The relation of birds to the cotton boll weevil

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Material Information

Title:
The relation of birds to the cotton boll weevil
Series Title:
Bulletin / United States Dept. of Agriculture. Biological Survey ;
Physical Description:
31 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Howell, Arthur H ( Arthur Holmes ), 1872-1940
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Boll weevil -- Biological control   ( lcsh )
Birds -- Food   ( lcsh )
Birds -- Food   ( fast )
Boll weevil -- Biological control   ( fast )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by Arthur H. Howell.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 09423471
lccn - 07002232
ocm09423471
Classification:
lcc - SB945.C8 H85
System ID:
AA00021193:00001

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FRONTISPIECE




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5uc- 1-4o 15 FALL
9 07 -


TWO IMPORTANT ENEMIES OF THE BOLL WEEVIL
TI ,'i, figlit'u. mii.Il' !i, liiit'ir, Uti -i,.. inii'l l fI twi ig .e. mi le e ri:ha;lr'l i>riu1e:
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I iillt'tIl I ll r ti' I II. l' >i7
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULT'I'URE
BIOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN No. 29
C. H1ART MKI' l;IIAM. ,I. hf






THE RELATION OF BI1RDS TO THE

COTTON BOLL WEEVIL



lKY




ARTHUR1 H. HOWEI.I,
W .A ISTIANT BIOLOGIST. BIuLOGIC'J A L SURVEY


WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1907


















LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BIOLOGICAL SURVEY,
Was/ii n/ton, D. C., July 17, 1907.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith for publication as Bul-
letin No. 29 of the Biological Survey a report of progress on the work
in relation to the cotton boll weevil, by Arthur H. Howell.
As a result of investigations during the years 1906 and 1907, our
knowledge of the part birds play in restricting the ravages of the pest
was considerably increased, and a number of additional species were
found to feed upon the weevil. Practical suggestions are made in
the bulletin for increasing the numbers of swallows breeding in the
cotton districts, s-wallows having been ascertained to be among the
most important enemies of the pest.
Respectfully, H. W. HENSHAW,
Acting Chief, Biological Survey.
Hon. JAMES WILsox,
Secretary of Agriculture.





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(( )VriiVIFS.


i' 1L..,
:Introduetin --------------.--..-.- ..-
.Progress of tint iiv'stigt;ig ii .1
Snumllary of i's tlts ..- --
"R ou1 1unle-'tioiis ..--.---- --
S Legisliition nede .l.----- .--.------. - -- -;
SlplaIIl ilover- --------- -- -- 7
Killdeer plover - .- -.. 7
Blackbirds-.. -
Birds rtjuirinlg special IrnItec'tiI---------------- -- S
Sw allow s ---- ---- - - - - ---------- ------- --- 8
Meadow Nv rk ------------------------------ -)
Painted Imntin -------- -- ------- -- --
Nesting loKxes-- -- ---.- -
Cultural methods ..... 11
Status of thle species if birds kin'wit ti 4'1it tli' Ioll \\,hvIil- . ._. 12
Investignttioils in the siiiiin ier 'f 1902;__: -_ 2:
Field conditions-- -------
Sumimary of oblservations ----------------------------- -- "
SInvestigations in thlie winter anid spring f t l3,7- - - - 26
Field c (nditions-----.---------------------------------- ------- .--- ;
Summary of observations-__- ---- ------__ "'
Schedules of stomach exannnations_----------------- :0
Record of birds examined which bad eaten boll weevils_ ------------- 0
Record of birds examined which had not eaten boll weevil.-____ 31






























ILLUSTRATIONS.



PLATE.
Pagt
Two Important Enemies of the Boll Weevil: Baltimore Oriole and Orchard
Oriole--------------------------------------------------Frontispiece

TEXT FIGURES.
SFIG. 1. An ornamental martin house---------------------------------- 10;
2. A simple martin house----------------------------------- 11'
3. A barrel martin house----------------------------------- 11
4. Barn swallow------------------------------------------------ 13
5. Kingbird -------------------------------------------------- 151
6. Crow blackbird or bronzed grackle 1------------------7i













THlE 11ELATION OF 1 IIIIS II IHI
(O()T1'()N 1OLL \V i \ I1.


INTRODUCTION.

SIn view of tile ra)pitl spre-ad of thie cotton boll weevil iII the
L Southern States and tlhe enormous daniage to thle cotton crojp tliro1,igl
; its ravages, a study of the relations of our native birds to the pest
is of increasing importance. Investigation of tl1e ijroltnl (1111dring
several seasons has shown that while lirds can niot be depended 11po)n
Sto stay its progress, much less to exterminate it. yet tlie service they
render in controlling it is of great importance. It has Ibeen dliscovere(d
that several species of birds eat great llumIbl)ers of the pest and among
the weevil-eating kinds are a few wlhoe in( mnbers it is believed 'ani
be greatly augmented through careful protection anld by providing
them with safe nesting places.

PROGRESS OF THE INVESTIGATION.

The relation of birds to the boll weevil lhas been studied by the
Biological Survey during portions of four seasons, and by the Bureau
of Entomology during portions of two seasons. Seventeen species
of birds were examined during the seasons of 1903 and 19004 by the
Bureau of Entomology, with the result that 11 specie.- were found to
feed on the weevil." In November and December. 1904. Vernion
Bailey, of the Biological Survey, took up tlhe study of the l)roblem,
and, as a result of tlhe examination of 354 stomachs collected 1y him..
9 additional species of birds were added to the list of bol)ll weevil
destroyers.'b The work was carried on in the summer and fall of 1905
by the present writer. 62 species of birds being collected and examined
and 8 additional species found to feed on the weevil.c Thlie investiga-
tion was continued, also by the writer, in August and September.
1906, and from February 11 to May 3, 19007. Fifteen species were
added to the list of weevil-eating birds by the investigations in the
past two seasons, details of which will be given later.
'Bul. 51, Bureau of Entomology. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 190(5. pp. 150-153.
bBul. 22. Bureau of Biological Survey. I'. S. l I)et. of Agriciulture. 19."5.
e Bul. 25, Bureau of Biological Survey. I'. S. D)ept. of Agriculture. 1T(;.





RELATION OF BIRDS TO COTTON BOLL WEEVIL.


SUMMARY OF RESULTS.

As a result of investigations carried on intermittently during if
seasons, 43 species of our native birds have been found to feed on t
weevil, as follows: i
I pIn 11(1 plover. Lark sparrow.
Killdeer. White-throated sparrow.
Quail. Field sparrow.
Nighthawk. Towhee.
Scissor-tailed flycatcher. Cardinal.
Kingbird. Pyrrhuloxia.
(Crested flycatelher. Painted bunting.
Plrhole. Dickcissel.
Olive-sided flycatcher. Purple martin.
Alder flycatcher. (C'liff swallow.
I.east flycatcher. Bank swallow.
Cowbird. Barn swallow.
Red-winged blackbird. White-rumped shrike. :
Meadow lark. Yellow warbler. ;
Western meadow lark. Yellow-breasted chat.
Orchard oriole. American pipit.
Baltimore oriole. Mockingbird.
Bullock oriole. Brown thrasher.
Brewer blackbird. Carolina wren.
Bronzed grackle. Tufted titmouse.
Great-tailed grackle. Black-crested titmouse.
Savanna sparrow.

Twenty-three of the foregoing species feed on the weevil prin-1
cipally in summer and 20 species )principally in winter. The greatest ':
destruction of weevils in summer is wrought by swallows and::'
orioles; in winter, by blackbirds anid meadow larks. It is not to be
supposed that the foregoillng list includes all the birds which feed:
il)pon the 1)oll weevil. Further investigation will doubtless add a
.number of species to the lit and will show that birds which ordi-1
narily eat ibut few weevils will, under certain conditions, destroy
a good mnainy. The funds at the command of the Biological Survey.
for this investigation have been very limited, but it is hoped that
nleans will be forthcoming' not only for continuing the work, but
for widening its scope so as to include the regions recently invaded
by the boll weevil.


RECOMMENDATIONS.

LEGISLATION NEEDED.

In order, to increase the number of useful birds in a given req
little need be done in most cases except to protect them from t]
enemies, chief of which is maln.
While most insectivorous birds are adequately protected under


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ECONIM MNlEN I.\'i(INS. 7

provisions if th pjIresenil ltxn- ira.'n l\. Ia fv (do i i(t :'t'rei vi' plro.-
ttection tliit leselve it. No arg1' en12 l t is i''l'iI in sill.lp rt of tihe,
View that ever.v lild t1 hat ios' eti','cti s,- ''rvic' inl tlestro vi(ig oli .ll
SWee 'vils s.lo dl Ii lprot.etet by Sl.'l: Iai\n-. at li'b-lt for tli j Il''m'l-s it.
( In t li ,Ikel. event tlhat mly proIected -pec.i,- -!i,111 d) in'rease-., ill
jill be, u'. as ts treated agri'lltl Ira int st''-t-. ('ithel i ill ti .lto -prc-
d uci'i qg aret a o" e011'lew eltrt jW( Itt''io M n i11ii, r,':;ilily v li w\it lhlr 1 ".iv I 'r.-
:t': tectivv Iiwvs. nece.'ssary anii l'nt'tirial -;v tl'.\" aire. iot ,vtt', a i 0 not
so effteCtive ill til t-c -l "1 lo bir ilt 'e tion ;is t.ilig ltiieil pl clli'
sentimniint. It is lop,1e1. tlerI '(IIit (1it ;I at kiit<\l\ I .i' (f tlie tl irt Iliri<-
play inll the 1boll weevil war iuav It' wid" lv bi ,-i'IIiaitl,'d o\4 (l'
cotton-lJ)I'odtci i1 artea. a.1 i tiIit s..ll o l 'llildt'1 I in t \' IK i ib-.t i 'l 'tt'd
not only as to tilhe gtneral I)lin t of Iirdl-. lit oIf tihe sjlecial i in)o'-
tance to tle Soutlh of tlte kinl-s which fteed 11poil wvevils.. TIliey
.'houtld leian to iknow tlhei liv -iglit :'indl II' tau glht s part of the
duties of gioti c itiZeI'Ii to rn'fraiin frois rol)bbiing- thIeir nests, fronm
trialp)inl tliie to -ell alb-roaild ;v cage Ilirdi. and frontl sloot inI tlemi
for food or sport.
Of the birds at p)re:-ent knivowi to eat tlhe l)oll weevil, tlhe following
species are afforded no protection in Texas: Upland plover, killdeer,
cowbird, red-winged blacklird, IBrever blackbird. l)rohI-izedl tackle or
crow blackbird, and great-tailed grackle or jackda w.
Uplanl tjlorcr.-Of the birds nientioiied above thle uplandl plover
is in most urgeirnt need (of 1)rotectio for in recent veai'sl, thironiughli
constant hunting both il spring and inl fall, it lias dimiliiSlied
markedly in numbers, and unless pronmpl)t mea-,ures are taken to save
it this valuable bird is in danger of final extinctiono. TheI' Louisiana.
game law provides a close season for thle luplandl(l plover (" papa-
botte ") frollm May 15 to Alugust 1. blIt ais at that season tlii. plover
is not found within tlie State. t lie bird i. practically unv protected
there. Upland plovers are almost wholly insectivorous, and in ad-
dition to eating tlhe Ioll w't'vi ill ,Irilg,. when its destruction is
of the llighest m inllmportlance. they retndler valuable .service in de.stroy-
ing nlumlbers of other iniijurioiii weevils anid other insects. Tils
plover is highly esteeined fr I'I tli1ta1 le anl-l U I a gaill e bird, bulit its
value for tllese pllposes .- i,. ifiite-iimal ('0c1mIT)ared t ti tlle value it
possesses to tilte agricultural itteret-s of tlie country. Because of its
importance a. as in .isectiv1orots I birdl tlet itplandt plover siould be
protected at all seasons, a;ill( it i, co)isitlel'ed ililport'anIt tliat an1 effort
be made iy the ('cottont growers of Texas :a1d Lou isianla to have this
bird p)laced'1 ill the list of protected species il their respective States.
AKdifdeer /)1or '.-Tlie killdeer jppare'jitlt iX m not decreasing in ntin-
bers. since, it is (If no value for food. anld therefore is seldom --hot b)v
hunters. But in view of its taste for )boll weevils and other destructive





RELATION OF BIRDS TO COTTON BOLL WEEVIL.


insects, the wiser course would seem to be to give it legal protection
and thus afford it every opportunity to increase. |
Blackbirds.-The several species of blackbirds, though not shol
to any extent for food, are often killed wantonly for sport or in t*
belief that they are injurious to growing crops. Corn is the only.
crop in Texas which is liable to injury from blackbirds, and the only.'
species likely to damage this crop to any extent is the big jackdaw,
or great-tailed grackle. Investigation of the food habits of this bird..
by Prof. F. E. L. Beal has shown that nearly half of its food consists
of corn, much of which is waste grain, and about one-fourth of
insects.
The Brewer blackbird and the bronzed grackle both eat corn to
some extent, but they are not generally accused of damaging this crop
in Texas, and both species have a pronounced fondness for feeding on
grubs and other insects in freshly plowed fields. It is believed that
their destruction of boll weevils much more than compensates for any
damage they may do to corn or other grain. Indeed, the writer is.]
inclined to consider the Brewer blackbird one of the most useful birds
in the State to the cotton grower.
Both the cowbird and the redwing render valuable service in the
destruction of weed seed, which, in winter at least, furnishes the
greater part of their food. The Louisiana law protects all blackbirds,
except crow blackbirds grackless) when actually destroying crops.
A similar provision in the laws of Texas prohibiting the killing of
any blackbirds, except when they are actually engaged in injuring
crops, would seem to be for the best interests of the farmers of that
State.
It is not absolutely necessary that the farmers wait for the enact-
ment of protective laws, but in the absence of such laws they should
take advantage of the laws against trespass and prohibit all shoot-
ing of plover and blackbirds in their cultivated fields.

BIRDS REQUIRING SPECIAL PROTECTION.

Swallows.-Information has been received by the Biological Sur-
vey that in west Texas cliff swallows (and probably also barn swal-
lows), which breed about buildings, are frequently killed and their
nests destroyed through the mistaken notion that they harbor bed-
bugs. As a matter of fact, the parasites which infest birds, though
resembling to some extent the insects so objectionable to man, are not
the same and would quickly perish away from their normal hosts.
-lence, wherever these very useful swallows occur, not only should'
they be allowed to nest. but every effort should be made to protect
them and increase their numbers.






NESTINtG BOXES.


Meadow lark-.-The fact that theit meadow lark is at all times pro-
tected by the law.v of Texas seeis not to I w ippreciateid by in:ay
residents of the State, and ill it'ce llsuellce Illaily lairk, airc' -lint for
food or sport. In view of the large iiiri'Ilx. of 1)11l weevil d4hest royed
!by these lirds, they should IN, rigitlly protected. aiid farilwr-., wolild
Sdo well to see that the law is enforced on their property inl tile case
Sof these valuable birds.
SPainted buntin .-IThese brilliant little sparrows areI in retqlt de-
mand as cage birds, and. although protected inll all the Soutliern States,
large numbers are nevertheless trapped and sold to dealers. Inl addi-
tion to their services as weed (lest rovers, these bunting are now known
to capture a considerable number of boll weevils. Every effort there-
fore should be made to stop the illegal traffic in these beautiful and
useful birds.
NESTING BOXES.

Since the purple martin has been found to capture boll weevils
both in the spring and in the fall, it is strongly recommended that
special efforts be made by cotton growers to increase the numbers of
martins feeding over their cotton fields. Though nowhere very
abundant, martins are quite generally distributed in the South. so
that usually all that is necessary in order to attract additional num-
bers to a farm is to provide nesting boxes for them. Martins are
eminently social in their habits and do not ordinarily feed at a great
distance from the home box, so that once a colony becomes estab-
lished it. may confidently be expected to increase from year to year
so long as increasing accommodations are provided for the pairs that
return each spring after their winter sojourn in South America.a
Nesting boxes may be of the simplest and homeliest construction
or they may be of elaborate and artistic forms, to suit the taste of
those who desire to make the martin house an ornament to the lawn
or dooryard. Large gourds are often utilized as nesting boxes,
the only preparation necessary being to hollow them out. cut an
entrance hole, and tie them to a tall pole. The only objection to their
use is that but one pair of martins can be accommodated in each
gourd. The more elaborate houses usually take the shape of a resi-
dence or other building, and in such cases the entrances to the rooms
SThe experience of Mr. J. Warren Jacobs. of Waynesburg. Pa.. is valuaIb)le
. as showing how rapidly a colony will increase when provided with adequate
nesting homes. In 1896 he put up a single house of 20 rooms, which was
occupied hy 5 pairs of martins, which raised 11 young. The next year 10 Ipairs
returned to the house and raised 35 young. During the third and fourth
Seasons 2 additional houses were erected, which furnished accommodations for
53 pairs, which raised over 150 young. Thus at the.end of the fourth season the
Colony numbered nearly 300 birds.
7623-No. 29-07-- 2





RELATION OF BIRDS TO COTTON BOLL WEEVIL.


represent the open lower half of windows. A martin box may con-::]
tain almost any desired number of rooms, though boxes with 10 to 20
rooms, placed at intervals about the fields or close to the farm labor-.
ers' houses, would seem to best meet the requirements of the situation.
The rooms should be about 5 inches wide, 7 inches high, and 8 inches:
deep, with entrance holes 24. or 3 inches in diameter. There should
be only one entrance to each room. A shelf bordered by a railing
should be placed beneath each doorway, in order to prevent the young
from falling to the ground when they venture out of the compart-
ment. Small holes in the shelf
will prevent water from running
into the doorways. A hole in
( each gable near the roof should
be provided for ventilation.
I |Mr. J. Warren Jacobs advises
.. that all exposed portions of the
... ?houses be constructed of poplar,
I with the bottom of k-inch oak.
iHis method of attaching the
< house to the pole is by means of
four angle-irons screwed to the
bottomn of the box and to the sides
of the pole. The pole should be
at least 15 feet high., as the birds,
through fear of cats, will not nest
near the ground. If desired, the
H pole may be provided with a
hinge near the ground or be fitted
into a socket in the ground, so
that the house can readily be
taken down.
Mr. E. H. Forbush recommends
Fn. 1.-At iraetal martini. the use of flour barrels for martin
FIi;. l.--An ,,r*mntaieiil innrtiii ]lnmsct.
houses as being at once cheap and
easily obtained. These, if kept painted and properly roofed, he says,
will last for years. In fitting up the interior of the barrel a square
box should be inserted in the center to furnish a back for the indi-
vidual rooms. Large cigar boxes or tin cans may be utilized for the
rooms, screwing them to the central box and connecting with the
entrance holes by strips of tin or wood. Tlhe pole may pass through
the center of the barrel and the roof may be constructed of zinc, sheet
iron, or painted canvas.
The accompanying illustrations show several styles of martin boxes,
and other forms will readily suggest themselves.


10







Wl1heri't E iglis.h IInIrm'w., 1,,' I ,IIiT ,iiI,. i l,,. i,,-i il pri'r,,i led

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liii tJ -Iil








Fi.. '2.- A mlil iitirt lin I tsL.

from iiiiiojpoliziig 1 lie uartn box1laes. This1 ma I nJ- j4 ;*ircciiiIl h-IIel
j I' 'i ,:i '





Sby closing the entrances to the nestiwxr
boxes during the winter, or I jnt g tliut,
boxes down until the arrival of the mar-
tins in spring.

(CLTLRAL 1 METIHOD1S.
Investigation of' tlhe habits of birds dur-
TD i'i i









ing the winter months has, shown thai C(*r-
tain species, notably Brewer blackhid r..
bronzed grackles. great-taliled gracklesl', liii1-
e l I .I '-










deer, and upland plover, a.'e traced to fields where plowing tlt or Itharrow-'
ing is going on,and t usually y whIen tHetli,'" 1
ting inspi.





birds have been shot while following thell
plow, boll weevils have been found inl their'- ,
stomachs. This is paiularli true in felds
where the ground is being newly broken or
the old cotton stalks first broken (lownAl. III "
view of the pronouncedl habit onl tihe
part. of many bird, of feeding in cuIlti-
vrated fields, the following rsuggrestions '
arel believed to be worthy of adopt ion
1. Break the ground as early in the win-
. .



ter as practicable, at a time when blacklbird-s are numheum. If after
the first plowing the ground is still rough, or if there is-, any luNbbi-hl


CU'lll'TURAL MEIE'IIDS.




"..*"y
12 RELATION OF BIRDS TO COTTON BOLL WEEVIL.

about the field, continue to stir or harrow the ground and thus give
the birds a chance to pick up the weevils as they are driven from
their hiding places.
2. Destroy every stalk of volunteer or seppa cotton before planting
time. Investigations during the very mild spring of 1907 showed
clearly the folly of allowing seppa cotton to grow. The weevils
emerged early from hibernation and at once began to feed on the
sprouted plants, which were very numerous all over south Texas
and as far north as northern Louisiana. The birds were unable to
find the weevils readily after the latter had taken to the plants, and
hence large numbers surviVed until the new cotton was large enough
for them to feed upon. Had there been no seppa cotton in the fields
the weevils would have been exposed to the attacks of all ground-
feeding birds and their numbers would have been materially reduced.

STATUS OF THE SPECIES OF BIRDS KNOWN TO EAT THE BOLL
WEEVIL.

SWALLOWS AND MARTINS.

Six kinds of swallows occur commonly in Texas, and four are
known to eat the boll weevil. Since the habits of all the species are
essentially alike, eventually doubtless all will be found to feed on
the insect. Swallows are migratory, nesting in the United States
and wintering chiefly in Central and South America. Vast numbers
pass through Texas in September on their way to their winter homes,
and at this season they find many boll weevils in the air, where they
are easily captured. So abundant are the swallows and so marked
ig their taste for boll weevils that they must be accorded very high
rank in the list of the enemies of this destructive insect.
Cliff swallow.-Cliff swallows, eaves swallows, or mud swallows,
as they are variously called, nest commonly in the northern and
western States and in the western portion of Texas v far east as Aus-
tin and Waco. They breed in colonies, and their pouch-shaped nests
of mud are plastered to the face of cliffs or stone walls or under the
eaves of barns. They are abundant over the greater part of Texas
during the autumn migration, and in September thousands pass over
the cotton fields every day.
Thirty-five specimens were collected in the fall of 1906 and all but
one of them had eaten boll weevils, the majority having taken
nothing else. Many of the stomachs were crammed full of the
weevils. The largest number eaten by a single bird was 47, while
many others had taken from 20 to 30 at a meal. The total number
destroyedl by) these thirty-five birds was 638, an average of 18 weevils '
to each bird. It is of course impossible to estimate with any degree





HARN SWALLOW.


of accuracy the IminilMr (of tlif swallows ini tit' Stair ,, if Texa-, dturiung
the month of Septell1be. l.Lt 1 Very 'niis'rvat i'f '-tilili, u f hIt.,
nunitxr passing over tli' town of V'i'toria ':h(i 'l iay of (l iit igiillo
i 10,000. Allowing Int oti ( nit1il a (Iny 1i il assinillig flit l 'at i l'l ir'l
consumed on an1 verage1 Is wetvii.ls per (Iay fot t(n' 1 ,'riId ,f %six
days during which tlie flight was under ol)srviatiol. we illidl tilait
these swallows destroy ill 011 week in ia single ('illy tunic 1111111 ia
million weevils And tills vast ii,,inie.. is h .etrfdVI witlinit i ,li]-
Jar's expends to the cotton grower. In view of this good1 Mrvice tlIE


..... *.'_. ... ., i. * -, '. -_-.
/ ^ -'-." "- " -" >." .' I,-
." -.. -- .. . .. .
1^ t .* -- .. .N- -..'
4:- ,,. "
tl. ,..


r -
-a----


p C.- Q

V
6-4


Fi'. 4.-Barn swallow.
folly of destroying the nests of swallows and ()f shooting the birds
because they harbor insects is apparent, especially when it is r'eme4,,-
bered, as stated above, that the swallow parasites are not to be feared
by mnan.
Barn8 swallow.-Barn swallows are common summer residents in
the western portion of Texas, but for some unknown reason do not
breed in the eastern part of the State. Even there they are common.
however, in the fall, when they join the other swallows in coursing
over the cotton fields. They flyv very swiftly, often just above the
tops of the plants, and many a boll weevil falls a prey to their per-




:::":-'


RELATION OF BIRDS TO COTTON BOLL WEEVIL.


sistent hunting. Fourteen specimens were examined in September,:
of which 5 contained boll weevils. The total number of weevils con-&
sumined by the 5 birds was 52 and the largest number found in one
stomach 23. .
Bank swallow.-These swallows the smallest of the family, are rare,
in summer in Texas, but occur in-large numbers during the fall migra- '
tion. Twenty-five specimens were collected in September and 11 of:
them were found to have eaten a total of 68 boll weevils. The largest
number in one stomach was 14 and the average number 6.
Purple martin.-Martins occur more or less commonly over the
greater part of Texas and the other Southern States. Their abun-
dance in a particular locality depends almost wholly on the number of
nest boxes provided for their use, and no birds respond more quickly
to an effort to increase their numbers. It has been found impracti-
cable to examine many specimens of this bird, but enough have been
secured to show that their food both in the spring and in the fall
includes the boll weevil. The only martin collected in September con-.
tained one boll weevil, and another bird taken in May also had..
remains of a boll weevil in its stomach.
Like the other members of this family, martins obtain their food
almost wholly in the air. They are not likely, therefore, to capture
a large number of weevils except in the fall, when the insects fly
freely. The destruction of even a few weevils in the spring, however,
is a definite benefit to the cotton crop of that season, and the fact that
the martins reach their homes about the cotton fields in February and
remain until October, ever ready to snap up the weevils as they fly
from planiit to plant, renders their services of the highest importance.

FLYCATCHERS.

Seven species of flycatchers have been found to destroy boll weevils,
and doubtless all the members of this family feed upon them during
the seasons when they are in the air. Most of the flycatchers are
summer residents only, but one-the p)hcebe-stays through the win-
ter. At least two species-the kingbird and the crested flycatcher-
begin the war on the weevil in April. It is carried on by the other.
species throughout the summer and by the phoebe until late autumn
or even in winter.
Least flycatchier.-These little birds, the smallest of the family,
seem to have a decided fondness for boll weevils, for, of the 14 speci-
mens examined, just one-half had eaten the insect, the total number 1
of weevils destroyed by the 7 birds being 21. The least flycatchers
are northern-breeding birds, but migrate southward quite early and"
do their best work in August and September. These flycatchers on
several occasions have been observed to fly down among the cotton.:





(ORHlIES.


plants, and it is not unlikely that tlIvy ,snatch tlie weevils iIrctlv
froint tlhe )t auts as well as wil"'i llyivng.
/j;,j(/ ;r/ i. ....dZ K i, lir ]... iiu4'tine, .all, lIi iii irii an. cl' m mon1
in Texas and LotI i.iaiJn inI siii.niiun'r'. 'lTlhey l're(iie'iit filild and pas-
tures and. like otiho r Ilyiv tl'iit', sna pl tlit lir j r'y ,,, the' wig. ( ) f
the 22 sl)pecinlvii'.- 'X,1l ii.11Cc ilk SepItenll.r. i ; l11l d caei l a' total of S
weevils, and(. (f tlt' 10) .,i'Cit,'iin s e'xntiiiiied ii April. 1 lIai takeh n 1
weevil.
(Cres 'd fyelfl ictr.- TTl .emi tlIi ycatclIer-.' a ai ll)i ni tlIe Inrg I' iln'iii-
bei's of the fanilv it'n irri ii in tlit' rott(l1 Statf-. 'l'i\' fre uet'lt
timbered t 'acts anil captilrj tl' ir l1tHy 11-tnilly i at .-oin' di tairc', fro li
the ground. One tsplecinii taken in Septeniter liald eatien 3 b3)oll
weevils and 1 taken in April had eaten 2.
Scisor-tailfd flycutrher.-The scissor-tails arei lie largef-t iand also
the most abundant fliycatchers
in Texas, but, unfortunately. /%
their taste leads then to prefer
somewhat larger insects than l
the boll weevil. They do. how- 1,"
ever, destroy a few weevils. .+.
mainly in the a:ut umn. Ninet vy-
one stomachs taken in Jul,%\ S_-)
August, and September have +
been examined, and 5 of them n-iM
contained a total of 7 weevils. '' '
Phceabe.-These flvycatchers "k.
are winter residents over the .. 'g" K
greater -part of Texas. and a
few breed in the western part
of the State. One specimen Fir;. .--Kingbid
taken late in September had
eaten a boll weevil and 3 taken in November and December lhad each
eaten 1 weevil.
Alder flycutri'er.-This species, which resembles the least fly-
catcher in appearance, is a rare migrant in Texas. Three specimens
were taken in Septemlber. 1 of which had eaten -2 boll weevils.
Olire-sided flycaft-hcr.-This species breeds in the more northern
States and Canada and is found only as a migrant in the Soulth. Two
specimens were taken in Septenmber. 1 of which had eaten -2 )oll
weevils.
ORIOLES.
Next to swallows, orioles are l)robably the greatest destroyers of
the boll weevil in summer. and perhaps their services are more
important than those rendered by swallows, for the reason that the





RELATION OF BIRDS TO COTTON BOLL WEEVIL.


orioles spend most of the spring and summer in and about the cotton.'
fields and persistently hunt the weevils when they are feeding on the:
squares. The orioles pass the winter in Central America, return-
ing to the United States in April, where they remain until October.
Orchard oriole (see frontispiece).--This oriole, the smallest of the
group, is generally distributed in Texas and other Southern States.
Its purse-shaped nest is built in almost any small tree in the orchard,
dooryard, pasture, or field. Orchard orioles make frequent excur-
sions to the cotton fields, especially when the young are fully fledged,
and often feed for hours at a time among the cotton plants. They
seem to know where to find the weevils when they are feeding upon
the squares, and large numbers are destroyed by them in the course
of the season.
The orioles evidently begin the work of destruction as soon as they
arrive from the South, for one taken April 27 contained a boll weevil
in its stomach. During the summer months, of course, they find
weevils with greater ease, and at this season as many as 13 have been
taken from a single stomach. About 30 per cent of the orchard orioles
examined in summer contained boll weevils; the total number of
weevils eaten by 30 birds was 64, an average of more than 2 to each
bird.
Baltimore oriole (see frontispiece).-These brilliant orioles nest
sparingly in northern Louisiana and extreme northern and eastern
Texas, but over the greater part of these States they occur as migrants
only, most'commonly in the fall. They reach the cotton-growing dis-
tricts at about the time that the weevils are making their annual
flight, and join with the other orioles in reducing the numbers of the
insects. Fifty specimens have been examined, of which 11 had eaten
a total of 24 weevils, an average of more than 2 to a bird, or about
50 per cent of the number of birds examined. The largest number
of weevils eaten by a single bird was 9.
Bullock oriole.-This is a western species, occurring as far east in
Texas as Corpus Christi, Beeville, and Austin. These orioles are
rather abundant in the regions they inhabit, and in August and Sep-
tember visit the cotton fields in flocks of 10 to 20 individuals. About
27 per cent of those examined contained boll weevils, the largest
number of weevils found in one stomach being 41. The total number
of weevils eaten by 40 birds was 133, an average of over 3 weevils to
each bird.
BLACKBIRDS.

Blackbirds belong in the same family with the orioles and their
services as boll weevil destroyers are even more important.
Seven species occur in Texas in winter, and five of them are known
to eat the boll weevil. Their work is done principally in winter and


16





BLA CK i 1lIt)S.


spring, at a time when it is o)f tl1e higlu'st imIIjIrt iirt'. l<,,(iItt
investigation s haltve ,shownt that tin grt'.st liiiiili'T of weIvd'iI, ar'
destroyed lby them ar tilt' st'soi when tit' cdi it1t talks arle' tv lug
raked and thet, gr'ouMild first broken.
Breira r e 'bl, Z',/ird.-'The' i lstitg Iliill t' t- Isf tlll' ll klhir nls is cl lit ly
north of T-"exas. lut ill winitttr 'a-st thloks -ilratel over tie State.
remaining frolml ()ctol'r to Aprwil. At tlinIt season tli-w :ii y lalick
fellows, toniis)iit'io .s lb ert'.M 1 oif their wliitte t't.., I:iv often Ib s't'II
walking about tlit streets of tih towns or folllo1 iag tli piilowm(a'n as
he turns the furrows. About 1.5 per tezt of the birds txai ined tIad
eaten boll weev-ils, tie average iI1bit'er of wee'vils destroyed being
nearly 2 to a bird. Most of these individuals were taken in late Feb-






II
mt //*











I' -&
-.. -.-r-


.-'----.. .


FIG. C.-Crow blackbird or bronzed grackle.
ruary and March, after the spring plowing had been nearly com-
pleted. It is probable that observations made earlier in the winter
would show a much larger percentage of weevils destroyed.
Bronzed grackle.-Bronzed grackles or crow blackbirds breed
locally in Texas. and great numbers of them pass through the State
in spring and fall. They appear in large flocks in February and
March, and join the other blackbirds in the fields which are being
plowed or cultivated. Of the 34 specimens collected in March. 5 had
each eaten a boll weevil.
Great-tailed grackle; ijackdaw."-Tliese large blackbirds are
abundant in southern Texas. wintering near the coast and moving
northward in summer to about the latitude of Austin. Like other





18 RELATION OF BIRDS TO COTTON BOLL WEEVIL.

blackbirds, their destruction of boll weevils is mainly in spring, when.::
the fields are being broken; but naturally, owing to their large size,
their taste is usually for larger insects. Thirty-nine specimens col-t
elected in spring have been examined, of which only 3 had eaten boll--
weevils, each bird taking 1 weevil.
Red-v'inged blackbird.-Redwings occur in Texas at all seasons,
hit are much more abundant in winter than in summer. They
gather in immense flocks as early in the fall as October, and forage.
in tlhe fields all winter, or until the nesting season approaches in
April, when the flocks disperse and the birds pair off. Their food
consists very largely of weed seed, but a few insects are consumed,
including some boll weevils. About 50 stomachs taken in spring and
an equal number taken in autumn have been examined, and in each
case 2 stomachs contained 1 weevil each. In view of the great abun-
dance of these birds, the value of their services, particularly in spring,
is not inconsiderable.
Couwbird.-Cowbirds are found in Texas in flocks during the
greater part of the year, but are most abundant in winter. They
associate with the redwings and Brewer blackbirds during certain
seasons, and in spring often visit plowed fields to obtain weed seed.
Here occasionally they pick up boll weevils. Four stomachs taken
in February and March contained each 1 boll weevil, and 3 taken
in July and August likewise contained each 1 weevil. Although
only. about 4.5 per cent of the birds collected in spring contained
boll weevils, still their great abundance in the fields makes them a
valuable ally of the farmer.

MEADOW LARKS.

Meadow larks are generally distributed in Texas in winter, but in
summer they retire to the prairies to breed. Although feeding to
some extent in plowed fields, they do not follow the plow as the
blackl)irds do, but seek their food among the old stalks and rubbish.
Here they find and destroy many boll weevils, especially in winter at
the time the ground is first broken. Eighty-seven specimens taken
in February and March have been examined, and of this number 11
had eaten a total of 15 boll weevils. The percentage of larks taking
weevils was much greater for the period from February 26 to March
9 than for any later period. This is explained by the fact that most
of the larks collected at that time were feeding in unplowed fields,
where the weevils had not been driven out. Of the 29 larks taken
during that period. 10. or about 34 per cent, had eaten weevils.
Two hundred and forty-nine specimens taken in the fall have been
examined, and of these 40, or about 16 per cent, had captured boll
weevils, the total number of weevils eaten being 50.


a





SPAKRRO WS.1


SPARIMOWS, (;IsnlEAKS. ETC.

The members of this fai i l t rit 'ltar] i ll -11 ',d .h al,-. 1,dI al Iitllh oigh
10 sie'Cies. have leteii found to caphllhr'I' 1oll ;vi',,11-1 1141114. f tliiii.
except tie painted bunI11ting. tylli to flld r'g ,la'l" o' il, i(-l'l.
Many of the sm1allcr .mprrows., I 1w'IveT. 1ii'- VII ;iiiii a, llit. thI ll(1t
Sthe g(XoI they la,;a.t' lu,,,* .- T es Irilli;1 tly ,o loiedl lilt Ift ll r'' \" 11''
I COlliini0 OVeMI lio'T.st of Trxj n- in tlt' .iis m "r 1ou)thl-. D)riiuz tl,.ir"
soutlihuward migration iI Algll-t tilhy It: l-retilIl;IrIl\' ;ilill nit. andl
at that season hundreetls i-it thie cott tt)1 tfitllsvr day anild -tk
their food on the plants. They seemt'l to b1e tlhe' o(Ill s-ptrrow tht
show a decided preference for 11)1l wtevil- us i, tril('1 hirr-.. 43' albott
S16.5 per cent of the nmnbl)er examIitned, lhad eaten a total of 19 weevil-..
Cardinial: h re/dbrd."--Cardinals are present inll tlhe South trm4oLgh-
out the year. and in most localities are very nune'rou-. l'ley Ii ive
chiefly in thickets about the borders of fields or iln Irushliy tiimlber.
whence they, occasionallY fli, into tle cottol fields,. Specinwnl s taken
at all seasons excepting mi idw iter lhave been examinedl, lbut onlyi
3 have been found with 1)boll weevils in tlie stomach. These were
killed in September and contaiiied a total of 4 weevils.
Pyrrhiuloxhi; /ray f/roslauk.r'"-This haliindsone glrosbeak is an
inhabitant of the arid mesquite belt of southwest Texa-. It is com-
mon at Beeville and Runge, where 64 specimens were collected. Of
these 2 had each taken a boll weevil.
Dickcissel: black-throated )1ithtfiq.-These spaarrows.w. which in
general appearance resemble the English sparrow, arte miner res.i-
dents in Texas, and during emigration are quite albindlant ill cotton
fields. Twenty-six specimens, have been examined, of which 3 lhad
taken 1 boll weevil apiece.
Lark sparrowir.-Lark sparrows are common in Texas. both in sum-
mer and in winter, an(d during the fall migration are plarticu.larlv
abundant. At that seas-,on they swarmi in tlhe cotton fields an 1d alolg,
roadsides. About 50 specimens, wNere collected, l)bIat only 1 liad eaten
a boll weevil.
Western sa'arn .ta /,.-row.-Thes-e are tlie little grass .Sl)par-
rows that are so common during the winter in the fields and llea d-
ows. Thirty-nine specimeuis taken iin Feb)ruIary an (1 Marrch wvere
examined, and of these 3 had each eaten a boll weevil: of IS birds
taken in November and December 1 lihad eaten a b)oll weevil. In view
of the great abundance of these sparrows,, thie nmiunber of weevils dle-
stroyed by them in the course of the winter must lie considerable.
White-throated spirroi'r.-This sparrow is a winter visitant from
the North, remaining in Texas from Novenmber to April. The white-
throats spend their time in thickets and brush piles, scratching among


19





RELATION OF BIRDS TO COTTON BOLL WEEVIL.


the dead leaves and rubbish. Of 9 specimens taken in the fall, 1 had"'
eaten a boll weevil. None of the 13 specimens taken in spring had i
eaten any.
Field sparrow.-Field sparrows occur in Texas both in winter and.:
in summer, more commonly, however, in the winter. They are lovers
of brushy pastures and weedy borders of fields. Of 7 specimens taken
in February and March, 1 had eaten a boll weevil.
Towhee; chewink.-These rather large sparrows pass the winter
in Texas, feeding in thickets and brushy pastures. Of the 6 specimenff
collected in spring, 1 had eaten a boll weevil.
i~j,;
UPLAND PLOVER.

These fine birds, known as '" plover" or papabotte" in the South,
in recent years have been very much reduced in numbers. Breeding
in the North from Kansas to Canada, and wintering in South
America, they pass through Texas in spring and fall, when great
'numbers are shot for food. They are essentially prairie dwellers and
only occasionally come into the bottomland fields; but wherever the
l)rairies are cultivated they visit the plowed fields in considerable
numbers and pick utip a great many insects. In fact their food consists
almost exclusively of insects and, besides the boll weevil, includes
great numbers of other weevils. Of the plover thus far examined,
only 13 have been taken in cotton fields. One of these, collected April
9 at Columbus, Tex., contained a boll weevil. Forty-eight specimens
taken on the prairies in March were examined, but while their stom-
achs were filled with weevils of several species and other insects, no
boll weevils were found. The fact that the plover are so fond of
weevils strongly suggests that if their numbers can be increased by
protection, so that more of them will visit cotton fields, they will
render valuable aid in destroying the boll weevil. Their spring
migration brings them to south Texas about March 15, and from that
date until May 1 or later they are moving gradually northward
across the State. They are thus present at the most critical period
in the development of the boll weevil, and every weevil destroyed at
this time means a great deal to the cotton grower. Their autumn
migration brings them into the cotton districts in August, when they
are said to visit the cotton fields in numbers. Further investigations
are necessary to show the nature of their food at this season.

KILLDEER.

Killdeers breed throughout Texas and Louisiana and winter abun-
dantly in the southern portion of these States. Although mainly a
bird of the pasture, they frequently visit plowed fields, and in spring
gather in flocks to feed in the freshly-turned furrows. Twenty-one


20






QUAII, NI(;IiT.lAW K,...r''.


seimeniis taken inl FIebwIa3ry an111 March I nta, l.,ii I.XILiiiIeI,l. and, of
these 1 had eaten 2 1(bll weevils. aio'thlIr 3. In tl l.illlmler anMid fall
they rarely feied in tli t fields.
'J AL..I.
Quail stoimactt.s to tlit, numbei' c iif i. ly 2J0t). lI kI'n inI vry Vilidl
exceptinlg Jaiiitluary. May. anld JIlt'. liiV\'t I.'e 'exa iinlledi. ;in1d thIiis
far onlv 1 1ll weevil hi1s I a,,' fmillltI. Qtail.s 're 'er' li:irgely :'Id
eaters, insects formin'niig (o11v ablt 1> |t'r cent cf fliir fond fir tl'
entire year.0 I'nder fiavoralile cotiditio1s tlII(-% arV likely to (3icik ij)
some Iboll weevils. but ill view of tlie reistilts of st oniii (S( ,.\snii;tit is
already made. tlheyv ca\ not bI exl)ectedl to ( lst ')%" laire' i1iIn'runlr, of
weevils, and statemelints of jiuails' cro)ps folnd "1 tilledl witli weevilss"
which appear from tie1' to tine in tlhe newspai pel'rs, must be taken
with many grains of allowance.

NI(;iII'I l(WK I 'LL AT."a'
Nigtlithawks breed locally tlirl( lghlo()It 'I'exas ald ILouisiana. par-
ticularly in plains and prairie region., I[it usually are not aljjIndlaIt
in farming districts, except (during inigrations. Only 10 specimens,.
Taken in August and September, have leei examined, andl of tlese
4 contained a total of 15 )boll weevils. Two of thliese birds had each
ii eaten 6 weevils. Nighthawks are thus seen to be important enemies
-of the boll weevil, and wherever they occur they slloul(1 be carefully
protected.
WA R It1,ERS.
The warbler family is rel)presente(l in Texas by a large inib)er of
species, most of which are inhabitants of woodland(. A few .-pecies
have been observed in cotton fields, and two of them have been found
to eat boll weevils.
Yellow warbler.-Yellow warblers are common in Texas in sum-
mer, and during August and Septelmber tlwey frequent the cotton
fields in some numbers. Twenty-five specimens have been examined.
1 of which had eaten a boll weevil.
Yellow-brea.ted chat.-Chats oculir sparingly in tle ti n ibered por-
tions of Texas. They are lovers of tlhicke(ts and usmial iv are -o sh4Y
that they are not often seen. Five speciens- wer' taken in Sepltemn-
ber in a cotton field lbordered lby thickets, and 1 was found to have
eaten a boll weevil.
TrITMICE. AND WRENS.
Two species of titmice and the (Carolina wren have been found
to destroy boll weevils. They are fort -loving blirds and their work
is done chiefly during the winter, when tlhe weevil are in hiding.
a Judd, Bul. 21, Biological Survey. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 19)5. p. 37.





RELATION OF BIRDS TO COTTON BOLL WEEVIL.


'efted titmo.xe and black-crested titmouse.-One or the other of:
these closely related species is found over most of the timbered por--
lions of Texas. the tufted titmouse being the more eastern and the :
black crested the more western in distribution. The former only is.
found in Louisiana. One tufted tit taken in March and 1 black-
crested tit taken in December had each eaten 1 boll weevil. More
specimens taken in winter would probably furnish additional evidence
of their value as weevil destroyers. The absence of boll weevils from
23 stomachs taken in April and May merely indicates that by this
lime the weevils had left their winter quarters in the timber and
therefore were inaccessible to the titmice.
Carolina wren.-These sprightly little wrens live in the timbered
sections of Texas and Louisiana throughout the year. They frequent
dense thickets and are especially fond of clearings choked with
fallen timber. In such situations they seek and capture boll weevils
during the period of hibernation. Of specimens taken in the fall
(November and December), 5 had eaten a total of 6 boll weevils.
Their record in spring is not so good, for of 14 specimens examined
in March and early April only 1 contained weevils. This one was
shot in a tree heavily covered with Spanish moss" in which the bird
had a nest. The 2 weevils which he had eaten were doubtless taken
from the moss. where they are known to hibernate.

MOCKINGBIRD.
Mockingbirds, taken in every period of the year excepting mid-
winter, have been examined, but very few boll weevils have been
found in their stomachs. Two birds shot on February 24 each con-
tained 1 boll weevil.s but 35 others taken in February, March, and
April showed no boll weevils in the stomach contents. In summer,
85 specimens have been examined, only 5 of which contained boll
weevils, each of these containing 1 weevil.

WHITE-RUMPEI) SHRIKE.
Shrikes, known in the South under the names loggerhead and
" French mockingbird," are generally distributed over the cotton
country, being more common in winter than in summer.
Fifty-four specimens, taken at all seasons, have been examined, only
2 of which contained boll weevils. These 2 were taken in December,
1 of them having eaten 4 wveevils, the other 1.

AMERICA'.N PIPIT.
Pipits, or titlarks, as they are sometimes called, breed in the North
and winter abundantly in Texas. At that season large flocks visit the
a Bul. 51, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1905, p. 153.


22





F1.I.D) INVESTATI'IhNS IN 19WhMi.


cotton fields anti run zilxnt iii ,iii. the |I, stZlk. iin ,-,. ,rcli ,f f d.
Thirteen specimens lhave bet' eiiiuxamind, 4f \ b ]liil :l. tiiki' il Nv'iui-
bet, had eaten a total otf I I11( l weev.ils.

ItlW N TI{I I ASw .\ I Ei.
Brown thraslh'ers llare c IlilIIll \\ iliter rl'idi'llt- iII 'exa' :nini l,1i-
isiaina. ilnhalbitiiig thickets, and hru-.lv tilil,,r. ()illv I (3f tli 3s
specimens exailinetl lla1d eatenl a 1l(11 w ,vil.

INVESTIGATIONS IN THE SUMMER OF 1906.
I"ii F-ll.Il) ('ONDI) IT (NS..

At the time tieultl iliv'i-tiirit 10 .15 wVtlY* I it',i' (',)liil ttt'd i( 19X;
I.-WI.le b "I c -1 1 9 1
S(August and Septemilber) I3il wevvils lhai re nclied ;1l) it tieitr iiinxi-
I tlmuni nunilers. In iwerily t'verv litaiility vi-ited tlc werI' tt 1jJ(r<(
Abundant than at a corri'esiol I( ilg date i1 190-). Tle daiin: g to til1
I crop in many sections wa.s very ,.jrio. (s: in otImrs tihe inft,,tation vnmiiii'
iiii too late to injure much more 1tla1. tlie toIp (Teo, .
SDuring September the weevils made tleir aiuial inigratio,, and
at that time large numbers- of tIenm I were caI t tilrel iII tlie air Iy v ir, Ls
that feed on the wing.
Birds were rather scarcI'e i east Texas and Louis-iana, but abundant
in south Texas. Of thlie 314 specilenu'ns collected a11)out otne-fouirth lhad
captured boll weevils. At omt lncality (Victoria) 42 per cent of thlie
birds examined lhad eaten I3l weevils.

S'" .M .MAlY ( >i'.; I1 l, IV.\'i(INs.

Loqainnjin,,'t. Li., h Iiplwt ?-~2-.-Weevils wept' aljuindit here and
had damaged the crop very (co3lsiiltab'lly. Late (p lanltet'l co.,tto, (ilspe-
ciallyv had been able to mature verve few lk. 1 Th. e fields here are not
extensive, so tlat tlie weevils were concentrated ( t lie ((m3p1laIratively
small area of cotton bearing buds !,(anl bolls. Thirty plants were
examined a-id 78 weevil-, found. Five larvt' were folilld i lc ol)(1.
Birds were ncar'e here. excep)tig wooldp)eckers-. Nilnetee "p)eci-
mens were taken, mimost of theil in tlie blri11i blorderl'ig a cotton fieIl
close to the river. Only "2 bird" ladl eatell Ioll wevils-a crested fly-
catcher, which had eaten 3, and ta (moc.ki ngbir(l. whicliac hd eaten 1.
Columbus.. Te'.,'., Sclufft'h/'r .-.-C-(ottonll was iII finle cmidnlitii here
and a fair crop of bolls hlad already IImatuired. S urie'o were
-still abundant on the plants, )but oer I 50 per cnti( of theim were
punctured. Weevils were nunmeroiu 48 ha'viing bleet found on 40
plants. Grasshoppers a:i)o were ) abundant and furnishedl food for
many birds. Cotton wvorms were 1)resenit in l nall 1li1ibers. Bird
were not common about the cotton fields, though a good many were





24 RELATION OF BIRDS TO COTTON BOLL WEEVIL. 3

seen in the timber and around the dooryards in town. Cliff swaIll
lows and bank swallows were quite numerous, and about '30 rough"a
winged swallows were seen. Twenty-two birds were collected, but::
only 3 had taken boll weevils. One cliff swallow had eaten 6, another'
20 boll weevils, these being the only birds of the species taken. Two,
bank swallows were collected, 1 of which had eaten 2 boll weevils.
Victoria, Tex., September 10-15, 1906.-The cotton fields in the::
river bottom here are extensive. Cotton worms were abundant and.]
quite generally distributed; some of the fields had been entirely-
stripped of leaves and buds by them, while other fields were in proc-
ess of denudation. Boll weevils also were abundant, but on account
of the ravages of the cotton worms were concentrated on the green
cotton, and doubtless large numbers were flying about from field to
field in search of food. September 10. 25 plants were examined and
40 weevils found on them; September 14, 15 plants were examined
and 89 weevils found-an average on both days of about 3 to the
plant. This count was made, of course, in fields where there were
still a good many squares.
Birds were abundant here, and 150 specimens of 22 species were
collected; 63 individuals of 12 species were found to have eaten boll
weevils. Four of the 7 species of flycatchers present here had eaten
weevils-the kingbird, olive-sided flycatcher, least, flycatcher, and
alder flycatcher. The kingbird was quite numerous, and of the 12
specimens taken 6 had eaten a total of 8 weevils. Two olive-sided
flycatchers were taken, one of which had eaten 2 boll weevils. The
smaller flycatchers were quite numerous, and 3 species were taken;
of the 2 alder flycatchers taken 1 had eaten 2 weevils, and of the
4 least flycatchers 2 had eaten 5 weevils apiece. Both the orchard
oriole and the Baltimore oriole were present in some numbers, but
they seemed to feed on the weevil less frequently than during last
summer (1905). Fourteen orchard orioles were collected, and of
these only 3 had eaten weevils-1 taking 2, another 1, and another
13 weevils. Of 13 Baltimore orioles taken, only 1 had eaten the
wveevil-this one taking 9 weevil. It seems probable that the abun-
dance of cotton worms induced the orioles to neglect the boll weevils.
Swallow., were the most abundant birds here during the writer's
stay, and all of the 4 species taken proved to be feeding on boll
weevils. The cliff swallow was the most abundant species, and
several thousand passed over each day in their leisurely southward
migration. Frequently 25 to 50 were in sight at once over the cotton
fields, and on -omne days a continuous ,treamn of swallows was passing
for several hours at a time. They flew usually at a height of 20 to|
30 feet above the ground, occasionally, however, rising to a consider-
ably greater height. Thirty-three specimens were collected, and all
but 1 of them had eaten boll weevils. The total number of weevils





SFIELI) INVESTI(ATI)NS IN 1P6. M.

destroyed by tlio 32 biirik wamt 1113 a vrage of 19 I, t ile ri'l. ThI'
largest niiumbt'r liakten iy mit1' biri i was .17.
Thl T I baltk swallow \\.1, als motl .t it> 1' clIlttomImo a- tliar 'lill swallow,. id
the habits of thite I' .'r iiitt' .itliliar. Iwe ty-twt ., cinI'l, we.'r
taken and 9 (if them ft uttd l< t ave t'il ('i l II i w'evil. Tien' 1:large..t
[ulnumber eateii b ; sil .le I~iril wa> 11. -he totiil] ('*ti Ii ly tlt- 1>
birds was 63, and tlu 1%vr;t' p.t l. birdl 7.
The barn swallow wais ] s c(i, 1131io()1 l111 tilt' otith r -.ic, It'CS of s\ vIl-
lows, antd tlit'ir lhlits ,ltll r liltl froll tlt,-r of tit- Ttir.. I'
were most oft st'll 1 skitaniittr -wiftlNv ov,.r tin' co(Ittoli a)III ;i ..li rt
distance ablovrt til1, tojps of tlie i)lintst. T it' f let'"w lnik aIIId fortli
across the fields many1" tins1 ;11 tilt a'Vi]l(icI c's oIf a ii 'v'iit'it .iitli-
ward were not aplarp;et'it. Elevtii -,l'citit'ils were tIJkel. awil (if tl.ese
5 had eaten a total of .'2) boll weei-. in a veragt'l'e of over 10 per I ir l.
The largest ilnumber eaten 1)y a single hir( was 23.
Several purple martins were seen. utM only oi secured. Tis one
contained fragments of a 1boll weevil.
STwo species of warlblers taken liere-the chat and tlie yellow
Swarbler-were each found to hlavte eaten boll) weevi-is. Five speci-
i mens of each were taken, an4l 1I bird of eahli species lad eaten 1 weevil
*j apiece.
SBeerille, Tea., Septrtember 1'-19.-Weevils were quite scarce at
Beeville this season, and the damage to the cotton Iy them was
, comparatively slight. At the time of the writer's., visit there were
Sfew squares on the plants. and consequenttlv many plants harbored
, no weevils. By selecting and examining 30 plants on which there
was a moderate number of squares 23 weevils were found. Cotton
worms were present in small isolated colonies.
Birds were much less numerous than in August of the preceding
year. Twenty-two specimens were taken, incl(dliig 11 oriole.,. S"ix
of the orioles had eaten bioll weevils. Te single orchard oriole taken
had eaten 1 weevil, the single Bullock oriole taken liad eaten :2 wee-
vils, and of the 9 Baltimore orioles taken 4 hIad eaten a total of 5
weevils.
Runge, Te.'.. Septcmuher 2)-2.-,.-Cotton was still growing and put-
ting on squares at the time of my visit. Weevi %-v were abultindant.
almost every plant harboring Monme of tie inl-ects. ex'cel)t ill fields
where the leaf worm had defoliated the plants. Twenty-tivye plants
were examined and 52 weevils fountl. Cotton worm' were uiul"y l1od-
erately common and locally di.,tributeld.
Birds were fairly abunda nt, tbut tlie -pecies kinow\n to eat thle most
weevils were scarce. Tlhirtiv-nine s-pecimenW, were taken, but only 3
birds had eaten boll weevils-,. Five nighlthawk.- were secured. 2 of
which had eaten boll weevils-1 taking 2, the other (;. Fourteen





26 RELATION OF BIRDS TO COTTON BOLL WEEVIL.

scissor-tailed flycatchers were taken, only 1 of which had eaten aA
boll weevil.
Kerrt;lle, Tex., September 28-29.-Several fields of cotton at
Lacey's ranch, on Turtle Creek, were examined, and weevils were
found to be quite common. Twenty-seven individuals were found on!
10 plants.
Cardinals were numerous, and 4 were shot in a cotton field. OneI
of these had eaten 2 boll weevils. Two phoebes also were taken here,"
1 of which had eaten a boll weevil.

INVESTIGATIONS IN THE WINTER AND SPRING OF 1907.

FIELD CONDITIONS.

The winter of 1906-7 in Texas and Louisiana was unusually mild
and generally quite dry. Over most of the cotton-growing area of
these States frosts were few and light, and seppa cotton was found
commonly, in April. even as far north as Waco, Tex., and Mansfield,
La. Such conditions were extremely favorable to the hibernating
boll weevils, and in portions of south Texas they were more or less
active throughout the winter. Large numbers emerged from hiber-
nation in March, and during that month many were found feeding on
seppa cotton. Judging from the small number of weevils found in
birds' stomachs taken in April, it seems probable that by that time
the majority had emerged from hibernation and begun to feed on the
young cotton plants.
Observations were carried on chiefly at five localities in south and
central Texas and northwestern Louisiana. A comparison of the
relative number of weevils found in the birds examined at different
periods shows clearly that the best work of birds is accomplished early
in the season, while the weevils are still in their hibernating quarters.
Thus in the period from February 11 to 16 in south Texas, with seppa
cotton abundant. 0.0 per cent of the birds examined contained boll
weevils; from February 206 to March 9 in central Texas. with the
seppa cotton scarce. 13 per cent contained boll weevils; from March 12
to April 11 in south Texas (same localities as in February) 2.7 per
cent contained boll weevils: from April 12 to 24 in central Texas
(same localities as in March) none contained boll weevils, and from
April 26 to Ma'y 23. in northwestern Louisiana. 2.3 per cent contained
boll weevils.
SUMMARY OF OBSERVATIONS.

Cur to. Tc.'.. February 11-12.-Nearly all fields were plowed and:
cotton was being planted. Birds were abundant, particularly vesper.





FIELD INV'EST1A.Vl'tNS IN 1t'7. 27

sparrows and savainma -parrows. A ft.% -.II all ok- of I'r.l,' r
blackbirds were, ft'edlinlg in tillhe ilowt li'i-. KIle''n of' Ille- Ii rk-
birds were collectedi andil -I Wr' found 113 I1V' ellt'll ,11 've'vil-. ole
taking 4 weevils, tlu' 3otle1s 1 each. Seven\ of tlie a-:t:llii p: '\\.
were taken anid in 1 it Iloll weevil was foinld.
V'tor,, 7T'.rx., te triiir!! X. N 1-t of t4 lic' fi'I i ll i- \i, in i iity\
had tbeen plowed 1and olmit' halld be'i planted. l)r \\cwatletr linid
retarded tlite fii gliii ojt'rati blackbirds wfi (il lite ailliiidant :ii4l "22 ,pct'imiiei, w\\t' talk'en. i)-t tof
them in ia large tietl[ ill o fc,-.-, O )f gi i W)lo ed. in \vii| 'l tin,' -t l l.k-
had lb ein l)rokin n dto\\ ;i a 11(3 li1 or ii'or, ;ai 1. 'l'lilt'"* :-, I'-l.t '-
able rulbi)isli. con.sisti ng of letila gra s ;1111(l ( l(1 co1(l 13111 :tillI I tI;ilkI-.
on thle ground in tills field. biut a ail'tf ii'fl] exaliilliti oll o a ; i :llf Ili1l'l
of this rubbish failed to lhow any weevils. lli'ri' oif tint I l re('w'r
blackbirds taken inl tlihe field, lioevi'rr. had ruli eaite ai i,1 \wve',il.
and 2 taken in another field Iiade (' ('al < )tr inL''d 3 1ioll w3 ,ee il-. SiXl,.cii
killdeer were taken inl tlie field above referred to. lImit non it f ll Iin had
eaten weevils. Thev fed nmaiiinl on l'"'e. j t'y ]lrva'1 tilllit ed111) pV
the plow. A single killdeer -liot wliile flyingl over "i jim.t4 ii v nea:r
town had remains of 2 I)oll weevils in its stomah'l. Savanina ,- );\rrowv.-
were abliundant liere. as at Cuei a(. ind of tile 7 1irds takenll. 1 contaiitnedl
Sa boll weevil.
S Gurley. Ter.. 1,'uarit-y 2G to < .1/ -./ G.-At this d(ate 'only uilott
Half of the Gurlev ranch liad been plloved and no cotton I;id ls vet
Been planted. Bird- were only moderately aIl)tindlih1t. tilt' ilo-t nit-
merous species being meadow lark-.st, Vat a1na sp.T-aro-. t111d \Ne-Ier
sparrows. One hundred and forty-six lpeciellil. of 21) s|)t''l- Lwer'
collected here. and 1) individutal-. or 13 per ce'(nlit of tiln' tota l llt'.bler
taken, were found to have eatell l)l 1)weevils. 1I'lle weevil at Ilii
date were probably found in their il)eerlatilg luiarte'-s or ele' ''aw 1-
ing about in searc(l of cotton plants- on Nwl icli. to feed. Large flock.
of blackbirds of several species flew i\ lghtly ldown tle i vall te t1o( root.
but very feNw of tlieni alighted inl tile fil( to( feed. A loc)k of
bronzed grackles lived for ecver;l day s a1oluIt lie field., fo1ll1Mwing
the plow in the furrow or tlie hlarrow as tile old -talks- wer' i,'il ig
raked. Eighteen specimens of tiiis blackbird were taken. 5- of whiicli
had each eaten a boll weevil. Tliese .' birds were ;all t aken illn 01'e
day in a small field where the old cotton stalks were bei, ig ranked.
Eleven eastern meadow larks and 18 western meadow lalrk,- were
taken in the fields, and of this number 3 of tihe eastern larlks and 7 ofi
the western larks had eaten boll weevils, the total number of weevils
taken by the 10 birds being 14. Tliey \were inot inl tlle llalit of follow-
ing the plow, as the blackbirds do. but fed! inll the opei t portions, of tlie
unplowed fields or among the standing stalks of cotton left from last





28 RELATION OF BIRDS TO COTTON BOLL WEEVIL. ;

season. The weevils eaten by them were doubtless picked up from
the rubbish scattered about the fields. ii
Only 4 of the savanna sparrows were examined, and of these 1 con-"
tained a boll weevil. These sparrows were very numerous about the:
fields and the number of weevils destroyed by them at this season.
must be very large. Two other members of the sparrow family.
were found to have eaten boll weevils-the little field sparrow and
the larger chewink or towhee bunting. Both of these species fre-
quent the dense thickets and the field sparrow is found also about the
brushy borders of the cotton fields. Five of the towhees and 4 of
the field sparrows were collected, and one of each had eaten a boll
weevil.
The tufted titmouse occurs sparingly in this portion of Texas,
living in the timbered bottoms and in the post oaks. The single bird
collected at Gurley contained a boll weevil, which had probably been
secured in the upland timber.
('tero, Tex., .Marchi 12-22.-At this date most of the cotton had
been planted and much of it was up from 1 to 2 inches. On account
of the unusual mildness of the past winter, a great many plants of
sepl)pa cotton were growing in the fields, and upon these plants most
of the weevils were feeding. On March 18, 100 plants of seppa were
examined for boll weevils and 14 of the insects found.
Blackbirds of three species-Brewer blackbirds, redwings, and
cowbirds-were abundant in the fields, where they settled in large
flocks, numbering a thousand or more. to feed on insects turned up by
the plows. Meadow larks and savanna sparrows also were quite
numerous, but other birds were rather scarce. About 200 specimens
were taken, but only 6 individuals had eaten boll weevils. Of the 48
Brewer blackbirds collected, 3 had eaten 1 weevil apiece, and of the
60 cowbirds taken, 3 had likewise eaten 1 weevil each. These results
indicate clearly that the birds do not find the weevils to any extent
after they have begun to feed on the young cotton, and demonstrate
the necessity for destroying every stalk of seppa cotton in order that
the weevils which emerge early from hibernation may be deprived
of food and at the same time exposed to the attacks of the birds.
Victoria, Tex., Mar(.h 2.' to A.pril 4.-Conditions here were much
the same as at Cuero. Cotton was 1 or 2 inches high and receiving
the first cultivation before being thinned. Boll weevils were numer-
ous, and said to have been more or less active all winter. Twenty
stalks of seppa examined on April 1 showed 12 feeding weevils.
Two hundred and twenty-nine birds were collected, but only 5 indi-
vidu(lllals had eaten boll weevils.
Blackbirds were still abundant, though less so than in February.:
Five species were represented, the most numerous being the redwings,,
the bronzed grackles, and the great-tailed grackle or jackdaw.





FIELD INVE.' ATIONS.'IIN IN I.Nf. ,'

Tln, redwlings fed nunailyv ii pla.t ur- ur,'", iiI) In liii-i;.la'. I1111
they were, ovacsI'aiiI!y .,e,'ii Mii cull i'ateiI lieiv l-.. wf till, IS -
illns collectettd, 2 %%-r'i found t6 'ot11in 1 I,11 fl \ evil eac'l. '[h,'1
great-tai t led grackle s we're vwry fionldl ,if f ill,,\ii Mg tli jll- w. Ill n1111 l I
of tihe 17 birds takefi llai b i'liIadIik i :o we11 w4vil. Urn iie..uiui\w
larks were much redlcedI in nIl lhein'.r, 1 .-. t i tl Ini i, I.; in6I ii r I ti'iriq1 t0
the prairies to bItredl. liglit .RciIh('I- w4'f(' t.ilkc in (ie liiIld, ;11111
the stomach of ou' (if Itlhni ,.oit. c n ii'in 1d a I 11 we,'.\il.
S ("olumbiis. 7i'.c.. 1 '/l ;-/l. --('c tton \\A-. ;' liltl,' fbitlliT. ;id\;:uii'd'il
here thin at V\itoria. a;nl ti re rN as l:a i |', iiit a1tit 'Y of 'ppa )] grow-
ing in most of te field s. Six 11(1 weevil. \V. I ,% tv I'(III' l I M] 2 si: llk o'
the seppa. lBirdls werei' rateIier .,'ive a1),1 it tl 1 ie!ldl. Abouilt :,()
Speeilelns were '*1ollect("d. (nIIly 2 ti f \iiicli liia! ('.ii e l o I,11 Wt'V il-.
Four Carolin a wr.ens wvere taken in tIhh tiil)t'r ;11(iln tli. i'i,
and the stomach of 1 of tihein roontained 2 1oll ',v,*il.. NA tck
of alxUit .i nlplaindl I)l O tr \as t'fo nld f''elini ill a '-iilti v iat- fi.ll.
where they followed tlhe ])lom\'1;ill or 1n;il lnit :1inoinl tle Vtll ig.
cotton and corn ill search( of insects. TI were vcr' wil,. lit h ;
specimens were sec('lretd. 1 of w\hicli had t1eaten :a l,(11 weevil.
Girlet y. 7,'... .I/- /'I 1 f-2 I.- A t t I I dsate 'cotton I wa. :1) (1 4 init'c1 's
high, but not vet thinned. ()nlvy ;a few .talk. of -eppal lhad -ulrvived
the frosts, b)uit the-e lhad lbeen di-coverel lv)y tlhe weevils, wi icl wrt.r
thus provided with food until tlhe planted cotton I,.cani, Ivailiale.
Three weevils were found on 1 Seppi plilt ail 1 oH al otl.r.
Birds were rather scarce ait this daite. A\loit 100 p-leixl-ii,1 were
Stake, mainly tlihe sinaller brIush-inhliabiting species. bI.t nont' of tl nh
Shad eaten boll weevils.
I Mansfehl, La.. -.,Apl 26 to .llai .-On account of ;I ol,. wet
spring the cotton here w\as very ba;ck\w;ard, al nio,-t (If it had i)een
.planted over once or 'even twice. Seppa cotton had -rn''ivel tlhe
late frosts, however. and 1)oll weevils \\were found feeding on tlie- e
plants.
Birds were -very abundant, particularly woodpeckers.- wren- tit-
mice, wood pewees. and orcliard orioles. Most of tlien. ]o\Nhowever.
Sfed in the timber where insect food w\\as ablundant. Kinglird., were
numerous about the fields and pasture(k, and of S specimnlI's collect'ted
1 had captured a boll weevil.
SCrested flycatchers were not common and. as they frequent tile
taller trees in the woods, it \was somewhat of a surprise to find 2 boll
....weevils in the stomach of a specimen, shot from the top of a large
pine, at some distance from the cotton fields.
The orchard orioles, whose usefulness during the siuinmer month-
as boll weevil destroyers has been well established, were found to be
already beginning their good work. Eighteen specimens were exam-
ined and 1 of them (taken April 27) had eaten a boll weevil.






30


RELATION OF BIRDS TO COTTON BOLL WEEVIL.


SCHEDULES OF STOMACH EXAMINATIONS.

RECORD OF BIRDS EXAMINED WHICH HAD EATEN BOLL WEEVILS.


During Janu- During During July, DuringOcto--
ary, dFebru- April,May, August, and ber, Novem-
ary, and and June. September. ber, and
~December.
SpeMarc. 0 o
Spce vv -v'd bnt ClV
Z'= 0 .> *S > d 03 >|0
PC
OCi = 0 0-0
-0, Z Z- ... I 10 0 1 Z

tUpland plover {Barrnmia onpicani ) ....... 4x I........ 13 1 .1 1 .... .... .... .....
K illdeer t O.rircc/i s !i /c(/r i ..... ............. 21 2 1 5 1 ......... 6 .......... ........
fuxai >uiil ta i u I(W11115 riniani s tt.rfinx sp.. ..*.1 40 i -.... -.... 10 ........ 38 .... ..... 108 1 1
WesternI i ghthai k ( horde/It s r. lienryi .......... 1
Si-sirtililed flyciatclier l A'lus irf, i ..' .l.5............. I................ .... I
Kingbirdi i Tqri i ,istpilratinsil.. .......... ............ ....10 1 1 22 I 6 8 ........ ....
Crested f lvCa tc her ( l iii/t, i r is ct i i itis) ................. ..... 7 1 2 .5 I ..
Pic-hrel .-.'yiyriis p/ni bt i ...................... s ..... .... .... ....... .... *2 1 1 13 3 3
O live-sided fl %i VVIt hLiI r I AIIl t Ilirini binc idi .. ..... .... .... .... .... I.... 2 1 2
Alder iive t.itchr:r (Imipidenifix traiili alnoruin). ......... .... ...... ........ .... 3 1 2.
Least fl yeatc her c Jmpiinui.r ii iiiinnt)....... ..... .... .... .... ........ 14 7 21............
Cowbird .1(Milothrtsatcr).................... N 4 4'4 ....... .... 84 3 3 24 ........
Red-winged blackbird (A(claiisph/rnicen.s).. 34 1 1 16 1 1 11 ....... 9 2 2
Meadow lairk (Sturniulta inttgiia and sub-
species) ................... . ... ............ 37 4 6 1 ........ 1 .... ..... 183 28 32
Western meadow lark (.S/urn.ifla gfu/lcca) .... 50 7 9 .... ........ ..... .... .... 66 12 18
Orchard oriole (Irtcr,,s Si, r,, is.) .............. ...... .... 20 1 1 101 30 64 ..... ... ....
Baltimore oriole ( Irf'ru. galbula) ................... .... ... 50 11 24 .....I
BulJlock, rio!le ic lchtIrustl/,r'kii).... ........... ........ ..... ...... .... 149 40 133 .... ........
Brewer blackbird Eiip/hagus cynocephlausi 101 15 28 1 ...................... 5 2 1 2
Bronzed grackle (Qui-rcalus q. xueisi ......... 36 5 I 5 19 ........ 3 ... .........
Great-tiledgrackle iMe.g/quiiiicalis/i,,ijor),,,- \I
cro riis) ........ ..... ...................... 32 2 2 7 1 1 6 ......... 2
Western sava n na sparrow v Ps'o reailis. a/.- 1 ul
dims) .......................................39 .3 2 ............. ..... 18 1 1
Western larksparrow (&hondcs/esgrawniacas
sFtriqar.i .............................. 1 .... ..1. 54 1 1 ...........
Cardnal( (ardn~ds cu'dnals) .......... 2 ... I... 7I .... .... 54 3
White- throated sparrow (Zoitotriia albiul-
US/ ) ............................. ....... ............. .. ... 4 .... . .. I 9 1 1
Field sparrow nig l.'/ a poisilla) ............. 7 1 1 ........... 5 .... ... .. ..... .... ....
Towhee (Pipilo i i th ropth hliiaiu,) .............5 1 1 ....... ..... 6 .... ....
Cardinal (Carlinalis cardin alis) ................ 21 .... .... .... .... .....6.. ....
Texau pyrrhuloxia (Pyrrhvlo.iasinua/a tex- ...\3 ..... .
aio .w .............. ........................ ..... .... .... .... .... .... 64 2 2 1 ..... .... ....
Painted bunting (ass eteia ciu Cs)....... ... ......... ... ....... .. 4 12 1 .... .......
Dickcissel (Spia A teric hna) ........ ........ ... .... 9 1 3 3...... ...
Purple martin (i Progae sibls.) ................. ..... ... .... 1 1 5 1 1
Cliff swallow (Petruchrlidun Inunfroiis)........ 1 .... .... .. .... 35 : 34 638............
Barn swallow (Hirunudo crythrogastra)........ ..... .... .... .... .... 14 5 5'2 16 .......
Bank swallow (Riparia riparia)...................................... 25 11! 6a ..... .... ....
White-rumped shrike Laniitus i.c.re'biloriles). 19 .... .... 4 2 ........ 19 '.........12 2 5
Yellow warbler (Dci droica slira) ................ .... .... .... .... .... 25 1 ...... ....
Yellow-breat-ted chat (Icteria vircis) .............. .... .... ........ 5 i 1 1...........
American pipit (Anthns pennilranicu.sj)........ 5..... .... .... ........ ...............8 3 4
Mockingbird (Winits potlYlo//os)............2 2 2 13.........85 5 1 5 5
Brown thrasher i Toxostona rufuim)........... 2 .........7 ....*. ... ..... 29 1 -. I
Carolina wren ( Thirwothorus ludoivicianus) .... I ....-.... 31 1 1 2 1 ....1..... 7 5 6
Tufted titmouse (fLwolophus bicifr.. I 1 1 1 23 .... ... .... .. .....
Black-crested titmouse (Ba'olophus a/rinista: I i '
(US) ......................................... .... .... .... .... .... .... 2 1 1






SCHED11,F. DF STO NICI.. I -XAM I N %TI1NS. 31


RE(CIR) R I! 1OIRDS EXA.MINE W 1 \\llIIl II 1.\l> T r i:\11.. Ii,.1I. \WEI II.S.


Ii,.,I l.lriisi -





". "_

tm ing dove / a l litl rf ii . . ... .. .. ... 1i
l aXl tlB griui l lt i iv e 'h:ru I/i a itv' i .i- r t' -ri j1i//, .' . . .-. 1 . .. . .
Ill -lli tlll l (clll'kiit ( ( i'r'ii: sx iulfri/r'lnri 't . . . . . . . ... I I.
| it %liKy"e d L'kt'r ( lI .i/eJ l iti A I t. 1i ......... I ..
i -cSk m ltNu w imN ~p irker / i r. .d i g l'. .i # i'#1 .... . .. ...... .
SII ml i ii'Leker I lr!ii i t it ..-r',i li i.. I,, iI I. . ..... .............. . ......... .
-lical tfi s n It ito'tI rr k t '. r 1i i t"m.c* r wh , -"*f Id"niI . ... 1/ .
-l l h i 'lI i -,llp e'ker -i l in s rii p r/i, i . . . . .. . . . . . . .
den-f'rinted ik d,.lietkt er I f '# ui ri i its r'' s.t i . . ...... . . . . I . .
cktr ,I( '.ijlil's a m( t ll iI ......................... . . . . 1
Pei r e t Onifidtnpn rei ies I.................... ............. 1 '.
|tlow-k iedY .Ill*l f ly a he Ei'" it ijhi. ic............. ir-... ........... ...... ........... .. II
iplow -l.M-llied fl y'rilt" her ( Knllip lrliui.n.j1'f l 'ri' nfti-/,- i .. .. ... .. .. ......... I.
%n-cvrevIet.td fly v'.a Itcher ( Eanpidhin .r yiirn s.f' itS'................. ... ........ I
J wve-refsted fl ycatchrr [Kmpidtonaxi~ vt(.0 N" 11.... .. .....
*w jay (Ja c i/ an.sc /trt C 'l rf l 1............................ ..... ..... ......
i~ l!ty blackli ird [ h( Erc'i un/ es''/mi rs ................ ... ............... ......... I
tern vespe r sptrrow (' iv t i' s f(l. ni'l i ,. r'irn/llI .1. i ..... .. ... ... .......... I I
ltern grat.ssho[lp.r spnrriw ( .t\inll, rmllnitrm ,xs. lii, nt/islti1. .. .......... 1 .
til e- lmT im ed s rlirrow ({ rlnotrir'mil 1F 1ur'filir ./ > |I ........... . .... .......... : I I
i eern tree sparrow (, 'pi noli / mn I'h'rulsq I ................... ... .............. ... .... .. .
-colored sparrow (.Spizi: Ilt pfri/if ) ................................... .. ....... 7 ....
B mlan ~iparrow ( .Airnwl hiu a. &bir- titna i................................. ........... : ..... ..
coli~n sparrow (.ifllnsp ,:a lii'fncil ii)............... ... ........................ I i .....
s ipa rrow ( 'iss.rre tla il/itm' ) ....................... ................... ... .
J || rsb n (tlirii ~ riM' ... ..... . . . i
_go bu altikg ( Pa s rirun c, lI F/Cu) ..................... ........... .. .............. .. ...... ..
mer tana er (Pirnit ruibrni)................................................. 7 ....
Illl tllifr(PC.'.... ~br iI................................................... ]....I
I -!inTged swallow S7 I/lnflrpturyc/. st rripfrIs ,.}............................... J 7 .....
f tt rwaxwing (.4ipci/s e'tl ior nim ) ................................................ .. .. ........
-e d-: vireo ( V'rr i,/r'a olin'rea).................................. ..... ..... 1......
tie-ey d vireo ( l'in"o ne', burarcisi. i ............ ................. .. ... 1 7 2 ......
hville w arbler ( P rin iura r hrir'upillu I................................... ..... . .. ....
rtle w arbler (Dcndruira Crrnr uti) ................. ............ ..... .... .; ..... ......
w arbler ( Iendr-itca rigor.-'i i .............................................................
tacky w arbler (Ofpororitisf.,rnr .a........................................ ...... ......
ing warbler (Opor'imnis p Iiladclpfhia i ............... ................... .;. ... .. .. ....
ithern yellowthrnat (Geihl ypis Iri'has braichivar'til ..................... I .
se-billed thnis.-her ( Toxostoma eCnrviristrc) ...... ................................ ......
a Bewick wren ( Thiryoman' .s b, nirki ci iplt us ............................ 2 .....' :2 '
rn house wren (Trug'lodIti s a' dIt. parkimnua i .......................... 2 ..... ......
y gnatcatehlier ( P /liriptiltz crr lrca .................................... 1 1 I ..... ......
r headed nuthatich ( SilUta pi ill/ )............................................. 7 ...........
rit thrush (Ilylocichla g. pallaui) ..................................... ......... ..
l i (Sialia nalis) ......................................... ............ ..... ,




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