The relation of sparrows to agriculture


Material Information

The relation of sparrows to agriculture
Series Title:
Bulletin / U.S. Department of Agriculture, Division of Biological Survey ;
Physical Description:
98 p., 4 leaves of plates : ill. ; 23 cm.
Judd, Sylvester Dwight, 1871-1905
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Division of Biological Survey
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Sparrows   ( lcsh )
Sparrows   ( fast )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references and index.
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Sylvester D. Judd.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 09040101
lccn - agr06000837
lcc - QL155 .A2 no. 15
ddc - 598.2
System ID:

Full Text

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1,; 2, White-throated Sparrow; 8, Fox Sparrow; 4, Tree Sparrow.

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see elmet i o
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detito ofgano ed.Ilr 'M*W
umlytemstpoietan-fe b
orihlg I.:_.y h Iymn- e

loomeithr o thee crM wile,=my p""
sevc oarcutr ydsroigwe od
sad edi ln u fpao eti
fomdahbto osatl otn u fpmn
-----1 inclivtd
whthr ctnnl
inajcn wsor,
------- cahpedW
thy r awy
th adenhy
fod n he n
ca pigu
wil o ol


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=4atog oe o t as
so *a *a hoe a a4 eW|d'i
wIk fo upssoioveitew mdso
M~ms t
many beaoieW
pet -Th
won otftdr
amut fbit]
such oracko~ma
thisee !
tief re
hand cam
& o n i m n fy ( f e o a d v n d b e t e
D|bc fEtm119)
petadcranprsti aplkEyeotru
isBaomw hlii ,adIhemud
nubr fctriu-.Oe fteeprstcise
in te bck o a aterillr fiom.20 t 2,00 egswhi
inogu-ielrs htfeduo h at ise
th caepla ota tisntal otason
inoapreti net
Th atta id ontdsrmnt ewe
inwata i h amesc 8p mtcR1
meotr n anvru rudbels n
thi thtaehrflt-isitrss e h
entoologst, enjmin Washto dny teir
usflns asisctdsrye& H asrs"
th goddn ytecnupino nL ot
is moeta oneblne ytedsmto
of usflsei& Hsagueti htteea
,brt tieLsmn niiua netpssms
thr ar neteeiswihabituo hx,
an thtteeoen n!cioosbk nb
beneacto utilit cn beshon tode~ry a
may nurou s enfoilinecs Ap~dto"
bidso hghyefecie waiesof.. ..7


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bh& isem'gy4ea,,ytnyuMf
'M~t o th &W4W"W,
o x m i at o n of t h Vw "?
itaheaiainsosnohn st tUnyo
th otiftt ie y oto h
yon r eeal ndnitl ntesosh
Veryofte bids tat re to sy tobe atchd i
kep Inatvt n xeietdwt.I h
caflycnutdmc o elaL st h
e~te, pefernce infood an quetios rlatig t *o
tion'ofthe eed of frut ad weds y bids' ir
exeimn shudb eetytapebcue h
beenlon M''coninemnt sualy dvelo unaturl r
ing refrencs i insct ood t i conenint t~pliTc
a pic fcracoe ntecne fabw fwtrf
vet hmfo saigadmkstecniin
intecs fec id'Th net hudb q,
Thus a air xpeimet wold e mde i a ady Ivd
9-noda)anda 1-spotedcucmbe beele Dia~roiic

Ingthm inacg lototo ec fteprn
feedng tem he ltte wil dro a argeproortin o
insid thecage
Th otnso h rp orgles n tmceo
ar xmndt id s ha lmns.o odteb

and (2 eas ftefc ht h e lgao i n
ofiscs ris n ed aeotns omntdta'
t|aini elng ipsibe h ehdo rdv
in th aoaoyo teBooia ure a]4n
uain sa os:Tesoahi smomwt,

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1.ftc gaisofco.5.ofwld ede
2.Mc riso wet f|08 IV
S.Sac rano "7
4. Eido~ of ~tiatedchery. of ikybrry


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:= .i~ii!!!!:iimi* .". .".. "... i... ...... .... .. ..... .. ...:"m: iiii+
.:iii j +m ........... ..
covenuf.m.4 P.uatanmuas~n
dim famm
el weeifilN
ud-bele lanetrae easly

b:: ........ reogied the re. hard jaws .ven vien t ......
- + : stomach has practically reduced the insect to .u.t W.e
O\: Certain black wasps (X'ip7ie inmada) o.t ....

*.: : :: -be recognized in the ataoahbythe
.........tny. .. '... .. pioe of .the.cru of.the..i
Siwi. thorax), which exeedinly sculptured by th
S.. reel ridges (see P1r 11,'f g 1 ... TWM

hMay-flies can usually be detested XWt
Certain:::: + black wasps (Aphid, inrai) ftf

Srettily reticuled eggs from witi i
GI....u of iny pthe1 golden eglob..le of'i:eacha

fig. 11). Bugs (Jeteroptera) mar be$
their back shields (scutella), which are mark edwibt: .:
shape closely resemble equilateral triangles (swe P. 1
des by their jaws, which look like miniature co i h.
minute eyes,, which resemble clusters of gemigi
The remains of earnd thworms are identified wit the o:
fig. 11). Bugs, (Hetertea): ma..+i~j

thscope, the hieldsgh-power lenses ofl) which a ree.alt.

amber-colored S-shaped spieules (see fig. 9)
minuof the eyeworms are besemblt. These leUses are also employ....
Tghe remAinskin of fruiterhworms and pasty masses of tl

or meaty part, of seeds. Differences can thus be ppm~
Sstructurhe high-powiderm lenses of whmany fruits (see P1. I, g
the starch grains of common cereals (see fig. I9)i, fi. I
of, and 3). When are beset.ird has eaten poiso ivy there ol
g bmains nof the skiing of the fruit except certain macks ....
or mshaped bodies (of seeds P. ID, fig. 6) which coat the stoe
stbelowr the white skin of the fruit. The' stones of ay
berries starche similarlyns of common vered with small granules (als (e P.
III and 3). When a bird has eaten. polso iy:h :
remains nothing of the fruit except certain black IM!
shaped bodies (see. Pl. 111, fig'. 6) which cost th` tow
below the white skin of the fruit. The" stones: ot...:4
berries are similarly covered -with -small granalles
PI. III, figs. 7 and 8), which furnish the clew in each
case when the stones are absent. .
After each element in a bird's stomach has bes i
placed in a separate pile, the percentageM o.f the dW.
are estimated by volume.1 In recording the x XMeul
a separate record is made for each spoioles aii' :::::i-fi
S Monthly averages are based on the number of tah
...... 0, E :::A~ ido!
.:. .. ..::: EE::El ..
'Of conu it mu be understood that ...tu ml.
Sa thM. enmttion; bot every poSSible e .I..:!...
Srt. .. .... . .> ... ........
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10afum an is. a S ofii i ii~i

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E ..EE:" Eimii'E :iEi..:A:A R.N ='ii..:i

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Of I"di
f' upyo oclt ie 7
In I-aiuaini ka essA1ib
fodhbt faybidtefrttig-ob oet
stomchsto btan a nerl iea f th bi~isf4W
fiel wor maybe dne. Uu teobsrii
abl sptIoecrflytedfevtk~so
th id edn o awie n olc
I ni thswyi il e osbl oW4a
it prfradwa twl eue
To M. i rehingfinl cncluion w oM
A idi a enfudcnein odvd b bk
goris acoring s is cnsumtio-teds t prd[x
(2) inuiuo 3 nprcal feto
fiilpr ossscilyo ise et adwe

Of core hr a b o-adadfat ueiCa
beeiiladIjros lmnso h oda
dere fgaain n ult utb osdrd A|
tiy h motneo hecnupin0 144
acodn o hte h gani aknfo h
the grwn rp hesube rth ho.Js6
..........................................................m ,I
shd fiju-ose ewe te xrms
Th bnao fabr hsas uhwihi
A pce ut enmrumutlvmn
muttk odta a ls oncinw
to prdc n infcn feto h am
The eutrl elmentof he fod mst nt b
greteritsproorton hemor abndat~mstIhe
toi prdieayefceteroewyo h se.`1,
an odadbrsi ss ap nemti0tW
or beeiilprs hti ie
is YUtsu i&IM
effct n rralecoomy

bat a bh0s,
M uwvoor-*l
I "Is

Oid ollwarm into tm umited we& oir aw
of the crow, 'm
0 tion",-of the "Ms.
v ,w
owl. o9wipom good
iamam-- T alw, #md, sud bewmm apc4 Ap,

'00, ox-oo r4suom of, W& to 17
of *0 fow am knOW4
wfood, UbIt*
of IRM6

W14"X--11thk*'Ju7 may bo Vitbor,',

bom w Wo

Ato, 4010 .140M I ,

mmm H
, t rl n en o d % iS U 0 6IW *
o e t i b e v t o s m d y D J A l i 6
W ppn g, fil ,a d w j o *A d s s o ,a d t et
upo aniL- ps fte p i W ete
ne r a i er ) h sw" f m ab b fca
th i d u t t e s m i e t e |
U d b r s a e in s n|~u li s h e a t
t h l n -i i I o l e n c o r o W ign t
ev l ef c f k li g t e e e i s o h l n|u

V00o PXW&
-'tIsosupnterltin fsarost gi
upntesuyo h odhbt fasoeo

"* ly pri h ieto fsarw n fe
oroeqatro h oalcnet fa'omh
)Ore Lrefjr I edetrIscioosbrswt
an 4mmrnu tmcsPu|Dtpsil
" -io oh,- igses;bt-h wlstrn
#| oefl mm orgzadofsarw ae mIrabl

/ a~,a iL pros wlo h ~ swoe

I we onsloadisto hypc p ~l e4
"t sadadtt tnewih-ntei'm -ieg


a a I mdnall Incude
tpero betle, ad cterplla x~~tUJe me,
vegeblefoodis ompoed hnoAeatrep

i0 *
an bete h.Rewic r su' dl

fodofayspeeso parwfo hewoe er

viiit f teaso
do qs ereto h

year' fooL. Bth tplft
ciw)an yricd
take. Suh auo a
P.m wicLsi,,
rmru ar rqunl
amii Ofe son hl e W
stt n m hncut
Bete fltl rn
WG em Ahdu) a c m u tt r m a o-
-(----ll by.a obs.
th oa oue ftefo,
tieya.Tes r o hems at dn-ifig
in otegnr pois(e i.1) ktis
Hiser Teyar ote fundbyhudrdsineo -
pastues. 4
Th rmandr f henetrl ar o te ~o i =d
an lsl.Sies huhpeaoy aenta e

W.A t of, tbb-JW4-k
Am ftw AM
mmag bo(*,


kinds. T
or Ift iWhis "tYtt kn6wik
oll 'Amb*h"Itts mww,

vft U*6 14 Oth4w


40 jr

low- w1w

!0-0, ""A..


it gri bi hyd o nuwiewt h a ive
rees em o-btu.Th atretaltl r
doesit m outt oethn6pret fteY
fe o hi evc hni scnieLta h
ofmm th etbrso h am ae 3pret6 te
th rw3 ecnadte rwb|kid4,pre-
Th ostsrou hrg ht ai ebouh pn_
thtte iti bt noiu lns th e&o hc
thi stmcsadgriaewe oddfo h'
tisthuhntsrclgraetth sujt ud i
tin ilb rae fhr stems prpit
rosd o itibt abir pio uah n
di~an brds bt it s roabl tatthe d,'o
dipes th ed ffnh'eesa mrnh r
-Hwvr itseslkl htti gnyo edn
wed sifntsmlwencmae ihtedp
casdb h s o auecnanigwenedad
ing f imures~ed whch otencontinsseed of
of te wrststap. he igesiveapprats o sp
poe ocakocuh h ed fca-rm
wed absqatri n'ms te edieuh g
drups o theblakbery. hav exmine thusans o
ofsarw otiigrgeeadhvnvi on

seed Th oterribbd *hel of he keneis-cra M"I
swalowe, bt prts f te tue eed oatin he hap
famns3t5mmlogwhcardit mexe nall
is ht ienly r sulyfuddrn tnw
[]rse oyeosae edmre ih hs
hodas hnsed fwl ufoer n oyoud
semtopeluete osbfiy o useun' em
cenn h ieiodo h g-iiaino h e&o
are rases i ma be tatd tat tme nd aaintrw
whic hav fe on igen-grss hve een xamnedandii
fon htwiethi ult otindfo 0 o3
grmseswtnh ne lmsrmvd h
wihapsyma fedspr otiigntmr
Whlesed. utwthth arer male ees h
sermnaton s btte. Te dg'eitie ogan, athogh hey
powr f racin sch eesnevrtelss emio&U


I m m m
"tow$ fty o
!L.2- I
mA" &aindstoit "K
hoead-&ssw n aU
Slatadul sparowse~u ot b 'd
of Ortai insct 0046espoi.O
no a
lif th
................................. b m i
rows! *
abudan, I
fuge th

Md. onte

no isAiea
th fil "
(se pp

ImhjsL --,,
M"0| n
A 11
!is te
nubei w iA


V,. rV

11is iprrws&Masoi~fi
tI ew & m y e e n e e y u u A o h o O
Agriculur fedn noa-rasV ik A
grass (Ewieick) w ed htao otgo
I Iss hy'eev uthroei o hi w e""c
in edo hednelo Thrwumfrwoi)
wedtruhuIheFi'tdS& ,eseilyi am
Im sas rnlsm nceeeis ntePbo
Wgn D . h brse~ heesed ro h
uni h ideofAgsbtiiet nArl u
M ayi wh n t el wn a ef ll f d n ei n A t o
bwd rdte edcoe adadwt
uppe en; inOisstag itis mst requntl
81PA W. Thebir remvessevral ongftsl ofthe
bYacenmt oet hercpal rbwo h
II h lmdseso k~e.I iwe'& otflo
ldj~` df te' pume `vith itsbil, ad sallos te pe []
efsi1epcal ve ugy tde oLaet
ther Oum-. eerly tdrp, coebfsed*
h daduulylveafe cigntoteegoft il
ih mtlto:cue yt ebr' ek|nb ee
toe tl re n al. n a xmnd eey
taglrsae6fei nhsln y3 fe we i.
11 tlscletd38hwdumsaal ~Uo bo
bil nU6nx dy2a tlswreghr*,M
dintro h tersd ftelwan 7,o'3po
tob uiae.Tieadsmlrosrain
reulscvein avra yarshwe ta a ls
the &nein ta loaIApiAn Maotie 01''L*r-.
aa)mtltdbybrs-n hi etuto
Enls pro sade ysvrlntv
iairrw th hpigsarwIadtewie.hq
fa a bevd tentviid sulyd o'u
butsipl fed n hos'lftby heEnlis sarow
rowhoweeris cpabe of geting ou sees aone ~t.
w eti atit aniuae adlosi
Ia h 'nls sarw
i1ie uhl~.wesa dueina-rs,-n
seea tes nldn iengas nted bp,
chcweMns odfrsarwTeeOnsa
som inohrpae hnlw&Kowe


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Axoj W106"O "*404

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iWteo t te


Ad& o fW o woo sed, nd
wedfre age nlwgon.Li
wa mflyI m V
fomdatiktmrLhn3fe ~,adtegoO.
lieal lc ihses xmam hwdtba
bencrce oe adte et mvd.I
18*qaeice er on ,10hlfsesadtmd.
Durng he~nsungseaon o sarwee grw wer
had ausd ths etensve estmtio. Evn a lat as
bird wee sill eedng n te seds f tew ad'ohharlt
fiel& Sxtee spftow wee coleced 6 tht dae, n Il
manysncipng n fedsaros rvdt ae
old eedsee. Sothoougly hd te wrk ben one
searh sowedonl haf a oze sees i th fied -her
fedn.Tebrshdtkn rcial l htwr
in fwtesn pro ndsvrlohr-hd4
buid ed
-In h rae ato h ntdSae oto h
an l u eyfwo tedcesUadfed
lark Harisandgrashoper parrftare epleodi-
snwlaejnolonsus o pros wht-him
madwhtecrwnd paroL llthsebidshae Ik
fodhaisbt hydifr nth untt adkido
us, he reesparowi, r 'intr cippes, an
lmply onsesofg,.sepcalytoeo
grm n Wdseis hl h ht-ho

snwlkIfte otente f tts n h
row, soaudn ntecnrl ato hntdS"


00 11


4,4 n,


mos oln edw utblwteP0
bid perdtocm noento ibte
famls hnayo h tes n e e 6
tha soesoe fohrwW-hotadjnw l,
110 etbge ptemutd.We h
overandall he ird becme oregega~ut
,sarow wreoberedinth pgen-ra tatha A_
veeabegadinarte ose ot f hs
sprosaogtehyildfne ihjnx u
an og pro ,wit-hraa n e
mRdw h attresece ae teAtwe
enee hevgtbl adn
Inacuto h niiulsfudwii aiso
th ama etrmd uigtesee -iedys
ti Setme 0 og proswr oe 3 i 6
roa18tms il parw 1 ievse
wht-hot 5 iead ucs3 ims aeWS
con h ae niiultwcnady
Th he neeti hs bevtosi hi
muhmr xeddadtoog uigpno k,
MarsallHal.' M., hic hasbee frquenly isied.
potfv rsxyer.Ti am s i enmuiw
upntelvl luilbuf fte'Ptmc ieU
Venn a ntebiko h lf tna
seea ude ad fsnyraafrhue
co an n er ai.Mwn ad atr

whr on haadtbeoaegon xedbc

fo atir f il.Ou n h aalelndi aa
Bewe hsbr n h.rie usabsydthtm



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'tmadkoweiadI h
plengaseb-ra 'n aiu
d~M9 al umrt d hm nt )n
woo inteod n veynwadte
sefwihte pedl eordwt l
afe a trIntcdasn pro erhn,8
thebackd~brs o veetabe mttirlef inthe ro~add
oxamned he dbrisand oundin I sevrolisee
lam r-qare
Chppn sprBshn nutiul hag h
veeain n opeta eecllce eeftd
wevlgah'prla-bels ntod xls
On idta .wthdwihatlsoepce-f
drd fmde esiguo ntIg jnjn'
pl c e a e pla s e fho p r ,a d a t r m oh r
(.hpigsarwulkesn"pros r ie
iplwdfed-ahbtwihicesste ru
fam orfteebm er olce nMy2 1
mideo" il el loe o oicoTe
oftmtyses n es reyo e ,cik
kinds-.o........e.tles....................a.d... e
Tw er ae hsfed a n aada O
sprosberntehg tniggaci n
ao en'teeutlte rpwshretd hL
tiehnigi h tbbe noeAg| a
sproswr oie eloti h tbldriga
an acigwnp ns(Slnpm ostwih
fil ymlin.Teeiseteaesigsie,
the ftedvcsspoe orplbrs e h
sparowssecued 1 ans i 20 inuies,&ndseveal
and scre o bak swllos wee aso osered geed
thmLoesn proscm pfo h ec n
wa noteh tbl;an lhuhthy*r o
feedng n th ans, i sems pobale tattheyals
sevso hsaudn n aiyacsil ox u
In th erocadasoeo5hpigsarwwr
ing he ast eekof Agus (188) estryin th
dat grwho rbga ht a hkn h f
th pertes-hywr loetn-teseso

'ARC FAkr 44


Wds At the
o" Wi :Mw old
Wes amkl the brier tdiii
"to mude of the leed*g 41"
44ci&-aestod in Ow adJohAwIIL__ t'j&
0 dIfferent inseeto fed to, thok
WM Jippisewv D4WWeW*"i
4him;,eutworws; arimy wormm6
AWtw pi7bigulw and

'Uqppers of'the same, kinds, vith beetMs of the
iod Ataniw, and such bup m

The record of the English, "rrows at the -
shown nothing to, their credit. Iley bave-
ber, completely crowded out the bluebIT4, aod
the nesting burrows in the exposed fame of tko W-U'
ing to the bank- swabows that "Iy comoto tjA
tbo, fwlds for insects. Their slight value. ais Weea,
Yezy profitably be dispensed W1fth it tb*
speeies which th have driven aw&y c6uld
bO seems, to vary from 30 to 200. B"h'itiot
Adekens among some cedar trees by the bmuW,;&
feed with the ehickens and hop or gkowii
va4ous build I'Dgg Of the farn), particuWly thi
as they 8ecure' in the field is usually grain, b"
They damage the ripening oat and wheat MOPS*"
the grain, but mor6 by breaking down the aW
In their attacks on corn in the milk,, though ij *4
to do but little harm. Their habits eontrA4
the several native specim frequently I
9 th(i ww
The summer observatiojis on #w two farmo
Hall, give interesting and V4
Mation ot the native sparr(ws to svimltun.,
awting b0itats of the diffeiest spedw an so
Ia be complementary to oue mootber. OMPO W
the buildinpt field sparrwm inVOM-40U$ Ad"
vesper *ad gnushopper opwrowok in levl
You* in gWIIw and moist meadows and V
#ad *Wt*-tbrO&t# hAVO "r neOdUg,
Wn "ftoof thenoro. The.
Je" 41admt after breedh3g, time Is

,,Pug%$ thu JPWW

yfiold, aWd VoVir,
ild iw", *"A W gram and othAW
"d lq&Uto, by)uW, 0-
vafio4o' tw Urmer.
*td o*or birds -am 0664
0 ODOd Ofla964 Ilife within boom
its 6Wn ft"ftto Aold of work -
ioular Of inmet ovora6*19 IC
diiwb tbO jiormal-dWribution loi

anloes of
V, t a- *A"hAn Hail tam., In 1896 the

Ua hmqmda _Muoug the, bluff WO
liwo I the "arrdws, i4e the*--o
Yavimdodi by !heir
iu mm'oot,46 sooh an oxt 't thAt the-
W rop6atlfioAam*
46mergrd fto*.#th-
U RKMt6a f xv* bt Wil in ft and 110
"ing the "rktamSn* -0

r 6f- tb6'fam fed oA
tho* AV"
d4' j"- twd
llte$r do 0 vp

c6f, *bkh is b li
*iddlo of
0 13 Al


Tax S _
one-oag heg ti outu t o
benfudatali helretfeldsmmu -- t= ar
JM sprossoe oewa.eso hs
bein soetims osered fedig 50to 5 yrds~r~i,,,
fe svanasarow osrvdasisuua wtht
freey oer he boadst ield. Te rasonforthe
cls osrbey fsm"idbcae vdn n
a- -j flc f3 prosta asfen e ae rw,
th rn ftebufsdel oe'n cridt h
intm oecp :sapsindhwwdhhd
swoope donote.Thywr oote eae y
anIh lsk lidCoershw htte i o
thei fodfrfoIrtetn eeain
Th ifrn pce f sarw perdt i
bulls-npcindslse lcswti lcs h
an ht-hotd parwsmnle rey u h
fo pros n t esrdge tefedadte
geeal rue eaaey hwfokhwvr
copn it heohrkns
ThIagso h ifrn seiso h amwre,
so dstict a thy wre i th cas :o bredin bidai
prfeene inteslcinoILeiggonswr
vaiu pce.A cr ffedsaroswt eie
intict wr awas obefonduonth hg cayknK
fomdanftn iefrti pceadteewsa
Aln te ithi wihfil parw hdasobe
summr. reesparow haitully report t ths S m_* m
0'n oehtnae t ult h-ln cuidbp
spce a oradspotdarn rwho re
thote parw adsogaa~s atoghfun [
alntedth -uulyfeunedtetnldu


Am d, on berri
AhIsUbtt may somant in
1-,OAM time autong such
-A besvy fall of snow on 47i HOD(*,-
"o feeding habits of sp&r*iiw*,,AWer
UWottanately it was notfeas%16 Wvhft tho,
'thias far boon msds,'but, a neighborb
bhO afforded ample opp(irtualty lor to
the land, is given up to mark, Ot'Sardoni and
"eat superfluity, Of W"4 which, with the
by two slightly timbered bnshy brwks that wnvoto,
In r* swampy outlet furnishes a pod locality for
Between the two brooks, in a Potato field grown VP'
ranth, and lamb's-quarters, a score of tree-
iwd Juncos were busily feeding. Most of theO"'
buried under a foot of snow, very 'few elinging, to
4bundance of the' seeds of lxmVs-quartors Oud
ever, available. The birds seemed to, prefer ths
also ate large quantities of the others-0 While some
of sprays, others hopped about on the snow and
branehos. So thick were"bird traeks 4n the afto *11 iW
field that in F* space 50 axds square It would Uv*
find many places a square yard lix extent that wero
8 were a sod, -", these
tiny feet. Mouse track Iso, notic
the extensive destruction, of seeds shown I# the
d6bris, on the snow was evidently due almost onfiMr'
The tree sparrows were the moot habitual Aalk-,
pitched down here and the" ih flocks to f"d OU
straw-colored broom sedge (Andropogon virgiaiow)j.
journey on, sometimes half a mile, till they esmOW
the same gram. They often picked frow'every, 49k,
on to other feeding ground& Frequently t1wo, biW*#,
feeding from,'& single-stalk, while third would -be
below searching'for see& shaken down or
The snow was blowing In clouds sicrow the fields an&
birds seemed more at home in their wiAtry.
*s other sparrows. This adaptability t,6- snowy
thIm extremely umdul in supplemuting Oe work-of,
we mot habitu ally stalk feedeM and whiab W41 PI 0 1191 1 I
*ffteWnt, weedi-med aomamers when thw groand-U
It was expeeted that the snow would fom, aJI *o,
boding, but such was not the amw Mog Ot
wftb vardina* dovvo4 *ad wftdowWU Am.,
# jy" el"r of amw tj41%U that blow
at frou 20, W 416 W60 soAmr, mid
M&a _0
L TI I % -rl,__, 11

,,l| ~~
|n h s b e n th~
sice i t c f p m e o d
o W f a t e r &f e d nd o su ed t e m
n oLri a i y b a e n i u n i y a (
ro s w r n e o s r e ee i g o o d s o o t 1
A |e f o s r a i n a a e l a m s
th i t i t o o u b a f o m t e l s f N v m ler,
ofiFeiu arii19iiihiiopoiaphiofiiiiiiiw o
n o e e e m d o h x citr b t o f t e
th c u l a o n s o h a i u i d f w o *
d e a l e a i g t o t e d s e i a i n f s e s b h
cmp i e ab u 0 a r s r v r e y a s r b y b o k
surrundd bydecduou tro. n oe sie o th
sl p s v r e t y -u w r f o h a e w i e o h
a t e a k o a y n e r e f d c i i y h re
st e e t o ab u t i-at-ht c l i at o a o e
as i t e t d b r v f ve e a l e c e ,_ n A!o
l a u v n a k m r s a l o r e o h r o
soe5 arsfo tspeetchne.O teohr
f u t e o n o i g c rv a k n t e a t o
ch n e T e b n e e i a r p n t e s d o n
a n n t e o h r s o e o t y d w w r o a c l i a o
th lve o hih asbenloerd y h wahn~ A w
b y r i s n t e b r n f t e b n-i o w o e a
tim o te uvetiatonthelad eteenth to[ed
as wll s tht byondthebankhadbeenin orn.. Tio|
of t e b o k t w b n o e u v s n r e



iieX A
TA*h rtvmte
s|cs fbws n b
i!U otann u toO*t
Itet hrl asnleGl o h
th id eenvrfr rmpootaevr
7%irudfedniai f'ptwms
shpcnra ihtefedn ehd fohi
Deme 0(89)truhu h daorgedo
thr eeaotahnrd ht-hotdrn o
ikn ptefalnaeewhl-~~ a*
deswr lcigsesfo h tls gits
inti aefedaot5 oe og
scr fglfnhshngfo h oso h
enieyfo h tls logtetiuayo |#
pupefnhswr echdo h lmigfP
fedn ntese tl oih ie, hl re
fiel sprros, hitethrate sprrow, sng parows
roshpe bu nte rudblwtes,
ththdfle.Btenti rbtr n h
wed ibca-rs n prl ooe yfle
about.1.0.s.a.rows,.i.c.u.i.g.a.l.t.e.a.ove.s.e.ies..... O
wht-hotadjno cace obslaog
thtte etu acniuu r cakmgsud
yars.Th dffeenesnoed n hee wo ats or
wihtruhu h iteafrigaudn
manriihc h rudfeigsarw upe
Butalhoghgrun fedngisth rlewih

mm 'n

iw ha iatmw6 ,otw
ichsin acondtionAllotfi
The rainof sreaing amdew, bm'g
out n th grond alitte ata tie t
afrssvrlseiso srrw afn u ~
soeo hs lnswhr ogsro a em
weefud1 ris qo hc rvdt e
otesweeaJuc a-enpikn rmte
*Mr on wr mt. prosapert ]
reoin h otrglmgoftee ris-em
................. .................................. tnhe y
Clniin fls bcwhatrain dwnmlttuesof11
fiiiha bnatad'xll upyo od
plaie:thik wthbirs' racs 5 o th seds er
rmjuo 2 et n u wr mt.Ses4
shn lc n oklk iitr ehus n
ofte tresdso h edhdbe u wy
getrn m e on oftet **egsh dbo a lits 1
theemtysed hel ntre ndapar-ny nijued
Pato h nvsiaino hsfr a ieW-
tinoftedismiain fwedsed y prow.Oe"
fit br ropng ee oletdonechsd o h
ragee fel ad n hewedygade aov.
reeldbt7uinue edoeofca-ms'n
cetil eyininfcn rprto ftentb
Anditis no unikly ha may f thse hu vode
.aftrwads tkena seondtime Mot ofthedun
puvnzd-ean fsedaogwihtems
salfamnsoth kn8orawe.Tefnly,
fragent oi ras sees wre aeoveryabud~t *
crbgrs ocurdotn u h ean fpgoLro
i pgiu eepstvlyietfe nol
bl eas teetosed r-sulyhle
swloe (sep 9.Aarnhadlm'

.. .. .
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.. ... .... ..
.. . .. .
.4 ....... .
.... ... .....
.. ... .. ..... .. .. .. ..
...... .........
.. . .. .
. .. .
.. .

... .. ..
.. . .. . . .. . .
... ..... .
.. . .... .. .. . .
.. . . .. . .. . .. . . . . .

4evaoe o oa 1-v~v6W~t w~oj 1
5rt h idi ntr i
hoppis'nd geedly evouvd hem etteeioc
14 14&
A=o evls evl Sha p
of is ow colr wa awsfs inst*] .0
tbbs exerimnts togtbe w" he aoi h~at q
wLvl n rphpesfr ni
st h xmnd nlpae htsarw mn
iiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiL
Prtcinbymaso heeeto o fesv
bemr fetv.Bitrbels(|iat) he
[]tn eein eerpetdyrfsdb ~
Diarebescein he opewt hw i
tinwiefud nanubro orplto
spros ad rne u lc alqi M
gatahsroia a fee otebr& bo
i !ro reue t u h hietrae ilt-
i~m rlmnr ekn ~ tpeeia.T
inet.tetrelne label LI
"teiuubrbel Dartc

.... .. ..........

.... ..... A il!
.... ... ..
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... ...... WIN
ivvym A Vol if, YM MW EE

. ...... I

"Mil, IN 4.

Ail k

. .. ... 4H. 1 1 d
TH i
Mix uh. 5 L OW Op
"i .............
.. .. ....... .. .... .... ....
.... .. .. x

fWA w Q4 -M
p", QMnywjq"' 1z _R P.M...."I.
`!N WO
,j : x .... ..........


v -W ... .. -

H .:.'M ..


... ........... .... .. ... ....
ORT 1-02-

M. Wgg
1 R6W

EN was "ZO xi
"god "'Yq 1"N'

p M. "Pow
rXII a mly .....
:.. : H. -14n
.. ..... ... ... . .... . ..... ........ v

... .... .. .. ...........
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...... .. .......... ... A ..
.. .......... ..... .. .. ....
W .. :
M.: iR

..... ....
two VW-

ttke song
of4 to4ed to to.44
are able to divtbgdw bAW
r mble each other d6Wy,'
0 -rr- VW With a relish that helo& to
are found #urtag xtiouisdh'
lawtof the most nauseatlnjroaoi ru *ISO
ap of the genera. Prochymma sad
OwA ler bugs of -the families 'Red iiit6 #64
V* ted proved Wbe emooedingly pabttsNe;
:bUw, the common water-stri&r'Ply*Wmehu V.1,
hesitation. Small brown ses of
'(Zia&ocephala) were offerod to the -song
s#Wpped up, iah6wing that some dev u** other tumt:,
Ptotects themordinarily, since leaf.-hopp4%
abundant where- sparrows oceur, seldom, If over;
partof ihe food.
experiments were made wW
ootorpfflar moth (Leucarctia aertea), a
dolored and posse&sing a powerful odt*.,
4l r but was,*refused, Then a YAlow"

4 Phpilio turnus), aW a warningly colored inseet,
,i6tell, was liberat-ed in -the e It flew sgaim5t
Nming him badly, but in five minutestho bird h^Q'
agel, and, giving chw to the butterIly, c"red
m minute of lively, fluttering, and Ani All succeede&
ting some of the, *st*ra. If the (-,haae had
the butterfly woti Id have had no difficulty in gottift,
sized brown millers (Noctuidse) were eaten wfth
the fact that they were seldom found duflag"
*h1ch suggests the possibility, of, their baf%4 l6lk
4 the difficulty of recognizing their reftsins s4noot'
eontenU of stomachs. It is not Improbable 'tUtl.
frequently eaten by some species of spwmws
,_4 Some experiments in feeding the song opwrow
4k of wds were attempted, but MAW not lead
of eitthual"m to this line of work. L&mb*q#Ote*
polygouums were frequently placed iia the to^,
1MVM M.,V,
oould bring him to eat any of them, PrOMMWl
supOied too long with canwy seed, whi* 04_
Experiments with dandelion and amarav*
r4erred to (see pp. 22 and 26). 7U
ko I Wem eaten with grftt reliW, Tt*
to WW& the Ord hu."Wor tow Of
"*n or we"'fet W
11; T I .



In W


.w~mtemovig anyf th
_ids httegiiigpwr "
an f e e e a o r 4 b p u
N o w o e s e s w e e f u d T e
naleniegueana uerie mofmtkl
'temcocp"a entocnio tget*1
"Boerl-das atr bot 0 esbTa, ed, er
p, sprrws n gaelbenggiena te im o'dr
bewe h w xeiet.'W ledopns er
th et eesbtnill h aea ntefrt
Th ifrn proswr hnfdwt b' m

sesad2drpigwr olce.Temlt
No n fte160ses'a asdM' Bdto
Alhuhteeeprmnsaeb omascnlus
stogyidct ta h hls= prohwvr
. . .............. ................................... ...... .....
.... 4
crbga nlws ti psil httedmp1
wid ed fca-rs mlgtadboat n


*; It T

1V t"

:,C Ar


Wit I Is aid o fod or
on auati inerterate, a
Utd- BrwerandRidgay ate W, he
siv*durig My onthebudi ofSax~rag
"hn ntehue fGeildv o-ise mi
tiebr hwe -iigfo-rce ion n ~*
ontobrso h rblo lus yX.Wll_
is a b i f no e o h ab t f t e r b l f 6
niLstu e&)'wihr poal iilrt hfo
snwlk (asrnanra8) r ale um
exmnto h tmc otlto w l id a,
onsscrdo t al1ln.Eeyoehda
orautfis eogigpieplyt h
an iuim oeo hebrshdbe odn
Lhe hyhddutesotiefo h
fur seals, at hat time -numrous on, the sland., 06e,,
birs adeaena sal gee lafbeeleofth fag
an n fteyugbrs a ae pdr h
matrfudwsi h tmcso w fteyug
caecnitn f e rget o rsadb
undniidba-hpdyelwse& w fto
swloe itefamns ftevlai aaO
'Uad scmoe.-Mr amrswapra
repate trpsto he hoe o aninlndlagon or
securingii fo e on aspl fdedsn it
th ufmlyGmr|)
Fotysi somch o sowlke, solete fto Jn
inclsiv, manlyin ntaro, iscosin Mihiga, ad-,
havebeenexamned Fro thee eamintion it
tis ieo heya h irsaeget osmmo
tbtte loetcniealegan rfso uhy,
M ersate raisomdt edo h ma
Mountain"" loutduigth ite5bu h soah
laoaoyo h ilgclSre otie ohn
matr n-hr fti asgan hlams h
reane osse fwedse.Gancntttd
th,(net fte1 tmcs olce nArl u
eetg arssfo h atta l h piIcleton



P 4A,
Sifts Inti a hy
Uft~ one for mot ofthe'tbE
J, 7, n
,1-I shos niey rn& 6,mgA* -k
ii arfo
LAA N!0"
(Clatu lapmf
The7 Laln oou saohrsarwo h
I %u
41e ogpro can f h ra eeomn o
ammm fl-'ecaatrsi f-th~n~fke 1o ~t '
dere trne itefrte otesuhi Wttr
!ikadrsmlstelte oehtI t
mix~ brwn, houh th whte-mrke win an
1ae so[]odsigih'i rr h ogpr
'M.WlimPle ttsta h!ogpro
Ohlcrius lp~oticu cdmenis)bu~ls agtas.* n*
slp!ro h pnt-dra n hc gsao
colce 6 etig nwoe tmcswsfud
of th on nwlkso t Pu sad h e n
'lv fwihteiln scmo .Oeo h

with th n wl k s i h u u i n ,o &
sp i g Li e t e s oDae ,t e r r t c~ 4 *
teretral ad iglygrgaio&'B" Domr
sttq oig Rch rsn h tlngp r a ]8 '
N~rres, nd he smars ofpine.' n hi- iteretin
TAP~d logspr in'Bids o Maitob,' r. Futs
sonseakof eeigor th plans locs o tinso
reer t her oie a atondoofwhslig.H
ths nrosfok fe nnwyslga

stmah ofte id eso otie t6wo,

grsse.PoesrAgeyfudta agp,4

UqVMWr sparrow is a U*4
CM11i PONROW, Its breedinir range (*"r*-*wh
jukd C,4n&& as are includod'in
'*Wly owurs in the Great BWa And Cwbrlvaa.
ft4m the southern, part of thi mage OA Ur Watb
It is a bird of the dry, open ujiland
be beard throughout the su =er, Partu:U94 to
is ftmd most frequently along roadsides or', in' #
d Hbed while feeding W dits up from the
Whft"p1w&ed taill stij aligh* but a shart
Its, work. It is not as gregarious agthe snqwAak*,,
opur, for althou& several families way usu&UY
Pany during the sumifter, and 10*08e flocks 4, W1 A6
(luring the southern migration, yet no sueh Imutdtw
tO be encountered as are frequently seen i n the
One hundred and thirty stomaths of vesper
a domn States, but mostly _from, W*mwo*uaett NOW,
Kaxw, have been examined. The food for the
karch, as indicated' by these stomwh exam
percent of vegetable matter and 31 percentof
The diet of a bird varies with the season. Thus,
ptimtically the, entire food of this SPWTOW is
In summer its food is mainly animal matter.
Xero in winter when the snow coverp the grouid,'O
perature of the advancing mason, afid attalm Its,,
cent with'the full heat of summer. It then
Mer declines and autumn pr until tbW ro
its minimum. The animal matter
third of the total food of the year, and 118-1 mado Ap
vegetable food consists of seod& The inseqA porOm
divided as follows: Beetles, 12 percent;
Orthopters, 11 percent; smoth, hairless Caterpi
bugs (Heteroptera and Jamid*), ants, and other
Wgether, 2 percent. Beetles and grasashopoers,
salmal food2 they do with many other sfiedes, of
as the beetles begin to crawl and take wing thi"
to oWure them, and by May they have Anere*ied to
toUl food; but as grsmhoppers bewmw=0ft4RP4k
the ftutbar progrew of the mumn, these
food uutil they beeome its eMet 430
ovidently very p"ftl to b"es6 and doeo not
diet is M Its maximum,

.... .... .
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HE w 0.

0g, 4:4..&.;" k!


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i: 4 .
7 t. A::k M. n.


i m M
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li H
c il IIMMNM.A A r .... ..... ....
A ll ...... .....
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r Un

.. ..... ..... .. ....
ill.l. VIMMaRw Mi. A.1 r
ww Rf

ing n : DE!: :i1U.1
M ..:: ......... ..... ............ -.K ... ...
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X:A:,.. D ,&g lii K

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via ... .... ... ..... .....

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't. Areabundant,,tho vegetmie ooo,
lood. Shortlyafter ther be ning of A'
'gin 4gooto
r1w steadily, until'o 4tire'
'y winter it f6r= the
Dr. Warren, it includes, besides seeds, fkt6h'
blackberries, and strawberries,* and the buds of
opple *1 bat the examiuat'i o*n, of stomachs in the
Biological Survey has as yet failed to disclose
food than seeds., These seeds belong to the us',W th
(U percent), gram sftd (16 percent),, and weod
Grain was found in 15 stomachs, of, which 14 con'talwid,
wheat. Much of the grain was undoubtedly glea&ed
'-Aeldb; and it is probable that part of the oats hw
horse droppings, as this sparrow frequents roadsides.,
birds whose'stomachs contained oats were collected. ou
The maximum amount of grain, 20 percent,'was Pip
stubble in AiguO. Four stomachs collected, nellr
Dry Creek, Montana, contained little else than oats.
conspicuous in stomachs 'of birds collecteil froizi-s*tal
Escondido, CaL, during November and' December. 86
may be caused to grain at harvest or sowing tim4, V
Oomplaints against this sparrow b ave been rIved 1),
meut of Agriculture.
The vesper sparrow Is less partial to grass seed oth
species of sparrows, but agrees closely with them in the ]k
Pigeon-grass and crab-grass are eaten, &no, to a slight
thy And ppspalum, The quantity of gram seed consum
paratively small,. that of weed seed, *which includes the
weed, amaranth, lamb's-quarters, wild sunflowers,
purslane, is correspondingly large. Ragweed and VA
nums alone furnish 16 percent of the food, which, eql*
centage of all. the various kinds of grass seeds combbwd.,
and lamb's-quarters arI6, apparently, -not relishod a"s'
lane and wild sunflower, to which the bird seems to be
tial. Although the vesper sparrow is not found as far
the snowflake and the longspur, yet it feeds farther qut4
than most sparrows, and thus aceomplishes more
a weed destroyer than many that feed t6an equal. I ex
geed. This saine characteristic increases the efficiency of.
insectivorous sparrow as a consumer of grasshoppers, ca
weevils. Its value to thifarmer is beyond queation and'
for it the fullest protection.
Bir& of Peamaylvania, reviod e4, p, MO


,Aow,bW to, smionc-61 Ww dh
0 001,
u1noigrtW silidUls iyf Tps*ic)i7 M
*M not kndw4 I biixW-4
pAtU 884; and 'its I --
Whed oplr A fO* years ago. lia :(81t
41voiod that i t bre,& on ly 0 U 'Sable I
'Abo* 106" ioilm oft the cait of Wolva
andvowq b f6und ilong ihe.-
kw 34 An*somdental visitAnt ii far
I 7
with its C,011goiler, $A-van-
bitt It filightor and largor th
xpWow an ifig
4h #
fr6m tho iitt6t-
Wt4vi%4 W It' a ry ro' bird
-vo re
it" fftniw, range provont$ It 011j
oon OQ, W, yr colh
wo, *Dwighes k,;::,
6fi the, oismilistioA k of m st6in,
lu *O*w i4nmer and subviiitted
lt*491616nd thAt4h summer
ter move
it Win 1*
Of Min6i-ji MnikT
6ug fmA ihAt onio-AWT-i'
-if 114i4kl, to be'sflxd. 1%,
4 4 AI&O.
--1, 1 t16 Alrx" seed7 iyk # %

6 A
POO. r i7 itilne4 j*-,


r 6w
it zl


boMbd Z11"
A* two subspecieo
btvedWx range. That of the Oag*rt
AMM 8"aft"a bAda, from
pmthward through. Canada into the
V41, the western bird reachei the Arode 0044,04''
Mexican, border on the south. The sV=TW
lejkaiu of the Boreal, Transition, an(I Upper and
winter the bird 1-9 found in the Soutbern
sometimes in Oub&
Mamination has boen made of 119 stomachs.
the months of the year excopt Dw*mber and
leeted in 12 States'ranging from ""MORAhusetts t6t
the District of Columbia, Novo% Scotia, and
I 6o4 contents consisted of 46 percent of antimal
their allies, and 54 percent of vegetable matter.,
The savanna, Ipswich, and grawhopper sparrows,
degree, all other members of the genus AmmWnwnus I *
highly insectivorous than other sparrows. They
this regard with such notable inse6t deitroyors m Abe#
twd, bluebird. With the savanna "rrow the distil
matter is as follows: Coleoptera, 15 percent; I*p
Ortoptera, 8 percent; Hymenopters, 5 percent; fleu
Dljptera and miscellaneous insects, 4 percent,, and 0
saxils, 3 percent.
This sparrow appears to be the greatest eater of
sparrow family. 13eetles constit ite the most'
animal food, and are eaten dormig every month in,
were obtained, thougL of course in very small qwwtit"
winter months. In May and June' they are. so ei*prlye
they form one-third of the entire food of those
beetles, leaf-beetles, a-ad weevilg (Rhyneophors) aft most
a*lezted, but click-beetles, dung-beet" (Aphod4w)
(Staphylinue), pill-beetles (Byrrhidte),'and certain
fly (Lampyridie) are also exten.' Of the three groiaps_
weevils are apparently preferred. These destmetive,
to the extent of several times as much as any other
11 percent of the food consists solely of wevfls, 1M*WY*,
Miones and related form. The leaf-be"106 taken 4AObM*
'Chagwnema and Chlamys. Some harm lsdone by 00
several of the more useful species ofgrovMd-beetkko.l.
amount to but 2 percent of the total fbod they
oftet to the favorable chanwter of the reA of
lepidopterous foocl doe6* not differ twt 0 Itom
generally; that is to say,, it consistis of
larm. Army worms wom foua4 in


Ot txqjW in 18". jjjj its
'W leftinbWo the vesper
7kit in SOMOWbat lew
eowellojA vork'for A takca Oasshoppers
to imt and in Auty eau *OM to such an
._#_ 4"MWI
oAftut -44, permut of iU food during that monM
vol"At of tho diet, and Include both typ"I
auts (Myriniddw). This shows,*
*Oewi"Octa than is displayed by any oMmr
oxmoioo of tho wwxu4hrvac The leMIPLerA
*4W and bat-hbppom and the Dipterz'c"-
food shown the mvanm sparrow to
bj( Modi L_ It in, Uot harmful to grWinfiel&6
vo** &*ouAto to only Aboad I pormnt ofthp
oe,13Iy of Wooto wheat and oata. Dur-
va-ay- bIr&"exWHWt a great liking for
`00*of Vajanua spexrows were coffeded from oat-
omWned nothing but bm&-teL
suit (Panio-
of tbo, food. "or seedv6 maWY such
q*-y*Spcwt sparrow, make up prswtIcaRy
otithe Y"Otable Ma#Wj thO OUIY'
found in one of the, qojoachs.
ja*w -that th 0 "-Vaan^ f4parrow is an
POAIW"" tho *Ultoit who), it id B"t 9;W_
00aw-W* of and 0cm
vorousi bmefieW lommW om

Itt f 06 Wtz-&-*0

#Wong -140 1

An exmnto-a enmd f10soah fti

lootd frui bth he Fst ad th Wet an fro Febuar
omttngMach T e od orth mnts epe entd
by te somah exmintios, ousits f 6 perentanim 1
37pecet egtalemate.., hepecetaemf nia

eve geaerthn n heeas o te avnnmsarow
pecn o h fo scopsd fisctad ecN
inganmalmater-cnsitspriciall o spdesmmm~a
myipd nio athom h eeiilinet
comriin boh aralandadltgrundbetls nd a mmmte
opea aoutt ny ecn o h oalfo;wieNb
tionof njurousinsets s frty-ivetime asgrea, ad i

asfolws prcn hrfu eele,14prcn

23pretgasopes h ete blnIotref
beeles motlysmal seces;weeils(Sion~ an rlamtedmlm

abov tuat thmo
0 deoxqyom of gross-
000**$ meatiouedIboogh
Aguma givemew
A 0, rxw, Op is- k-ROwn.P
4AI I- N
bmwelLs as ants "d
"d #bout 1, pormat eau-

mod-, &o Oiixaller soldier-

mg 'iulma

vw- is,* of liffle Im
ow- er *p"ioo 0

'(*1 Tagwmw, 0 toOroent-

_4,o -T'

00" boe-toarw of -tfw r
6*6r Sp ies

r 'stioo d14; a4)d 0

i6mig' Wslk
tab Ot U*


64 T"iILTONO r18
Tex. conaine a sider frament of ram
copst aiy
Benue fit sal umer ndireglrloa
sprrw s f itleeonoicimorane
BEA r-AI P~9&
(A moramoadatu, A nsni, ndA u vir
Th shaptie pro ss aldfo h i
fetesedi rw-u pit.Wt h xeto
Nesnssaptfe prrw hsi ido h
breing frmNv ctatiayadadpwyt
raning outwardin inte asfar s te Guf o
|prq Amdawnla) resi h rs-ae
Iflnfg DaoaadMntbbu.mgaenwne
an uf oss
Fift-n stmso hssarwcletdfo s
tha haebe-xmnd otand8 ecn fA
19prcn o egtbe atechel ga se, C,
is ditiueLsflos yeotr,3pret
eet Orhpea ecn;Lpdpea 4pret
percnt;Diptra,5 pecen; mscelaneus isecs,
Amhpd sn la) rcnd siesadMl
26pecnt TeHyeoper er nt adIcn
beteswreminy8dnsan thrwevls 4e
betlsan, ccsinalyalef-eele aroe-I I IU)
or dug-bet-e.TheOrtopti-awee fr te mst rt
grashopers Acrdid), bt sme lng-ome
crickt weetk ite f h id a ae
larg numer n viw ofthefactthatallthe ird
adul& On-thrd o th Lepdoptra ere ate
thsI eepatcalIl oti ots hs net

16hown for DIP-
-:0), 04W aie

i"t horsofile; (T*bdom)
food, P*l*my-, &, larwr proportion of
then fo6dof- *aay otbar birds ojEce 0 ity,-
speeim i3t the far north which
O'd -tailed sparmwa edt-
e 160 of the sharp
*44onio takon near ftedhw4ter,, owing,, no
7%0 (9-8) m0to-water birds h"
lftvx SOOUA) b" WW "ton Otber
l**V*4=wter*4, atover, and dim-
Oft'- A-M ou e see dia of mat gramm and
ff the f remh-wMarbhvU

0 -Themaand Item -Am very
Olok tbam nP either on tbo 7
WkOlo ObAL- They consUtuto
AAW11 b but were not found in
# XWO-One 'of the frvmh-wakar
tU OMWr bWa haa fmmd anAlls -
*AAW fOUr At a Mad. The bivib

fii *00 mmi* to that of tu
# t* he aoko of emveWenc6
AAAvtv *eir, relam6u to

vf* W,
71tm, 11 7 46

I| '1-11 1111,1,1 I 115 4
T h sh r -t i e a n.esd eh v
a~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~k meesrpoBe tatc ossdpoal 6,
L --t n x e t i h c l i a e ro s n s a a
b u c e e ie f sa t m a s ay t ey r h l f u a
th y d s r y e e i soin s c s w i h p e p n t i
hamu btohrws hy xrie iteinlec if
Th eamntin f 1stmahso bthspcesi/ |ct i
ce n of t e f o o s stfi s c s w i crl a l x r
i n l e c o n t e s a t h yL _ 3 e c e t c n s s s o
perhps njuiou toitand 0 prcet cnsits f s i
whs eato oi teei uc ob.Th!ean
of th o d i a e u f a p o i a e y e u l p r s o ,
s e sof p a t h a i g l t l i a n r l t o a t t e b y
bi d o n t p e n t e sa t m r h c t r i l r s
bayandthe detro a onsierale mout o th se d

graoses whih i, pobaby a injrios efect Ths,
shwsthtth to pw-s reapa'etl f itleeonmud
(Cadssgamau n ~metsg t igt&

T h l a k s a r w ( i -- 1 al o c l e n k i d i
ti s o c o n f i s s r p
` d"ed i x r m l b n a t o
l '4


it P Alk AAsed it to boe6me.
uvoft"Od the 6tion of the
64ooW d evetY -month W the year.
-,,ot stomseho "ro, collected
but a iftwinber Wre taken in the Dakotas,
rovijwoo of OxttaA 44 of
_4 the P o. TUe food consist
bow 27 pormut, and vegetable inatter (&U mkb)

tho exception of thodie'kciswl and gmww,-
valuabl U the
o grawhopper destroyer of
_th" IxaJ of its animal food (14 percent of the
JusWIN and -in June, they ponatitute 43 p'
muA good,
u pWm this bW doe
of the Wwky -Mountain foeuA. The.
In the diet dwaifs the other ele-,
W)" is rather ltm iu proportion than is
q.09WUty of weevils wow found jin- the
Alt:_Won, as astorpillam appear far below
to 1U 61amouts the aniftal food eonforms

W Werast One-half of It etm-
avAs,a fwt which fully the
P", eon-%rsm is largely fed',on,
o4a" for grAases.* of the genus
grW are, Woo eaten f)r(*IYII 0"Pol-
Tile totga
he yar uao;mts

;W OW j4*6rItY of outer,
I*r of ito
the.% oft,
py0*ed iftp, a*, v
*Ud 1#*
'Por- 144
Ott Soo*

TmcB~or rs~aw

th etie ea, utths erenag i pobbl
havebee ha th stmmhswhih wre xam bm
moeloaite. ot fth ir8ththaeae
sods er btieddrig h mnhso Nvmbr

gown alfalfa fields.
Abouthalt f th remaning30 pecentof th foo
wed ndplyonmnerl eull dvde, hle th
upofa aiey fwed wes aon hih hoeofwid
an urlneaperth os roienwhl wo
lamb'nartrs, nd aaranh ply a inorpart
Frm hs nesiato i ppas htIhIlr
hihplc aog h ueultnat o hefrm h
detoydmoethntwc oteih tegri/cnumd
sh wi roal o tk ni b rflwy;adbn)
dono is o eret fth~oowhl/ijriu
to2 eret

41 Av, re

mo pow", of r*, w, at,'d
QO'k it, is advisablo to mAord
0 Mow% to


L ama Z_ 61"ObVI Ma 4- ihatum.),

VWW'of whito-lorowood,
and -the
o W-thtoogtoout tUo U*itod

ism notfouod
Of tbO-UllAod 800011
toMo6m w#hia kucophrys nw'
room* sad pocum from .8viVah
Of owlso am" subopebiw6 oot-
-!w oolWAupok have bom exa*-

vopot4*rwwor vog"t4oo ftkocot..
%Is tovft4w,.b A)ter
we -or

ct tbo 1;'
W44 4*0" 1

V ,11 -11'
Niey-fu stmcso h ypclwioeo
h-icia lucop4Vs)havebeenexamned.Theywero
Septeber o Ma, incusiv, inConncticu, Xihiign I
Kam~, exsan te isrit f olmba.Lie most9f
er parw, hsspce; usst uin h wne

onses t t~dnyt ecm oehtinetvruk

wete sidcae ytefctta 1pren ftod4
and Setemberconsised ofants, aterpilars, eevil
betead pdr.Ifsoah cudhv be ou
th u mrmnts h rprto ftemietpr f
wold n dub, av benmuh arer
Ofteveeal frgai osssstefis ners.,It
alotetreyo asatog i iwexetoa
wha a ee ikdup ri asfudi aqatr'
stmah eamndan mons o 2pecetofthmot4
th er.I ayi ttis'Ismxiu f 7prcn,


w* Ulmgea

4 Jim
WO 4A the, fow contmts 6fl"
"00i*WAA of .. buOA& Spidmis
sb4-oAtm Cutworms and cloody
Wf f tfi, fo'od,'while bcal*

"- Uk) And, ofteA, boweeU as *ub and UWA)d
owi, owth, I 40A. 'Thes6 Jdg
61Uo dgto of eolWedoo, 16aff of the

4 10 Ht
%I"t;6 of -the o6"
ji0ta"Ung, for, two immm.' In tb-a -fimt
-od io t4o, sci6md plaftna, (i",
'wM th4
I's Unext)
Oug U- sparro
WdudOK chi

spamw tzofb6bewhia 16461%4
nwi Authoritatively Sindw Im A
"Xslmbkod. The* wi oo
Yese Ox pt -,,Ott(*

a tlt6 -other., 4w.% :41


"FInle-W711T F.-


from October to February that 35 pereent of the PoodAg
nothing elm. No other sparrow, except the snowfttle,
noxious seeds to any approximate. extent.- The only
devoured in quantity by Nuttall's spia;rrow come froift
nous plants as. eassia, and from purslane and plants
The one character that chiefly serves to distinguish
row from its brethren is its inordinate appetite for gTai#.
to prefer oats, but will take corn, wheat, orbarley
,opportunity offers. The cereal element in the, sto 9-Are"AQW,
from October to February, inclusive, forms 39 pereentof
contents, and in January attaina a maximum of 60
grain is obtained from newly sown fields, from standing
from the harvest field where it is picked up from the
greater part of the, birds whose stom"hs contained tbmm,
proportion of grain were collected in newly sown fields.
Palmer has repeatedly observed this sparrow in large
newly sown land and apparently causing damage.
With this bad record in the grainfield and with the' d
an. unusually large proportion of valuable parasitic
.charged against it, the value of this whit"rowned "-nrow'
Pacific coast is. open to question. The only real oiffiset to thj6
ing record is to be found in the destruction of weed- wVdLf4-
larly those of lamb's-quarters and amaranth. But, full
allowed to this credit, the bird seems -to be the least ben
thus far considered.
(Zonotrichia a4ieoUis.)
The white-throated sparrow (see frontispiece)1"s as 6W
of the Canadian zone as the typical white-crowned sparrow-,
Hudsonian. It breeds in the northern tier of States weat 1 1,
and north *into Canada, migrating ii autumn into the midO*
States, some individuals going as far south as Florida avid'
It closely resembles the white-crowned sparrow in ap
habit, but its song is distinctive, consisting of a high
drawn-out pipe, that when once heard to seldom forgottAft."
England this song has been thought to suggest the
Peabqdy I Peabody! and the sparrow, has received the
Peabody bird." Equally characteristic, thouih 11M generally
jA a curious clinking call-note that Ils uttered at first loudly,
softer, more conversational tone, when the birds am
flocks to their quarters for the night during thair 810
The white-crowned sparrow, the tree Sparrow, sad the fm
breed in the far North, where agriculture ts UWted b" #

opovow Oro%, to
4 tv,

% 1' aitd b-lomomm of
lfavo)x4 yet bewwcow-
of owftll*66 wh#e in the
00OW Vb fruit of
bodi 0 "bl~- IM-M,

P 011-*Obj ot alarp noljo
some fxm'

*O*al *auar A" a p
t is grain', 50

of "'W& -YOW19 f*4

'"Oto or


wih navdiytht odee o ged.Itwul b mms;
no oda n ia ocusosfrm h bsueo
mostof he somahs o whte-troas an whte-cown
Th otsrkn on n h odhbt fti
fonues orberie. ro Jlyto ovmbrinlu Iv% o
of itlod-ossso eis.A hstm tet h

bleery(Vciiupnnyvniman tersece)
(P ms eotn),munanas Sobs mrin)
(Siaxgaua, tawer (rgai s.,mpcebs

zoin),wild arsi~arill (Araia sp), eler (Svibne
blckery(ubsV118W, owod(Cmmmlria
an tlnfraadte.hihbs rnbry(Vunii4
Whtethoas ae ee senfednginlagenmbesm

berres hic gro prfusly uon he idesof oun
Ne Hmphie.Somuh oe i rlih oo o ti

dr sed n rcsthmfrtema jn fe h
diapaemn-teseshv be ctee ntegon,
Janar t My itfedsonthesedsofsuh rutsasth
blckery edebrr, n gap.Soe fthsea
craced y te bid'sbea, an otersby te' useila

A's 4- It.

,14, 77-
gonumg, -16 Pe; ft-Olit-
.0',peromt, of, tM montWo

y a valuable bird ou
WW-er,, W5 fraitestine is
Aud It 'd '0 utw 4,agO W &&W


mod" n1jabrWor and thiD TIO&.-
6" to'AlaAks. 1h the W the bhds oom
Qxroup and Sproad over the United
A and -Arizona. During
-t tgl white-CruwU01 ww
p r6ws, Umgled thickets, sait

Vor"iAW "d alam upiOA,'' -
7 VOSMbio 'OhIPPI)
0104 04U4, winter ohipj)ies ; blat th4,
uy, thoi Mawr she 4041 b- 4

to aw Dimuiot, of Coltft,
*OSS41'am* during
*4ioell ti' 'the ho
Rp"Migm od
t Wit
# Tble Od aho*

0* oft

76 R=wma 9PiAAo"-
vanous ~~~~ ~ | kid f|IgUf&ei
ofse oeo h& inaoow n
die, bt wkh mout atog~w o 1 p~een oft,
ar fr he mstpat id unowrg~le-rl'
bic, uaanwodmLviKad sep me
Dr arn h resaro e&o idgae n
bu h aoaoyivsigtoshv hsfr I
Of fri te hnsm eeso lcbyad

-whih. wre pckedup i eary sping
Th nia oo urn heb~ al i h Uie
to2prcna unit o saltob f uhecn"
cositso wevl ad thrbetls scha
rovebeeles, ab wap-lie ieet, aniscatrpffarbu|
per% nd spders
.. he.vaue f te irdHei ciefy i te fct ha
of ts oo cosits f rai, hil mre ha 50peeen !
weedsee. Asit s on ofthemostabudantspeies
ing n te hege ows hatskir th fiedis it s O
conideabl sevic toagrculure
(4=a oimsan piea r!a-
Th hipngsaro bedsi eey ttei te

theposileexcptonofFlrid),inC~nad, ndonth
ofeit.It redn rneinlde ou ie oea h
Trnito,,ad perad oer.usm btinatmA,
-erl.mgatr ovmntcrie l tebid nt h I"'
an arhrmahtati o a, noth uf tA
Thisli~e re-caped ird tht ofen uild it hw IL
in heviesof hepoch i on o te estknwnoft !
row. ts em-doe~ hait caseit o e agee|
depieth fatthtiti ntgitd ih'yml
utes ny i icmmtmeali hian sn/ta


49L 4 h

(01 tb* PWt of tree, whi
to tho smaller and low poweiful VV90"

No alftall service is rendered in dostroying weed
of the species is manifested most Orfy in its
fourths of which eonsists of noxiotW insw*
weevils, grusshoppers, and leaf-bootAc Of -38,
notter, weevUs constitute 6 perceiat; leaf-beedVg,', 2,
Woopters, including predaceous ground-beetles, "Ung,
beeUes, and May-beetles, collectively, 3 percent;
cent; gramhoppers, 10 percent; and mlwllaneous
consisting of leaf-hoppers, true bugs, ants, spideM mad,
8 percent. The maximum monthly average of weo"11*_
is attained in May. In June, when- 93 percent of tto
posed of insec* grasshoppers form 36 perceut,
cent, and leaf-beetles 6 percent.
On the one side only, 1 percent of the food consistaof,
(predaceous beetles and parasitic wasps),* while mme
is -made up of insect pests; and on the other side, graAA
0 14
4 percent, in contrast to weed seed., which eonWtoteo,_
Thew figures clearly show the good service, rmdared
The food habits of this "rrow will receive fourth
in eonnection with those of the next species-the field


(Spip pu&ma sud Spie4a 1%

The field sparrow (see fig. 16) summers in the northaw
United States east of the Rocky Mountain8 and in
and winters in the Southern States.
It can perhaps beat be distinguished from the many
of ground-colored birds by its reddish beak. It is'
monplace in appearance, and in habits is much shy4w
ping and song sparrows, which may be called dooryard
seen in the same weed patch with thaw sparrows, it U
as Its name indicates, a lover of' open laudd. Here it
generally among some small briers, and during the
to three broods of three or four each. Its food habits'.
lar to thow of the chipping sparrow, as would naturally
sh)w both Wong to the same genus. Forbush bw
op ploat Bee, tent caterpillars, eankerworsiw'apd A*
the brown-tall moth.'

R*1A., Bum av M



Th!~on fgri-Wn ub
P",Ut ut n Agus th bid Vdt
.m ...
ate I oteetn faqure fIsdek:
bwtesm ai. pprnl of&Pe
ofwet uigte atwol xn
bo teeseiereeolece nawtetmod;t

Boho hs prosfedvr iteo n
ths fgaeinwihpoest te r iete
sprosTe uss ls nrgedta n
upadsarwan ae'oprtieyltl-a
amrnh u ttmsho akdlkn o
wed usaeo oeo hesal-seddselso
Boho hsebrsae bnatan sflto#0,,
bu oprsnsoi h hipn sarwt ioto
abl fod abts Itdetrys ewr bdeical nsct
'!'!'!'!'!(Junco hyema!!!is and subspecies...
Th uc sefotsic) nietecipn n
isntasm rbta itrbr ofra oto
ditit forcunr r ocre.-I sa14do b
an pe rniinlf zns n ec res
monan rna h aada odr nwnei
sped vrtewoeo teUie ttsto ess
the.n.r.h en................n |n
Th etkonjnoi hehaeclrd aiie
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