MacFarlane); St. Michael, Alaska, June 9, 1880 (specimen
in United States National Museum); and young just hatched at Cap
Blossom, Alaska, June 30, 1898 (Grinnell).
Fall migration.-Like so many other sandpipers the semipalmatec
begins to move south so early that it appears in the United States ii
July; southern Mississippi, average of three years July 16, earlier
July 10, 1905 (Brodie and Kopman); Fernandina, Fla., July 14, 19K
(Worthington); Porto Rico, August 11, 1901 (Bowdish); La Guaird
Venezuela, August 10 (Robinson and Richmond), and Marajo, Brazil
Zi




WESTERN SANDPIPER.


August 4 (Allen). Specimens were taken July 3, 1907, at Coronado
de Terraba, Costa Rica (Carriker), but these may have been non-
1breeders that had not made the northward journey. Young birds
migrate about a month later, and it is probably these that afford the
following average dates: North River, Prince Edward Island, August
8 (Bain); Long Island, New York, August 10 (Worthington); Beaver
Pa., August 14 (Todd); Keokuk, Iowa, August 18 (Currier).
The average date of the last one seen at Point Barrow, Alaska, is
August 15, latest August 18, 1882 (Murdoch); Herschel Island,
Yukon, August 2, 1894 (Russell); York Factory, Keewatin, August
26, 1900 (Preble); Ottawa, average of the last one seen September 9,
latest September 17, 1892 (White); Lewiston, Me., October 17, 1900
(Johnson); Ossining, N. Y., October 20, 1885 (Fisher); Washington,
D. C., October 26, 1887 (Richmond).
Western Sandpiper. Ereunfes mauri Cabanis.
Breeding range.-The western sandpiper's breeding range, as at
present known, is a narrow strip along the northwestern coast of
Alaska from the mouth of the Yukon (specimens in United States
National Museum) to Cape Prince of Wales (Grinnell).
Winter range.-Though breeding only on the northwest coast, this
sandpiper is common in winter on the Atlantic coast from North
Carolina (Bishop) to Florida (Scott). This long migration across the
continent to the southeastward from the breeding grounds is very
remarkable, and is not paralleled in the case of any other shorebird.
It is, however, comparable with the migration of several species of
ducks from the Mackenzie Valley to Chesapeake Bay. The species
also winters from La Paz, Lower California (specimen in National
Museum), to southern Mexico (Lawrence), Guatemala (Sharpe), Co-
lombia (Ridgway), and Venezuela (Robinson), and undoubtedly to
the Lesser Antilles, but its distribution in the West Indies is not yet
known with any accuracy.
Migration range.-In passing from the summer to the winter home,
the western sandpiper comes east to the Atlantic coast at least as far
north as Massachusetts (Henshaw), and sometimes is quite common
in the fall on Long Island (Braislin) and the coast of New Jersey
(Baily). The strange fact is that there are no corresponding records
from the interior to indicate the route by which these birds reach
New England. The species seems not to be known north of southern
Wisconsin (Kumlien and Hollister), Colorado (Osburn), and southern
Wyoming (specimen in National Museum), while in all of the Missis-
sippi Valley between the river and the Rocky Mountains the species
is so very rare as to make it improbable that any large part of the
New England birds migrate through this section. In fall migra-
tion the species is known west in the Aleutians to Unalaska Island
(Palmer).


47




..... . ......... ...
-- ~ -- ". H p
S H O 8* :: : ".::: ::: : ::' :: I
48 NORTH AMERICAN SHGREB. ...:
:::: "" .A :: ::"::'1JJ
Spring migration.-Along the Atlantic coast the species i4 bt '
unknown in spring north of its winter range; the few kn wt% k
rences are in May. To the westward some dates of spring arintl
Galveston, Tex., March 24, 1891 (Singley); San Pedo River,LAnm.ki
April 17, 1902 (Howard); Monterey, Calif., April 6, 19$03.:....i.
inger); Redwood City, Calif., April 14,1907 (Carriger and Ponenm $.
Corvallis, Oreg., April 21, 1899 (Woodcock); southern British. Cw-w
bia, April 26, 1889, and April 20, 1905 (Brooks); Fort Kesi, iM pa,
May 12, 1869 (Bischoff); St. Michael, May 28, 1874 (Tumrr)..:::, ::3
Most of the individuals have left southern Lower Caloriki y
May 10 (Belding) and the northern part by the middle of tMhe-iontki
(Kaeding). The species was still present at Owen Lake, Calbwa%:.
June 1, 1891 (Fisher). Eggs have been found at the mouth t the "
Yukon June 5 (specimens in United States National Museum) and
near Cape Prince of Wales, June 28, 1898 (Grinnell).
Fall migration.-The first fall migrants were noted at Tulare Ike,
California, July 7-8, 1907 (Goldman), and the species was tken of t
the coast of Venezuela July 7, 1895 (Robinson). The first of then |
records probably represents birds in migration; the other, nonm
breeders that had summered far south of the breeding gromds.
Some other fall records are: Southern British Columbia, average o i
five years August 14 as the date of fall arrival (Brooks); Seanii ooA
Bay, Washington, July 15, 1857 (Kennerly); Santa Barbara, Calif.,
July 3, 1875 (Sharpe); Fort Bridger, Wyo., July 13, 1858, (Drexler);
near Arco, Idaho, July 25, 1890 (Merriam); Rockport, Tex., August -
12, 1905 (Howell); Monomoy Island, Massachusetts, July 19, 188 -
(Brewster); Charleston, S. C., about July 8 (Wayne); Haiti, July 1 1!
1883 (Stone);. San Mateo, Tehuantepec, August 7, 1869 (specimen i
United States National Museum). The latest date in southern
British Columbia is September 11, 1889 (Brooks); Hayward, Calif.
November 4, 1.889 (Emerson); Monomoy Island, Massachusetts,
September 19, 1888 (Brewster); Cape May County, N. J., September
15,1895 (Baily); Washington, D. C., September 22, 1894 (Hasbrouck),,
Sanderling. Calidris leucophasa (Pallas). i !
Breeding range.-The sanderling is a cosmopolite, breeding amA *
wintering in both hemispheres. It is known to breed north W ;
Point Barrow, Alaska (Stone), Melville Island (Fisher), Grinnell Land
(Feilden), both coasts of Greenland (Bessels and Winge), the Taimyr
Peninsula, Siberia (Walter), and undoubtedly breeds on the New
Siberian Islands (Newcombe). It breeds south to Iceland (Oates), tI
Cape Fullerton, Hudson Bay (Low), and to Franklin Bay, Mackea. i
(MacFarlane). i
Winter range.-Some sanderlings pass in winter to central Argen-
tina (Tambo Point, 44 S.: Durnford), and to Talcahuano, central :J
Chile (Sharpe), 8,000 miles from the nearest breeding grounds; while %'I




SANDERLING.


remain as common winter residents on the Atlantic coast of
southeastern United States north to North Carolina (Smithlwick)
cad usually even to Massachusetts (Mackay). The species winters
the coast of Texas (Merrill) andti on the Pacific coast regularly to
trial California (Cooper) and occasionally to Washington (Cooper
iSuckley).
It occurs in fall migration on the Hawaiian Islands, where it has
taken from September 25 to October 14 and where a few may
ter (Henshaw).
The sanderlings of the eastern hemisphere winter from the Mediter-
aand Japan south to southern Africa, the Malay Archipelago,
SOceania.
I Migration range.-The sanderling is common on the coasts of the
rod and on the larger inland waters. It is abundant on both coasts
SNorth America and common on the Great Lakes. It has been
coded in migration from almost every State of the Union, but is
quite rare in all the district between the Great Lakes and the Pacific
t.
spring migration.-The northward movement begins in March,
p the species the latter part of this month to the New England
ast and to the central Mississippi Valley. Further advance is so
fow that the sanderling is among the later birds to arrive at the
ending grounds, which are reached the first week in June. Some
rates of spring arrival are: Fort Simpson, Mackenzie, May 29, 1904
(Preble); Point Barrow, Alaska, latitude 71, June 2, 1882 (Mur-
och), June 6, 1898 (Stone); Prince of Wales Strait, 73, June 7,
851 (Armstrong); Bay of Mercy, 74, June 3, 1852 (Armstrong);
inter Island, 66, June 10, 1822 (Lyon); Igloolik, 69, June 16,
1823 (Parry); Grinnell Land, 82 33', June 4, 1876 (Feilden); west
.coast of Greenland at 72, May 29, 1850 (Sutherland); at 78, June
5, 1854 (Kane); Taimyr Peninsula, Siberia, 74, June 4 (Seebohm).
[SpecimenD were taken in Chile in May (Schalow); in British Honduras
May 18-20 (Salvin); southern Florida, May 25 (Scott); the coast of
New Jersey, June 13 (Abbott). The species remains regularly on
the New England coast and about the Great Lakes until the first
week in June. The fact that nonbreeders remain through the summer
far south of the nesting grounds has probably furnished the basis
for the reports of the breeding of the species south of the Arctic
'coast.
The first eggs known to science were taken June 29, 1863, near
Franklin Bay, Mackenzie (MacFarlane), a locality where the species
is very rare. The most northern known eggs were taken June 24,
1876, near the north coast of GrinneUll Land, at latitude 82 33'
(Feilden). Eggs were taken in July at Thank God Harbor, Green-
land (Bessels), and both late June and early July on the Taimyr
Peninsula, Siberia (Walter).
52928- -Bull. 35-10---4


49




......
50 NORTH AMERICAN SHOBEIBD. ....:: .........
Fall migration.-The sanderling was seen off the coast dofV
July 7, 1895 (Robinson), but regular fall migration dops-....
until some weeks later, as shown by the following dates of ftlk
which in each case are considerably earlier than the averamilt4
Stick Lake, Saskatchewan, July 19, 1906 (Befit); LineoWlM)'Nebt
August 7, 1900 (Wolcott); Toronto, Ontario, July 16, 189gNah)
Newfoundland, August 2, 1887 (Palmer); Erie, Pa., Jily21V,4t9B0
(Todd); Long Island, New York, July 20, 1900 (Scott); .Sax-a,
Tehuantepec, August 5, 1869 (Sumichrast). The last was em'Ina
Point Barrow, August 27, 1897 (Stone); St. Michael, Alaska, Sepii-
ber 11, 1899 (Bishop); Homer, Alaska, August 29, 1901 (Chapas w;
Prince of Wales Strait, August 30, 1850 (Armstrong); Grinnel i
about August 31, 1882 (Greely); Prince Edward Island, October:80.,:I
1887 (Bain); Montreal, Canada, October 7, 1889 (Wintle); Lincoln
Nebr., October 4, 1898 (Bruner, Wolcott, and Swenk); Ottawa, Ofr
tario, October 22, 1887 (White); Erie, Pa., November 17, 1902 (Todd).
Marbled Godwit. Limosafedoa (Linn.).:
Breeding range.-Formerly the marbled godwit was a common'
breeder in northern Nebraska (Say), in northern Iowa south to about
latitude 43 (Preston), and a few undoubtedly nested in Wiseonsin,
at about the same latitude (Kumlien and Hollister). It is not probe '
able that the species now breeds in either State, and the prncipal
summer home at the present time is from northern North Dakot:
(Rolfe) to the valley of the Saskatchewan (Bent).
Winter range.-The species passes south in winter to southern
Guatemala (Salvin) and Belize (Sclater and Salvin), and remain
far north as southern Lower California (Forrer) and the coasts Of.'
Louisiana (Beyer), Florida (Scott), and Georgia (Worthington),.
Migration range.-On the way from the summer home to the winter,
some individuals formerly took a course almost due east and appeared
in the Maritime Provinces of Canada (Macoun) and on the coast of
New England (Brown), becoming more common to the south until !it
would hardly have been called rare on Long Island and the Now
Jersey coast. At the present time it is almost unknown on the
Atlantic coast north of Florida. There seem to be no winter records
of the species in the West Indies, but as a rare visitant in fall lig--
tion it has been recorded from Cuba (Gundlach), Porto Rico (Gmd-.
lach), Grenada (Wells), Carriacou (Wells), and Trinidad islands
(Leotaud).
A migration also takes place westward to the Pacific coast. Though
the species is not known to breed within several hundred miles of the.
Rocky Mountains, yet it has been noted on the coast of southern
Alaska (Osgood) nearly a thousand miles west of the nearest breeding
grounds. This species therefore presents the unique spectacle of a
bird breeding in the middle of the American continent and migratiuig




PACIFIC GODWIT.


tly east and directly west to the ocean coasts. A wanderer was
at Point Barrow, Alaska, August 26, 1897 (Stone), and several
ens have been taken on Iludlson Bay (Preble). Individuals
bably sometimes winter in California, as one wa.sI taken at huinn-
t Bay, December 7, 1885 (Townsend), and at Lake Elsinore,
Abuary, 1902 (Nordhoff).
Sringmignition.-The marbled godwit is 1ami ng thle earlier
grants of the shorebirds; it reaches central Illinois in early April
Wffin); Heron Lake, Minnesota, average April 12, earliest April 8,
3189 (Miller); Lincoln, Nehr., April S18, 1899 (Wolcott); Loveland,
Vol:, average April 27, earliest April 20, 18S7 (Smith); Shoalwater
Bay, Washington, April 13, 18.54 (Cooper); southern Manitoba,
average May 1, earliest April 29, 1901 (Wenmyss); southern Sas-
ktchewan, average May 3, earliest April 16, 1907 (Lang). Nearly
iaU of the few spring records on the Atlantic coast are in May.
SEggs have been found at Oakland Valley, Iowa, April 20, 1878
(Rice); Winnebtgo, Iowa, May 6, 1871 (Krider); Miner County,
S. Dak., May 16, 1S92 (Patton); Minnewaukan, N. Dak., May 22,
1892 (Rolfe); in Grant County, Minn., May 24, 1876 (Scnnett); and
in southern Saskatchewan, May 29, 1905 (Bent). The birds and their
young were common June S, 1820, near the mouth of the Loup Fork
of the Platte, Nebraska (Say).
Fall migration.-The return movement begins in July, since
migrants have been taken at Ugashik, Alaska, July 16, 1881 (Osgood),
on the New Jersey coast late in the month (Stone), and on Pea and
Bodie islands, North Carolina. July 11, 1904 (Bishop). A gunner
who shot for the market near Newport, R. I., obtained only 26 of
these godwits during eight seasons, the extreme dates ranging from
August 6, 1873, to October 2, 186S (Sturtevant). The latest date
in Colorado is October 1, 1S74 (Hlenshaw).
Pacific Godwit. Limosa lapponica baueri Naum.
The principal breeding range of the Pacific godwit is in northeastern
Siberia, but a few individuals cross to Alaska and breed from Un-
alaska (Dall) to Kotzebue Sound (Grinnell). After the breeding
season some wander northward to Point Barrow (Murdoch). They
arrive on their breeding grounds early in May (Nelson), and are among
the earliest of the waders to begin the fall migration (Nelson). The
latest one seen at Point Barrow was August IS (Murdoch), and
early in September the last have left North America. The migration
route passes through the Pribilof Islands, Commander Islands, Japan,
China, and the Philippines. The winter home is in Australia, New
Zealand, the Malay Archipelago, and many of the islands of
Oceania. The Pacific godwit has been noted several times in the
Hawaiian Islands (Bryan), and a straggler was once taken at La
Paz, Lower California (Belding).


51




.... .. E.

52 NORTH AMERICAN SHOBBDIRDS. *"
Hudsoniau Godwit. Limosa hnmostica (Litm,). .,fiSi
Breeding range.-The eggs of the Hudsonian godwit sarlei'
only from the Anderson River region of northwestern Maken i :,
Farlane), but since Edward A. Preble, of the Biological Surveyfoil
the species common in July and August on the west coast ofrHiS
Bay, probably it breeds also not far north of this region. ThehBaBwsOi
ing range is probably the Barren Grounds from the mouth ::ilk.*
Mackenzie to Hudson Bay. :Ok ,
Winter range.-The species winters in Argentina and Chile nut
to Chiloe Island (Sclater and Salvin) on the west coast sadaw to ifl
Strait of Magellan (Sharpe) and the Falkland Islands {Abbott.
But it is rare in eastern Patagonia south of the Chubut Rliver:"(Dou.
ford), which is just opposite the southern limit on the western coast
Migration range.-The migration route between the winter sad|
summer homes is not known. In fall migration the species appeatr:s
rarely on the coast of Maine (Boardman) and more commonly in
Massachusetts (Howe and Allen), Rhode Island (Sturtevant), and
Long Island (Dutcher). Whither the birds go when they leave Long
Island is as yet unknown. On the rest of the coast of the United
States the species is known only as a very rare straggler. One asci-
dental occurrence in Cuba (Gundlach) is the only record for the-
Greater Antilles, and in the Lesser Antilles it is known only from
the extreme eastern end on Barbados (Feilden) and Trinidad
(Leotaud). It occurs on the coast of British Guiana (Quelch) and
in the interior of Brazil (Pelzeln).. ,
The species seems not to be recorded in spring anywhere on the
Atlantic coast between Argentina and Long Island, with the excep-
tion of a single pair seen May 8, 1906, near Rehoboth, Del. (Pennoek).
The very few records on Long Island (Sharpe) and in New England
(Howe and Allen) during the spring indicate that at this season it
is only a straggler along the Atlantic. It passes in spring migration
up the Mississippi Valley, entering the United States through Louisi-
ana (Beyer) and Texas (Sharpe) and passing north principally along
the eastern edge of the plains. The migration route between Argen-
tina and Texas is unknown, for there is not i single spring record in
the whole distance, and records at any time in the year are limited
to one on the coast of Peru, November 9, 1883 (MacFarlane); one
in Cuba, no date specified (Gundlach); and very doubtful records
for Colombia (Burger) and Costa Rica (Zeledon).
From the above very meager data, it seems probable that the |
Hudsonian godwit has a migration route similar to that of the
golden plover, with this important difference-that whereas the
golden plover first goes eastward from its breeding grounds to the
coast of Labrador and crossing the Gulf of St. Lawrence strikes out
to sea from Nova Scotia, the Hudsonian godwit starts in a south- |




BLACK-TAILED OODWIT.


Srly course to and down the western shore of Hudson Bay and
ps much this same course overland to the coast of New England.
hence it goes directly across the ocean to the Lesser Antilles and
British Guiana, and lastly south and southwest through central
rail to the pampas of Argentina, and to the coast of central Chile.
Judging by analogy from the golden plover, the spring migration
Route of the Hudsonian godwit is from the pampas of northwestern
Aretina directly to the coast of Texas, and almost in one flight.
This species is rare west of the Rocky Mountains. The British
Museum contains specimens said to have been taken in California
(Sharpe), but as this is the only record for the State it needs confir-
mation. A few specimens have been taken in Alaska from the
Kenai Peninsula (Osgood) to the Yukon mouth (Dall and Bannister),
Nulato (Sharpe), and Point Barrow (Stone) on the north, but there
is no evidence that thle species breeds west of the Mackenzie River.
Though the Hudsonian godwit is now very rare on the New England
coast, and has been since about 1886, yet previously it was so com-
mon that a gunner near Newport, R. I., records the shooting of 104
Birds in the years 1867-1874 (Sturtevant).
Spring migration.-The species arrives on the coast of Texas in
April (Sharpe) and has been recorded at Lawrence, Kans., as early
as April 19, 1873 (Snow); St. Louis, Mo., April 19, 1872 (Hurter);
in Grant County, Minn., April 25, 1876 (Sennett); Indian Head,
Saskatchewan, May 11, 1892 (Macoun); Fort Kenai, Alaska, May 5,
1869 (Bischoff). Specimens were taken on the Falkland Islands as
Slate as May 20,1860 (Abbott), and in Argentina to May 24 (Sharpe).
The earliest eggs taken were on June 7, 1862, at Fort Anderson
(MacFarlane).
Fal migration.-A Biological Survey party found the Hudsonian
godwit already in southward migration July 19, 1900, near York
Factory, Keewatin (Preble); it was noted July 29, 1869, on the coast
of Rhode Island (Sturtevant); it arrives in August in the Lesser An-
tilles (Leotaud); in September in Brazil (Pelzeln); and by early
November has appeared at the extreme southern limit of the range
S(Durnford). It is probably the arrival of young birds that is recorded
at Barbados (Feilden) in October, with October 7 as the average of
three.years and October 5, 1886, as the earliest.
The last seen near Cape Churchill, Hudson Bay, in 1900, was on
August 24 (Preble); Toronto, Ontario, October 20, 1890 (Fleming);
Montreal, Canada, October 11,1895 (Wintle); Rhode Island, October
13, 1873 (Sturtevant), and Massachusetts, November 3 (Howe and
SAllen).
Black-tailed Godwit. Limosa limosa (Linn.).
The black-tailed godwit is confined to the Eastern Hemisphere,
4 breeding in Iceland, and from Holland and southern Russia north to
Sthe Arctic Circle and east to western Siberia. It winters in southern


58




- - .. .. . .....

54 NORTH AMFELICAN SHOREBIRDS. . .....'
::::, .. ..:: ..:
Europe and south to Abyssinia. A specimen was take Aboti i
near Godthaab, Greenland (Reinhard), and them are oth lw m f
tain records of its occurrence in that country. -. 4w *|
Green-shank. Glottis nebularia (Gunn.). ..' ,B
The green-shank has a very wide range in the Eastern HeOUIiS ..i
It breeds in Scotland, northern Scandinavia, and east toi itM i]
Siberia; it migrates along the coasts of both Europe and Asi, eY M|
to Japan and the Commander Islands; it winters from s6uthe6i4
Europe and India to southern Africa and Australia. :T :
The only record for the United States is that of thrne speiitish
taken by Audubon, May 28, 1832, on Sand Key, near Cape Sab- ,
Florida. The species has also been recorded as an accidental 'titt
to Chile (Schlegel) and Buenos Aires, Argentina (Seebohm). s ': ,
Common Red-shank. Totanus totanus (Linn.).
The common red-shank is scarcely entitled to a place among North Amerin bids,
Its claim rests only on the description by Swainson and Richardson of & sp a i : i
from Hudson Bay which they said existed in the British Museum. '::
The common red-shank is a well-known species of Europe and Asia, whews it:bi
from Iceland and the Faroe Islands to southern Siberia and Turkestan aa4: sotho
northern Africa. It winters in southern Europe, throughout most of AfrM.ca, ma in
Asia south to India and the Malay Archipelago. ,
Greater Yellow-legs. Totanus melanoleucus (Gmel.). .
Breeding range.-Knowledge of the summer home of the greatpu
yellow-legs is much lacking in definiteness. One of the best nwn
facts is that the bird does not go far north, since it is one of the l-ow
species of the family not found on the Arctic coast, nor eveg to. tt.
Arctic Circle. The most .northern records are: Near Fort Chimi,
Ungava (Turner); accidental once at Cumberland Sound (Kualien);
on the west shore of Hudson Bay to about Cape Eskimo (Prebe);
Fort Simpson, Mackenzie (Ross); and to Kupreanof Island (Osgo4),
Lake Iliamnna (Osgood), and St. Paul Island (Seale)-all in aska.
The southern limit of the breeding range is more difficult to dter-7
mine, since the mere presence of the bird in summer is not sufficeat
proof that it is breeding. Individuals are found during every month
of the year in the West Indies, Bahamas, Florida, Texas (Se int),
and California (Grinnell), but it is not probable that the species breeds
in any of these localities. .
Eggs taken in British Columbia at Fort George and Fort St. James
(specimens in United States National Museum) are probably the only
certainly identified eggs of the species known. The bird probably.
breeds in British Columbia as far south as Clinton (Rhoads), and eapt-
ward across Canada, north of about the fiftieth parallel of latitud&
Winter range.-The greater yellow-legs winters to the southern end of
the mainland of South America. To the north it occurs on both coasts
and in Central America, Mexico, and the West Indies to the coast of
and i: Cent.ral ":ria
*.|
A




GREATER YELLOW-IdE(.5


rgia (Helme)-occasionally to North Carolina (Bishop)-Loui-
a (Edwards), Texas (Merrill), and California. In this latter State
-winters on the coast north at least to Lo)s Angeles County (Grinnell),
in the interior to Owen Lake (Fisher).
SSpring migmtion.-The advance begins in March, and the first
ach Raleigh, N. C., on the average April 3, earliest March 22, 1893
Erimley); Long Island, New York, average April 22, earliest April
47, 1896 (Worthington); eastern Massachtusetts, average April 26,
ealiest April 22, 1893 (Browne); southern Maine, average May 9,
earliest April 26, 1896 (Morrell); city of Quebec, Canada, average
April 30, earliest April 18, 1903 (D)ionne); Point (de Monts, Quebec,
*engo May 5, earliest April 26, 1885 (Comeau). Lake Mistassini,
Quebec, May 7, 1885 (Macoun). Some other early dates along the
Atlantic coast are: Patapsco Marsh, Maryland, March 26, 1875 (Kirk-
wood); Carlisle, Pa., March 19, 1844 (Baird); Westport Harbor,
Maasachusetts, March 10, 1899 (Howe and Sturtevant). The average
date of arrival in central Illinois is April 6, earliest March 22, 1890
(Brown); Chicago, Ill., average April 24, earliest April 14, 1895
(Blackwelder); Oberlin, Ohio, average April 18, earliest April 12,1905
(Jones); southern Michigan, average April 27, earliest April 24, 1897
(Hankinson); southern Ontario, average April 28, earliest April 13,
1896 (Taverner); Ottawa, Ontario, average May 9, earliest April 28,
1905 (White); Keokuk, Iowa, average April 14, earliest March 26,
1893 (Currier); Elk River, Minn., average April 21, earliest April 17,
1886 (Bailey); Aweme, Manitoba, average May 4, earliest April 30,
S1902 (Criddle); Kansas City, Mo., March 9, 1903 (Bryant); Manhat-
tan, Kans., March 11, 1883 (Lantz); Lincoln, Nebr., April 10, 1899
(Wolcott); Fort Lyon, Colo., March 28, 1886 (Thorne); Loveland,
Colo., March 26, 1890 (Smith); Cheyenne, Wyo., April 11, 1888
(Bond); Great Falls, Mont., April 17, 1892 (Williams); Rathdrum,
Idaho, April 20, 1901 (Danby); Fort Simpson, Mackenzie, May 23,
1860 (Ross), May 16, 1904 (Preble); Chilliwack, British Columbia,
March 28, 1888 and 1889 (Brooks); Fort Kenai, Alaska, May 6, 1869
(Bischoff).
Those individuals that are to breed leave the United States by the
first week in June. The species is common in Chile and Argentina
through the winter and to early April, when most leave for the north,
but some remain the whole summer in Argentina (Holland), 6,000
miles south of the breeding range.
Eggi have been taken at Fort St. James, British Columbia, May 31,
1889 (MacFarlane), and at Fort George, British Columbia, May 20,
1890 (specimens in United States National Museum). The earliest
downy young noted in 1901 in the Caribou district, British Columbia,
were seen on June 15 (Brooks).
Fall migration.-Hardly six weeks elapse between the passage
of the last northward-bound migrants on Long Island, New York,


55




56 NORTH AMERICAN 6HOGEBIR D: ..
and the appearance of the first fall migrants; on the a.e.. .i.b...ilI
in spring pass May 28, latest June 14, 1901 (Scott), whleth, *
date of fall arrival is July 19, earliest July 10, 1887 (S..tii'.i
larger flights there do not come until August, and the specieii l
common in September and October. Formerly this wasw ill3
common species of shorebirds and one much sought- by;tb
A hunter near Newport, R. I., shot 1,362 greater yellow-Ie ,4 ...
eight seasons 1867-1874, on dates ranging from July 20, UWO,;l
November 4, 1870; his highest score, 419 birds, was in 117I% u
August 19 to October 19. Dates of fall arrival are: Granviji, WAi :
, July 7, 1897 (Young); Utah Lake, Utah, July 26, 1872 (I.sstm);i
Aweme, Manitoba, average July 29, earliest July 27, 1901(Ouj..l ia
Lipscomb, Tex., one June 29, common July 8,1903 (Howell) ; 1nP.&r :,
Chihuahua, July 30, 1905 (Brown); Toronto, Ontario, July) .tM ..
(Nash);.Cullingham Cove, Ungava, July 31, 1891 (Norttt();:'M
costi Island, July 8, 1881 (Brewster); Erie, Pa., July 28, 1896' 0f
Washington, D. C., July 24, 1890 (Richmond); BahamaI
July 6,1904 (Allen); Barbados, West Indies, July 25, 186 'am.g
Bonaire Island, off the coast of Venezuela, July 21, 1892,a#
Dates of the last seen are: Near Fort Chutrchill, Keewati, tavpw
8, 1900 (Preble); Hayes Run, Keewatin, August 30, 1900 *L..l
Oxford House, Keewatin, September 10, 1900 (Preble); 4JR)i4Mg
Sound, September 14, 1877 (Kumlien); near Fort Chimei N ikWT
September 19, 1882 (Turner); Portage la Prairie, Manitobh Qct:
21, 1884 (Nash); Chilliwack, British Columbia, November:i!sIUI
(Brooks), November 21, 1889 (Brooks); Long Island, New Yowt use-
age November 5, latest November 20, 1901 (Scott). The lateo dI.s
of departure explain the name winter yellow-legs for this Speies i? f
Yellow-legs. Totanusflatipes (Gmel.). ( ,
Breeding range.-:The principal summer home of the yellow-legsS1.
the Barren Grounds and neighboring regions to the southward. f W
species ranges north to southern Ungava (Selwyn), central KsMi
(Preble), and nearly to the Arctic coast in northern Mackenzie y
Farlane). It breeds north to Kotzebue Sound (Townsend) a:3nd: Pa
Yukon (Dall and Bannister), but apparently does not occur on the
northern coast of Alaska. The southern limit of the breeding ra::
is imperfectly known; the species breeds in Yukon at least ogthf'W
Lake Marsh (Bishop), and in the interior probably to uothit:
Alberta (Macoun), southern Saskatchewan (Macoun), and no$1i6**
Quebec (Macoun). ,
Winter range.-The yellow-legs passes south in winter toQ the StrUt
of Magellan (Gay) and occurs at this season quite generally overt '
southern half of South America, and even in the mountains u''i b
10,000 feet (Sclater). Winter records north of this region are t.o
and probably only a comparatively small number regularly wintr







Bu: 3 S B>oig1cit! S!*.ircy U S Dvp! p 1 A g ,. -r. PLAT I.


*- . . . . . .




V1 'I i pw.
il .. := : "i. ,: "" I;'p" : :


YELLOW-LEGS TOTANUSS FLAVIPES).


PLATE I.






I. I

















,it









i
i i






iii
.it



*SE
\




YULLOW-LUeB.


k of South America. A few winter in southern Mexico, as far
i as Cozumel Island (Sharpe) and La Barca, Jalisco (Goldman);
bfew are noted occasionally in Louisiana (Beyer) and in Florida in
!ter (Pillsbury), and the species occurs rarely in the Bahamas at
Il season (Bonhote).
M' ptif on range.-The yellow-legs is common on the Atlantic coast
in fall and many pass through the Lesser Antilles. In this latter
region it is practically unknown in spring, and it is rare in spring
migtionz on the Atlantic coast north of Long Island, New York.
These facts would seem to indicate that some yellow-legs pursue
different migration routes in fall and spring. The species is a common
migrant in the Mississippi Valley both spring and fall, and hence
probably most of those that go south through the Lesser Antilles
Return in spring to their breeding grounds by way of the Mississippi
Valley.
The species is not common on the Atlantic coast north of the Gulf
of St. Lawrence, though one was taken October 8, 1882, near Fort
Chimo, Ungava (Turner), and two have been taken in southern
Greenland (Winge).
The yellow-legs is rarely seen west of the Rocky Mountains, but a
few occur along the coast from northern Alaska (Grinnell) to southern
Lower California (Brewster). One was taken June 11, 1890, on St.
Paul Island (Palmer).
Spring migration.-The following dates show the usual time at
which the yellow-legs arrives in its northward migration: Northern
Texas, average March 26, earliest March 22, 1899 (Mayer); central
Missouri, average April 14, earliest April 9, 1903 (Bryant); Keokuk,
Iowa, average April 16, earliest March 11, 1894 (Currier); central
Nebraska, average April 28, earliest March 27, 1900 (Wolcott);
Chicago, Ill., average April 23, earliest April 15,1899 (Gault); Oberlin,
Ohio, average April 28, earliest April 23, 1904 (Jones); Raleigh,
N. C., average April 1, earliest March 25, 1893 (Brimley). The fol-
lowing are dates of occurrence somewhat earlier than the average:
Cumberland, Ga., March 12, 1902 (Helme); Washington, D. C.,
March 12, 1906 (Green); Havre de Grace, Md., March 15, 1895 (Kirk-
wood); near Newport, R. I., April 28, 1902 (King); Godbout, Que-
bec, May 5, 1888 (Comeau); San Antonio, Tex., March 20, 1903 (Nor-
ton); Bay St. Louis, Miss., March 13, 1902 (Allison); Sioux City,
Iowa, March 11, 1864 (Feilner); southern Ohio, March 18, 1901
(Henninger); Lanesboro, Minn., April 7, 1890 (Hvoslef); Fort Lyon,
Colo., March 30, 1886 (Thorne); Indian Head, Saskatchewan, April
25, 1892 (Macoun); Edmonton, Alberta, May 1, 1901 (Preble); Fort
Reliance, Yukon, May 3 (Nelson); Fort Resolution, Mackenzie, May
5, 1860 (Kennicott); Willow River, Mackenzie, May 9, 1904 (Mills
and Jones); Fort Reliance, Mackenzie, May 13, 1834 (Back); Fort


57




** ..::*; ":**..:l^:
58 NOBRTH AMfiRlCAN SHOREBIRDS. ::
Franklin, Mackenzie, May 16, 1826 (Richardson); Fort A:'.. i.
Mackenzie, May 27, 1$65 (MacFarlane). The yellow-le.gs is4b.-
about the earliest shorebird to reach high northern latitudes. ::.
Eggs were taken at Fort Resolution June 1, 1860 (Ket iaq.);
near Fort Anderson, June 15, 1863, June 20, 1864, and June 1.85& I
(MacFarlane); and downy young July 1, 1899, at LakeMah,
Yukon (Bishop).
Fall migration.-Like so many other waders, the yellow-lgs begm
its southward journey early in July, so early indeed that nmigra-bi
have appeared on the Bermudas by July 13 (Reid). Other datt dF
fall arrival are: Chilliwack, British Columbia, July 25, 1889 (Brook$);
Fort Lyon, Colo., July 23, 1884 (Thorne); Aweme, Manitoba, JuTy
26, 1901 (Criddle); Toronto, Ontario, July 18, 1891 (Nash);:e; ,
Chicago, Ill., July 3, 1893 (Dunn), abundant by July 25 -(Pa)rkei)
Long Island, New York, July 14,1887 (Scott), July 9,1905 (Lathamn)
Long Beach, New Jersey, July 9, 1877 (Scott); James Island, Florida,
July 20, 1901 (Williams); Key West, Fla., July 16, 1888 (Scott);
Inagua, Bahamas, July 28, 1891 (Cory); Jamaica, August 2, 1i901
(Field); the average date of arrival in the Lesser Antilles is about
July 25, earliest July 4, 1888 (Feilden); Santo Domingo, Venezuela,
July 24, 1903 (Briceno); Fortin Page, Argentina, September 13, 1890,.
(Kerr). The yellow-legs is one of the earliest birds to migrate in.
fall, and the greater number have left the breeding grounds by tAhe":
latter part of August. A few linger quite late, as shown by tha fol-.
lowing dates of the last seen: Near Fort Chimo, Ungava, October :,
1882 (Turner); Montreal, Canada, October 7, 1898 (Wintle); Scotch-
Lake, New Brunswick, October 28, 1901 (Moore); Ottawa, Ontarii
October 18, 1901 (White); Lanesboro, Minn., October 11, 1888.
(Hvoslef); Oberlin, Ohio, October 18, 1899 (Jones); Long Island
New York, October 18, 1905 (Latham); Erie, Pa., October 14, 1893 1
(Todd); Lincoln, Nebr., November 17, 1900 (Wolcott). ;
Solitary Sandpiper. Helodromas solitarius (Wils.). ...
Breeding range.-Few facts are known concerning the breeding I
range of this species. It has been seen in summer over a great extent.
of country; the young only a few days old have been noted in widely
separated localities, but the nest and eggs are almost unknown
The species as a whole, including the eastern and western forms. i.
ranges north in summer to Newfoundland (Reeks); Fort Chim ,
northern Ungava (Turner); Great Bear Lake, Mackenzie (Richard-
son); and to Kowak River, in northwestern Alaska (Grinnell). Tb.
southern limit of the breeding range is entirely undetermined.. Th
birds stay in summer as far south as Pennsylvania (Todd), Illinois...
(Ridgway), Nebraska (Cary), Colorado (Cooke), and Washingtwa.
(Dawson). .-:1:
Winter range.-There seem to be no winter records whatever of!
the western form of the solitary sandpiper. There is every reasaA .7
..4




SOLITARY SANDPIPER.


--believing that it winters in South America, and has not been
ished there from the eastern form. The following state-
l t of the winter range doubtless includes both forms, but it is not
to conclude that the eastern form goes to eastern South America
the western form to the Pacific coast. It is known that the
rn form migrates to the Pacific coast of Mexico, and it is prob-
Sthat thence southward the two forms commingle both in minigra-
and during the winter. The species as a whole ranges south in
Ipter to Buenos Aires, Argentina (Barrows); to ('aiza, in south-
B Bolivia (Salvadori); and to Chorillos, central Peru (Tacza-
mki). It occurs regularly also at this season in northern South
mrica to Goiana (Quelch), Venezuela (Berlepsch and HIartert),
I* Colombia (Salvin and Godman). North of South America it is
t common anywhere in winter, and it may not winter at any of
following places, but it has been noted as late as December in
orto Rico (Bowdish), Costa Rica (Todd), Yucatan (Sharpe), Vera-
z (Sharpe), and northern Lower California (Stephens).
F:Migration range.-A specimen was taken in Greenland August 1,
|878, at Kangek, latitude 64 (Hagerup); and one of the eastern
orm was taken October 28, at San Jos6 del Cabo, Lower California
(Brewster).
: Spring migration.-The following records include both the eastern
Ld western forms: The species arrives in the southern United
States in March; Tallahassee, Fla., March 25, 1901 (Williams);
loosada, Ala., March 28, 1878 (Brown); Bay St. Louis, Miss., March
17, 1902 (Allison); New Orleans, La., average March 16, earliest
'March 5, 1900 (Allison); Boerne, Tex., March 25, 1880 (Brown);
'while some of the earliest records in California are at Los Angeles,
April 21, 1897 (Grinnell), and Gridley, April 23, 1891 (Belding).
Further progress northward is decidedly slow, as shown by the fol-
lowing dates of arrival: Raleigh, N. C., average April 24, earliest
April 4, 1889 (Brimley); near Asheville, N. C., average April 22,
earliest April 9, 1890 (Cairns); Washington, D. C., average April 28,
earliest April 25, 1900 (Preble); Englewood, N. J., average April 30,
earliest April 28, 1900 (Lemmon); near New York City, average May
4, earliest April 30, 1899 (Thayer); Renovo, Pa., average May 4,
earliest May 1, 1897 (Pierce); eastern Massachusetts, average May
6, earliest May 2, 1891 (Long); southwestern Maine, average May 11,
earliest April 28, 1903 (Swain); Petitcodiac, New Brunswick, May 14,
1887 (Willis); Pictou, Nova Scotia, May 7, 1894 (Hickman); Lake
Mistassini, Quebec, May 23, 1885 (Macoun); central Iowa, average
April 25, earliest April 10, 1899 (Savage); Chicago, Ill., average April
23, earliest April 7, 1887 (Coale); Bloomington, Ind., average May 2,
earliest April 23, 1903 (McAtee); Oberlin, Ohio, average April 29,
earliest April 18, 1909 (Jones); Ottawa, Ontario, average May 11,


59





60 NOBTH AMERICAN SHORE1BIRD. :
... ", E E: . :: ....:*
earliest May 2, 1896 (White); southern Wisconsin, awrg M'
6, earliest April 25, 1897 (Russel); Lanesboro, Minta',:iiQ=
May 6, earliest April 24, 1888 (Hvoslef); near Sa&
Tex., average April 17, earliest March 25, 1880 (Brows); Kansas, average May 2, earliest April 23, 1885 (Kellogg);
risburg, N. Dak., average May 5, earliest May 3, 1904 (j M
Aweme, Manitoba, average May 13, earliest May 9, 1906 (ardS
Colorado Springs, Colo., May 1, 1882 (Allen and Brewste); Tny
Mont., May 7, 1903, May 9, 1904 (Cameron); Athabaska .i.g
Alberta, May 5, 1901 (Preble); Sandy Creek, Alberta, May 144:9ttl
(Preble); Fort Providence, Mackenzie, May 14, 1905 (Jones);.Foal
Simpson, Mackenzie, May 10, 1904 (Preble); Great Bear Lake, Mat
14, 1826 (Richardson); Fort Steilacoom, Wash., May 6, 1856 (Suck
ley); Chilliwack, British Columbia, May 7, 1888 (Brooks); :NusAto,
Alaska, May 15, 1867, May 18, 1868 (Dall); Kowak River, AlaIka,
May 18, 1899 (Grinnell). .;
One of the parties of the Biological Survey took downy young
June 23, 1903, at Charlie Creek, Alaska (Osgood); eggs are reported
from central Alberta, June 24, 1908, June 15, 1908, June land JT:n
9, 1909 (Thayer and Arnold), and young in the nest were-found June
19, 1908, at Stony Plain, Alberta (Stansell).
Fall migration.-Early dates in the fall south of the breeding
range are: Washington, D. C., average July 21, earliest July .is
1899 (Howell); Raleigh, N. C., average July 25, earliest July i1,
1894 (Brimley); Key West, Fla., July 28,1888 (Scott); New Orlejai
La., July 20, 1899 (Kopman); Kerrville, Tex., July 20,1903 (Lcey);
Camp Apache, Ariz., July 29, 1873 (Henshaw); Bermudas, J.4
19, 1874 (Reid); St. Croix, West Indies, July 26, 1857 (Newton);
San Jos6 del Cabo, Lower California, August 25, 1887 (Brewsat);H
near Buenos Aires, Argentina, August 20, 1880 (Barrows). -:|
Dates of the last seen are: Chilliwack, British Columbia, Septem-t
her 13, 1889 (Brooks); Aweme, Manitoba, September 18, 1904 (Orid-
die); Chicago, Ill., October 6, 1899 (Gault); Lincoln, Nebr., October
20, 1900 (Wolcott); Ottawa, Ontario, October 31, 1906 (Whit);
Hillsboro, Iowa, October 20, 1899 (Savage); Delavan, Wis., Otober
20, 1892 (Hollister); Lexington, Ky., October 23, 1904 (Deao);
Pictou, Nova Scotia, October 8, 1894 (Hickman); Scotch Lake,
New Brunswick, October 5, 1901 (Moore); southwestern Maine,
October 21, 1904 (Norton); Renovo, Pa., October 14, 1897 (Pierce);
Chesapeake Beach, Md., November 2, 1906 (Riley); Beaver, Pa.,
November 28, 1901 (Todd).


Western Solitary Sandpiper. Heodroma solitariu cinnamomeu (Brewet.).
The western solitary sandpiper occurs in western North America
and ranges at least as far east as Great Slave Lake (Preble), Atha-.
baska Lake (Preble), the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains
".1i.




WILJTa.


SColorado (Henshaw), and to central Texas (Gaut). It migrates
ghout western Mexico and east to Veracruz (Sartorius) and
..uantepec (Sumichrast). As already stated, the winter range
n.Mot yet been determined.
SJll Green Sandpiper. Heloroma oerophus (Linn.).
tIj% green sandpiper, an Old World species, is widely distributed
d from the Pyrenees to southern Siberia, principally in the
timtains. It winters from southern Europe and Japan, through-
t Africa, and to Ceylon. It is supposed to have occurred at Hali-
Nova Scotia (Harting), and in the Hudson Bay Company's
tory (Nuttall), but the evidence is not conclusive.
1| Wood Sandpiper. Rhyacophilus glareola (Linn.).
SThe wood sandpiper is one of the best known of the Old World
dpipers. It breeds over most of Europe and Asia from the valley
the Danube and northern China to the Arctic coast. It winters
fom the Mediterranean and India to southern Africa and the Malay
hipelago. The only record of the species in North America is
t of a single specimen taken May 27, 1894, on Sanak Island,
Alaska (Littlejohn).
Wiflet. Catoptrophorun semipalmatus (Gmel.).
Breeding range.-The breeding range of the willet on the Atlantic
coast has become much restricted of late years. Formerly it bred"
north, commonly to New Jersey (Giraud), and rarely to Sable Island
(eggs in United States National Museum), Yarmouth (Bryant),
and Halifax (Brewer), Nova Scotia. It still breeds rather commonly
on the islands off the coast of Virginia (Dutcher), and a few may
breed in extreme southern New Jersey, but probably at present no
willets breed between there and Nova Scotia, where in 1903 it was
reported abundant at Barrington (Trotter). It breeds along the
south Atlantic coast to Florida (Scott), and throughout the Bahamas
(Bonhote.)
Winter range.-On the Pacific coast it migrates in winter to Santa
Lucia, southern Peru (Taczanowski), and bn the Atlantic coast
to the Amazon River (Pelzeln). It occurs also in winter in northern
South America (Quelch), the Lesser and the Greater Antilles, the
SBahamas (Bonhote), Florida (Worthington), and casually in South
Carolina (Hoxie).
Spring migration.-The willet starts north in March. Some dates
of spring arrival are: Hog Island, Virginia, average April 12, earliest
April 7, 1888 (Doughty); southern New Jersey, average April 19,
earliest April 6, 1877 (Scott); Erie, Pa., April 24, 1902 (Todd). The
species has been recorded in migration to Newfoundland (Reeks),
but it is not known to breed on that island.
Eggs have been taken in the Bahamas from May 15 (Cory) to
July 6 (Allen); Sapelo Island, Georgia, April 22, 1888 (specimens in


61




.. :... !. : .. .;!. ,. :
4ONq
62 NOBTH AMERICAN SHOREBIDS. .:.::::...
United States National Museum); Beaufort, N. ., Msp) &'.
in United States National Museum); Cobbs Island, V
25, 1875 (Baily); Warner House, N. J., May 19, 1884 ::4 o a
Madison, Conn., June 5, 1873 (Merriam); and on Sableui ..
June (specimens in United States National Museum).
Fall migration.-A gunner who shot for the market ne;,:l
R. I., obtained 106 willets during eight seasons, 1867-1874 .(4l|
ranging from July 11, 1871, to September 19, 1869:..(St.
One bird was seen July 2, 1902, at Sakonnet, R. I. (Kit)B.
average date of arrival of late years on Long Island, New Yo,
been August 13, earliest August 4, 1901 (Scott). The L. was i
at Plymouth, Mass., October 4, 1852 (Browne); Long Island, New
York, September 24, 1905 (Latham); southern New Jersey, aVe
September 9, latest October 17, 1885 (Crane); Hog Island, Vixguua
November 1, 1886, and October 27, 1887 (Doughty). *ii"l
Western Willet. Catoptrophorus semipalmatus inornmatus (BrewpL.). ,
Breeding range.-The western willet breeds on the coasts ofTc?
___ __ '~ ~ :. ." ..E: .!. ..S...B','_.. j- : "*.. !
(Merrill) and Louisiana (Beyer) and from northern Iowa (3in rIj
southern South Dakota (Cheney), and northern Californi. (Be4
with; Christie), north to the southern portions of Manitoba (Tomp-
son), Saskatchewan (Ferry), Alberta (Macoun), and to central Oregon
(Bendire).
Winter range.-The western willet winters on the coasts of ti.d.,
siana (Beyer) and Texas (Sennett) and on the coast of Calfdiai
north to Humboldt Bay (Townsend). In winter it ranges sodthi lti
Mexico (Nelson) and probably to southern Guatemala (Salvin).
also passes eastward and winters on the Gulf coast of Florida (Swtt).
Spring migration.-'Dates of spring arrival are: Stotesburjr, M6.
April 8, 1894 (Surber); Keokuk, Iowa, April 30, 1892 (Curt):
Lanesboro, Minn., April 26, 1879 (Hvoslef); central Kansas, a pri
April 30, earliest April 28, 1883 (Lantz); northern Nebraska, eari'
May 5, 1893 (Bates); northern North Dakota, average May 3, e'ariel
May 1, 1901 (Eastgate); Indian Head, Saskatchewan, May 6, 1A92
(Macoun); northern Colorado, average May 1, earliest April 27"
1887 (Smith); Cheyenne, Wyo., average May 4, earliest Ap-ril 30,'
1888 (Bond); Salt Lake City, Utah, April 28, 1897 (Young); Lewis.
ton, Mont., May 2, 1903 (Silloway); Red Deer, Alberta, May 12, 1892
(Farley); Halleck, Nev., May 5, 1871 (specimen in United Stales
National Museum); Fort Klamath, Oreg., April 22, 1887 (Merrill). ,.
Eggs have been taken at Corpus Christi, Tex., May 17, 1882 (Goms);
near Turtle Mountain, Manitoba, May 23, 1883 (Thompson); Onida,.
County, Idaho, May 21, 1879 (Anderson); near Beckwith, Caif,
May 28, 1891 (Christie); Camp Harney, Oreg., May 8,1878 (Bendire);
southern Saskatchewan, June 14, 1906 (Bent). Thus the nesting
season is about the same throughout the whole breeding range,




WANDERING TATTLER.


1. migration.-In fall the western willet wanders eastward far
ond the breeding range, even to the Atlantic roast, as shown by
following records: Chicago, Ill., September 2, 1906 (Armnstong
dLawson); Miller, Intl., August 14, 1S97 (Woodruff); Oberlin, (Ohio,
ber 17, 1906 (Jones); Toronto, Ontario, July 20, 1S98 (Flem-
); Stony Creek, Conn., August 15, 1897 (Bishop); Keokuk, Iowa,
hober 27, 1896 (Currier). A wanderer far north of the breeding
was taken at Victoria, British Columbia, August 18, 1898

fl Wandering Tattler. Heteraelilis inranus (Gmel.).
%The first information of the breeding range of the wandering
oler was obtained in 1904 by one of the parties of the Biological
rvey. A downy young was shot September 5 on Macmillan River
Seat central Yukon (Osgood). July 28, 1906, a pair were seen by
harles Sheldon near Mount McKinley, south central Alaska, under
Sonditions that left no doubt that they were breeding in the imme-
ate vicinity. It is not probable that the species breeds anywhere
uth of Alaska, and yet it occurs in the Hawaiian Islands every
th of the year (Henshaw); on the coast of California every
mth from March to October (Bryant), and has been taken July 2,
1Oo, on the island of Guam, and July 17, 1904, on the Philippine
lands (specimens in the United States National Museum). The
cies ranges north to Nulato, Alaska (Dall), where it is said by the
natives to breed, and occurs about as far north on the Asiatic side
of Bering Sea to Plover Bay (Bean), where it was taken in fall migra-
tion.
The wandering tattler winters in lower California, the Galapagos
(Sharpe), the Hawaiian Islands (Henshaw), and throughout Oceania
to the New Hebrides. In migration it occurs on the Commander
Islands, along the whole western coast of North America from Mexico
to Alaska, and has occurred inland, accidentally at Crater Lake,
Q Oreg. (Bendire), and on the eastern shore of James Bay (Bell).
Spring migration begins in March, bringing the birds to the coast
of California (Grinnell) by the latter part of the month. The Aleu-
tian Islands are reached the middle of May (Nelson), and the most
northern part of the range by the latter part of the month (Dall).
On the coast of central California, nearly 2,000 miles south of the
breeding grounds, the first fall migrants appear with great regularity
within a few days of the middle of July, and are common a few days
later (Loomis). At about the same time the birds return from the
interior of Alaska to the coast, and are common around Bering Sea
Sfor the next two months (Nelson). The last leave the northern part
of the range about the middle of September (Nelson) and desert the
Aleutians a month later (Bishop).


63





64 NORTH AMEICAN HOE..... ..
:* *":. :..
Ruff. JMfeet pugm (Linn.). :.:...i..;
Though an Old World species, the ruff has been tak:i
times in the Western Hemisphere at widely separated ....ol l
follows: One at Nanortalik, on the southwest coast of':...
(Fenckers); Toronto, Ontario, spring of 1882 (Seton); Engli&
Ind., April 12, 1905 (Deane); a specimen in the Ohio 8aU I..
versity collection bears the label, "Northern Canadaa,"'Aip
1877" (Dawson); Licking Reservoir, Ohio, November 10 ,4.!.
(Wheaton); Columbus, Ohio, April 28, 1878 (Jones); Grand a .:
New Brunswick, no date (Boardman); Cole Harbor, near
Nova Scotia, May 27, 1892 (Brewster); Upton, Me., SepAMbr8
1874 (Brewster); Scarborough, Me., April 10, 1870 (Sith);
den, Me., September 14, 1900 (Thayer); Seabrook, N. M., Se
ber 24, 1907 (Hardy); Newburyport, Mass., May 20, 1871 1(:z0
ster); Chatham, Mass., September 12, 1880 (Grinnell); Nantu Iet
Mass., July, 1901 (Palmer); near Sakonnet Point, Rhode ulid,
July 30, 1900 (Hathaway); Point Judith, Rhode Island, AqgustN,
1903 (King); Long Island, New York, one in fall, 1845 (Lwren ,:
one in October, 1851 (Lawrence), one in May 18, 1868 (Csapua
another specimen seems to have been taken on Long Island, butit th:
date is not recorded (DeKay); Barnegat, N. J., no date (Chpmn*;
Four Mile Run, Va., September 3, 1894 (Palmer); Raleigh, bi.M
May 6, 1892 (Brimley); Barbados Island, one before 1848 (Soi-
burgk), and one in 1878 (Feilden); one in "Spanish America, ..."wi
probably means near tfie headwaters of the Rio Negro, in nt
South America (Pelzeln). 1 A:
It is thus seen that the ruff has been taken in this hemispFb6;r
at least 27 times. Seven of the specimens have no date reoded;
9 were secured in the spring between April 10 and May 27; tjhe.th
11 were taken in the fall from July 30 to November 10. .As wou:d:
be expected, most of the specimens are from near the Atlantit4is st;1
only 5 occurred in the interior, the westernmost being tihe. ^Me
English Lake, Indiana. ..
The breeding range of the ruff is from Great Britain to .w: tt
Siberia and north to the Arctic coast. The bird winters .J.ni'
India, and to the southern part of Africa. It has wandered e'.sg
Asia to Japan and the Commander Islands, but has not yet ::b6ib -
tected on the western coast of America. i ""
Upland Plover. Bartnmia longicauda (Bechst.). V ,:F..,.
Breeding range.-The upland or field plover; sometimes cuid:.M"..
Bartramian sandpiper, is one of the few shorebirds that nest comiulJ
in the Mississippi Valley. Early in the settlement of ths reIoS
much more than half the upland plovers probably nested within
the boundaries of the United States. The center of abundance during
the breeding season was the prairie region from Kansas to Manitoba.


64






Bu1. 35 Bolog'Icai S6j'tnr U S Dop! -,! AP, cA EuIe


--I!


p


K,


A


Vt


lv
4,


UPLAND PLOVER (BARTRAMIA LONGICAUDA).


PLATE II.


.9-









I I*





I I
p












'I
I.





UPLAND PLOVER.


numbers were not greatly diminished so long as this region was
for stock purposes, but recently the birds have rapidly decreased.
the present time the species breeds south to southern Oregon
); northern Utah (Ridgway); northern Colorado (Rockwell),
t Oklahoma (Merrill), southern Missouri (Prior), southern
a (Butler), northern Virginia (Grinnan) and central Maryland
r). The summer range extends north to southern Maine
orton), southern Ontario (Renfrew; Clarke), and southern Michi-
(Wood). Then it bends far to the northward tlfrough central
meoDnsin (Kumlien and I ollister) to central Keewatin (Cape Eskimo;
ble), southern Mackenzie (Fort Smith; Preble), northern Yukon
'Dougall), and to the Kowak River in northwestern Alaska
Townsend). Stragglers are not uncommon in the Maritime Prov-
Sand have occurred in Newfoundland (Reeks) and to Godbout,
[ebec (Merriam). The species is not common east of Michigan nor
t of the Rocky Mountains.
[ Winter range.-The principal winter home is in Argentina (Sclater
d Hudson) and probably no upland plovers occur at this season
rh of the pampas of South America.
f Migration range.-In fall this species passes through the Greater
d the Lesser Antilles (Feilden), but in the Bahamas (Cory),
amaica (March), and Porto Rico (Gundlach), it is so much rarer than
her east as to indicate that some individuals reach the Lesser
Lntilles by direct flight across the ocean. It migrates also through
e Gulf States and west to Sulphur Spring, Ariz. (Henshaw), west-
Mexico (Durango; Nelson), and locally in Central America and
e northern parts of South America.
There seem to be no spring records of migration in the West Indies
ast of Cuba, indicating that the individuals that go south through
the Lesser Antilles return by way of Central America. Nor in spring
migration is the species recorded west of central Mexico or west of the
'ocky Mountains south of Utah. The only record for California is
he single bird taken by Vernon Bailey of the Biological Survey at
uile Lake, August 8, 1896.
I Spring migration.-The upland plover arrives in Louisiana on the
terage earlier than in either Florida or Texas. This would seem
Prove that it reaches Louisiana by direct flight across the gulf.
ife average date of arrival in southern Louisiana is March 14,
while the date of arrival at the same latitude in Texas is March 28,
|kd in Florida is early April. The earliest dates are: Bonham, Tex.,
arch 5, 1887 (Peters); New Orleans, La., March 9, 1895 (Beyer);
d Tallahassee, Fla., March 25, 1901 (Williams). Other dates of
rival on the Atlantic slope are: Raleigh, N. C., average April 7,
earliest March 28, 1896 (Brimley); Washington, D. C., March 21,
896 (Richmond); Holland Patent, N. Y., average April 20, earliest
S 529280-Bull. 35-10--5


65




NORTH AMERICAN SHOREBIRDS.


April 14, 1896 (Williams); central Connecticut, average dApU
earliest April 16, 1896 (Jennings); southern New H, pqhi.e
April 30, earliest April 22, 1900 (Dearborn); Plymouth, 0 .X*,
May 3, earliest April 25, 1878 (Thorne); central Vermont,'
May 5, earliet April 30, 1887 (Goodwin); Wodbout, QueWc,
1885 (Meraim). .
Migration in the Mississippi Valley begins earlier than ,QpiQl
Atlantic coast and is earlier for corresponding latitudes all ..
north to the Canadian boundary, as shown by the following ate4
arrival: Odin, Ill., average April 4, earliest March 30, 1895 (V,
cock); Tampico, Ill., average April 11, earliest April 9,1890 (Bria
Chicago, Ill., average April 16, earliest April 10, 1896 (Gault);: 0.
Ohio, average April 14, earliest March 22, 1904 (Jones); sou:
Michigan, average April 20, earliest April 8, 1895 (Alexander); ceO
Iowa, average April 15, earliest April 3, 1893 (Ross); south=r
consin, average April 18, earliest April 10, 1853 (Stiles); Heron .
Minnesota, average April 24, earliest April 20, 1890 (Miller); Ma
hattan, Kans., average April 14, earliest April 4, 1882 (Lapt
Onaga, Kans., average April 14, earliest April 7, 1893 (Crevecoec
southern Nebraska, average April 17, earliest April 6, 1890 (Wlso
northern Nebraska, average April 18, earliest April 7, 1903 (Co
central South Dakota, average April 23, earliest April 19, 1
(Cheney); Argusville, N. Dak., average May 5, earliest April 26, 1 .
(Edwards); Larimore, N. Dak., average May 5, earliest April 26, I,
(Eastgate); Aweme, Manitoba, average May 3, earliest April 26, 10.
(Criddle); Lake Como, Wyoming, May 5,1879 (Williston); R.thdr
Idaho, average May 12, earliest April 27, 1901 (Danby); Colu0 i
Falls, Mont., average May 12, earliest April 27, 1894 (WiIjms
Edmonton, Alberta, May 12, 1903 (Preble); Red Deer, Alberta, 1A
13, 1892, May 11, 1893 (Farley); 150-mile House, British Coluzbi
May 16, 1901 (Brooks).
In the winter home in Argentina the northern movement begins i
February, and most birds are gone by the end of March; a few straq
glers remain to April (Sclater and Hudson). The species pass
through Peru in March and April (Sclater and Salv4n); the last wE
seen at Piedra Blanca, Bolivia, April 23 (Alien); at Tonantins, Brazi
May 7, 1884 (Berlepsch); Cabanas, Cuba, May 22, 1900 (Palmer an
Riley); Teopisca, Chiapas, May 7,1904 (Goldman); and New OrleQA
La., May 19, 1894 (Allison).
Eggs have been secured at Lawrenceville, N. J., May 18, 188
(Phillips); Holland Patent, N. Y., May 21, 1886 (Williams); Mparth4
Vineyard, Mass., May 25, 1900 (Durfee); Cornwall, Vt., May 26, 188
(Parkhill); Philo, Ill., May 4, 1900 (Hess); Winnebago, Ill., May 11
1864 (Tolman); near Dubuque, Iowa, May 14, 1865 (Blackburn
Beatrice, Nebr., May 16, 1895 (Pearse); near Bryant, S. Dak., Mt
26, 1895 (Lee); Lewistown, Mont., May 25, 1904 (Silloway); Clsa


66




i BUFF-BREASTED RAN DPIPER. 67

rry, Manitoba, May 30, 1886 (Seton); southwestern Saskatchewan,
sy 29, 1905 (Bent).
P Fall migration.-Birds were observed at Lipscomnib, Tex., July 10,
903 (Howell), and as they do not breed in that locality, these were
thbound migrants. Observers easily detect the call notes of the
pled plover as it passes overhead in the darkness, and these
are usually the first signs of the fall migration. The earliest
r in 1895 at Baltimore, Md., were heard July 3, 1895 (Kirkwood);
SWashington, D. C., the first calls have been heard usually between
iuly 10 and July 16, while in 1896 the birds were seen July 7 (Rich-
). The average date of arrival in southern Louisiana is July 23,
est July 9, 1895 (Blakemore); Gainesville, Tex., July 13, 1885
*Bagsdale); Fort Lyon, Colo., July 12, 1886 (Thorne); Sulphur
n, Ariz., August 18, 1874 (Henshaw); Chapala, Jalisco, August
J (Richardson); San Jose, Costa Rica, September 5, 1890 (Cherrie);
arbados, West Indies, August 12, 1886 (Manning); Cienega, Colom-
September 15, 1898 (Allen). In September they first appear on
heir passage through Peru (Sclater and Salvin), and are noted as arriv-
at their winter home in Argentina (Sclater and Hudson). The
e one was seen September 6, 1903, at Big Sandy, Mont. (Coubeaux);
tat Fort Lyon, Colo., September 2, 1886 (Thorne); near Cape Eskimo,
-eewatin, August 13, 1900 (Preble); Aweme, Manitoba, average
September 6, latest September 28, 1897 (Criddle); Onaga, Kans., aver-
ge September 14, latest October 15,1896 (Crevecoeur); southern Iowa,
vI'0verage September 20, latest September 30, 1896 (Savage); Livonia,
s Mich., September 18, 1891 (Alexander); Detroit, Mich., October 20,
; 1902 (Swales); Chicago, Ill., average September 6, latest September
!22, 1906 (Armstrong and Lawson); Lexington, Ky., October 11,
" 1903 (Dean); New Orleans, La., October 7, 1896 (Kopman); North
River, Prince Edward Island, August 25, 1887 (Bain); Pittsfield, Me.,
September 22, 1895 (Morrell); Taunton, Mass., September 19, 1889
(Scudder); Germantown, Pa., October 2, 1887 (Stone); Key West,
SFla., October 3, 1888 (Scott); near Atlanta, Ga., November 27, 1903
(Smith); Escondido, Nicaragua, November 26, 1892 (Richmond);
SSan Jose, Costa Rica, November 15, 1889 (Cherrie); Davila, Panama,
November 30, 1900 (Bangs).
Buff-breasted Sandpiper. Tryngites subruficollis (Vieill.).
i Summer range.-The buff-breasted sandpiper is known to breed
from Point Barrow, Alaska (Murdoch), to near Franklin Bay, Mac-
,kenzie (MacFarlane). It was taken in June at Repulse Bay (Rae),
and undoubtedly breeds along the whole Arctic coast east to Hudson
Bay. Not quite so certain is the breeding of the bird on the coast
of northeastern Siberia. It was found to be quite common there
Near Koliuchin Bay, August 1, 1881 (Nelson), and had probably bred
|: there, but no nests or young were found, and the individuals seen
i mav have been early fall wanderers from Alaskan breeding grounds.
-:





68 NORTH AMERICAN SHOREBIRDS.
Winter range.-It winters in Argentine and Uruguay, south-
least to Buenos Aires (Durnford) and Montevideo (Gould). . ..iIII
Migration range.-Many thousand miles separate the summer
winter homes of the species, and the migration route between
widely separated regions seems to be somewhat differentkoa.tb
of any other species. The main body of migrants follows the BErns
Grounds to the shores of Hudson Bay, thence almost due south.
the Mississippi Valley to the coast of Texas and through Oakl
America to northwestern South America and diagonally ero
interior of South America to Argentina. : 4 I i4.l
The buff-breasted sandpiper is a rare fall migrant on the A11.01
coast: Henley Harbor, Labrador, August 20, 1860 (CoB);;?
Burwell, Ungava, September 28, 1884 (Bell); Quebec, three rm ra
August 28 (Merriam) to September (Trowbridge); Cape lizabt- ,:
Me., September 13, 1887 (Knight); Scarboro, Me., September 5,1907
(Norton); several records on the coast of New England and onLengl
Island, the latest of which is September 11, 1904, on Lolng- ia
(Braislin). South of Long Island there are no recent rwords, and
most of the older ones are open to suspicion. The species& wasmes
once in April in Cuba (Gundlach), twice in the fall oft Barba
(Feilden), and a record for the island of Trinidad (Leotaud):1 inIs'm0.-
what doubtful. It is practically unknown in spring on the Atlaant
coast of the United States. It is not known in the Rocky Mountai
region, but on the Pacific coast it has been taken at Cape .-ft"ifyI
Wash. (Newberry); in southern British Columbia (Brooks); SiM
(Bischoff), St. Michael (Nelson), and Nulato (Dall and BaMn.st.r
Alaska. --
Spring migration.-Migrants appear in the interior of" BrUi!
(Pelzein) and in Peru (Sclater and Salvin) during March, b tut the0.:
are no spring migration data for the whole distance between Peru
and Texas. In the State of Texas the species was noted April 22,
1887, in Refugio County (Sennett), and April 23, 1877, at Gainev:ile
(Ragsdale). The first were seen at Fort Chipewyan, May 24, tbiOl
(Preble); Fort Simpson, May 29, 1860 (Ross); Yukon delta, May 30,
1879 (Nelson); St. Michael, May 31, 1880 (Nelson); Point Barrow,:
June 8, 1882 (Murdoch), and June 6, 1883 (Murdoch).
Eggs were taken on the Barren Grounds near Franklin Bay, June
26, 1864, and June 28, 1865 (MacFarlane); and at Point Ba ribw,
June 18, 1883 (Murdoch).
Fall migration.-The fall migration of this species and of most
other waders begins in July, and so rapidly do the birds move-south
that they have been noted the last of this month in Nebraska (Bruner,
Wolcott, and Swenk); Gainesville, Tex., August 4, 1883 (Ragsdale);
San Jose, Costa Rica, September 7, 1890 (Cherrie); and Cienega,
Colombia, September 12, 1898 (Alien). The southern part of the








iI


7


I/A


SPOTTED SANDPIPER (ACTITIS MACULARIA).


- Z!


40 9
0 rO.!o-- op




4I




SPOTTED lANDPIPE.EL


ktsr range in Argentina is reached early in October (Sclater and
don). A very early migrant was taken August 3, at Pebas,
(Sharpe). Usually thle species is rare east of the Mississippi
but several flocks were seen August 16-18, 1874, at Maywood,
L,.near Chicago (Fisher).
| Spotted Sandpiper. Actitis macularia (Linn.).
Breeding range.-Few shorebirds have so extended a breeding
ge as the spotted sandpiper. It nests north to Newfoundland
|eelmks), the northernmost part of Ungava (Turner), northern
ackenzie (Fort Anderson; MacFarlane), northern Alaska at Fort
ukon (Lockhart), and to the Kowak Valley in northwestern Alaska
(Townsend). It breeds south to northern South Carolina (Chester
county; Loomis), central Alabama (Greensboro; Avery), southern
jOuisiana (New Orleans; Beyer), central Texas (Lacey), southern
ew Mexico (Carlisle; Barrell), central Arizona (San Francisco
mountains; Mearns), and the southern Sierra of California (Walker
UPss; Kaeding), and probably on the Colorado River near Needles
(Holister).
SWinter range.-The spotted sandpiper ranges south in winter to
central Peru (La Merced; Berlepsch and Stolzmann), central Bolivia
'(San Francisco; Salvadori), and to southern Brazil (Sao Paulo;
Ihering). It is not rare in northern South America, and is tolerably
common in Central America and Mexico; a few winter in the West
Indies, and a small number in the eastern United States to the coast
of Georgia (Helme) and to Port Royal, S. C. (Eaton), and in the
western .-United States to southern Arizona (Dwight) and southern
California (Grinnell).
Spring migration.-The spotted sandpiper passes north about the
middle of the migration season, as shown by the following dates of
arrival: Northern Florida, average March 19 (Pleas); Raleigh, N. C.,
average April 10, earliest April 3, 1893 (Brimley); near Asheville,
N. C., average April 13, earliest April 10, 1891 (Cairns); Washington,
D. C., average April 22, earliest April 2, 1905 (McAtee); near Waynes-
burg, Pa., average April 13, earliest April 6, 1893 (Jacobs); Beaver,
Pa., average April 20, earliest April 2, 1888 (Todd); Renovo, Pa.,
average April 18, earliest April 9, 1904 (Pierce); Erie, Pa., earliest
April 18, 1900 (Todd); near New York City, average April 26, earliest
April 15, 1891 (Burhaus); central Connecticut, average April 25,
earliest April 20, 1901 (Case); near Providence, R. I., average May 2,
earliest April 21, 1905 (Mason); eastern Massachusetts, average
April 28, earliest April 15, 1893 (Metcalf); Randolph, Vt., average
May 5, earliest April 28, 1891 (Paine); southern New Hampshire,
average May 4, earliest April 28, 1905 (Perkins); southwestern Maine,
average May 1, earliest April 14, 1904 (Norton); Montreal, Canada,
average May 13, earliest April 26, 1890 (Wintle); central New Bruns-
wick, average May 11, earliest May 5, 1906 (McIntosh); Pictou,


69




... I
70 NORTH AM MCAN SHOBEBDS. :... |

Nova Scotia, average May 7, earliest May 3, 1895 (Hickmsn)flaS
River, Prince Edward Island, average May 14, earliest .Ml.!1^4
1890 (Bain). The earliest date of arrival at New OrwlsssiLia|W
March 19, 1904 (Kopman); Atheus, Tennrm., average April 14,. Maiibii
April 10, 1906.(Gettys); Russellville, Ky., April 9, 1906 (EBmb yJws
Brookville, Ind., average April 20, earliest April 14, 1883 (Butler);
Waterloo, Ind., average April 27, earliest April 5, 1895 0im);
Chicago, Ill., average April 30, earliest April 19, 1896 (Gault); .i..O -
lin, Ohio, average April 16, earliest April 9, 1904 (Jones); ;PeterdbuI|
Mich., average April 22, earliest April 15, 1887 (Trombty); aouitbeh
Ontario, average April 23, earliest April 13, 1896 (Taverner); Ottaw#-'
Ontario, average April 30, earliest April 24, 1897 (White)..; s6uthe ,
Wisconsin, average April 27, earliest April 23, 1897 (Russell); La"s-.
boro, Minn., average April 28, earliest April 18, 1886, (HIvosei;c,
Onaga, Kans., average May 5, earliest April 26, 1896 (Creveeeeur) ;.,,
Aweme, Manitoba, average May 8, earliest May 2, 1905 (Criddl)..
Columbia Falls, Mont., average May 7, earliest May 4, 1894k.
(Williams); Chilliwack, British Columbia, May 9, 1889 (Brooks)
Athabaska Landing, Alberta, May 6, 1901 (Preble); Fort Chipewysn,
Alberta, May 23, 1893 (Russell); near Fort Providence, Mackenzie,.:
May 17, 1904 (Mills); Fort Simpson, Mackenzie, May 19, 190
(Preble); Dawson, Yukon, May 24, 1899 (Cantwell); Kowak Valey
Alaska, May 22, 1899 (Grinnell). The species has been seen south.
of its breeding grounds as late as May in Brazil (Pelzeln), and to tlhi
latter part of June on the northern coast of Venezuela (Robinson)..i..
The species.regularly remains in Cuba (Gundlach) and the Bahmap ..
to early May (Bonhote) and in Mexico to the latter part of the month' :'
(Sharpe). The average date of the last seen in northern Flowideris
May 12, and the latest May 18, 1904 (Pleas). V|
The. date of the laying of the eggs varies but little over the whaolte
extent of the breeding range, as shown by the following dateswwhest;
the earliest eggs were found: Near Richmond, Va., May 22, 181'
(Robinson); Erie, Pa., May 24, 1893 (Todd); Lawrenceville, N. J.,
May 27, 1889 (Phillips); Trenton Falls, N. Y., May 19, 1892 (WilL
liams); Canaan, Conn., May 16, 1887 (Tobey); Fall River, Mass:,
May 14,1887 (Durfee); Orono, Me., May 24, 1894 (Knight); Montreal;.
Canada, June 8, 1890 (Wintle); Dunnville, Ontario, May 17, IS84'
(McCallum); Big Charity Island, Michigan, May 20, 1903 (Arnold);
Cheyenne, Wyo., May 30, 1889 (Bond); Fort Lapwai, Idaho, May
29, 1871 (Bendire); Fort Resolution, Mackenzie, May 23,, 1860.
(Kennicott); Fort Anderson, Mackenzie, June 9, 1862 (MacFarlane);
Fort Yukon, Alaska, June 15, 1862.
Fall migration.-The individual taken on Barbados, West Idies ,
July 4, 1888 (Feilden), may have been a nonbreeding summer resi-
dent, or an early fall migrant, but by the end of July migrants hwey,





LONG-BILLED CURLEW.


feared in the Lesser Antilles, on the coast of Venezuela (Hartert),
d in Mexico (Brown); indeed, in 1892 a specimen was taken in
rthern Lower California the first day of July (Mearns).
HThe last seen at Chilliwack, British Columbia, was October 9,
8 (Brooks); average of the last seen at Columbia Falls, Mont.,
eptember 19, latest September 22, 1895 (Williams); Aweme, Mani-
:oba, average September 5, latest September 11, 1903 (Criddle);
ancoln, Nebr., September 29, 1900 (Wolcott); Lawrence, Kans.,
tober 14, 1905 (Wetmore); Lanesboro, Minn., November 2, 1886
Hvoslef); Ottawa, Ontario, average September 18, latest October 28,
|2 (White); southern Ontario, average September 30, latest October
1902 (Saunders); Oberlin, Ohio, average September 20, latest
tober 30, 1905 (Jones); Scotch Lake, New Brunswick, October 5,
|901 (Moore); southwestern Maine, average October 1, latest October
1900 (Johnson); eastern Massachusetts, average October 7, latest
etober 14, 1895 (Farmer); Hartford, Conn., average October 8,
test October 12, 1902 (Case); Ossining, N. Y., October 23 (Fisher);
ashington, D. C., October 28, 1906 (Fisher); near New Orleans,
pa., latest November 5, 1902, November 10, 1903 (Allison).
Long-billed Curlew. Numenius americanus Bechstein.
" Breeding range.-The principal summer home of the long-billed
urlew is in the interior of the United States on the northern half of
the plains. Southward it has been known to breed to Oklahoma
(Camp Supply; Wilcox), northwestern Texas (McCauley), central
]New Mexico (Los Pinos; Woodhouse), southern Arizona (Sulphur
Spring; Henshaw), and northwestern California in the Pit River
region (Grinnell). To the northward it breeds to central British
Columbia (150-mile House; Brooks), southern Alberta (Bow River;
Macoun), southern Saskatchewan (Medicine Hat; Macoun), and
southern Manitoba (Seton). The long-billed curlew was formerly
common in the eastern part of the Mississippi Valley and abundant
on the Atlantic coast, but of late years the numbers have been so
reduced that now it is merely casual or accidental east of the Missis-
sippi. There are records of the former breeding of the species in
northern Iowa (Preston), Wisconsin (Hoy), southern Michigan
(Jackson; Davis), and northern Illinois (Ridgway). The species
was an abundant migrant on the southern Atlantic coast and less
common north to Newfoundland (Reeks), and there are various sur-
mises that it bred at various places, such as the west coast of Florida
(Scott), coast of New Jersey (Wilson), and Prince Edward Island
(Boardman), but most if not all of these breeding records were based
on the presence of the birds in July, and there seems to be no authentic
record of eggs anywhere east of Michigan.
Winter range.-The species winters on the Atlantic coast from
South Carolina (Nuttall) to Florida (Allien); on the coast of Louisiana
(Beyer) and Texas (Merrill); in southern Arizona (specimen in United


71




. .. .. ... ...
72 NORTH AMERICAN SHOREBIRMDS.
States National Museum); and in California north to Owdii.....
(Fisher) and San Francisco (Newberry). It also ranges south th
Mexico to the Pacific coast of Guatemala at Chiapam (SalXE) .,'
is a casual wanderer in the West Indies; Cuba, June, July, .Octal
(Gundlach); Jamaica, July, 1863 (March); St. Vincent, once0i3 101
fall (Lawrence).. ,:
Spring migration.-When the long-billed ourlew was common oq
the Atlantic coast, it was seldom seen in spring north of the Carolias; i
the few individuals that passed up the New England coast usuaIly
appeared in May: Hail Point, Maryland, May 23, 1893 (Kirkwoo0i,4
Scarboro, Me., May 2, 1866 (Knight). Migration in the Missisppi
Valley begins in March: Eagle Pass, March 5, 1885 (Negley); Pecos:
City, March 9,1906 (Ligon); Gainesville, March 4,1876 (Ragsdale)-
all in Texas; Warrensburg, Mo., April 1, 1874 (Scott); Appleton City. ,
Mo., April 3, 1906 (Prier); central Illinois, average April 9; Jasper,:
Ind., April 2, 1896 (Butler); central Iowa, average April 11, earliest
April 3, 1883 (Lindley); northern Nebraska, average April 3, earliest.
March 28, 1889 (Bates); Vermilion, S. Dak., April 5,1884 (Agersborg)i
central North Dakota, average April 15, earliest April 8, 1886 (Ed-
wards); Aweme, Manitoba, average April 22, earliest April 9, 1902
(Criddle); Apache, N. Mex., March 25, 1886 (Anthony); Utah Lake,
Utah, March 30, 1899 (Johnson); northern Colorado, average April 14,
earliest April 10, 1889 (Smith); Cheyenne, Wyo., average April 18,
earliest April 15,1889 (Bond); Terry, Mont., average April 16, earliest:
April 7, 1906 (Cameron); Big Sandy, Mont., average April 19, earliest;
April 13, 1903 (Coubeaux); Fort Klamath, Oreg., March 28, 1887'
(Merrill); Chelan, Wash., April 6, 1896 (Dawson); Okanagan Landing
British Columbia, April 12, 1906 (Brooks).
Eggs have been taken at Camp Harney, Oregon, April 30, 1876::
(Bendire); Fort Klamath, Oreg., May 7, 1878 (Mearns); Lewistown,'
Mont., May 13, 1902 (Silloway); Fort Lapwai, Idaho, May 21, 1871
(Bendire); Cody, Nebr., young just hatched June 23, 1895 (Trostler);
southern Saskatchewan, downy young June 1, 1905 (Bent); June 11
and 18, 1906 (Bent).
Fall migration.-Flocks of fall migrants used to appear on the
Atlantic coast about the middle of July (Mearns) and reach South
Carolina by early August (Hoxie). They returned to Monterey Bay,
California, July 17, 1894 (Loomis), and arrived at Cape St. Lucas,
Lower California, September 15, 1859 (Xantus). The last one seen
at Montreal in 1893 was observed September 21 (Wintle), and on the"'
coast of Massachusetts the species has been noted to October 18W
(Howe and Allen).
Hudsonian Curlew. Numenius hudsonicu Lath.
Breeding range.-The Hudsonian curlew, or jack curlew as it is
called by sportsmen, is known to breed on the barren grounds of,
northern Mackenzie (MacFarlane) and on the western coast gi
"' 'i





HUDSONIAN CURLEW.


Alaska from the mouth of the Yukon (Nelson) north toA Kotzebue
Sound (Grinnell).
Winter range.-The principal winter home is on the Pacific coast,
where the species ranges from Ecuador (Salvadori and Festa) to
southern Chile (Chiloe Island; Pelzeln), and is especially abundant
toward the southern limit of the range. At this season it occurs also
on the coasts of Honduras (Taylor) and Guatemala (Salvin) and
north to the southern portion of Lower California (Belding). On
the Atlantic coast it occurs during the winter from British Guiana
(Quelch) to the mouth of the Amazon (Sharpe).
R Migration range.-The species probably does not breed in Green-
land, but it has been taken several times on the western coast as far
north as Jacobshaven, latitude 69 N. (Winge). It migrates east to
Ungava (Turner) and Newfoundland (Reeks), and passes down the
Atlantic coast and through the Lesser Antilles to its winter home;
but it is almost unknown in the Greater Antilles and in Central
America and northwestern South America from Nicaragua to Vene-
I zuela. It is a common migrant and a probable breeder along the
western shore of Hudson Bay (Preble), but since it is unknown in
Saskatchewan and Manitoba it is evident that these Hudson Bay
birds turn southeastward and probably reach the New England
coast; for the bird is more common on the Massachusetts coast than
would be expected from the few individuals that occur in Labrador.
SThe species is scarcely recorded in the whole Rocky Mountain district
between central Nebraska and eastern California, and it is a rare
migrant in the Mississippi Valley, though a few use this route in both
Migrations. The main migration route is along the Pacific coast,
and it occurs here west to St. Paul Island, Alaska (Palmer).
Spring migration.-Records of arrival in the eastern United States
are: Sarasota Bay, Florida, March 22, 1872 (Moore); Port Royal,
S. C., April 14 (Mackay); Cobbs Island, Virginia, May 19, 1891 (Kirk-
wood); Cape May, N. J., April 12, 1907, "ten days ahead of the usual
time" (Hand); Shelter Island, N. Y., May 9, 1887 (Worthington);
Nantucket, dass., April 10, 1891 (Mackay); but usually not in
Massachusetts before the middle of May. By what route these birds
reach the eastern United States coast is as yet unknown, for there
are no corresponding records in either the Lesser or the Greater
Antilles.
The main migratory flocks reach the coast of southern California
the middle of March (Grinnell) and proceeding slowly northward have
been noted at Fort Kenai, Alaska, May 18, 1869 (Bischoff); Nulato,
Alaska, May 12, 1866 (Pease); Kowak Valley, Alaska, May 17, 1899
(Grinnell); Fort Anderson, Mackenzie, May 29, 1865 (MacFarlane).
Eggs were taken on the barren grounds west of the lower Anderson
River in late June and early July (MacFarlane), and in the Kowak
Valley June 14-20, 1899 (Grinnell).


73




...... ....iii'ii~ii~~o ii,
74 NORTH AMERICAN SMO!rlB. .
FaUl migration.-On the western shor of Hudon Bay "drk
Factory in 1900 the species was seen July 19, andi WN wtb! l4
common in that region nearly to the fintm of September (Prebl*;1
earliest date at Toronto, Ontario, is July 4,. 1904 (Plte4nibn M'..
average date of arrival at Nantreket, Mas:, is Jaly 20, earietfiy* i
13 (Mackay); earliest at Long Beach; N. J., July 9,: 1979'-n0w A A
Pea and Bodie Island, North Carolina; July 22, 190 -:(BiSpy I
Bermudas, August 14 (Reid); Barbuda, West Indies, Augubt r2, tflP
(Ober). Two specimens were takes July 3, 1907, a Cot M i
Terraba, Costa Rica (Carriker), but these may have 'e nrnibtdW
that had not made a northern journey.
The individuals breeding in Alaska pass south along thd itadtji
coast, and have been noted at the Farallons, California., July 1-, g9I".
(Loomis); Los Coronados Islands, Lower California, Aulgust 7',, 10i
(Grinnell and Daggett); Chimbote, Peru1 August 2-5, 1883 (Mhtilr-...
lane); and by August 18, at Arauca, Chile (Sharpe). .
The Hudsonian curlew has been noted at St. Michael, AlaRa, :s
late as September 2, 1899 (Bishop); Morro Bay, California, Noventeis
1891 (Nelson); Great Bear Lake, August 30, 1903 (Preble); nea' Caer
Churchill, Hudson Bay, August 24, 1900 (Preble); Henley Hiarb,
Ungava, August 27, 1860 (Coues). Near Newport, R. I., s gunned
secured 30 birds in eight years on dates ranging from August 26; 180i'
to October 2, 1874 (Sturtevant). Barbuda, West Indies, Norembe:r:
12, 1903 (specimen in United States National Museum).
Eskimo Curlew. Numeniur borealis (Fbrst.).
Breeding range.-The principal summer home of the Eskimo curlwW'
was on the barren grounds of Mackenzie, from near the Arctic cO:",
(MacFarlane) south to Point Lake (Richardson). Thence a f&
ranged west as far as Point Barrow (Murdoch), but no nests seem to
have been found west of Mackenzie.
Winter range.-Most of the species wintered in the campos region
of Argentina (Sclater and Hudson) and Patagonia, south at least to
the Chubut Valley (Dumrnford). It has been taken once on the Fai&-.
land Islands (Abbott). It was rare in Chile, south to Chilob (Phillppi)..
At present there are no data to determine the northern limit in winter,
but probably few if any wintered much north of Buenos Aires.
Migration route.-The curlew left the Barren Grounds in the fali
and went southeast to Labrador (Coues), where they gorged them-
selves for several weeks and became extremely fat. Than they
passed across the Gulf of St. Lawrence and struck out to sea heading
for the Lesser Antilles, nearly 2,000 miles distant. Some fliekt
stopped for a few days at the Bermudas (Jardine), but if thew'adI
was fair the larger number passed on, flying both day &nd night; and
did not land during the whole trip. When storms interfered, thw
birds were sometimes driven out of their course and appeared ih/

"if




EtMO0 CURLEW.


iaderable numbers on the coast of Massachusetts (Mackay) and
often on Long Island (Giraud) and the New Jersey coast (Turn-
ll). The Eskimo curlew was absent, except as a straggler, from
Whole coast of the United States south of New Jersey, from the
as and from the Greater Antilles. In its southward flight it
through the Lesser Antilles (Feilden) and along the eastern
11dn of Brazil (Pelzein) to its winter home. Throughout the
Ileh line of its fall migration it was unknown in spring, at which
learn it was traveling northward some thousands of miles farther
t over the prairies of the Mississippi Valley. The exact route
between its winter home and thle United States is unknown, for
g the whole 4,000 miles from Argentina to northern Mexico
southern Texas the species has been recorded only twice-once
Costa Rica (Zeledon) and once in Guatemala (Salvin). Its prin-
a migration route in spring was a comparatively narrow belt
ang the prairies on both sides of the meridian of 97. The course
Swell known from southern Texas (Merrill) to southern South
akota (Agersborg) and thence data are wanting. There seem to be
Records of the species from about latitude 44 in the Mississippi
&alley until Great Slave Lake is reached, a thousand miles to the
northward.
This curlew is unknown in the Rocky Mountain States or any-
here on the Pacific slope or coast south of Alaska, and the specimen
aken April 8, 1892, at Lake Palomas, Chihuahua (specimen in
uited States National Museum), was far out of the usual course of
the species. The species has been taken a few times in western
Klaska, south to St. Michael (Nelson) and west to the Pribilof Islands
[Palmer) and Bering Sea (specimen in United States National
|useum). It has occurred accidentally several times in Europe andi
the western coast of Greenland, north to Disco Bay (Winge).
Spring migration.-The Eskimo curlew arrived in Texas in March-
Boerne, March 9, 1880 (Brown); Gainesville, average March 17,
earliest March 7, 1884 (Ragsdale); and reached central Kansas about
the middle of April-April 14, 1884 (Kellogg); April 13, 1885 (Kel-
logg). Most of the records in the central Mississippi Valley are in
'April. One of the latest and most northern is that of Coues,
who says that he saw them in large flocks the second week in May,
1873, between Fort Randall and Yankton, S. Dak. Then there is no
further news of them until they arrived at Fort Resolution, Mac-
kenzie, May 27, 1860 (Kennicott); Fort Anderson, May 27, 1865
4(MacFarlane); Point Barrow, May 20, 1882 (Murdoch).
SEggs were taken at Point Lake, Mackenzie, June 13, 1822 (Richard-
aon), and on the Barren Grounds near Fort Anderson, June 13, 186.3,
June 16, 1864, and June 16, 1865 (MacFarlane).
I Fall migration.-The Eskimo curlew started so early in August
that by the middle of the month the old birds reached the eastern
ii i


75




S..: ,: ^ '.::ii, M:." .
..: E ...:r ... :;E ....
76 NORTH AMfRICAN SHOBEBIRDS.

shores of Labrador (Coues). During the following two w*eeh:
crossed the Gulf of St. Lawrence and made their long acen
and by the end of another fortnight they were at the wimtehoribou
Argentina (Sclater and Hudson). Dates of arrival along t-i
are: Indian Tickle Harbor, Labrador, August 16, 1860 :Owi
Houlton Harbor, Labrador, August 20, 1891 (Norton); Natucke
Mass., average August 29, earliest August 18, 1898 (Mackay>; ls.'F
bados, WestdIndies, August 27, 1886 (Manning); Amazon River,tg
tember 4, 1830 (Pelzein); Concepcion, Argentina, September 9,V i:8
(Barrows). Some dates of the last seen are: Fort Churchill, Jee-
watin, September 1, 1884 (Bell); Newfoundland, to end of Septoem
ber (Reeks); Saybrook, Conn., October 13, 1874 (Merriam); Bo9 -
dos, West Indies, November 4, 1886 (Manning). Many curleiw
migrated south along the west coast of Hudson Bay, before they
turned east to the Atlantic and some of these seem to have wandered
occasionally southward and given rise to such records as Kingston,
Ontario, October 10, 1873 (Fleming); Erie, Pa., September 17, 1889
(Sennett); and a few fall records around Lake Michigan. .
The Eskimo curlew is rapidly approaching extinction, if indeed
any still exist. In the early sixties MacFarlane found them breeding
abundantly on the Barren Grounds near Fort Anderson, while Coues
reports thousands passing south along the Labrador coast in tho all;
in the early seventies Coues found them equally abundant pasin
north through South Dakota in the spring. Ten years later they
were still common in their winter home in Argentina, and natqrsl-
ists who visited the Labrador coast at this time record them aq
present in flocks but not in numbers as seen by Coues. By 188"
only a few flocks were seen, and within the next half dozen years the
flights ceased. During the last fifteen years the species has bhee
recorded only a few 'times and apparently only three times in th
ten years previous to 1909: Tuckernuck Island, Massachusetts, eigli
birds August 24, 1897 (Mackay); Nantucket, Mass., two, August 18,
1898 (Mackay); northeastern coast of Labrador, about a dozen th'
fall of 1900 (Bigelow)'. The latest records are those of two birdie
shot August 27, 1908, at Newburyport, Mass. (Thayer), and on1
September 2, 1909, at Hog Island, Maine (Knight). The disappear
ance of the Eskimo curlew has given rise to much speculation as tq
the probable cause. A simple explanation is that during recea
years, especially since 1880, its former winter home in Argentina haM
been settled and cultivated, while its spring feeding grounds i.
Nebraska and South Dakota have been converted into farm land. 4
[European Curlew. Numenius arquatus (Linn.). ;:
This Eastern Hemisphere species breeds from Great Britain to southern 'upj*
the White Sea, and the Ural Mountains. It winters in Great Britain and occursm:
this season from the Mediterranean to the south end of Africa. :
It is probable that one specimen of this curlew was collected on Long Island i
1853-its only North American record.] i





DOTTEREL.


Whimbrel. Numeniua phxopus (Linn.).
SThough an Old World species, the whimbrel is a common visitor
SGreenland (Schalow) and possibly breeds there. It breeds in
land, Scandinavia, and Russia, east to the Ural Mountains and
north to the Arctic Circle. It winters on the coast and islands of
popical and southern Africa, and ranges at this season east to India
ad the Malay Peninsula. One was taken May 23, 1906, about
titude 43 N. andti longitude 60 W., south of Sable Island, Nova
*cotia (Brewster).
Bristle-thighed Curlew. Numenius tahiliensis (Gmel.).
The breeding range of this species has not yet been ascertained,
ut in Alaska it has been taken May IS, 1869, on .the Kenai Penin-
sula (Bischoff); May 24, 1880, at St. Michael (Nelson); August 26,
1885, on the Kowak River (Townsend); and May 23, 1905, at the head
Lof Nome River (Anthony). These dates would seem to indicate
&th.t the species nests in the northern part of its range.
The species is common on the Hawaiian Islands and occurs through-
.out the islands of the Pacific south to New Caledonia and from the
Ladrones to the Marquesas and Paumota islands. The Pacific
.islands seem to be the winter home of the species, and on some of
them it is quite common. It has been taken in the Phoenix group
near the equator in June and July, and a few are known to remain
all summer in Hawaii (Henshaw), but these apparently are non-
breeding birds.
Lapwing. Vanellus vanellus (Linn.).
Though an Old World species, the lapwing has been noted several
times in Greenland on the west coast from Julianehaab to Godthaab,
at various times from early December to the first of April (Schalow).
It has been taken as a straggler at White Hills, Newfoundland, No-
vember 23, 1905 (Brewster); Halifax, Nova Scotia, March 17, 1897
(Piers); Merrick, Long Island, about December 26, 1883 (Dutcher);
Meccox Bay, Long Island, fall of 1905 (Beebe); Hog Island, Bahamas,
November, 1900 (Fleming); Barbados, 1886 (Cory).
The breeding range extends from Great Britain to Japan, from
central Europe to the Arctic Circle, and from northern China to about
latitude 55 in Siberia. The species winters from about the southern
limit of the breeding range to northern Africa and southern China.
Dotterel. Eudromias morinellus (Linn.).
This is an accidental visitor to North America, the only record being
that of one taken July 23, 1897, on King Island, Alaska (Stone). It
breeds from Great Britain, southern Russia, and eastern Siberia north
to the islands of the Arctic coast. It winters from southern Europe
to equatorial Africa.


77




NOBTH AMXBAN SHOREBIRDS.


Black-bellied Plover. S arolra squatwa(Linn.). :!|
Breeding range.-This is a circumpor spece, bt the p
it is known to breed are comparatively few. In N0oitl h&lnr.
has been found breeding on the Melville Penias4a Ri
Boothia Felix (Ross), Franklin Bay (MacFarlane), and Point.
(Murdoch). In the Eastern Hemisphere it breeds on tbo J8lrj
and Dolgoi islands of Russia and near the Taimyr Peninsula,Ai
and probably breeds on the Liakoff Islands, Siberia, and nr
south end of Nova Zembla Island. ,
Winter range.-The North American breeding birds pass south
winter to Chimbote and Tumbez, in northern Peru (Taczanowski),an'
to the Amazon River, Brazil (Pelzeln). The species is also found
this season through northern South America, the West Indies, Centr
America, and Mexico to the coast of South Carolina (Coues),
sionally North Carolina (Bishop), southern Texas (Sennett), and t
coast of California north to Humboldt County (Townsend). Itt pr
ably wintered formerly to the mouth of the Columbia (Suckley). Tl
birds of Russia and Siberia winter from the Mediterranean, India, an
southern China to southern Africa and Australia. The species
accidental in Hawaii (Henshaw). i
Migration range.-The black-bellied plover has been takenseve..
times on the west coast of Greenland north to Egedesminde, latitude
69 N. (Winge), but probably does not breed in that country. it
known only as a migrant along the east coast of Siberia, as at Plov
Bay (Nelson) and on the Commander Islands (Stejneger).
Spring migration.-The species is a late and not common m
on the Atlantic coast in the spring, and appears in New Jersey (Stone)'
and on Long Island in late April and early May; Montauk, N. Yq.,
April 30, 1902 (Scott); Cape Cod, Massachusetts, average May 2-i
earliest April 18, 1894 (Mackay); Pictou, Nova Scotia, May 17, 189|1
(Hickman). Nor is it common in the interior, where some dates ofIl
spring arrivals are: Near New Orleans, La., March 2, 1890 (Beysr);y
Sedalia, Mo., March 21, 1884 (Sampson); southern Ontario, average
May 27, earliest May 22 (Fleming); Vermilion, S. Dak., May 3, 18"84U
(Agersborg); northern North Dakota, average May 8, earliest May 5,1'
1894 (Bowen); Reaburn, Manitoba, average May 19, earliest May 14,
1901 (Wemyss); Cheyenne, Wyo., average May 18, earliest May 11,'.
1884 (Bond); Indian Head, Saskatchewan, average May 14, earliest.
May 9,1904 (Lang); Fort Chipewyan, Alberta, May 23,1901 (Preble);|
Fort Resolution, Mackenzie, June 2, 1860 (Kennicott); Sitka, Alaska,
May 6, 1869 (Bischoff); mouth of the Yukon, May 12; DawsoV,:P
Yukon, May 20, 1899 (Bishop); Point Barrow, Alaska, June 21, 1882:
(Murdoch), and June 26, 1898 (Stone).
Some individuals remain late in the spring on the Atlantic coast and
possibly some nonbreeders may remain the entire summer. Iii
Florida they have been seen June 14, June 29, July 4, July 26, an4:
.. I


78





EUNOPEAN GOLDEN PLOVER.


August 3 (Scott and Worthington). They have been seen in Jamaica
in June (Field), and even off the coast of Venezuela they were common
June 21-27, 1892 (Hartert). The last of the regular migrants do not
leave the coast of Massachusetts until June-average June 6, latest
June 15, 1886 (Cahoon); Western Egg Rock, Maine, June 24, 1895
(Knight); Toronto, Ontario, June 2 (Fleming); Corpus Christi, Tex.,
July 1, 1887 (Sennett).
Eggs were taken at Franklin Bay, Mackenzie, July 4, 1864, and
July 8, 1865 (MacFarlane), but in each case the eggs were already
partly incubated.
FaU migration.-The southward movement begins early in July,
bringing a few individuals into the United States the latter part of
that month-eastern Massachusetts, July 8 (Howe and Allen);
Toronto, Ontario, July 23, 1890 (Fleming)-but the regular migra-
tion occurs in August: Cape Cod, Massachusetts, average August 17,
earliest August 6 (Mackay); Long Island, New York, average August
6, earliest July 1, 1905 (Kobbe); Erie, Pa., August 1, 1890 (Todd);
southern Wisconsin, August 10, 1872 (Kumlien and Hollister);
southern British Columbia, August 15, 1903 (Brooks). The last were
seen at Winter Island on the coast of Melville Peninsula August 17,
1821 (Greely), and the first flocks came along the Labrador coast
August 15, 1860 (Coues). The species was unusually abundant on
Prince Edward Island in 1892 from August 22 to September 14
(Mackay). Some dates of the last seen are: Point Barrow, Alaska,
August 20, 1897 (Stone); Great Bear Lake, Mackenzie, September 5,
1903 (Preble); St. Michael, Alaska, September 16, 1899 (Bishop);
southern British Columbia, October 23, 1888 (Brooks); Fort Collins,
Colo., October 28, 1893 (Cooke); Lincoln, Nebr., October 21, 1899
(Wolcott); Ottawa, Ontario, average October 24, latest November 8,
S1903 (White); Pictou, Nova Scotia, October 11, 1894 (Hickman);
Cape Cod, Massachusetts, average October 21, latest November 14,
1887 (Cahoon)-accidental in December, 1872 (Mackay); Erie, Pa.,
November 10, 1894 (Todd); Long Island, New York, average October
15, latest November 7, 1905 (Latham).
European Golden Plover. Charadrius apricar=is Linn.
The combined ranges of the three golden plovers complete tbe cir-
cumference of the globe in the vicinity of the Arctic Circle. In
general it may be said that apricarius breeds in northern Europe and
northwestern Siberia; dominicus in North America; and fultvus in
eastern Siberia. The ranges of apricarius and dominicus meet on the
west coast of Greenland; dominicus andfulvus join ranges in western
Alaska; the dividing line in Siberia between fulvus and apricarius
has not yet been determined.
The European golden plover breeds from Great Britain to western
Siberia and south to central Europe. It winters from about the


79





80 NORTH AMERICAN SHOREBIRDS.
southern limit of the breeding range south to fIeluchistan.. ad.
ern Africa. This plover has been taken as a summer visitor t. t
east coast of Greenland (Helms), and at several places on thie'..*t
coast from the southern end to Christianshaab about 690 &Witi,
(Winge). It has not yet been found breeding-in Greenland; tlul"
it has been taken therein midsummer (Helms). '**".
Golden Plover. Charadrius dominicus Mill. ""'
Breeding range.-The summer home of the golden plover ertun
from Whale Point at the northwest corner of Hudson Bay (Eifrig,
west across the barren grounds to the mouth of the Anderson River
(MacFarlane), and thence along the barren grounds of the coastOf !
Alaska to Kotzebue Sound (Grinnell). It extends north in FrauAin
to include the islands, at least as far as latitude 77. The bird is
known to breed commonly on Banks Island (Armnstrong), Prince
Albert Island (Armstrong), Melville Island (Parry), and theislands
at the north end of Wellington Channel (Belcher), and east to the
eastern coast of Melville Peninsula (Parry). It probably does not 2
breed in Greenland, though it occurs not uncommonly on the west
coast to about latitude 73 (Walker). There are somewhat doubtful
records of the species having been seen August 7, 1881, at Cape Baird,
Lady Franklin Bay, 81 30' N. (Greely), and on July 12, 1872, at
Thank God Harbor, Greenland, 81 40' (Davis). As the belt of
tundra along the north coast of Alaska is comparatively narrow, the
principal breeding grounds of the golden plover are between the
mouth of the Mackenzie River and the Gulf of Boothia, north of the
Arctic Circle. .....
Winter range.-The species ranges south on the Atlantic coast to
Bahia Blanca, central Argentina (Barrows), and the center of abun-
dance during the winter season is the pampas of Argentina (Sclater
and Hudson) and Uruguay (Aplin), between the parallels of 34 and
36 S. Individuals remain during the winter as far north as Rio
Janeiro, Brazil (Hapgood), on the coast and to Cuyaba, Matto Grosso
(Pelzein), in the interior. There is one record of the occurrence of
the species (probably casual) in January at Nauta in northeastern
Peru (Sharpe). The golden plover does not winter in the Lesser
Antilles nor in that part of northeastern South America where it is
most abundant in migration. It has been recorded as wintering at
several places north of South America, but probably such of these
records as are not errors represent accidental or unusual occurrences.
Migration range.-From the breeding grounds the golden plover i
go south and southeast to Labrador; then cross the Gulf of St. Law-
rence and its islands to Nova Scotia, and from the southern coast of
the latter fly directly across the ocean to the Lesser Antilles and the .:
coast of northeastern South America. Sometimes when caught by a .||
storm during this flight they seek the nearest land, appearing not.::'





GOLDEN PLOVER.


euently at the Bermudas, Cape Cod, and Long Island. After a
lrt stop in the Antilles and northern South America, they pass to
Winter home in Argentina and remain there from September to
h.
'The return northward in spring is by a different route, the details
which are not yet determined. What is known is that they disap-
ar from Argentina and shun the whole Atlantic coast from Brazil
SLabrador. In March they appear in Guatemala anti Texas; April
ks them on the prairies of the Mississippi Valley; the first of May
Them crossing our northern boundary; and by the first week in
ne they reappear on their breeding grounds in the frozen north.
SVarious theories have been advanced to account for this strange
ation course. The simplest explanation seems to be the applica-
ion of the following, which may be laid down as the fundamental law
derlying the choice of migration routes. Birds follow that route
between the winter and summer homes that is the shortest and at the
e time furnishes an abundant food supply. Applying this rule to
e case of the golden plover, the following facts are apparent: The
over is a bird of treeless regions; it summers on the tundras and
-iters on the pampas; an enormous food supply especially palatable
tempts it in the fall to Labrador and furnishes power for the long
flight to South America. To attempt to return in spring by the same
course would be suicidal, for at that season Labrador would furnish
scant provender. The plover seeks the shortest treeless route over-
land, and alighting on the coast of Texas travels leisurely over the
Mississippi Valley prairies, which are abundantly supplied with food,
to the plains of the Saskatchewan and thence to the Arctic coast.
Spring migration.-The principal line of migration from the winter
home northward through South America is not yet known; the
species is said to be common in March and April in Peru (Sclater and
Salvin) east of the mountains, but next to nothing is known regarding
its appearance in the territory for a thousand miles to the northward.
The species is practically unrecorded at all seasons of the year from
Ecuador, Colombia, Panama, Nicaragua, and Honduras, and though
a few have been noted in Costa Rioa (Cherrie), Guatemala (Sclater
and Salvin), and eastern Mexico (Sclater), in none of these countries
have the great flocks been seen that are so characteristic of the faul
flight in the Lesser Antilles and of the spring advance up the Missis-
sippi Valley. Not until Texas is reached can the movements of the
golden plover be definitely traced, and at no place between Peru and
Texas has it ever been recorded as common. In fact, the records as
they stand are what they should be if the plover escapes the forested
regions of northern South America and Central America by a single
flight of from 2,000 to 2,500 miles from the valleys of eastern Peru to
the treeless prairies of Texas. The general time of appearance in the
S 529280-Bull. 35-10------6


81




NORTH AMEZICAN BQEEBIRDS.


United States and of p",sago to t1e sPumer 9o1p c Owi
from the following datep of arriynA: Bogrzf, Tl. AIM4 B&
(Brown); Indianola, Tex., March 15, 1856 (Caai); Q a ..
Tex., March: 17, 1885 (Ragsdale); Caddo, Okla., March 1,'
(Cooke); near New Orleans, La., March 24, 1894 (Aliaa),,pi
1881 (Langdon); Fayetteville, Ark., b4ndanAt March 2Q- ,,
(Harvey); central Missouri, average April 13, e*Trliet April A i
(Bryant); Badger, Nebr., average April 8, earliest Ap 'I,^
(Colt); Lebanon, Ill., March 17, 1876 (Jones); Tampiso, I..j, #y*
April 10, earliest March 31, 1885 (Brown); Terre Haue4, $., M
23, 1888 (Evermann); Chicago, 111., average April 16, earliipt4
30, 1899 (Gault); central Iowa, average April 19, ear4jqet 4pr0l
1883 (Williams); Heron Lake, Minnesota, average May 1 .IjUe
central South-Dakota, average April 30, earliest April 26, 18
(Bishop); Larimore, N. Dak., average May 5, earliest May 2, L
(Eastgate); Aweme, Manitoba, average May 4, earliest April 23, 19.
(Criddle); Indian Head, Saskatchewan, May 9, 1904 (Lang); F
Simpson, Mackenzie, May 26, 1860 (Ross), May 19, 1904 ,(Pi
Fort Reliance, Yukon, May 13 (Nelson); Point Barrow, Ald
latitude 71 N., May 21, 1882 (Murdoch), May 24, 1883 (Mudo
June 1, 1898 (Stone). The dates of arrival in the province of F
lin are: Igloolik, 69, June 14, 1823 (Parry); Boothia eir, 7Q
June 4, 1830 (Ross), June 22, 1831 (Ross); Prince of Wa Stri
73, June 7, 1851 (Armstrong); Bay of Mercy, 74, Jim 3, i4
(Armstrong); Winter Harbor, 75, June 2, 1820 (Pary); ur
lington Channel, 77, June 2, 1853 (Belcher). -
The latest dates recorded in the southern part of the wintr rwj
are March 12 (Aplin) and March 19 (Barrows); in the north pa
of the winter home the species remains until April (S tert am
Salvin); at Chicago the average date of the last one seen is Ap 3.9
and the latest May 9, 1895 (Blackwelder). Some other late. dato
are: Near New Orleans, La., June 10, 1907 (Kopm*n); L1hq o
Ind., May 10, 1894 (Beasley); LQwrenc%, Kans., May 8, 1Q060 (Wq
more); White, S. Dak., May 27, 1889 (Partch); Awemo, M 49itba
average May 23, latest May 29, 1896 (Criddle); Fort Chipevkr
Alberta, June 1, 1893 (Russell). South of the latitude of .Ohicg
the bulk of the spring shooting of golden plover is in April; fromj I"w
northward to Canada the spring shooting occurs chiefly, during *
first half of May...
During the spring migration the golden plover, is almost entq
absent from the Atlantic coast. Thexe are three spring, record p
Massachusetts (Mackay) and a few for Long Island (Giraud, the
of them many years ago. Probably most of the other sca.
spring records east of the Alleghenies are errors of, identiio
The species is not common at any time of the year wept of. T|


82





GOLDEN PLOVER. 83
e*sbraska, and Saskatchewan, and apparently is absent in spring
fm the whole region west of the Rocky Mountains.
Ss were collected on the lower Anderson River, Mackenzie,
uoe 24, 1863, June 22, 1864, and June 16, 1865 (MacFarlane); at
Pot Barrow, Alaska, June 22, 1882, and June 23, 1883 (Murdoch).
FO migration.-The old birds start south in July, and those that
to. make the flight from Nova Scotia to the Lesser Antilles occupy
*bout a month in the trip from the breeding grounds to the southern
east of Nova Scotia. If fair weather prevails, the flocks of golden
plover pa by the New England coast far out at sea, but severe
storms are frequent at this season, and the birds are often driven to
land. The average for twenty-eight years of the date of arrival of
these storm-driven migrants at Nantucket, Mass., is August 25,
earliest August 12, 1898 (Mackay); a still earlier dite is August 7,
1852, at Plymouth, Mass. (Browne). Five times in these twenty-
eight years birds were seen before August 20 (Mackay). The rule
on Long Island is to expect the plover with the first storm occurring
after August 28 (Lawrence). The first flocks are noted in the Ber-
.mudas during the last ten days of August (Reid), and about the same
time the species arrives in the Lesser Antilles (Lawrence) and even on
the. coast of British Guiana (Quelch). A few golden plover reach
Argentina the last week in August (Sclater and Hudson) and the
species has been taken in Bolivia in August (Allen), but these early
couriers are exceptional, and the main flocks arrive in September.
On the west side of Baffin Bay in 1820 the last was seen September
S3 (Parry); in Nova Scotia the species sometimes remains until
October (McKinlay). The average date of the last one seen at
Nantucket, Mass., for ten years previous to 1890 is October 2,
latest October 22, 1878 (Mackay); for the years since 1890 the
average date of the last seen is September 23 (Mackay). Near New-
port, R. I., a market hunter shot 386 golden plover during 1867 to
1874; the dates ranged from August 14, 1868, to October 24, 1874
(Sturtevant). On Long Island the dates of the earliest and latest
recorded observations of the species are August 15 and November 10
(Chapman). In the Bermudas and the Lesser Antilles most of the
birds leave in October, though some stragglers may be noted in
November.
In the interior of New England the golden plover is rare in fall,
though at times it is quite common on Lake Champlain. Throughout
New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey it is usually very rare, but
in 1880 and in several other years it has been common in those States.
It has been seen at Erie, Pa., on dates ranging from August 20, 1896,
to November 18, 1900 (Todd). South of New Jersey on the Atlantic
coast, also in the Bahamas, the golden plover is almost unknown,
and it is not common anywhere in the Greater Antilles west of St.
Croix.





NORTH AMERICAN SHOREBIRDS.


While the greater number of golden plover migrste sU
Atlantic, a few pass south in the fall through the interior 01oftW
America. The first arrival from the north noted near Fort'' RC...
Keewatin, in 1900, was on August 4 (Preble). Other dAtl..
arrival in the interior are: Moose Factory, Ontario, Septemibd.WIf
(Drexler); Aweme, Manitoba, average September 9, earliest' g
10,1904 (Criddle); Lincoln, Nebr.,September 22,1900)(Wola60) .
Toronto, Ontario, August 31, 1891 (Nash), September 1, 189B r1NT
Point Pelee, Ontario, September .15, 1905 (Swales), Sept
1906 (Taverner); Chicago, Ill., average September 1'2,, .....ii ..
tember 10, 1898 (Gault); Bay St. Louis, Miss., SeptembettiOl
(Allison); San Jos6, Costa Rica, October 20, 1890 (Cheiefl) ...$
ably these Mississippi Valley fall birds are the ones that li' fSU
common in Peru from September to November (Sclater aodn; t):
and that were noted in October at Arica, Chile (MacFaiae)" .' :T "I*..
The form of the golden plover that breeds on the nortfiernt!W
northwestern coasts of Alaska does not seem to migrate ,aki6gM
western coast of Alaska, but passes in general east to Makuiie'A
few individuals migrate southeast and occur in the fall as rargitMi
lers on the Pacific slope: Sitka, Alaska, August 16, 1896 ( iGrnli)
Chilliwack, British Columbia, August 26, 1889 (Broo.k.s)'; dr
Townsend, Wash., September 9, 1897 (Fisher); Santa Cruai4CI4
October 22, 1888 (McGregor); San Jos6 del Cabo, Lower C,,ilifbo
October 18, 1887 (Brewster). '
The golden plover does not remain late in the north. The last3
seen on the breeding grounds at Point Barrow, Alaska, were .ote.
August 28, 1882 (Murdoch), and August 20, 1897 (Stofie). So4:
other dates of late occurrence are: Great Bear Lake, September 6,1
1903 (Preble); Fort Simpson, September 10,1860 (Ross); Edmono, 1I
Alberta, September 23, 1894 (Loring); Indian Head, Saskatceik j
October 2, 1904 (Lang); Aweme, Manitoba, average Octoberi 14,
latest October 16, 1901 (Criddle); near Fort Pierre, S. Dak., Ocoble
21, 1855 (Cassin); Fort Sherman, Idaho, abundant Septter
15-20, 1896 (Merrill); Newcastle, Colo., October 5, 1902 (BishAp);
Lincoln, Nebr., November 14, 1899 (Wolcott); Lanesboro, Mi':.
November 2, 1889 (Hvoslef); southern Iowa, average October 27,
latest November 9, 1895 (Currier); Chicago, Ill., average October
11, latest October 28, 1895 (Blackwelder); English Lake, Iu4,
November 9, 1891, November 15, 1892 (Butler); Ottawa, Ontario,
October 31, 1906 (White); city of Quebec, Canada, November 10,.
1890 (Dionne); San Jose, Costa Rica, December 15,1890 (Ch.erriq)
The golden plover is one of the shorebirds that has diminished
most markedly during the last twenty years. Formerly it was
enormously abundant, and many are the accounts of the countless
flocks that passed in an almost continuous stream across the Gul of
;.4


84








Bui 35 B '..'g -' s E r U S Dept ro A,; -PLAT. Ijr


._~ .................


.-- 0.- -"p "




-' ,/. ,"A
Rw!


KILLDEER (OXYECHUS VOCIFERUS).


PLATE IV.





I~i
9:i
VIl





KnwJ M


l Lawrence and out to seas. On the return up the Mississippi
Illey also they were abundant. For the ten years 1895 1904
numbers reported have been so small that the species seemed in
U ent danger of extinction. During 1905 and 1906, however,
species was reported from quite a number of localities, indicating
t at present the comparatively small number of individuals left
I holding their own. The future of the American golden plover is
the hands of the sportsmen of the Mississippi Valley. During the
dingg season the birds are out of reach of danger from mankind;
through the winter their welfare is out of the control of the people of
*e United States; but in spring d(luring their two thousand mile
urney up the Mississippi Valley, for from six to eight weeks, great
asumbers are slaughtered, and as a result they have diminished to a
all fraction of their former numbers. If the species is to hold its
lown spring shooting in the Mississippi Valley must be largely cur-
Itailed or entirely abolished.
Ii Pacific Golden Plover. Charadrius dominicusfulvus Gmel.
The principal summer home of the Pacific golden plover is in Asia,
I where it breeds in northern Siberia east of the Yenisei River; it
breeds also on the western coast of Alaska from near Bering Strait
south to Bristol Bay. It winters on the Hawaiian Islands and in
China and India and south to New Zealand and Australia. Early
dates of arrival in Alaska are at Portage Bay, May 13, 1882 (Hart-
lhub); Kadiak'Island, May 13, 1868 (Bischoff); Atka Island, May
17, 1879 (Turner). The usual time of arrival at the mouth of the
Yukon is about the first of June, and the latest date in the fall is
October 12 (Nelson).
Killdeer. Oxyechus vociferus (Linn.).
Breeding range.-The killdeer has one of the most extensive
breeding ranges of the American shorebirds. It ranges north in
summer to central Quebec (Merriam), northern Ontario (Todd), cen-
tral Keewatin (Preble), southern Mackenzie (Preble), and to about
latitude 53 in the interior of British Columbia. The killdeer was
seen at Fort Churchill, Keewatin, and at Fort Resolution, Mackenzie,
by parties of the Biological Survey, and these observations very
materially extend its previously known northern range. The
breeding range of the killdeer extends much farther south than that
of other northern breeding shorebirds. The species breeds not only
throughout the whole of the United States, but south to Cape St.
Lucas, Lower California (Xantus), and to Rio Sestin, Durango
(Miller). Killdeers occur in Newfoundland in the fall (Reeks), but
are not known to breed on that island.
Winter range.-The winter range is much less extensive than the
summer. Though there are records of the presence of the species in


85




86 NORTH AMEIGAN SHOREBIRDS. "i
Paraguay (Sharpe) and Chile (Salvin), it is probable that them:.
sent casual occurrences and that regularly the species range to'
Bermudas (Jardine), throughout the West Indies and the neighat
northern coast of Venezuela (Ernst), but not farther east or,"
on the Atlantic coast; while on the Pacific it regularly 4paeane
to northwestern Peru (Sclater and Salvin) and the interior of 0oCic .
bia and Medellin (Sclater and Salvin). The northern wiit*
extends regularly to North Carolina (Brimley), Tennessee (Lstts)
central Texas (Brown), rarely southern Arizona (Mearm=tj.:
throughout most of the southern half of California (Fishet). Oan11
occurrences have been noted in Maryland (Stabler), Penabylwai
(Burns), and Rhode Island (Mearnm). After the great stonm n
November, 1888, which carried large numbers of killdeer to lti
New England coast several weeks later than the usual timrla fl
their disappearance from that part of their range, many of th_
birds failed to undertake a second southward migration and remi"
on the coasts of Massachusetts (Torrey), New Hampshire (Chad"'
bourne), and southwestern Maine (Brown). Most of them perins.hed"
during the winter, but on the Massachusetts coast a few manag
to endure. An occasional killdeer passes a mild winter in south-.
Ohio (Jones), southern Indiana (McAtee), or on the Pacific coast ..
Washington (Johnson)..I
Spring migration.-The killdeer is among the earliest migranW
among shorebirds, and is not far behind the earliest migrating
birds. Its loud, piercing, oft-repeated calls .make its identificati
easy, and many data have been accumulated concerning the time:.n
its migrations. These begin in February in the northern part ofi
winter range, and during that month many crowd northward to tha&..
limit of unfrozen ground. Such birds arrive on the average nearl."H
Asheville, N. C., February 22, earliest February 18, 1893 (Cairns)
central Kentucky, February 25, earliest February 19, 1906 (Embod':Yi
Brookville, Ind., February 23, earliest February 15, 1890 (ButleA16:
The early days of March find the killdeer in full migration far bey
its winter home, and its arrival has been noted as follows: VarietJO.
Mills, Va., average March 13, earliest March 2, 1888 (Micklem),
White Sulphur Springs, W. Va., average March 9, earliest March l'$.
1891 (Surber); Washington, D. C., average March 18, earliest 1
ruary 14, 1908 (Hollister); Waynesburg, Pa., average March 8,
liest February 24, 1891 (Jacobs); Berwyn, Pa., average March 14jIp
earliest January 29, 1889 (Burns); Branchport, N. Y., average,
March 19, earliest March 1, 1890 (Burtch); Jewett City, Conn4J,
average for twenty-one years March 17, earliest March 2, 1888 (J 1o1
nings); central Rhode Island, average March 19, earliest February; 2
1902. Even as far north as Rhode Island, the killdeer is so n Ira
that a market gunner near Newport (Sturtevant) secured only tf|
during eight years while shooting several thousand shorebirds.





X ILLDB. 87

There seems to be a section west of the Allegheny Mountains in
Ahich the killdeer arrives earlier than at corresponding latitudes
their east or west. The average date of arrival at Waterloo, Ind.,
S March 5 (Link); Oberlin, Ohio, March 5 (Jones); Livonia, Mich.,
arch 10 (Alexander); and Petersburg, Mich., March 10 (Trombly).
ear there in Pennsylvania, on the western side of the mountains,
oe date of arrival at Waynesburg has already been given as March
(Jacobs). At the same latitude in Pennsylvania east of the
mountains the killdeer arrives a week later, while to the westward
If Indiana the retardation of migration is shown by the following
dates of arrival: Central Missouri, average March 12, earliest Feb-
ruary 4, 1890 (Bush); southern Iowa, average March 12, earliest
arch 2, 1906 (Davison); southern Wisconsin, average of thirty years
March 15, earliest March 2, 1887 (Welman); Chicago, Ill., average of
.sixteen years March 21, earliest February 28, 1895 (Woodruff).
IFarther north in Ontario, as the killdeer nears the limit of its breed-
ing range, the arrival is much delayed; southern Ontario is not
reached on the average until March 23, earliest March 7, 1903 (Smith),
while the average date at Ottawa, Ontario, is April 17, earliest
March 18, 1894 (White). Dates of arrival farther west are: Man-
hattan, Kans., average March 8, earliest February 27, 1882 (Lantz);
Onaga, Kans., average March 4, earliest February 23, 1891 (Creve-
coeur); Syracuse, Nebr., average March 10, earliest February 26,
1902 (Hunter); central South Dakota, average March 24, earliest
March 20, 1889 (Cheney); Lanesboro, Minn., average March 29, ear-
Sliest March 13, 1889 (Hvoslef); Argusville, N. Dak., average April 7,
earliest March 31, 1893 (Edwards); Larimore, N. Dak., average
April 7, earliest April 3, 1893 (Eastgate); southern Manitoba, aver-
; age April 5, earliest March 24, 1902 (Criddle); Qu'Appelle, Saskatche-
wan, average April 16, earliest April 8, 1903 (Wemyss); two seen
June 25, 1903, at Fort Resolution, Mackenzie (Preble).
S The advance in the Rocky Mountains is not so late comparatively
as in most species: Cheyenne, Wyo., average March 21, earliest
March 16, 1889 (Bond); Rathdrum, Idaho, average March 30, ear-
liest February 19, 1902 (Danby); Terry, Mont., average April 6,
earliest March 29, 1897 (Cameron); Big Sandy, Mont., average
April 6, earliest April 3, 1904 (Coubeaux); Red Deer, Alberta, April
11, 1893 (Farley); Portland, Oreg., February 27, 1900 (Nicholas);
Grays Harbor, Washington, February 16, 1892 (Lawrence); southern
British Columbia, February 28, 1888 (Brooks). South of the breed-
ing grounds the last was seen at San Jos6, Costa Rica, March 12, 1890
(Cherrie), and at Sisal, Yucatan, May 9, 1865 (Schott).
The date of nesting seems to bear tittle relation to the latitude.
Eggs have been taken at Cape St. Lucas, Lower California, May 9,
1860 (Xantus); Monterey, Calif., March, 1867 (Day and Spencer);




... ...E .....,
88 NORTH AMEBICAN SHOREBIRDS......
Variety Mills, Va., April 12, 1886 (Micklem); Laurel, Md., j3::
ing April 24,1897; Erie, Pa., April 7,1888 (Todd); Canand.ij..
April 23, 1879 (Howey); Bloomington, Ind., April 12,1903 (Kce)
Kingston, Ontario, May 1, 1905 (Bekupre); Eagle Pass, T'ax)4
18, 1884 (Negley); Corvallis, Oreg., downy young late Apri (
cock); Tacoma, Wash., April 14, 1908 (Bowles); Edmonton0U,A41er6
eggs May 19, 1897 (Macoun). .. T
Fall migration.-The few records of fall arrival south of the" brea
ing range show that the killdeer is one of the late migrants. It wiai
noted in Porto Rico, October 18, 1899, and October 7, 1900 (BoWdish);1
San Jos6, Costa Rica, October 15, 1891 (Cherrie); and on the coastofi
Peru, October 24, 1867 (Sclater and Salvin). I
The last noted in southern British Columbia was November 28
1888 (Brooks); Aweme, Manitoba, average September 23, latest
September 30, 1901 (Cxiddle); Onaga, Kans., average October 22,:
latest November 8, 1896 (Crevecoeur); Lincoln, Nebr., latest Novem-5:
ber 18, 1900 (Wolcott); Delavan, Wis., November 6, 1894 (Holister)
southern Iowa, average November 10, latest December 25, 1888:
(Houghton); Chicago, Ill., average October 21, latest November 13I
1885 (Holmes); southern. Michigan, average November 1, latest.
November 13, 1891 (Alexander); Ottawa, Ontario, average Septem..
ber 11, latest October 16, 1905 (White); southern Ontario, average
October 19, latest November 10, 1900 (Saunders); Wauseon, Oho1
average November 9, latest November 23, 1891 (Mikesel); Waterloo,
Ind., average November 7, latest November 21, 1905 (Link); Mont
treal, Canada, September 1, 1895 (Wintle); Phillips, Me., October 244
1905 (Sweet); Block Island, R. I., November 5, 1889 (Dodge)|
Branchport, N. Y., November 29, 1896 (Stone); Suffield, Conn,
November 16, 1887 (Smith); Erie, Pa., November 26, 1891 (Todd);
Berwyn, Pa., average November 3, latest November 22/1886 (Burns);:
Bloomington, Ind., December 12, 1885 (McAtee); St. Louis, Mo,:
December 18, 1887 (Widmann). ....
[Santo Domingo Killdeer. Oxyechus vociferus torquatus (Linn.).
The Santo Domingo killdeer is the resident form of the West Indies, breeding ia
Cuba, the Isle of Pines, Jamaica, and Haiti, and probably also in Porto Rico.]
Semipalmated Plover. Egialitis ummipalmata (Bonap.)....
Breeding range.-The present known summer home of the semi
palmated plover extends north to Cumberland Sound (Kumnieu)i
Melville Peninsula (Parry), Wellington Channel (Greely), and MelJf1
Island (Parry). The occurrence of the species at these two latti
places, latitude about 75 N., makes it probable that it occurs equauJi
far north on the western side of Baffin Bay. It is common on-
arctic coast of America as far west as the mouth of the Macke'z.i|
(MacFarlane). Thence westward it seems to be rare on the north
coast of Alaska (Nelson), but is tolerably common in Kotze.l





SEMIPALMATED PLOVER.


Sound (Townsend). It seems to be more common in the middle
Yukon Valley (Bishop) than on the coast.
This plover breeds south to Sable Island (Dodd); southern New
Brunswick (Cheney); the Magdalen Islands (Brewster); southern
James Bay (Todd); York Factory, in southern Keewatin (Preble);
probably rarely in northern Manitoba (Macoun); on the Slave River
of southern Mackenzie (Preble); Lake Marsh, southern Yukon
(Bishop); and to the mouth of the Yukon, Alaska (Dall and Ban-
nister).
Winter range.-The species winters on both coasts of South
America-south to Port Desire, 48 S. (Seebohm), on the east coast,
and to central Chile (Schalow) on the west; thence through northern
South America, Central America, and the West Indies to the southern
Bahamas (Bonhote), Florida (Worthington), the coast of Georgia
(Helme), South Carolina (Kendall), Mississippi (Allison), and Loui-
siana (Beyer); on the Pacific coast of Mexico, north to southern Lower
California (Brewster). In winter it is thus one of the most widely dis-
tributed of the shorebirds.
Migration range.-The species is a common migrant in eastern
North America west to the eastern parts of Texas (Beckham),
Nebraska (Wolcott), and Saskatchewan (Macoun). Thence over the
plains and throughout the whole Rocky Mountain district it is almost
unknown, but reappears on the Pacific Coast, and ranges west in
migration to the central Aleutian Islands (McGregor), the Pribilof
SIslands (Prentiss), and even occasionally across Bering Strait to the
coast of Siberia (Nelson).
Spring migration.-At least four-fifths of the dates on the spring
Migration of this species fall in May. This is true for the entire district
between the winter and summer homes, and the dates indicate that
the migration in the United States occurs chiefly between May 10 and
June 1. An unusually early individual was taken April 7, 1875, at
Erie, Pa. (Sennett). Other spring dates are: Magdalena Bay, Lower
California, March 12, 1889 (Bryant); Monterey, Calif., April 17, 1903;
Vancouver Island, British Columbia, April 28, 1894 (Kermode);
Mount McKinley, Alaska, May 17, 1908 (Sheldon); Kowak River,
Alaska, May 30, 1899 (Grinnell); Pea and Bodie islands, North Caro-
lina, April 25, 1905 (Bishop); Lincoln, Nebr., April 27, 1900 (Wol-
cott); southern Ontario, average of six years May 18, earliest May 8,
1885 (Gamier); Melville Peninsula, May 31,1882 (Parry); Wellington
Channel, June 6, 1851 (Greely). The species was taken in Cuba as
late as May 22, 1900 (Palmer and Riley); southern Florida, May 25,
1886 (Scott); from New Jersey to the Great Lakes it remains regularly
to the first week in June-latest Oberlin, Ohio, June 17, 1904 (Jones);
latest Worth, Ill., June 20, 1894 (Woodruff); and along the coast of
Maine nonbreeders occur all summer (Knight).


89




... :- : : '' IJJ
90 NORTH AMERICAM Smtdtttlw. |
Eggs have been taken at Grarid Mahaki, New BrIti k,tl u :
1875 (Cheney); James Bay, June 18; 1896 (MAt6tiy; Ok R*RWfIy
ton, June 28, 1904 (Eifrig); Foit Ariderhdii, Jufit l, 1'i' l '* q
Farlane); Fort Yikon, MAlaska, Juine 2, 1862 )Lokhfa i,
Marsh, Yukon, just hatched, July 2, 1899 (Bishop). i !?
Fall mnigration.-At onib of the most southetn bredditg y.l |
near York Factory, Ke6watin, in 1900, the most advahcfd.. ......t t
were still in the downy stage July 10 (Pibble), hid yet by thUtSi&
the species is already in full fall migration, and the earliest indivia"l
have appeared several hundred miles south of the breeding lge:
Toronto, Ontario, July 5, 1890 (Fleming); Rhode Ilkiid, SJily6A
(Howe and Sturtevant); Coronado de Terraba, Costa Ricba, July I
1907 (Carriker); Margarita Island, off the coast of Vebihuila, JulyOr
7, 1895 (Robinson). The regular fall migration is about a month I
later: Sitka, Alaska, common after July 25, 1896 (Grinihil); Prince
Edward Island, average of three years August 13 (Baiin); Long
Island, New York, average of seven years August 6, earliest Jhly i7, |
1905 (Latham); Grenada, West Indies, August 24, 1881 (W i y; .I
Santa Catarina, Brazil, August 4 (Sharpe).
Though most semipalmated plover migrate early, a few stay itttil
freezing weather: Ottawa,-Ontario, average of five years September .
19, latest September 29, 1885 (White); Prince of Wales Sound,
Ungava, latest September 25, 1886 (Payne); Prince Edward Island,
average of three years, October 13 (Bain); Erie, Pa., rare after Octo- 1
ber 1, latest November 2, 1901 (Todd); Point Pelee, Ontario, Octobbr j
29, 1905 (Taverner and Swales); Grinnell, Iowa, October 22, 1886 ;%
(Jones); Los Angeles County, Calif., October 17, 1894 (Griinnell). .
Ringed Plover. gialitia hiaticula (Litm.).
Both coasts of Greenland are included in the breeding rigb of-
the ringed plover, from the southern end to Sabine Island (Scortesby)-'
on the east coast and to McCormick Bay (Schalow) on the west.
Across Smith Sound from this latter place and one degree further i
north, at Buchanan Bay, Ellesmere Island, latitude 78 48' (Feilden):
is the farthest north the species has been found in the Western Hemi-.
sphere, though north of Europe it has been taken at 83 latitude.
On the American side it breeds south to Cumberland Sound (Kumlien);
also south to central Europe and Turkestan, and east to the New
Siberian Islands, and occurs casually east to the Chuckchi Peninsula.
The winter is spent from the shores of the Mediterranean to southern
Africa and rarely to northwestern India. It has wandered to Cile..
(Sharpe), and to Barbados, September 10, 1888 (Feilden). The.
first arrived at Cumberland Sound in 1878 about the middle of Juneo
(Kumlien). "
Little Ringed Plover. Agialitis dubia (Scop.).
The claim of the little ringed plover to a place among NorthAmerican: I
birds is rather slight. A specimen is supposed to have been taken on-"
!1