The Silver Men: West Indian Labourers at the Panama Canal, Nomination for the Memory of the World Register

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Title:
The Silver Men: West Indian Labourers at the Panama Canal, Nomination for the Memory of the World Register
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English
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Barbados Department of Archives
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Barbados Department of Archives
UNESCO
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Barbados
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Abstract:
Abstract from http://www.unesco.org/new/en/communication-and-information/flagship-project-activities/memory-of-the-world/register/full-list-of-registered-heritage/registered-heritage-page-8/silver-men-west-indian-labourers-at-the-panama-canal/ Silver Men: West Indian Labourers at the Panama Canal Documentary heritage submitted by Barbados, Jamaica, Panama, Saint Lucia, United Kingdom and United States of America and recommended for inclusion in the Memory of the World Register in 2011. The documentary heritage concerning West Indians and their experience in and contribution to the Panama Canal represents one of the most significant movements of voluntary migration to emerge during the post emancipation period after 1838. These records document the movement of over one hundred thousand people to the Isthmus of Panama, the majority of whom never returned. The highly successful recruiting process set in motion by the Isthmian Commission was ultimately responsible, both directly and indirectly, for the extraordinary pattern of West Indian emigration to Panama to work on the Canal project and the efforts of the colonial governments to control and mitigate this phenomenon, the magnitude and scale of which had the potential to erode further the power of the British Empire. Year of submission: 2010 Year of inscription: 2011 Country: Barbados, Jamaica, Panama, Saint Lucia, United Kingdom and United States of America
Citation/Reference:
Course materials for: “Panama Silver, Asian Gold: Migration, Money, and the Making of the Modern Caribbean” an interdisciplinary Digital Humanities Course with the Digital Library of the Caribbean (dLOC, www.dloc.com) Spring 2014, taught by Leah Rosenberg at the University of Florida

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright by Creator. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for research and educational uses. Permission to reuse, publish or reproduce this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions must be obtained from the copyright holder.
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Page 3 MEMORY OF THE WORLD REGISTER NOMINATION FORM The Silver Men: West Indian Labourers at the Panama Canal1 PART A ESSENTIAL INFORMATION 1 SUMMARY West Indians and their experience in and contribution to movements of voluntary migration to emerge during the post emancipation period after 1838. The constituent elements of this nomination reside in several countries including: Barbados, Jamaica, Panama, St. Lucia, the United Kingdom and the United States of America, and are as unique as the circumstances and events which produced them. TThe migration to the Isthmus of Panama of more than 50,000 West-Indian labourers, followed by their wifes, with the French attempt to construct a Level Canal, and extended until 1914, with the triumphant inauguration of the Locks Canal by the United-States made it necessary for the West-Indians colonial authorities to administrate the number of persons that emigrated to Panama and to work under contract for the construction of the Panama Canal. This encouraged the creation of registers such as Reports and Police Reports, all of which documented and recorded the movement of thousands of people migrating out of the region and their legal and political control2. The vested interests of the plantocracy in having an assured labour pool was threatened by this mass outmigration. At the same time the colonial governments of the region had an interest in appearing benevolent by creating a legislative framework in which the rights of their chattels and their regulations sought to control the exodus of a labour force over which they had had strict control, and which was now being disrupted by the migration of West Indian people. of workers for the construction of the Panama Canal and is represented in this documentary heritage. The mass emigration of British West Indians out of the British Empire and their relocation to Panama was witnessed and intimately recorded in papers which highlight the daily lives and working conditions which tens of thousands of West Indians had to endure in Panama. The heritage that captures all of this movement is contained in the Department records re Panama, and various statutory bodies records which reported on their settlement, status and condition. For the 100,000 plus West Indians who made new lives in Panama from the middle of the nineteenth century to opening of the Canal this voluntary separation from home and family represented the unimaginable promise of economic improvement3. Bank Depositors Ledgers, ranging of thousands of people who were depositing Panama Money into the Savings Bank. Essentially the Depositors Ledgers represent a newfound economic freedom and are directly related to the West Indian Panama experience. Philatelic and photographic documents offer evidence of the burgeoning communications exchanges between these century. These items of the documentary heritage were created so that the Canal Zone could have its own stamps as a strategy of making it easier for the tens of thousands of workers to stay in touch with their relatives. Additionally, the images archived in various media within the nomination are invaluable as records of the entire process of the excavation and construction of the Panama Canal, and the lives of those who participated in it. Silver Roll system implemented by the American administrators of the Canal Zone in 1904 and enforced by the American government from the very beginning of what is historically known as the American Construction Era of the Panama Canal Zone which spanned the years 1904-1914. 2. A reference to the total number of 52,535 West-Indian labourers can be et Martiniquais au Canal de Panam. Histoire dune migration. (2004) Pge. Intelligence Report of the Panama Canal, Washington, 1889, and to James Stevens Simmons, Malaria in Panama. Baltimore, 1939. It should be noted however, that members who followed the labourers to a new land. 3.Michael L. Conniff has asserted that: Migration during the American construction period became a tidal wave, bringing approximately 150.000 persons in the decade 1904-1914: Most did not plan to stay: Eventually, though, tens of thousands remained because the islands offered few opportunities WestIndians settled, married, had children, and became the largest immigrant group in the sparsely populated country. (3) Consideration should also be given to the temporary labour contracts, the possible Re-migration of West-Indians, and Directions, Immigration Registers of Panama and the Canal Zone. These considerations, their study and their integration in the global analysis of the West-Indian migratory movement for the construction of the Panama Canal, have not yet been fully accomplished, but do not pose any contradiction in the estimation of the West Indian presence in the Canal Zone.

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Page 4 The records of the Isthmian Canal Commission, documenting the success of the American canal project, also relate to the earlier French attempt in the late nineteenth century and the early records of the Panama Railway Company from the mid-nineteenth century, all of which record the projects which were the catalysts for the introduction of West Indian labour to the Isthmus of Panama. This joint nomination represents the core documentary heritage and records of the West Indian experience in Panama that are vital to the collective Memory of the World. 2 DETAILS OF THE NOMINATOR 2.1 Name (person or organisation) (A). The Barbados Department of Archives, Barbados West Indies (B). The Barbados Museum and Historical Society, Barbados West Indies (C). The Jamaica Archives and Records Department, Jamaica (D). Museo Del Canal Interoceanico de Panama, Republic of Panama (E). The St. Lucia National Archives (F). Mrs. Primrose Mallet, The United Kingdom. United States of America Florida (I). The National Archives United Kingdom 2.2 Relationship to the documentary heritage nominated (A). The Barbados Department of Archives is the custodian for the District A Emigrants Registers (Three volumes) and the Barbados Savings Bank Registers of Depositors, 1891, 1904 and 1906 (B). The Barbados Museum and Historical Society owns the Herbert Hutchinson Postcard and Stamp (C).The Jamaican Archives and Records Department owns and maintains a large collection of documents and records which relate directly to the Jamaican Experience in Panama. These documents and records Records in relation to Jamaica and Panama, Central Statutory bodies records (particularly those of the Jamaica Broadcasting Corporation, Laws of Jamaica, (D). The Museo del Canal Interoceanico De Panama, owns the Charles Muller image collection. (E). The St. Lucian National Archives owns the St. Lucia th August 1906 which contains the Report of the Police Department for 1905. The Emigration Protection Ordinance 1911 is also held in Bounded volumes for 1911. (F). Mrs. Primrose Mallet-Harris owns the Claude Mallet papers. (Information Pending) (H). Florida possesses the Leonard Carpenter Panama Canal Collection which is primarily a photographic collection which features the construction of the canal, Labourers, heavy machinery, the Panama Canal Railway line and shipping. Further more the Smathers Library is also a Federal depository of the United States of America and holds 1,500 documents which relate to the One of the three District A Emigrants Registers 1906-1912, Barbados Department of Archives collection

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Page 5 construction of the Panama Canal. The main elements of this collection include documents of the Panama Canal Commission, the Isthmian Canal Commission, related to the canal and reports maps and documents which all relate to the construction and operation of the Panama Canal. In addition, the Library is in the process of acquiring the collections of the Panama Canal Museum in Florida. This is taking place because the charter of this Museum will expire in two years time. held within the National Archives at Kew, United Kingdom, relate to the experience of West Indian Labourers on the Panama Canal. These are represented by records which range in period from the early 1900s to 1930, focussing primarily on reports and in Panama and other Central American missions. The information in these records speak to myriad issues such as immigration and movement of West Indians between Panama and the British West Indies and other countries in Central America, labour conditions of West Indians, labour and political agitations by West and some information which relates to West Indians recruited into the British West Indian Regiment during World War I. The records also contain information relating to religious matters among the West Indian community in Panama. 2.3 Contact person (s) (A). The Barbados Department of Archives, Mr. David Williams. (B). The Barbados Museum and Historical Society, Ms. Alissandra Cummins, Director (C). The Jamaican Archives and Records Department, Claudette Thomas, Chief Archivist (D). The Museo del Canal Interoceanico de Panama, Dr. Angeles Ramos Baquero, Directora (E). The National Archives of St. Lucia, Mrs. Margot Thomas, Director (F). The Claude Mallet Papers, Mrs. Primrose MalletHarris, The United Kingdom. Archivist, Textual Archives Services Division Florida, Ms. Chelsea Dinsmore, Archivist,. (I). The National Archives, Kew, United Kingdom, Mr. 2.4 Contact details (include address, phone, fax, email) (A). Barbados Department of Archives, Black Rock St. Michael, Barbados, West Indies. Fax: (246) 425-5911 E-mail archives@sunbeach.net Or bda@caribsurf.com Barbados Savings Banks Register of Depositors 1853-1918, 20volumes, Barbados Department of Archives collection

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Page 6 (B). The Barbados Museum and Historical Society, Barbados, West Indies. Fax.1-246-429-5946 Email: museum@caribsurf.com director@barbmuse.org.bb registrar@barbmuse.org.bb (C).Jamaican Archives and Records Department, Corner of King and Manchester Streets, Spanish Town, St. Catherine, Jamaica, West Indies. (D) Museo del Canal Interocenico de Panam between Fifth and Sixth Street Panama, Republic of Panama EMAIL: directora@museodelcanal.com info@museodelcanal.com (E). St. Lucia National Archives, P.O. Box 3060. (F). Mrs. Primrose Mallet-Harris, Mallet Court, Taunton, Somerset, The United Kingdom. Archivist, Archives II reference Section, Textual Archives Services Division. (I). The National Archives Kew, Richmond, Surrey, TW9 4 DU, An example of one of the thousands of Panamanian Stamps which were overprinted with the demarcation Canal Zone. Herbert Hutchinson Panama Canal stamp collection, Barbados Museum and Historical Society.

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Page 7 3 IDENTITY AND DESCRIPTION OF THE DOCUMENTARY HERITAGE Nominating Country Documentary Heritage Barbados The Herbert Hutchinson Collection: Stamp Collection is composed of 309 stamps which can be divided into the two categories: Overprinted of which there are 124 in the collection and Canal Zone of which there are 155. The Stamp Collection can be further divided into the following chronological and thematic categories: Canal Zone 1904-1978 Canal Zone 1904: 8 Canal Zone 1904-06: 12 Canal Zone 1906-1912: 10 Canal Zone 1912-1916: 6 Canal Zone 1915-20: 8 Canal Zone 1918-21: 8 Canal Zone 1921-1924:8 Canal Zone 1924-25: 12 Canal Zone 1924-26: 11 Canal Zone 1932-40: 14 Canal Zone 1934-39: 9 Canal Zone 1939: 10 Canal Zone 1946-49: 12 West Indians who worked in Panama. Canal Zone Airmail Stamps 1929-41 1929-31 Canal Zone Airmail Stamps:10 1931-49 Canal Zone Airmail Stamps: 6 1951-58 Canal Zone Airmail Stamps: 11 1961-64 Canal Zone Airmail Stamps: 10 Canal Zone Airmail Postage Due 1914-41 1914-1915 Canal Zone Airmail Postage Due Stamps: 6 1915-19 Canal Zone Airmail Postage Due Stamps: 5 1924-25 Canal Zone Airmail Postage Due Stamps: 9 1929-41 Canal Zone Airmail Postage Due Stamps: 9

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Page 8 Barbados (contd) Hutchinson Postcards Collection 108 Postcards, 16 are black and white. Total 108 Accession Number 350 CO32 BA Total 1 Total 3 Barbados Savings Bank Registers of Depositors, 1853-1918 (20 volumes). Total 1 Jamaica Jamaica National Archives The records in relation to the Jamaican experience in Panama include: (1926). Oliver Bishopsdale from Panama. forces engaged in civilian war work. British Honduras.

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Page 9 Jamaica (contd) names by L.K. Brandon. Central Government Department/Cabinet Submissions Statutory Bodies Records/ Jamaica Broadcasting Corporation Panama Canal Panama 01 05 1931 -Panama Lengthy report on the United States efforts at repatriation of Jamaicans from Panama. A variety of letters dealing with the prevailing distress and unemployment among the BRITISH WEST INDIANS population of Panama. Describes the worsening of the situation and the growing calls for repatriation.

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Page 10 Jamaica (contd) war service examination from labourers workers. Contains information on the alleged ill-treatment and the repatriation of Contract Workers. Laws of Jamaica Law 35 of 1893 The Emigrant Labourers Protection Law Private Records and Canal Zone 1925

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Page 11 Jamaica (contd) dependents Total: 23 St. Lucia th of January and 11th August respectively. Additionally the 1911 Emigrants Protection Ordinance can be found in Panama The Charles Muller Collection The Charles Muller Collection consists of 2,186 Postcards, 103 Photographs, 35 stereoscopic images and 36 souvenir booklets. Postcards relating to transiting the Canal and Entertainment. Total 2186+103+35+36=2360 United Kingdom The unpublished Letters and Papers of Claude Mallet, British Consul to Panama Covers the period at least between the start of the French Canal Project and the American project (late nineteenth to early twentieth century) Total number of letters and documents unknown. The Records of the National of the Archives are relevant to construction of the Panama Canal and the experience of West Indians on that project can are to be found in two broad Correspondence-1624-1951 to Jamaicans employed on the Panama railroad 1855 died whilst employed by the Panama Canal Company. 1884

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Page 12 U.K. (contd) estates of Jamaicans dying at the Panama Canal 1884 Public Works, and reports on the action taken with regards to the destitute Jamaicans in Panama 1885 work on the Panama Canal. 1885 Canal 1885 to Panama 1886 condition of British West Indian labourers at Panama and Port Limon Jamaica: itemised and includes correspondence from the Admiralty re: disturbances at Panama and the protection of British interests Royal Mail Steam Packet Company: disturbances at Panama and the protection of British interests 1888 Panama, and has requested T Harrison who is visiting Panama to make enquiries 1889 newspaper reports 1889 state of affairs regarding the destitute labourers 1889 Panama to enquire about the destitute labourers 1889

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Page 13 U.K. (contd) copy of a resolution regarding the repatriation of the Jamaican labourers at Panama 1889 date beyond which no further passages will be given to the Jamaican labourers at Panama for repatriation 1889 on the Isthmus of Panama, destitute labourers at Panama Treasury: destitute British subjects at Panama Panama, affairs on the Isthmus of Panama, repatriation of destitute West Indians from Panama, relief of destitute labourers at Panama, shipment of vagrants to Jamaica by the alleged ill-treatment of British subjects at Livingston, exodus from 1889 Draft 12 April 2011 Panama would undertake the repatriation of insane Jamaicans from Panama 1891 treatment of British subjects at the Panama Canal works, labourers for the Panama canal works Individuals: Edward W Hudson (his property at Panama) 1892 labourers for Panama Canal works 1893 Panama a place to which provisions of the Emigrant Labourers Protection Law 1893 shall apply. 1895 coloured British subjects in Panama 1896 labourers for Panama, maintenance of the lunatic Julia Chamberlaine, labourers for the

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Page 14 U.K. (contd) Labourers for Panama Canal 1898 1900 Panama Police 1905 labourers for Panama Canal complaint of Jamaicans in Panama 1908 1914 Mar 31 riot at Tres Hermanos Mine, Panama 1914 (imprisonment Panama) 1914 alleged murder of Jamaican by Panama Police 1916

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Page 15 U.K. (contd) be considered and that a warning notice has already been issued. 1893 Panama: reports that the sum of has been voted for the purpose 1889 (complains of ill-treatment at Colon) 1892 of labourers for the Panama Canal, and that Barbadians have been warned not to expect repatriation. 1896 connection with the French application for obtaining labourers to work on the Panama Canal. 1896 Catania). Encloses copy of a despatch from the American Ambassador in London in regard to the restriction on the movement of labourers from Barbados to Colon. States that be given to Mr Choate. 1901 Reports visit of Mr W J Karner, Assistant to the Engineer in Chief of the Panama Canal Works, in connection with the arrangements for recruiting and states the provisions of the contract entered into by the labourers. 1905 for the six months ended on 31 December 1905, with observations on various points mentioned in the report and including the subject of remittance to the families of labourers who have emigrated to Panama. 1906 named Walter E Mack, charged with the murder of a Barbadian named Samuel Cox British subjects in Panama Canal Zone, case of Adolphus Coulson [or Coulsen] convicted on murder charge at Panama Treasury: trial of Adolphus Coulsen at Panama

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Page 16 U.K. (contd) Executive so far as emigration to Panama was concerned. 1908 prohibited any illegal detention of the passengers themselves. Considers that the Act Barbados 1908 despatch from Panama, with copy of the Presidential Order establishing the right of such trials in cases where the penalty is either death or life imprisonment. 1908 copy of a despatch from Panama in respect of the conviction of Hubert Stout, a native of Barbados, for the murder of Mrs J Phillips and states that he will be hanged on 20 November. 1908 the dismissal by the Supreme Court of Coulsons case contesting his trial, on the grounds that the Panama Canal Zone is not a territory in which the United States Constitution would be operative. 1908 compensation from the Panama Canal Works Commission for the injuries received. Trusts this case will meet with due consideration. From E and F N Spon Limited, folios 259-264 1910 1911 opening in Barbados for the settlers. 1912 well to divert some of them if possible 1912 regulations made under the Public Health Act 1898 for the destruction of mosquitoes. 1912

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Page 17 U.K. (contd) Barbadian labourers for work on the Panama Canal. States that he has permitted a further 200 to be recruited on the condition stated. 1913 in Barbados and the Colonial Secretary in regards to four British subjects alleged to be lunatics. The individuals concerned were detained in Barbados while being repatriated to neighbouring Islands from Panama. 1920 Apr 22 incurred in holding Boards of Lunacy on four British subjects detained in Barbados while being repatriated to neighbouring islands from Panama by the United States authorities. 1920 July 9 of Lunacy on four British subjects detained in Barbados whilst being repatriated to 1921 Jan 10 he has no remedy. States that an agent of the Panama Canal Board is seeking to recruit labour, but is hampered by provisions of the Foreign Labour Contract Ordinance No. 106. Considers that working conditions on the canal are now acceptable, proposes that recruitment be allowed, and seeks approval. 1904 Parliament: recruitment of labour for Panama, labour for Panama Canal works. 1911 offer inducements to Trinidadians to return as employment is plentiful, and that it is not desirable to attract labourers from other colonies. 1912 the Admiralty concerning relief for the destitute British West Indian subjects in Panama. 1889 Feb 12 121-124

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Page 18 U.K. (contd) 161-166 1894 Aug 14 dAffaires [in French] requesting removal of restrictions by colonial authorities on recruitment of black labour. States that the advantageous wages offered to workmen are 1896 Oct 9 1896 Nov 3 1914 Aug 22 folios 810-816 1914 Oct 6 Panama, enclosing a memorandum concerning unemployment of Jamaican labourers in 1914 Oct 18 concerning the steps taken to effect a settlement of claims of British West Indians against Sep 29,1916 concerning the labour strike among silver-paid employees of the Panama Canal. Foreign Act of the United States concerning compensation, which applies to West Indian and other 1916 Dec 6 Indians in Panama for military service. Proposes that action be taken by Sir Claude Mallet, British Legation. Encloses extracts from the Panama Star and Herald calling for volunteers 160-166

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Page 19 U.K. (contd) enclosing a despatch addressed to the West Indies colonies concerning the repatriation 1918 Apr 25 Minister at Panama, respecting the repatriation of insane British West Indians. Foreign surrounding the repatriation of the British West Indies Regiment to Panama. Sir Leslie 1919 Feb 26 239-243 1919 June 21 concerning the repatriation to Panama of members of the British West Indies Regiment. 1919 July 11 British West Indies troops bound for Panama, embarking in the SS Orca, should be landed 1919 Aug 9 1933 countries: Panama Canal Zone 1939-1940 countries: Panama Canal Zone 1940 background information and details of the strike and request for concurrence of the includes list of individuals arrested and in prison. Original Correspondence From: Foreign Feb-Apr, 1920 of the Inter-Oceanic Canal Company for Labourers and newspaper cutting. 1883

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Page 20 U.K. (contd) 1883 1889 1906, United States of America, Series II 1835-1905 before 1906, Panama 1904-1905 Correspondence 1823-1959 1824-1905 Correspondence 1890-1948 1823-1946 Correspondence from 1906 1906-1920

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Page 21 U.K. (contd) 1906-1966 1906-1966 Zone and Panam 1931 1948 1949 general matters 1950 1951 1951 1938 1938 1938 1938 1938 1938 1938 1938 1938 1938

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Page 22 U.K. (contd) 1938 1938 1938 1938 1938 1938-1941 1940 1940 1940 1940 1940 1940 1940 1940 1940 1940 1940

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Page 23 U.K. (contd) 1940 1940 1940 1940 1940 1940 1940 1940-1941 1940-1941 1940-1942 1942 1942 of properties belonging to enemy aliens 1942 1942 1942 1942 1942 1942

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Page 24 U.K. (contd) 1942 1942 1942-1943 1942-1943 1942-1943 1942-1943 1942-1943 1942-1944 1942-1944 1942-1944 19421946 1943 1943 1943-1944 1943-1944 1943-1944 1943-1944 1943-1945

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Page 25 U.K. (contd) 1943-1945 1944 Panama Canal 1944 1944 1945 1945-1946 1946 1940 1940 1943 1944 1948 1951

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Page 26 U.K. (contd) Canal Zone 1956 1962 1946 1849-1854 Part 3 1854 interpretation of articles in the Clayton Bulwer Treaty 19 Nov 1881 across Nicaragua. Negotiations between Mr. Fish and Dr. Cardenas for Convention Panam Canal. (Sir E. Hertslet) 16 June 1882 Correspondence. Canal across Isthmus of Panam. Part 2 1881-1882 Freylinghuysens Note to Mr. Lowell. (Sir E. Hertslet) June 22 1883 across Isthmus of Panam. Part 3 1883 Correspondence. Canal across Isthmus of Panam. Part 4 1884 Correspondence. Canal across Isthmus of Panam. Part 5 1885 Correspondence. Canal across Isthmus of Panam. Part 6 1886

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Page 27 U.K. (contd) Isthmus of Panama, and Nicaragua Canal. Part 8 Nicaragua Canal. Part 9 1890-1891 Nicaragua Canal. Part 10 1892-1893 Nicaragua) Canal. Part 11 1894 Nicaragua) Canal. Part 12 1895 Part 13 14 1898 Feb 9 1900 1899 Canals. Part 16 1900 Canals. Part 18 1902 1901 1903

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Page 28 U.K. (contd) Interoceanic Canals. Part 20 1904 Interoceanic Canals. Part 21 1905 Interoceanic Canals. Part 22 1906 1900-1901 Canal Nov 18 1903 canal 22 Jan 1903 canal 30 Sept 1912 31-Jan-08 15-Feb-09 June 6 1910 02-Mar-11 08-May-13 10 Mar. 1914

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Page 29 United States of America they are 13 caches of information which range from 185.1-185.13. 185.1 Administrative History 185.2 Records of the Panama Railroad Company 1848-1958 185.3 Records of the Compagnie Universelle Du Canal Interoceanique and Interoceanique 185.4 Records of the Nicaragua Canal Board and the Nicaragua Canal Commission 1895-99 185.5.1 Records of the Washington D.C, Headquarters 185.5.2 Records relating to Nicaragua route 185.5.3 Records relating to the Panama route 185.5.4 Records relating to the Darien route. 185.6 Records of the Second Isthmian Commission 1904-60 185.11 Motion Pictures (general) 185.12 Sound Recordings (general) Total 16 George A. Smathers Library, University of Florida consists of the Leonard Carpenter Photographic and document collections. Documents which relate to the construction and operation of the Panama Canal Total 1500

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Page 313.2 Description The nomination is comprised of a variety of types of documentation held by different entities and individuals.BarbadosDistrict A Emigrants Registers These exist in volumes records the names of all those who journeyed from Barbados to Panama and other destinations between manufactured by the Advocate Publishing Company and are typical Ledgers of that period. There is a transcription of these three records which was produced by Bonham Richardson in 1982 which omits the emigration of Barbados Savings Bank Registers of Depositors, 1853-1918 (20 volumes) Panamanianrelated entries for the period recorded. These three volumes highlight the evolution of Barbados legislative regards to migration which was encouraged by labour recruiters. The 1904 and 1906 laws though general were motivated by the out migration of Barbadians to Panama and were modelled after the Emigration Act of 1891. The originals of these are held by the Barbados Department of Archives. Barbados Department of Archives also holds the Barbados Museum and Historical Society also hold they are in poor condition. The Herbert Hutchinson Postcard and Stamp Collection Part one is virtually complete as a stamp collection containing all (except 2 extremely rare) stamps issued by Colombia, Panama, Canal Zone and the United overprinted stamps. Of special interest in relation to this nomination is a commemorative stamp which was issued in August of 1951 which was dedicated to West Indian labour on the project (1904-1914). Part two of the Hutchinson collection is comprised of Postcards which feature myriad aspects of the Panama Canal including labourers working on the construction of the Canal, machines used in the construction of the Canal, how the construction of the Canal changed the landscape Postcard, Charles Muller Collection, Museo del Canal Interoceanico de Panama Collection

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Page 32 completed Panama Canal. All but 16 of the 108 Postcards messages from the sender to the receiver. The majority of the postcards were developed from images taken by I. L. Maduro Sr., a well known Panamanian photographer of the era. Lady Carters Visitor Book bears the signatures of all of those persons who visited the on 3rd January, 1904 and bears the autograph of William J. Karner, Isthmian Canal Commission representative and the issue of Barbadians migrating to Panama as Labourers. Stationery etc. Each page in the book is divided into 21 buckle which locks the book shut. Accession Number 350 CO32 BA Jamaica The National Archives and Records Department of Jamaica hold the following categories of documentary information: range information such as migration of individuals, the repatriation of persons, the living and working conditions in the Canal Zone and Panama, cash relief for retired Jamaican employees of the Canal Zone, applications of Jamaicans wishing to emigrate to other jurisdictions other than Panama and the Canal Zone, etc. (B) Records of statutory bodies like the Jamaica Broadcasting Corporation which features two photographs (one of the Panama Canal and the other of people aboard a ship heading to Panama). Barbados Savings Banks Register of Depositors 1853-1918, 20 volumes, Barbados Department of Archives collection(C) Laws of Jamaica, particularly Law 35 of 1893 The Emigrants Protection Law. This law provided the legal framework for Jamaicas overall emigration policy, especially in regards to Panama. (D) Private Records which include a letter from Chonyfouk to Miss Melville about Chinese and Japanese War politics and the construction of the Panama Canal. numbers of persons who left Jamaica for Panama and the Canal Zone. PanamaThe Charles Muller Collection consists of 2,186 postcards, 103 photographs, 35 stereoscopic images and 36 souvenir booklets, dating from the 1880s through to the completion of the Canal in 1915. The images feature several publishers The photographs and stereoscopic images date from 1906 through to the completion of the Panama Canal in 1915. The images feature publishers such as: Underwood A collection of overprints, Herbert Hutchinson Panama Canal stamp collection, Barbados Museum and Historical Society.

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Page 33 Co. In 1881, Bert and Elmer Underwood started their ceased production of stereoviews in 1920, largely because to the war. In 1921, the company sold the rights to its In 1925 the company fragmented into separate studios in on commercial photography, news, and portraits.St. LuciaSt. Lucia Police Reports for 1904 and 1905 are presented in thJanuary 1904 and 11th August 1905 respectively. Additionally The Emigration Protection Ordinance 1911 is held in the Bounded volumes for 1911.United Kingdom archives held by the National Archives, UK are numerous records, letters and dispatches which relate to the experience of West Indians during the construction of the Panama Canal. These two collections are the Colonial where the governor was based and so there are separate collections for Jamaica, Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies where subjects relate to several countries. Original Correspondence These records were created comprise correspondence and reports from British colonial governors, other British government departments, for to Britains relationships with the colonies and colonial For example in relation to this submission these include correspondence relating to migration to Panama to work on the railway and canal and elsewhere in Panama and Central America, repatriation of labourers, especially and treatment of West Indian workers and their families, local labour disputes, police reports, murder cases, and disposal of estates of deceased workers and settlers. Government Gazettes colonies but include statistics on migration to and from Panama, payment of money orders, laws respecting emigration to Panama and Central America, grants of letters of administration including people who died overseas, health and sanitation conditions, and notices from the US government relating to employment on the canal. There are also series for colonial laws and proceedings of colonial governments. United States of Colombia. General Correspondence These papers were created relate to Britains diplomatic, military and commercial relationships with other countries and contain drafts and original correspondence and reports received between consulates, foreign governments, other British government businesses. Before 1906 there separate series of general by country. Embassy and Consular Archives these papers were created and accumulated by British embassies and consulates and London, local British consuls, local governments, and British residents and businesses. These tend to be more local in nature focusing on Britains relationship with the country where the embassy or consul was based, for example FO 986 contains records pertaining to estates of deceased British West Indians in Panama. The Claude Mallet Papers comprise of the following: Correspondence with Colonial and correspondence with his wife. and physical condition are unknown. Information is still pending. United States of America National Archives and Records Administration : the ICC between 1848 and 1984. The information held in records group 185 is comprised of 13 caches ranging from 185.1 to 185.13. Of particular importance to this the records of the Panama Canal 1904-1960. All documents remain in their original format.

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Page 34 Inner cover one of the volumes of the Barbados Savings Banks Register of Depositors 1853-1918, 20 volumes, Barbados Department of Archives collection Panama and the Canal is a joint project from the and the Panama Canal Museum. Panama and the Canal Panama and the Canal will include: The Panama Canal Museum (Seminole, Fla.) documents, interprets, and articulates the role played by the United States in the history of Panama, with emphasis on the construction, operation, maintenance and defense of the Panama Canal and the contributions to its success by people of all nationalities. Materials include objects, yearbooks, photographs, artwork from indigenous peoples, newspapers and ephemera. comprises photographs, publications, artifacts, notes, correspondence. The collection primarily consists of photographs of Panama and the Panama Canal Zone during construction, beginning in 1914. The photographs show dredging and construction operations, workers, military personnel and camps, ships such as the U.S.S. Ohio, the dam at Pedro Miguel, an hydroelectric plant, locks, the Steamship Several photos have captions identifying the persons, places and events shown. Most of the collection, particularly the photographs and items dated 1914 to 1929, originally were created or collected by Walter E. Boyd. He appears in a small number of the photographs, and two of the publications in the collection were mailed to him. The publications historical and travel information about the Canal. Included among a small number of artifacts is a metal evidently brought to the U.S. in 1919. The collection proposal for a scheme to transport dredged rubble from the Canal. Predecessor Agencies Documents Department holds approximately 1,500 to the planning for, building of and ongoing operation of the Panama Canal. These holdings include 33 linear feet of publications produced by the U.S. Panama Canal Commission and its predecessor agencies, the the Panama Canal, and the Isthmian Canal Commission. Congressional hearings, committee reports, maps, and general documents concerning the Canal are included in this collection. scheduled to begin in 2010) Diario de Panamao 1915-1917 The Canalo 1881 The Evening Telegramo 1886 Panama Heraldo 1851-1854 Panama Mercantile Chronicleo 1865-1868 Panama Star, Panama Dailyo Star and Panama Weekly Star, 1849-1853, 1853-1854

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Page 35 Panama Star & Heraldo 1854-1890 Panama Star & Herald Steamer o Edition 1857-1875 Panama Star & Herald Weekly o Edition 1877-1890 The collection is founded largely from the source document collections of the Panama Canal Museum, 4 JUSTIFICATION FOR INCLUSION/ ASSESSMENT AGAINST CRITERIA Refer to section 4.2 of the General Guidelines for the sheets. Each question must be answered. 4.1 Is authenticity established? (see 4.2.3) The authenticity of several of the documents represented in this nomination form has been established by their presence in internationally recognised inventories and catalogues. : Barbados House of Assembly, the District A Emigrants Registers and Savings Bank Depositors registers as well Barbados Archivist Michael Chandlers publication A Guide to Records in Barbados (1965). The District A Emigrants Registers were listed as originally located at the District Magistrates Court in Barbados. These were subsequently relocated to the Barbados Department of Archives after Society for November 1952 along with several other items donated by Lady Carter to the Barbados Museum recorded in E.C. Bakers A Guide to Records in the Windward (1968) an authoritative inventory of all of the Dominica. All known Panama Related papers in the records of the Papers cover numerous issues such as the migration of West Indians to the Panama and other Central American governors, Labour and political demonstrations etc. Authenticity has been established through their legal deposit at the National Archives at Kew ( previously the archives is documented in the publications Records of (PRO Handbook 13, 1969) Louise Atherton, Never Complain, Never Explain: Records Thurston, (London, 1995). Legislation: With regards to legislation, Chandler comments in A Guide to Records to Barbados (1965) that the Barbados Museum and Historical Society possesses original editions of the Additionally Chandler also noted that other organisations in question (1891, 1904 and 1906) Since the formation of the Barbados Department of Archives in 1964 these originals have been relocated to the Archives Department. The Barbados Museum and Historical Society holds within all of which speak to the colonies Emigration laws and Ordinances which relate to Panama. With regards to the Jamaican Colonial Legislation, Claudette Thomas, the Chief Archivist of the National Archives of Jamaica notes that Law 35, The Emigrant labourers Protection Law is housed within the National Archives of Jamaica. In relation to the St. Lucia legislation Patrick Freeman Archivist at the St. Lucia Archives, notes that the 1911 Emigrants protection Ordinance is held by the St. Lucia National Archives in the Philatelic Collection: Panama related material from the Herbert Hutchinson Collection has all been authenticated in the Scott Stamp Catalogue (date) under the category of Canal Zone Stamps (date?). Additionally catalogue, see <> under the category Canal Zone. Postcard Collections : Both the Charles Muller and Herbert Hutchinson collections comprise major holdings of postcards which feature the Canal Zone which can be authenticated through various auction catalogues and sales this time for the Canal Zone. Reference works which are publications by Pascual Landa and Karrer Jr and Wilde.

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Page 36 Extensive investigation regarding the authenticity, dates and publishing houses of the Charles Muller Collection has been undertaken by the Museo del Canal Interocenico de Panama. Futhermore, Mr. Charles Muller expended years in looking and buying thousands of postcards, photographs and stereoscopic images for his collection, gathering an impressive and unique collection of original pieces relate to all aspects of Panamas history. Herbert Hutchinson was similarly concerned with authenticity in selecting items for his collections from reputable dealer. Both developed a certain expertise in their own right. A number of Postcards web sites feature I.L. Maduro postcards such as the . Additionally, The Metropolitan Post Card Club of New An important photographer continuous toned and halftone lithographic postcards and were printed in Germany and then later in the United the construction of the Panama Canal metropostcard.com>. The Muller Collection also includes the work of several Relevant directories and catalogues by Barbara Andrews and Daniel Friedman are in existence which speak to both the authenticity and importance of these works. The Hutchinson collection also features postcards which were published by Underwood and Underwood and Metropolitan Postcard Club comments: Founded by Photographers Burt and Elmer Underwood in photos and postcards publishers, though they also published postcards often have their sun sculpture works and studio logo < Postcard Club notes that that publisher was formed by Sons, and Sackett and Wilhelms. Their cards were printed Most of their cards were printed and published in the United States. The company seems to have been short lived, operating only between1910-1914. Photographic and stereoscopic collections The photographs and stereoscopic images held in both the Muller and Hutchinson Collections are all originals. Many nineteenth-century photographers represented form, such as Timothy OSullivan, Carleton Watkins, and the Panama related photographs held within the Leonard Carpenter Collection) Postcards and stereographs were also used for journalistic reporting on many of the current events of the period. The Panama Canal construction was also documented on stereocards and postcards with written commentary. To modern viewers, they serve as a primary source for the conventions and cultural values. Assessment of these collections has been established in respect of comparator collections such as: Personal Papers and Correspondence: As regards to the authenticity of the papers and correspondence of British Consul to Panama Claude Mallet, little can be said except for the fact that professional historians such as Battle to Build the Panama Canal) have cited his presence in Panama, the latter of the two extensively. Panama Canal Service Records: The Records Administration in the United States, this cache of very impressive documents has been thoroughly authenticated by Robert B. Machette in their work Guide to the Federal Records in the National Archives of the United States guide-fed-records>. The Web version of this document is based on the paper document of the same name produced in 1995 by Rober Machette The Web version of this document contains every record which the NARA has acquired since 1995 to the present. Reference sources All of the elements which form the body of this joint nomination have been used or referenced in different

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Page 37 ways to produce intellectual or academic works which have focused on themes which are intimately related to the construction of the Panama Canal or the nation of relied heavily of the migration to Panama from the British West Indies of Barbados, Jamaica and St. Lucia to explore the political policy of the colonial governments in relation to the migration of their subjects to Panama. Because the Panama Canal has been a major area of investigation for researchers and scholars both Panamanians and foreign, the literature on the topic is considerable. With respect to the statistical analysis among the Panamanian authors, Luis Navas indicates that during the construction of the Canal (1904-1913), a number of respectively. Navas sustains this information from Robert E. Wood, a North-American who worked for the Panama Canal construction, as Chief of the Supply Department, and such as the Annual Reports published systematically by the I.C.C. since 1905) referred to the number of WestIndian immigrants that were exclusively under contract in the pay roll of the I.C.C., known as the Silver -Roll, and that worked for the Isthmian Canal Commission and the Panama Railroad Company, following the information contained in the Annual Reports of 1905-1906. Report of of the Canal Zone, and in the Total of Deaths from the employees of the Canal (except the total number of Black employees for the period 1905-1906). This reference covers the period 19051914, establishing that among these 42,000 West-Indian laborers, 4,141 died. (2) From a different perspective, Michael L. Conniff has asserted that: though tens of thousands remained because the islands offered few opportunities that could compete with the pay and had children, and became the largest immigrant group in the sparsely populated country. (3) The considerable number of West-Indian women who emigrated to Panama provided a gender equilibrium within the population constituted by the West-Indian men. This the Panama Canal construction period. In the beginning however, the idea of bringing West-Indian women to the Isthmus was not as anticipated. Nevertheless, the auxiliary work was better done by women, and these services represented without a doubt, an interesting market.(4) A Panama, with their own means, while other women were brought by their boyfriends and husbands. These women would play diverse roles in the life of labourers of the Panama Canal construction period: they would cook, wash and order clothes, take care of the sick, and would even work as house-maids in the houses located near the Herbert Hutchinson Panama Canal Postcard Collection (Cemetery at Ancon, Panama), Barbados Museum and Historical Society working sites of the Panama Canal. About these women, information documents, even though Canal construction would have taken longer and been more unbearable without women, and women worked as hard as men yet earned less and had less job stability (5) The work by Michael L. Conniff University of Pittsburg Press published in 1985, provides a particularly accurate and well documented picture. Bonham Richardson in his study, extensively mined the Emigrant Registers as well as the Ledgers of the National Savings Bank to determine how many Barbadians migrated patterns in Barbados. Mathew Parker in his in depth and authoritative study Canal of long-serving British Consul to Panama, Claude Mallet who found himself as the only representative for tens of thousands of British West Indian subjects in Panama.

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Page 38 On the subject of diplomacy, Newton, Richardson and Book which bears the signature of William J. Karner, when they write about the Isthmian Canal Commissions most successful recruiting agent. examine aspects of the historical and social development of the West Indian community, as well as the establishment of Afro-Caribbean heritage and ethnicity in Panama. The works of exemplify the rich literature and cultural contribution which has emerged as a result of the interrogation of Afro-Antillean identity which is the troubled heritage of the colonial Canal context. With regard to the media element of this nomination both the Charles Muller and Herbert Hutchinson collections have been the feature of some publications. In the case of the Muller Collection this was featured in what is essentially a photo essay of Panama which straddles the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The Hutchinson stamp and postcard collections have been authenticated in several ways. Most of the postcards in the Hutchinson Collection have the name I. L Maduro Jr. Printing Company, 34-46 Cathedral Street, Colon, Republic of Panama. It is estimated that over 80% of all of the images posted from of Panama by labourers and tourist alike were captured by I. L. Maduro Sn. Additionally many of the images which make up the Hutchinson Postcards Collection were featured in the 1939 publication Picture Guide Book by I. L. Maduro, Jr. Printing Company for the Panama Canal Tourist Commission. In relation to the stamps within the collection many of these items have themselves been overprinted which prove their origin as Panama while the remainder are of Canal Zone issue. In relation to the authenticity of the stamps, the Hutchinson collection is accompanied with a print out from the Scott Publishing Company Catalogue which features most of the stamps represented in the Hutchinson Collection. 185 forms the core source material for any researcher who intends to write and authoritative study on the Panama Canal. (See Mathew Parker) Bibliography Collections Andrews, Barbara. Publisher: Little Red Caboose, Irving, Texas, Never Complain, Never Explain: Records Baker, E. C. Oxford: Published for The University of the West Indies by Blackwells, 1968. Chandler, Michael, Oxford: Published for The University of the West Indies by B. Blackwell, 1965. Friedman, Daniel. Postcards. Publisher: Classic Postcards Pr., 2003. < com> Accessed on put in the latest date here 2010. (Internet Website) New Bedford, Mass., 1989. Machette, Robert, et al. Guide to the Federal Records in the National Archives of the United States, Accessed on put in the latest date here 2010. (Internet Website) Maduro, I. L. Republic of Panama and the Canal Zone: Complete Jamaica: Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of the West Indies, 1984. metropostcard.com>. Accessed on put in the latest date here 2010 (Internet Website) Parker, Mathew. Publisher: Banco Continental. Panam, 2002. Richardson, Bonham. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1985. Thurston, Anne, (London, 1995) Bibliography Research

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Page 39 Herbert Hutchinson Panama Canal Postcard Collection (Culebra Cut at Empire) Barbados Museum and Historical Society Canal de Panam y Estudios internacionales, Universidad Herbert Hutchinson Panama Canal Postcard Collection (The builders of the Panama Canal, Balboa, Canal Zone) Barbados Museum and Historical Society

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Page 40 ) Wilson, : contribution of black ethnicity in Panama Introduction to Over Printed Canal Zone Stamps, featuring 1904 Canal Zone Stamps, Herbert Hutchinson Panama Canal stamp collection, Barbados Museum and Historical Society. One of the three District A Emigrants Registers 1906-1912. Evident are the names and addresses of some of a few of the thousands of Barbadians who migrated to Panama. Barbados Department of Archives collection irreplaceability established ? (see 4.2.4) The Documentary heritage presented provides indisputable evidence of the single largest concentrated movement of Caribbean People in the post emancipation th century. These records document the movement of over one hundred thousand people to the Isthmus of Panama, the majority of whom never returned. The highly successful recruiting process set in motion by the Isthmian Commission was ultimately responsible, both directly and indirectly, for the extraordinary pattern of West Indian emigration to Panama to work on the Canal project and the efforts of the colonial governments to control and mitigate this phenomenon, the magnitude and scale of which had the potential to erode further the power of the British Empire.

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Page 41 The striking contrast between the degrading domestic and working conditions of West Indians and their investment and banking records evidence not simply the growing economic power of thousands of working class labourers, but also their determination and fortitude to overcome all odds and create new and better lives for their families and themselves, both at home as well as in Panama. their migration had not only on colonies, but even at the community level as entire male populations of some villages emigrated to Panama. They constitute a unique record of the Caribbeans connections with Central America and North America, and demonstrate the mobility of people in the region, and the sustained links and communications between West Indian populations and their families within the wider continental region determined to remain in contact with their relatives and loved ones in their ancestral home. the and the which are already registered as part of the Memory of the World Register.  However the Registry of Slaves documents an imperial programme of forced immigration primarily from Africa, while the Panama in the West Indies to take command of their own lives and seeking their destiny abroad, and the resulting phenomena of voluntary out-migration to Panama.  With respect to Panama Records given the latters focus on the human story on the lives of West Indian labours and their struggle to survive in a new environment. The construction of the Panama Canal inspired and fuelled the usage of modern recording media to document this modern wonder of the world. The photography, stereoscopic images and souvenir booklets included in these holdings shows a time when the graphic presentation of great engineering feats was just emerging and the technology in relation to photography, stamp production and photographic printing had developed to a level where the celebration disseminated to a wider audience. Additionally, the collection and conservation of these objects,   this emerging creole culture, and promotes the knowledge, research and better understanding of the cultural relevance of this heritage. Aspects of this heritage offer a unique perspective on many aspects of the lives, work, and cultural impact of the West Indian presence in the forge of the Panamanian nation. This collection underpins the broadening of our understanding about this process of transmission of cultures and the cross cultural contributions of the early West Indian settlers of Panama. in the transfomative impact that the  Panama Canal had and continues to have on international maritime trading patterns The existence of the Canal saved the lives of many sailors as they were no longer required to sail around  Cape Horn, the site of some of the most  treacherous water in the world,       Economically, the Canal  irrevocably changed international economic trading patterns, reduced shipping costs and time and  improved contact between the East and West Coasts of North America.   The importance of the documentary heritage of the Canal,  known as one of the seven wonders of the modern  world,  transcends the West Indies and the Isthmus of Central America.One of the legacies of this achievement of man over nature which changed the nature of 20th century and beyond in maritime, economic, cultural and social undertakings has been creation of enduring Department of Archives collection

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Page 42 4.3 Is one or more of the criteria of (a) time (b) place (c) people (d) subject and theme (e) form and style (f) social, spiritual and Time The opening of the Panama Canal on the 14th of August, 1914 did not signal either the beginning or the end of the West Indian involvement in the development of Panama. Many different aspects of this story are highlighted by records which span the period from 1848-1942,effectively a century of intensive effort to create the shortest possible route to link the Atlantic Ocean including : the construction from 1848 by the Panama Railroad Company, of a train route created to effect the Charles Muller Panama Postcard and Image Collection (Jamaican Labourers in the Culebra Cut, Canal Zone) Museo del Canal Interoceanico de Panama Collection voluntary migration of West-Indians to Panama. The Panama Railway was a precursor to and foreshadowed the maritime goal pursued unsuccessfully by the French by the North American Isthmian Canal Commission. Each project attracted successive waves of migrant labourers from the West Indies. They also document issues such as the repatriation of Jamaicans to Jamaica, Jamaicans migrating to Panama post-1914 and the overall living conditions of Jamaicans in Panama both during and following the construction of the Panama Canal. These documents span th century and help to bring to mind the important reality that despite the short period during which the Canal was constructed, the legacy of the West Indian experience continues nearly a century after the Canal was completed and opened. Place th century Panama became the most important piece of earth within the whole region and beyond. Images and documents record not only the transformation of the natural landscape of the Isthmus under the construction of the new Canal, but also the working practices of some of the largest conglomerates in history. The engineering aspects of the Canals construction particularly the Culebra Cut, Flores and Pedro Miguel locks were all massive projects in which new forms of machinery, as well as new forms of imported [West Indian] labour were heavily engaged in executing. Equally evocative are the documents which record the inequitable and often deplorable working, living, education and health conditions of all who inhabited the Canal Zone, migrants and managers, merchants and military. The burgeoning philatelic production of the Canal Zone in Panama evidences the need of the Canal Zone Authority to have its own postal designation to cater to the tens of thousands of people employed in the construction of the canal, its administrative staff and the thousands of sailors, travellers and tourist who passed through and or visited the Panama Canal. Internationally, the promise of the Canal indicated a paradigm change in the ways in which maritime and economic affairs were undertaken and conducted. People People both as individuals and in groups lie at the heart of this story. The construction of the Panama Canal triggered the largest mass movement of West Indians in the postemancipation period. The actions of individuals such as William J. Karner, the Isthmian Canal Commissions chief recruiter in Barbados, who formally introduced the notion of recruiting labour from Barbados to the to the importance of this nomination. This meeting later initiated the recruitment machinery which led some 20,000 Barbadian men to work on the canal and inspired a further 25,000 men, women and children to migrate to Panama, a total of some 45,000 people. Parallel to Karners role was the advocacy work of Claude Mallet, British Consul in Panama since the 1880s. Mallet became the only individual to whom British West Indians could discrimination or destitution. At the same time the British

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Page 43 West Indians colonies depended on Mallet to receive information about their subjects and charges. Mallet wrote hundreds if not thousands of letters and reports many of which describe intimately the day-to-day experience of thousands of British West Indians, European migrants workers, Americans and curiously enough, Panamanians as well. It has been stated that: The full workforce in the last year of construction (1914) numbered about 45,000 to 50,000, which nearly equaled the combined populations of Colon and Panama City. But, the total number of white North Americans was only about 6,000, of whom roughly 2,500 were women and children. Of the remaining 44,000 workers, easily 80% were of West Indian descent and members of the Silver Roll. The role of the Colonial policy of the British West Indian governments, particularly the three main sending territories Barbados, Jamaica and St. Lucia produced the most extensive legislation and documentation regarding the movement of their people, and ruptured forever the stranglehold of the plantation upon West Indian populations both at home and abroad. In Jamaica, the House of Assembly passed the Emigrants Protection Law of 1902 and later amended it 1905, which was based on the Law No. 35 passed in 1893. The Barbadians passed the Emigration Act of 1904 and the St. Lucians established the most robust law in the form of the Emigrants Ordinance Act, 1911. The Emigrants Registers for Barbados recorded the names and demographic details of 6,500 Barbadian men who migrated to Panama. Some caches of documents police efforts to contain and control the movements of their workers. There are few known images focusing on the workers at the Canal. Of exceptional import therefore is the image of a Barbadian crew of tripod drill operators boring holes for the preparation of blasting. Images highlighting places passed through at some stage of their stay on the Isthmus, and the sad images of cemeteries at Balboa and Ancon where thousands of workers, including several thousand from the West Indies were buried after succumbing to illness or killed in accidents document the hardships suffered by workers at various stage of the Canals an extraordinary account of the lives and contributions the harsh conditions of the West Indian labourers during the construction period. This very enlightening work, Canal, illuminates this compelling story through new documentary sources. Subject and Theme The voluntary migration over one hundred thousand West Indians who migrated to the Isthmus of Panama between 1905-1915, transformed the social, economic and political landscape not just of the insular Caribbean, but of Panama as well. One of the most important impacts caused by the migration of thousands of West Indians to Panama was the increase in relative economic wealth and self-empowerment, particularly in the insular Caribbean. The Silver Roll, the whole system of management and remuneration of the Canal migrant workers, on which the successful construction of the racial segregation of non-white workers, which penetrated every aspect of daily life in the Zone. As explained by Osbert A. Reid: of Jim Crow, or the racially segregated system of the United States, became the foundation for Panama Canal Zone society and economy until it was phased out in the 1960s. Since the days of the building of the railroad and during the French period, the system was adopted from the railroads policy of different payrolls and the segregation of the races soon became an implanted phenomenon. By the time the second large wave of West Indians arrived in separation of the races was a practiced and established institution. was more than just a pay system designed to maintain a more privileged class of white semi-skilled and skilled white American employees brought in from the United States mainland. that the system had to offer. They enjoyed, of course, much higher pay, better and more spacious housing facilities for families, excellent and well equipped schools for their children, better nutrition, better health care, almost free entertainment and recreational facilities and a generally satisfaction were central factors in most decisions made by the Canal administrators. recruitment process were sick leave and home leave, a privilege that included paid return passage back to their home state for a holiday while their job was preserved for them on the Zone. Although some blacks and other

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Page 44 the privileges of this special group of people, they were, nevertheless placed at a lower pay scale and denied certain For the Silver Roll, whether they were West Indian or lives would be segregated and generally inferior in quality to that offered to the members of the favored would become small cities that were also kept apart. Thus, all these rules and policies started becoming a reality as soon as the army of West Indian Blacks had given their all to secure and clean most of the area, For the brave and stalwart black workers who had been the pioneers and the backbone of all the rugged preparations of the Canal construction before this new era of demarcation of the class structure began, the drastic changes that soon followed would make theirs a totally depressing experience. Soon they would see their expectations for any professional advancement stymied. Remittance Money became the source of tremendous changes in land, home and small business ownership in the West Indies. Bonham Richardson in his ground breaking study on these remittances to Barbados has explored the impact of this phenomenon. More importantly perhaps was the transformation of entire villages and communities, through the uprooting of its working male population and the psychological impact which inevitably occurred at both community and family levels. These changes were a form of reverse depopulation (in the centuries following the denuding of West Africa to create a new labour force in the West Indies) occurred as a result. Panama and the documentary heritage associated with the migrant Caribbean and Panamanian communities and in that this transformative experience affected both the demographics, economies and identitites of all those involved. The Afroantillian community in Panama is a very active and cohesive one. They are still mainly established in the and communities formed near the railroad and canal construction sites. Panama City (the capital of the Republic) side of the country, contain the core of the Afroantillian population. As a community with a strong sense of heritage it has been very active in keeping, promoting, conserving and sharing its cultural heritage.  The museum established by the community in the capital in 1980 is located in a historical building dating from 1909. Originally a church named the Christian Mission Chapel, it was constructed by a group of Barbadians. The museums mission is to conserve and acknowledge of the presence and many contributions of the West Indies immigrants to Panama and celebrate and strengthen their very important cultural heritage. The museum has the support of the Instituto Nacional de Cultura and The Society of Friends of the West Indian Museum of Panama (SAMAAP) a very active association that also celebrates many fairs and festivals celebrating this heritage. The most popular and best attended are the Afroantillian celebrations (February to March). The Afroantillian communities are present in every part of the everyday life of Panama and still have a strong presence in the Panama Canal Workforce.  Many others professionals guilds (examples:  teachers, nurses, lawyers and Panama Canal workers) also have a strong Afroantillian presence.  Their cultural heritage is strongly blended in the Panamanian identity in every aspect : arts, music, gastronomy, sciences, academics, folklore among many.  This cultural heritage is an important aspect of what Conniff in his book   indicates that: to build the Panama Canal: North Americans, Panamanians, and West Indians. When they mile-wide Zone to run the Canal. From the very beginning, the canal was a body of water surrounded by controversy, partly because of the large number of West Indians who stayed on after their canal work was completed. American managers exploited them in a regime I call a third-country labor system. Panamanians labeled them undesirable immigrants and tried to send them away. Many did leave Panama during hard times, moving to other parts of Latin America or to the United States. The majority remained as an unwanted minority and built a defensive subculture to cope with American racism and exploitation, as well as Panamanian chauvinism. moving toward a satisfactory ending.  The U.S. government has gradually reduced racism and with Panama providing for the latters eventual ownership of the canal.  Descendants of the West Indian immigrants are treated fairly under its terms neither as a disadvantaged minority nor as a protected group.  They share the

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Page 45 Panamanian compatriots.  Many Panamanians rejection of the West Indian community and are dealing with the resultant problems of prejudice and discrimination.  The treaty still has years to run and Panama must continue to combat racism, but both processes are moving in complementary and humane directions.   Page xiii It is estimated that nearly half of all of the West Indians who migrated to Panama never returned to their homelands but instead settled in Panama permanently and their legacy is felt in many ways. For those who returned to their Caribbean homes, the lives of both their families and their descendants were changed irrevocably and still resonate in the 21st century.Some Contributions of Afro-descendant community in our culture Panamanian referring to the contribution of African descent to our music ... common, but tamborito at last, and perhaps if Spinning a little thin, we could even venture the assertion of the possibility Texts of tamborito Panamanian work. Remarks by Julian Caceres Freyre, Argentine anthropologist, to do an analysis of the joy of the Panamanian dances, said in the preface to the work of Zarate: contribution, which is what gives the distinctive and makes the folklore of this country (Panama), one of the most interesting in On the important contribution of West Indian workers Newton in her book, The Men of the Silver Roll, cited providing a wide supply of labor, the work is made easier to 4.4 Are there issues of rarity, integrity, threat and management that relate to this nomination? (see 4.2.6) Attach a separate statement if In relation to the rarity of the documentary heritage represented in this nomination, quantitative and qualitative issues must be considered. With regard products of the overall colonial administration in each of the British West Indian colonies as represented by Michael Chandler and E. C. Baker in their respective works about the records of Barbados, Leeward and Windward Islands. However, the assembly and access to such a complete grouping of the original record remains minimal at best. With respect to the documentary heritage held by Barbados, the District A Emigrants Registers are recorded at being held by the District A Magistrates Court by Michael Chandler. The District A Emigrants Registers were subsequently moved to the Barbados Department of Archives in 1969 from the Magistrates court and the Savings Bank Depositors Legers were moved from Barbados Public Building to the Barbados Chief Archivist, David Williams. Additionally, Chandler states and Williams confirms the presence of the Savings Bank Depositors Register which range from 1882 to 1936, twenty volumes in total. These two collections of documentary heritage exist only in their the District A Emigrants Registers was produced by Richardson in 1982. This copy is made available for researchers in the research room at the Department of Archives in Barbados. William J. Karner is one of a pair of visitor books which Lady Carter donated to the Barbados Museum and Historical Society in 1952 with a cache of other documents and format and is made available to researchers, although plans The Hutchinson Panama Stamp Collection is a complete collection of Canal Zone Stamps (Non-printing error designations. The Hutchinson Collection can be divided into two main categories: Period one, 1904-1925 which carry the Scott Catalogue number CZ1 through to CZ can be further divided into regular postage stamps, Scott numbers CZ C1 through CZ C53). Additionally, the

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Page 46 Hutchinson Stamp Collection also features three other sub divisions which are referred to Back of Books (or 1 through to CZ CO 14, Postage Due Stamps CZJ1 designation CZ refers to Canal Zone in the Scott Stamp Catalogue. Each designation is accompanied by the relative value of the item listed. With regard to the Postcard Collections, it must be noted that no comparable price catalogue exists such as a Scott postcard collecting societies such as the Metropolitan have proven useful. While individual postcard items remain on the market, it is considered unlikely that the assembly of such comprehensive collections will be achievable in todays environment. The Documentary heritage which is of Jamaican origin is of Jamaica and the Institute of Jamaica. In relation to the rarity of information held by the Jamaican Archives it should be noted that the Colonial Secretarys information Broadcasting Corporation, Laws of Jamaica and Private Records the rarity status is not known, i.e if these th January 1904 and to? 11th August 1906 issues. Not listed in the E. C. Bakers 1964 work on the records of the Windward islands are the 1911, Emigration Protection Ordinance of St. Lucia. Finally, Bound Ordinance for 1911, both collections of these documents exist at the St. Lucian National Archives only in their original format. The Charles Muller collection is a complete collection of postcards (Printing and non-printing error versions) dating from 1880`s through the completion of the Panama Canal in 1915. The collection can be divided into 4 main categories: Postcards, photographs, stereoscopic images and souvenir present during the construction of the canal, as well as living conditions at that time both for Caribbean workers transiting the Canal (progress of technology and science and how they were both applied to the construction of the Panama Canal. Military and Naval activity, global trade and communications) and Entertainment. The collection Finally in relation to the documentary nominated by the Information with regards to the rarity of the documents held in that records collection is also pending. With regard to the management of the documentary heritage featured in this nomination all with the exception of the Claude Mallet Papers are in the possession of Archives of record keeping, conservation and preservation. There is no perceived threat to any of the documentary heritage featured on this nomination form. 5 LEGAL INFORMATION 5.1. Owner of the documentary heritage (name and contact details) Barbados: The Barbados Museum and Historical Society, Fax.1-246-429-5946 Email: museum@caribsurf.com director@barbmuse.org.bb registrar@barbmuse.org.bb Barbados Department of Archives, Black Rock St. Michael, Barbados, West Indies. Fax: 1-246-425-5911 E-mail archives@sunbeach.net Or bda@caribsurf.com Jamaica: Jamaican Archives and Records Department, Corner of King and Manchester Streets,

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Page 47 Spanish Town, St. Catherine, Jamaica, West Indies. Email: jarchives@jard.gov.jm National Library of Jamaica 12 East Street Kingston Jamaica Email: nlj@infochan.com OR nljresearch@cwjamaica.com St. Lucia: St. Lucia National Archives, P.O. Box 3060, Castries, St. Lucia. Mrs. Margot Thomas, National Archivist Email: mariette900@yahoo.com Panama: Museo del Canal Interocenico de Panam Between Fifth And Sixth Street Panama, Republic of Panama Email: directora@museodelcanal.com info@museodelcanal.com The United Kingdom: Mrs. Primrose Mallet-Harris, Mallet Court, Somerset, United Kingdom The National Archives-Kew, Richmond, Surrey, TW9 4DU, United States of America The National Archives and Records Administration, National Archives at College Park, Archivist, Archives II reference Section, Textual Archives Services Division. 5.2 Custodian of the documentary heritage (name and contact details, if different to owner) The Custodians do not differ from the owners of the documentary heritage listed in this documents. Please see 5.3 Legal status: (a) Category of ownership All of the documentary heritage sited in this joint nomination are individually owned by their respective nominators. (b) Accessibility With the exception of the Mallet Papers, all of the documentary heritage which is listed can is accessible under supervision by staff of the respective nominators. (c) Copyright status Copyright resides with the owners of the listed documentary. (d) Responsible administration With the exception of the Mallet Papers, all of the documentary heritage featured in this nomination form are presently under the direct administration and care of Museum and Archive personnel who have been trained and observe the highest international standards in record keeping, preservation, conservation and exhibition display. (e) Other factors Not applicable. 6 MANAGEMENT PLAN 6.1 Is there a management plan in existence for this If yes, attach a summary of the plan. If no, please attach further details about current storage and custody of the materials. With the exception of the private collection of Claude Mallet papers, for which the management plan is unknown, all of the documentary heritage submitted in this nomination is owned and housed by Museums and Archives which have implemented their own management, preservation and conservation plans to match international standards. Collections Management Policies have been created at the institutional level which are applied to most of these

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Page 48 holdings. Collections are documented within versatile and regularly updated databases employing specially designed software programmes which assure easy access to data. Trained curatorial, registration or records management personnel manage and maintain these records. Long-term preservation of collections is coordinated regisrars, establishing the exact condition of the object and setting priorities for conservation care and treatment. to bring relative humidity closer to optimal levels and both temperature and relative humidity are maintained at constant levels 24 hours a day. Light levels are generally intense visible and ultraviolet light. Collections are generally stored in climate-controlled, secured facilities with the required alarm system for artifacts are stored in acid-free and inert archival storage containers or folders. The holdings are then placed in stable metal closed cabinets with shelving, or map Emergency Response Plans have been prepared by most of the facilities included in this nomination, and are reviewed and practiced on a regular basis. 7 CONSULTATION with (a) the owner of the heritage (b) the custodian (c) your national or regional committee In gathering information for the preparation of this document all of the mentioned were contacted in relation to their respective documentary heritage as well as to the overall nomination. This nomination is fully supported by the Chair, Barbados Memory of the World Committee, Ms. Interocenico de Panam and Ms. Alissandra Cummins, in her capacity as Chair, Barbados National Commission for UNESCO. PART B SUBSIDIARY INFORMATION The following information will not be taken into account in deciding whether or not to inscribe documentary heritage on the Register but will be included in the database as additional information. Some of this information may be drawn from the management plan (item 6 above). 8 ASSESSMENT OF RISK 8.1 Detail the nature and scope of threats to this documentary heritage (see 5.5) Because the documentary heritage listed in this nomination is stored in Museums and Archives which adhere to record keeping, preservation and conservation including proactive disaster management polices, there is little threat to most of the mentioned documentary heritage. Risk exposure of the Mallet Papers is not known. 9 ASSESSMENT OF PRESERVATION 9.1 Detail the preservation context of the documentary heritage (see 3.3) With the exception of the Mallet Papers, whose management and preservation status is not known, the remainder of the documentary heritage described in this nomination is owned and stored in Archives and Museums which adhere to internationally recognised preservation standards.



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1 MEMORY OF THE WORLD REGISTER The Silver Men: West Indian Labourers at the Panama Canal ( Barbados, Jamaica, Panama, Saint Lucia, the United Kingdom and the Un ited States of America) Ref N 2010-25 PART A – ESSENTIAL INFORMATION 1 SUMMARY West Indians and their experience in and contributi on to the Panama Canal represent one of the most significant movements of voluntary migration to emerge during the post emancipation period after 1838. The constituent elements of this nomination r eside in several countries including: Barbados, Jamaica, Panama, St. Lucia, the United Kingdom a nd the United States of America, and are as unique as the circumstances and events which produced th em. The movement of over 100,000 West Indians to the Isthmus of Panama made it necessary for West Indian colonial authorities to monitor numbers of persons emigrating to Panama. This required the cr eation of records such as Emigrants Registers, Official Gazettes Reports, Governors’ Reports and Police Reports, all of which documented and recorded the movement of thousands of people migr ating out of the region and their legal and political control. The vested interests of the plantocracy in havi ng an assured labour pool was threatened by this mass outmigration. At the same time the colonial govern ments of the region had an interest in appearing benevolent by creating a legislative framework in which the rights of their “chattels” and their working environment were optimized. These laws a nd regulations sought to control the exodus of a labour force over which they had had strict cont rol, and which was now being disrupted by the migration of West Indian people. Diplomacy also played a significant role in the recruitment of workers for the construction of the Panama Canal and is represented in this documentary heritage. The mass emigration of British West Indians out of the British Empire and their relocation to Panama was witnessed and intimately recorded in papers whic h highlight the daily liv es and working conditions which tens of thousands of West Indians had to e ndure in Panama. The heritage that captures all of this movement is contained in the Colonial Secretary’s Office Records, Central Government Department records re Panama, and various st atutory bodies’ records which reported on their settlement, status and condition. For the 100,000 plus West Indians who migrated to Panama this voluntary separation from home and family represented the unimaginable promise of economic improvement. Bank Depositors Ledgers, ranging from 1853-1918, record the financial transacti ons of tens of thousands of people who were depositing “Panama Money” into the Savings Bank. Essentially the Depositors Ledgers represent a newfound economic freedom and are directly related to the West Indian Panama experience. Philatelic and photographic documents offer evidence of the burgeoning communications exchanges between these two spaces during the first few decades of the twentieth century. These items of the documentary heritage were created so that the Canal Zone could have its own stamps as a strategy of making it easier for the tens of thousands of workers to stay in touch with their relatives. Additionally, the images archived in various media within the nomination are invaluable as records of the entire process of the excavation and construction of th e Panama Canal, and the lives of those who participated in it. The records of the Isthmian Canal Commission, documenting the success of the American canal project, also relate to the earlier Fr ench attempt in the late nineteenth century and the early records of

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2the Panama Railway Company from the mid-ninet eenth century, all of which record the projects which were the catalysts for the introduction of W est Indian labour to the Isthmus of Panama. This joint nomination represents the core documenta ry heritage and records of the West Indian experience in Panama that are vital to the collective Memory of the World. 2 DETAILS OF THE NOMINATOR 2.1 Name (person or organisation) (A). The Barbados Department of Archives, Barbados West Indies (B). The Barbados Museum and Historical Society, Barbados West Indies (C). The Jamaica Archives and Records Department, Jamaica (D). Museo Del Canal Interoceanico de Panama, Republic of Panama (E). The Saint Lucia National Archives (F). National Archives and Registration, Archives II, United States of America (G). Mrs. Primrose Mallet, United Kingdom. (H). The George A. Smathers Library, University of Florida 2.2 Relationship to the documentary heritage nominated (A). The Barbados Department of Archives is the custodian for th e District A Emigrants Registers (Three volumes) and the Barbados Savings Bank Registers of Depositors, 1853-1918 (20 volumes) and the Official Gazettes for 1891, 1904 and 1906 (B). The Barbados Museum and Historical Society owns the Herbert Hutchinson Postcard and Stamp Collections as well as the Lady Gilbert-Carter Visitor Book (known as the Lady Carter Visitor Book). (C). The Jamaican Archives and Records Departme nt owns and maintains a large collection of documents and records which relate directly to the Jamaican Experience in Panama. These documents and records include the following: The Colonial Secr etary’s Office Records in relation to Jamaica and Panama, Central Government Department records re Panama, Statutory bodies records (particularly those of the Jamaica Broadcasting Corporation, La ws of Jamaica, Private Records and The Jamaica Gazette 1905-1915. (D). The Museo del Canal Interoceanico De Panama owns the Charles Muller image collection. (E). The Saint Lucian National Arch ives owns the Saint Lucia Gazette 11th August 1906 which contains the “Report of the Police Department for 1905”. The Emigration Protection Ordinance 1911 is also held in “Bounded volumes for 1911”. (F). Mrs. Primrose Mallet-Harris owns the Claude Mallet papers. (Information Pending) (G). The National Archives and Registration Administ ration, Archives II, custodian of Records Group 185

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3(H). The George A. Smathers Library, The Univ ersity of Florida possesses the Leonard Carpenter Panama Canal Collection which is primarily a photog raphic collection which features the construction of the canal, Labourers, heavy machinery, the Pana ma Canal Railway line and shipping. Further more the Smathers Library is also a Federal depository of the United States of America and holds 1,500 documents which relate to the constr uction of the Panama Canal. The main elements of this collection include documents of the Panama Canal Commissi on, the Isthmian Canal Commission, the Canal Zone Government, Congressional heari ngs related to the canal and re ports maps and documents which all relate to the construction and operation of the Panama Canal. In addition, the Library is in the process of acquiring the collections of the Panama Canal Museum in Florida. This is taking place because the charter of this Museum will expire in two years time. 2.3 Contact person (s) (A). The Barbados Department of Archives, Mr. David Williams. (B). The Barbados Museum and Historical So ciety, Ms. Alissandra Cummins, Director (C). The Jamaican Archives and Records De partment, Claudette Thomas, Chief Archivist (D). The Museo del Canal Interoceanico de Panama, Dr. Angeles Ramos Baquero, Directora (E). The National Archives of Saint Lucia, Mrs. Margot Thomas, Director (F). The Claude Mallet Papers, Mrs. Pr imrose Mallet-Harris, The United Kingdom. (G). The U.S. National Archives and Registration Administration Archives II, Mr. Joseph D. Schwarz, Archivist, Textual Archives Services Division (H). The George A. Smathers Library, University of Florida, Ms. Chelsea Dinsmore, Archivist. 2.4 Contact details (include address, phone, fax, email) (A). Barbados Department of Archives, Black Rock St. Michael, Barbados, West Indies. Tel: (246) 424-1270 Fax: (246) 425-5911 E-mail archives@sunbeach.net Or bda@caribsurf.com (B). The Barbados Museum and Historical Society, St. Ann’s Garrison, Bridgetown, Barbados, West Indies. Tel. 1-246-427-0201 Fax.1-246-429-5946 Email: museum@caribsurf.com director@barbmuse.org.bb registrar@barbmuse.org.bb (C). Jamaican Archives and Records Department, Corner of King and Manchester Streets, Spanish Town, St. Catherine, Jamaica, West Indies. Tel: (876) 984-5061 Fax: (876) 984-8254

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4 (D) Museo del Canal Interocenico de Panam San Felipe, Plaza De La Independencia between Fifth and Sixth Street P.O. Box 0816-06779 Panama, Republic of Panama TEL. (507)211-1649/50 FAX: (507) 211-1994/95 EMAIL: directora@museodelcanal.com info@museodelcanal.com (E). Saint Lucia National Archives, Vigie, Clark Avenue, Castries, St. Lucia, P.O. Box 3060. (F). Mrs. Primrose Mallet-Harris, Mallet Court, Taunton, Somerset, The United Kingdom. (G). National Archives at College Park, 8601 Adelphi Road, Maryland 20740-6001, Archivist, Archives II reference Section, Textual Archives Services Division. Tel. 1-866-272-6272 (H). The George A. Smathers Library, The University of Florida, P.O. Box, 117011, Gainesville, Florida-32611-7011 3 IDENTITY AND DESCRIPTION OF THE DOCUMENTARY HERITAGE 3.1 Name and identification details of the items being nominated Nominating Country Documentary Heritage Barbados The Herbert Hutchinson Collection: Stamp Collection is composed of 309 stamps which can be divided into the two categories: Overprinted of which there are 124 in the collection and Canal Zone of which there are 155. The Stamp Collection can be further divided into the following chronological and thematic categories: Canal Zone 1904-1978 Canal Zone 1904: 8 Canal Zone 1904-06: 12 Canal Zone 1906-1912: 10 Canal Zone 1909-1914: 7 Canal Zone 1912-1916: 6 Canal Zone 1915-20: 8 Canal Zone 1918-21: 8 Canal Zone 1921-1924:8 Canal Zone 1924-25: 12 Canal Zone 1924-26: 11 Canal Zone 1926-27: 8 Canal Zone 1927-29: 18 X Canal Zone 1932-40: 14 Canal Zone 1934-39: 9 Canal Zone 1939: 10

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5Canal Zone 1946-49: 12 Canal Zone 1951-60: 7(This cache includes the 1951 stamp which commemorates the West Indians who worked in Panama. Canal Zone 1960-71: 15 Canal Zone 1975-78: 12 Canal Zone Airmail Stamps 1929-41 1929-31 Canal Zone Airmail Stamps:10 1931-49 Canal Zone Airmail Stamps: 6 1939 Canal Zone Airmail Stamps: 7 1951-58 Canal Zone Airmail Stamps: 11 1961-64 Canal Zone Airmail Stamps: 10 1965-76 Canal Zone Airmail Stamps: 12 Canal Zone Airmail Official 1941-42 1941-42 Canal Zone Airmail Official Stamps: 7 1941 Canal Zone Airmail Official Stamps: 6 Canal Zone Airmail Postage Due 1914-41 1914-1915 Canal Zone Airmail Postage Due Stamps: 6 1915-19 Canal Zone Airmail Postage Due Stamps: 5 1924-25 Canal Zone Airmail Postage Due Stamps: 9 1929-41 Canal Zone Airmail Postage Due Stamps: 9 1941-47 Canal Zone Official Stamps:9 Hutchinson Postcards Collection 108 Postcards, 16 are black and white. Total 108 Lady Carter’s Visitor Book: Oc tober 1904-August 1910. Accession Number 350 CO32 BA Total 1 District A Emigration Registers, 1906-1912, Three Volumes in total Total 3 Barbados Savings Bank Registers of Depositors, 1853-1918 (20 volumes). Total 1 Official Gazette(Barbados) Years1891, 1904 and 1906 Jamaica Jamaica National Archives – The records in relation to the Jamaican experience in Panama include: 1B/5/76/3/169: Panama Railway Company-Application for refund of deposits paid by the company under pr ovisions of the Emigrant Protection Laws (1907). 1B/5/76/101: Annual Reports (Forei gn Officer) on Cuba, Panama and Canal Zone, 1925. (1926). 1B/5/79/529: Issue of return permits to British West Indians domiciled in Panama.(1931). 1B/5/77/121: Migration to Panama etc.-Individual Cases (1928). 1B/5/77/350-1926;Enforcement of immi gration laws of Panama. The Gleaner, 9/12/26. 1B/5/77/148-1928: Laws restricting migr ation to Panama. Printed, Daily Gleaner.

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61B/5/77/234-1932; Enquires re Emigration to Panama. 1B/5/77/416-1934: Expulsion of British West Indians from Panama 1B/5/77/533-1934:Protest of J.D. Duncanson re Repatriation of Jamaicans from Panama. 1B/5/77/865-1935: Statements re Ja maicans returning from Cuba, Haiti and Panama. 1B/5/77/70-1936: Emigration to Panama-difficulties landing: case of Harold A. Thomas. 1B/5/77/229-1936: Visit to Jamaica by Dr. J.W. Arosema, President Elect of Panama-discussion of policy with H.E. the Governor 1B/5/77/441940: Panama Canal La bourers-employment of seamen. 1B/5/77/202-1942:Repatriation of distressed Jamaican seamen (formerly employed on the Oliver Bishopsdale from Panama. 1B/577/36-1940: Panama Canal Labourerspermission to go to Canada to enlist in armed forces engaged in civilian war work. 1B/5/77/401940: Panama Canal la bourers-detention while awaiting repatriation. 1B/5/77/42-1940: Panama Canal Labour ers-application of Stanley Gayle to migrate to British Honduras. 1B/5/77/460-1940: Panama Canal La bourers-claims by dependents. 1B/5/77/47-1940: Panama Canal Labour ers-voting in Jamaican elections in 1944. 1B/5/77/48-1940: Panama Canal Labourer s-Permission to go to the USA. 1B/5/77/158-1940: Panama Canal La bourers-Labourers going to Panamarequest for list of names by L.K. Brandon. 1B/5/77/85-1942: Panama Canal-repa triation of Labourers on the “Clan Farquhar”. Central Government Department/Cabinet Submissions Central Government Department/Cabinet Submissions 1B/31/692 – 1956: Repatriation of British West Indians working in Panama Canal Zone 1B/31/1304 – 1956 Report: British West Indians in Panama Statutory Bodies Records/ Jamaica Broadcasting Corporation 3/9/9//152 – Photograph of Panama Canal

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73/9/9/489 Photograph People on ship to Panama Colonial Secretary’s Office Records 1B/5/77/330 – 1923: Request for de livery of Treasury Draft Elwyn Greene, Auditor, Panama Canal 1B/5/77/420 – 1923: Repatriation of Cy ril Hope Hall, detainee in Canal Zone Prison in Panama 1B/5/77/1783 – 1923: Re: Mr. E. C. Jameison, employee of Panama Canal 1B/5/77/1800-1923: Re Repatriation of Ann McFarlane, inmate of Corozal Hospital, Panama 1B/5/77/1801-1923: Re repatriation of Inez Gordon, inmate of Corozal Hospital, Panama 1B/5/77/132 – 1930: Extradition of Jam aican citizens residing in Panama. (Jamaica Gazette October 3, 1907 included) 1B/5/77/143 – 1930: Labour Conditions Panama Canal Zone. Printed booklets 1B/5/77/2/129-1934: Repatriation of Aston Woodhouse to Panama 1B/5/77/296 – 1934: Remarks by Hon. D. T. Wint in Legislative Council re Panama 1B/5/77/99 – 1935: Emigration of Hubert Haughton to Republic of Panama 1B/5/77/98 – 1936: Recruitment of Jamaican females to Panama: Deplorable conditions there viz. illegal contracts, forced prostitution 1B/5/77/36 – 1938: Visit to Jamaica by excursionists from Panama 1B/5/77/62 – 1938: Cash Relief for Retired Employees of the Panama Canal 1B/5/77/34 – 1940: Panama Canal a nd Recruitment of labourers from Jamaica application for position of Liaison Officer 1B/5/77/35 – 1940: Labourers for Panama Canal insurance of 1B/5/77/37 – 1940: Panama Canal Labour ers individual applications to go to Canada to do war service 1B/5/77/38 – 1940: Panama Canal Labourers – wages 1B/5/77/39 – 1940: Panama Canal Labour ers baggage of repatriates; Newspaper clipping 2/4/50 1B/5/77/41 – 1940: Panama Canal Labour ers individual’s application for work

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8 1B/5/77/43 – 1940: Panama Canal Labour ers individual application to join American Army 1B/5/77/45 – 1940: Panama Canal Labourers Loss of baggage of repatriates 1B/5/77/70 – 1940: Panama Canal recruitment of Labour, banking of savings; The Panama American 11/5/40 Photographs and Plan of Camp Gatum 1B/5/77/73 – 1940: Panama Canal recr uitment of Labour from Jamaica medical examination from labourers 1B/5/77/150 – 1940: Visit to Pana ma Labour Advisor G.H. Scott 1B/5/77/271 – 1940: Panamanian Nationa lity Law application to children born in Panama of West Indian Pa rentage; Newspaper clippings 3/1/41 1B/5/77/37 – 1941: Recruitment of la bour for Panama Canal; Provision of Expenditure in Estimates 1941/1942 1B/5/77/165 – 1941: Panama Canal Workers – Reports Laws of Jamaica Law 35 of 1893 “The Emigrant Labourers Protection Law” Private Records 7/173/12 Letter from Chonyfouk Loy to Miss Melville about Chinese and Japanese war and politics; the building of the Panama Canal 1B/5/76/101, should be 1B/5/79/101 Annual Reports (Foreign Officer) on Cuba, Panama and Canal Zone 1925 1B/5/77/460 – 1940 should be 1B/5/77/46 – 1940: Panama Canal Labourers claims by dependents Total: 23 Saint Lucia The Police Reports for 1904-1905 appe ar in the Saint Lucia Gazette 27th of January and 11th August respectively. Additionally the 1911 Emigrants Protection Ordinance can be found in Bounded Volumes for 1911 Panama The Charles Muller Collection – The Charles Muller Collection consists of 2,186 Postcards, 103 Photographs, 35 stereoscopic images and 36 souvenir booklets. Postcards relating to the Panama Canal cons truction; Canal workers; Ethnic groups; Cities and villages; National symbols; Panama and Colon buildings; Street scenes and parks; Canal Zone buildings; Ships transiting the Canal and Entertainment. Total 2186+103+35+36=2360 United Kingdom The unpublished Letters and Papers of Claude Mallet, British Consul to Panama Covers the period at least between the start of the French Canal Project and the American project (late nineteenth to early twentieth century) Total number of le tters and documents unknown United States of Records Group 185 Panama Canal Reco rds which covers the period 1848-

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9America 1979. In total they are 13 caches of information which range from 185.1185.13. 185.1-Administrative History 185.2-Records of the Panama Railroad Company 1848-1958 185.3-Records of the Compagnie Univer selle Du Canal Interoceanique and Interoceanique and Compagine Nouve lle Du Canal De Panama 1879-1904 185.4 Records of the Nicaragua Cana l Board and the Nicaragua Canal Commission 1895-99 185.5.1 Records of the Washington D.C, Headquarters 185.5.2 Records relating to Nicaragua route 185.5.3 Records relating to the Panama route 185.5.4 Records relating to the Darien route. 185.6 Records of the Second Isthmian Commission 1904-60 185.7 Records of the Panama Canal 1851-1960 9bulk 1904-60) 185.8 Records of the Canal Zone Government and Panama Canal Company 1904-82 185.9 Records relating to health cond itions in the Panama Canal Zone 1883-1977 185.10 Cartographic Records (General) 1970-1955 185.11 Motion Pictures (general) 185.12 Sound Recordings (general) Total 16 George A. Smathers Library, University of Florida consists of the Leonard Carpenter Photographic a nd document collections. Documents which relate to the construction a nd operation of the Panama Canal Total 1500 3.2 Description The nomination is comprised of a variety of types of documentation held by different entities and individuals. Barbados District A Emigrants Registers – These exist in three volumes which range from 1907-1912. These three volumes records the names of all those who journeyed from Barbados to Panama and other destinations between 1907-1912. The District A Em igrant Registers were manufactured by the Advocate Publishing Company and are typical Ledgers of that period. [There is a transcription of these three records which was produced by Bonham Rich ardson in 1982 which omits the emigration of Barbadians to other destinations such Brazil or St Croix. The Call number for this Transcription in Y9/3/20.] Barbados Savings Bank Registers of Depositors 1853-1918 (20 volumes) Panamanian-related entries for the period recorded. The Official Gazette 1891, 1904 and 1906, These three volumes highlight the evolution of Barbados legislative stance on the out migration of its citizens, especially with regards to migration which was encouraged by labour recruiters. The 1904 and 1906 laws though general were motivated by the out migration of Barbadians to Panama and were modelled after the Emig ration Act of 1891. The originals of these are held by the Barbados Department of Archives. Barbados Department of Archives also

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10holds these documents in micro film format. It s hould be noted the Barbados Museum and Historical Society also hold original editions of these issues of the Official Gazette but they are in poor condition. The Herbert Hutchinson Postcard and Stamp Collection – Part one is virtually complete as a stamp collection containing all (except 2 extremely rare) stamps issued by Colombia, Panama, Canal Zone and the United States for the Panama Cana l during the 75 year period, 1904 through 1979. In total the collection consists of 309 stamps of whic h 124 can be identified as overprints or overprinted stamps. Of special interest in relation to this nom ination is a commemorative stamp which was issued in August of 1951 which was dedicated to West Indian labour on the project (1904-1914). Part two of the Hutchinson collection is comprised of Postcards which feature myriad aspects of the Panama Canal including labourers working on the c onstruction of the Canal, machines used in the construction of the Canal, how the construction of the Canal changed the landscape of the Isthmus and shipping traffic sailing through the completed Panama Canal. All but 16 of the 108 Postcards featured in the collection are colourized. Thirteen bear mess ages from the sender to the receiver. The majority of the postcards were developed from images take n by I. L. Maduro Sr., a well known Panamanian photographer of the era. Lady Carter’s Visitor Book – The Visitor Book was shared by the Governor of Barbados, Sir Thomas Gilbert-Carter and his wife Gertrude, Lady Gilbert-Carter and bears the signatures of all of those persons who visited the couple at Governme nt House between October 1904 and August 1910. It records the visit to Government House on 3rd Ja nuary, 1904 and bears the autograph of William J. Karner, Isthmian Canal Commission representative a nd recruiting agent when met with the Governor to discuss the issue of Barbadians migrating to Panama as Labourers. The Book was supplied by James Fraser & Co., 14 Broad Street, Barbados, Import ers of Account Books, General Stationery etc. Each page in the book is divided into 21 lines. The cover is burgundy in colour and has a hasp/buckle which locks the book shut. Accession Number 350 CO32 BA Jamaica The National Archives and Records Department of Jamaica hold the following categories of documentary information: (A) The Colonial Secretary’s O ffice Records which range between 1907-1942 and deal with a wide array of information such as migration of indivi duals, the repatriation of persons, the living and working conditions in the Canal Zone and Panama, cash relief for retired Jamaican employees of the Canal Zone, applications of Jamaicans wishing to em igrate to other jurisdictions other than Panama and the Canal Zone, etc. (B) Records of statutory bodies like the Jamaica Broadcasting Corporation which features two photographs (one of the Panama Canal and the other of people aboard a ship heading to Panama). (C) Laws of Jamaica, particularly Law 35 of 1893 “The Emigrants Protection Law”. This law provided the legal framework for Jamaica’s overall emig ration policy, especially in regards to Panama. (D) Private Records which include a letter fro m Chonyfouk to Miss Melville about Chinese and Japanese War politics and the construction of the Panama Canal. (E). The Jamaica Gazette 1905-1915, which records the numbers of persons who left Jamaica for Panama and the Canal Zone. Panama – The Charles Muller Collection consists of 2,186 postcards, 103 photographs, 35 stereoscopic images and 36 souvenir booklets, dati ng from the 1880’s through to the completion of the Canal in 1915. The images feature several publishers such as I. L. Maduro Jr.; Vibert and Dixon; Albert Lindo; A. Papio y Ca.; Irvin & Thomas; G. W. Heron; Toledano BROS. & De Lemos; Verl. V. Albert Aust Hamburg and Victor Azrak. The photographs and stereoscopic images date from 1906 through to the completion of the Panama Canal in 1915. The images feature publishers such as: Underwood & Underwood, Continental Art Co.,

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11and H. C. White Co. In 1881, Bert and El mer Underwood started their photography business Underwood & Underwood. It ceased production of ster eoviews in 1920, largely because its European supply depots had become unprofitable due to the war. In 1921, the company sold the rights to its sizable stereograph library to the Keystone View Company. In 1925 the company fragmented into separate studios in New York, Washington, an d Chicago, which concentrated on commercial photography, news, and portraits. Saint Lucia – Saint Lucia Police Reports for 1904 and 1905 are presented in the St.Lucia Gazettes for 27thJanuary 1904 and 11th August 1905 respectively Additionally The Emigration Protection Ordinance 1911 is held in the “Bounded volumes for 1911”. United Kingdom – The Claude Mallet Papers comprise of the following: Correspondence with Colonial Governors of the British West Indies, co rrespondence with the Colonial Office in Britain, correspondence with Officials with the ICC (Isth mian Canal Commission) and correspondence with his wife. United States of America – National Archives and Records Administration : Records Group 185 is a collection of all of the Panama related documents, records, photographs and films collected by the Government of the Unite d States of America a nd the ICC between 1848 and 1984. The information held in records group 18 5 is comprised of 13 caches ranging from 185.1 to 185.13. Of particular importance to this nominati on would be cache 185.7 which is comprised of the records of the Panama Canal 1904-1960. All documents remain in their original format. The George A Smather Library, University of FloridaPanama and the Canal is a joint project from the University of Florida George A. Smathers Li braries and the Panama Canal Museum. Specialized collections within Panama and the Canal will include: Panama Canal Museum The Panama Canal Museum (Seminole, Fla.) documen ts, interprets, and articulates the role played by the United States in the history of Panama, with emphasis on the construction, operation, maintenance and defense of the Panama Canal and the contributions to its success by people of all nationalities. Materials include objects, yearbooks, photographs, artwork from indigenous peoples, newspapers, and ephemera. The Leonard Carpenter Panama Canal Collection comprises photographs, publications, artifacts, notes, correspondence. The collection primarily consists of photographs of Pana ma and the Panama Canal Zone during construction, beginning in 1914. The photographs show dre dging and construction operatio ns, workers, military personnel and camps, ships such as the U.S.S. Ohio, the dam at Pedro Miguel, an hydroelectric plant, locks, the Steamship Cristobal, Paraiso Yard, and a U.S. Navy dirigible. Several photos have captions identifying the persons, places and events shown. Most of the collection, particularly the photographs and items dated 1914 to 1929, originally were created or collected by Walter E. Boyd. He appears in a small number of the pho tographs, and two of the publications in the collection were mailed to him. The publications include guides, magazines, and brochures that provide historical and travel information about the Canal. Included among a small number of artifacts is a metal spike from the Pacific Coast ra ilroad, which Boyd evidently brought to the U.S. in 1919. The collection also includes an 1887 letter, in French, regarding a proposal for a scheme to transport dredged rubble from the Canal. Documents of the Panama Canal Co mmission and Its Predecessor Agencies

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12As a Federal Depository Library, the Governme nt Documents Department holds approximately 1,500 items published by the Federa l Government relating to the planning for, building of and ongoing operation of the Panama Canal. These holdings include 33 linear feet of publications produced by the U.S. Panama Canal Commission and its predecessor agencies, the Panama Canal Company/Canal Zone Government, the Panama Canal, and the Isthmian Canal Commission. Congressional hearings, committee reports, maps, and general documents concerning the Canal are included in this collection. Newspapers from Panama (digitization scheduled to begin in 2010) o Diario de Panama 1915-1917 o The Canal 1881 o The Evening Telegram 1886 o Panama Herald 1851-1854 o Panama Mercantile Chronicle 1865-1868 o Panama Star, Panama Daily Star and Panama Weekly Star 1849-1853, 1853-1854 o Panama Star & Herald 1854-1890 o Panama Star & Herald Steamer Edition 1857-1875 o Panama Star & Herald Weekly Edition 1877-1890 The collection is founded largely from the source doc ument collections of the Panama Canal Museum, the University of Florida George A. Smathers Li braries' Latin American Collection, Government Documents Collection, and the Map & Imagery Library. 4 JUSTIFICATION FOR INCLUSION/ ASSESSMENT AGAINST CRITERIA 4.1 Is authenticity established? (see 4.2.3) The authenticity of several of the documents represen ted in this nomination fo rm has been established by their presence in internationally r ecognised inventories and catalogues. Official, Diplomatic and Banking Records : The Official Gazettes of Barbados and Minutes of the Barbados House of Assembly, the District A Emigrants Registers and Savings Bank Depositors registers as well as Lady Carter’s Visitor Book ha ve all been documented in Barbados Archivist Michael Chandler’s publication A Guide to Records in Barbados (1965). The District A Emigrants Registers were listed as originally located at the District Magistrate’s Court in Barbados. These were subsequently relocated to the Barbados Department of Archives after its establishment in 1964. The Visitor Book is listed in the Accessions Register of the Barbados Museum and Historical Society for November 1952 along with several other items donated by Lady Carter to the Barbados Museum and Historical Society. The St. Lucian Gaze tte has been recorded in E.C. Baker’s A Guide to Records in the Windward Islands (1968) an authoritative inventory of all of the historical records held in Grenada, St. Vincent, Saint Lucia and Dominica. Legislation: With regards to legislation, Chandler comments in A Guide to Records to Barbados (1965) that the Barbados Museum and Historical Society possesses orig inal editions of the Official Gazette in two batches 1867-1916 and 1921-1924. Additionally Chandler also noted that other organisations such as the Public Library, The Registration Office and the Government Head quarters all held original Copies of the Official Gazette which covered th e time period in question (1891, 1904 and 1906) Since the formation of the Barbados Department of Archives in 1964 these originals have been relocated to the Archives Department. The Barbados Museum and Historical Society holds within its collection the 1891, 1904 and 1906 Official Gazette s all of which speak to the colonies Emigration laws and Ordinances which relate to Panama. With regards to the Jamaican Colonial Legislation, Claudette Thomas, the Chief Archivist of the Natio nal Archives of Jamaica notes that Law 35, “The Emigrant labourers Protection Law” is housed within the National Archives of Jamaica. In relation to the Saint Lucia legislation Patrick Freeman Archivis t at the Saint Lucia Arch ives, notes that the 1911

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13Emigrants protection Ordinance is held by the Sa int Lucia National Archiv es in the Bound Volumes for 1911. Philatelic Collection : Panama related material from the Herb ert Hutchinson Collection has all been authenticated in the Scott Stamp Catalogue (date) under the category of “Canal Zone” Stamps (date?). Additionally these stamps are also featured in the Stanley Gibbons web catalogue, see unde r the category Canal Zone. Postcard Collections : Both the Charles Muller and Herbert Hutchinson collections comprise major holdings of postcards which feature the Canal Zo ne which can be authenticated through various auction catalogues and sales r ecords, although no definitive catalogue seems to exist at this time for the Canal Zone. Reference works wh ich are relevant to their identif ication and authentication include publications by Pascual Landa and Karrer Jr and Wilde. Extensive investigation regarding the authenticity, dates and publishing houses of the Charles Muller Collection has been undertaken by the Museo del Canal Interocenico de Panama. Futhermore, Mr. Charles Muller expended years in looking and buying thousands of postcards, photographs and stereoscopic images for his collection, gathering an impressive and unique collection of original pieces relate to all aspects of Panama’s history. He rbert Hutchinson was similarly concerned with authenticity in selecting items for his collections from reputable dealer. Bo th developed a certain expertise in their own right. A number of Postcards web sites feature I.L. Maduro postcards such as the . Additionally, The Metropolitan Post Card Club of New York lists Isaac Maduro Jr. as: An important photographer of Panamanian views. Many of his vi ews were turned into continuous toned and halftone lithographic postcards and booklets that were sold from his souvenir store. These cards were printed in Germany and then later in the United St ates. Maduro is known for his large set of cards depicting the construction of the Panama Canal . The Muller Collection also includes the work of several other publishers including: Vibert and Dixon, Albert Lindo, A. Papio y Ca., Irvin & Thomas, G. W. Heron, Toledano Bros. & De Lemos, Verl. V. Albert Aust Hamburg and Victor Azrak, working bot h within the Canal Zone and externally. Relevant directories and catalogues by Barbara Andrews and Da niel Friedman are in existence which speak to both the authenticity and importance of these works. The Hutchinson collection also features post cards which were published by Underwood and Underwood and Valentine and Leighton. In relation to their authenticity the Metropolitan Postcard Club comments: … Founded by Photographers Burt and Elmer Underw ood in Ottawa, Kansas. They would move their main office to New York City in 1897 and would later open branches in Toronto, Canada and London, England. They published almost 40,000-view titles, most of which were issued in box sets. In 1910 they began news photos and postcards publishers, though they also published cards under their own name. Their stereo-views, viewers and pos tcards often have their sun sculpture works and studio logo on them. The firm was sold to Key Stone View Company in 1921 < http://www.metropostcard.com> In relation to Leighton and Valentine the Metropolitan Postcard Club notes that that publisher was formed by the merger of the Hugh C. Leighton wi th Valentine and Sons, and Sackett and Wilhelms. Their cards were printed in the half tone lithographi c style of Valentine and Sons. Most of their cards were printed and published in the United States. The company seems to have been short lived, operating only between1910-1914. Photographic and stereoscopic collections The photographs and stereoscopic images held in both the Muller and Hutchinson Collections are all originals. Many nineteenth-century photographers represented in the Muller collection, now regarded

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14as fine artists, produced significant bodies of work in stereograph form, such as Timothy O'Sullivan, Carleton Watkins, and Eadweard Muybridge. (See sec tion 3,2 which summarizes the Panama related photographs held within the Leonard Carpenter Collection) Postcards and stereographs were also used for jour nalistic reporting on many of the current events of the period. The Panama Canal construction was al so documented on stereocards and postcards with written commentary. To modern viewers, they serve as "a primary source for the study of nineteenthcentury social history, reflecting social conven tions and cultural values. Assessment of these collections has been established in respect of comparator collections such as: Collection of Stereographic Views of Louisville and Beyond, 1850s – 1930, held by University Libraries. University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, and the America n Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Massachusetts 01609-1634, Personal Papers and Correspondence: As regards to the authenticity of the papers and correspondence of British Consul to Panama Claude Mallet, little can be said except for the fact that professional historians such as Velma Newton (The S ilver Men) and Mathew Parker (The Battle to Build the Panama Canal) have cited his presence in Panama, the latter of the two extensively. Panama Canal Service Records : The Records Group 185 held by the National Archives and Records Administration in the United States, this cache of very impressive documents has been thoroughly authenticated by Robert B. Machette et. al. in their work Guide to the Federal R ecords in the National Archives of the United States which can be found at . The Web version of this document is based on the paper document of the same name produced in 1995 by Rober Machette et. al The Web version of this document contains every record which the NARA has acquired since 1995 to the present. 4.2 Is world significance, uniqueness and irreplaceability established ? The Documentary heritage presented provides indisput able evidence of the single largest concentrated movement of Caribbean People in the post emancipation period/early 20th century. These records document the movement of over one hundred thousand people to the Isthmus of Panama, the majority of whom never returned. The highly successful recruiting process set in mo tion by the Isthmian Commission was ultimately responsible, both directly and indirectly, for the ex traordinary pattern of West Indian emigration to Panama to work on the Canal project and the effo rts of the colonial governments to control and mitigate this phenomenon, the magnitude and scale of which had the potential to erode further the power of the British Empire. The striking contrast between the degrading dome stic and working conditions of West Indians and their investment and banking records evidence not simply the growing economic power of thousands of working class labourers, but also their determinat ion and fortitude to overcome all odds and create new and better lives for their families and themselves, both at home as well as in Panama. Emigrants Registers record the movement of citizen s and relate clearly the significant social impact which their migration had not only on colonies, but even at the community level as entire male populations of some villages emigrated to Panama. Th ey constitute a unique record of the Caribbean’s connections with Central America and North America, and demonstrate the mobility of people in the region, and the sustained links and communicati ons between West Indian populations and their families within the wider continental region determin ed to remain in contact with their relatives and loved ones in their ancestral home. The Panama records are linked to official records such as the Registry of Slaves of the British Caribbean 1817-1834 and the Memory of the Suez Canal which are already registered as part of the Memory of the World Register. However the Registry of Slaves documents an imperial programme of

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15forced immigration primarily from Africa, while th e Panama Records in contrast record the first opportunity for many in the West Indies to take command of their own lives and seeking their destiny abroad, and the resulting phenomena of voluntary out-migration to Panama. With respect to the Memory of the Suez Canal this represents the offi cial records of the Suez Canal Authority and the Compagnie de Suez and presents a very different perspective from the Panama Records given the latter’s focus on the human story – on the lives of West Indian labours and their struggle to survive in a new environment. The construction of the Panama Canal inspired and fuelled the usage of modern recording media to document this modern wonder of the world. Th e photography, stereoscopic images and souvenir booklets included in these holdings shows a time when the graphic presentation of great engineering feats was just emerging and the technology in relation to photography, stamp production and photographic printing had developed to a level wh ere the celebration of this amazing accomplishment of engineering could be disseminated to a wider audience. Additionally, the collection and conservation of th ese objects, documents, photos, films stand as a visible testimony to this emerging creole cultu re, and promotes the knowledge, research and better understanding of the cultural relevance of this he ritage. Aspects of this heritage offer a unique perspective on many aspects of the lives, work, and cultural impact of the West Indian presence in the forge of the Panamanian nation. This collection underpins the broadening of our understanding about this process of transmission of cultures and the cro ss cultural contributions of the early West Indian settlers of Panama. The international significance of this nomination is grounded in the transfomative impact that the Panama Canal had and continues to have on in ternational maritime trading patterns by saving sailing time between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans The existence of the Canal saved the lives of many sailors as they were no longer required to sail around Cape Horn, the site of some of the most treacherous water in the world, to transit fro m the waters of the Atlantic to the Pacific. Economically, the Canal irrevocably changed inte rnational economic trading patterns, reduced shipping costs and time and improved contact between the East and West Coasts of North America. The importance of the documentary heritage of th e Canal, known as one of the seven wonders of the modern world, transcends the West Indies and the Isth mus of Central America. One of the legacies of this achievement of man over natu re which changed the nature of 20th century and beyond in maritime, economic, cultural and social undertakings has been creation of enduring records of historical significance. 4.3 Is one or more of the criteria of (a) time (b) place (c) people (d) subject and theme (e) form and style (f) social, spiritual and community significance satisfied? Time – The opening of the Panama Canal on the 14th of August, 1914 did not signal the end of the West Indian involvement in Panama. Part of this st ory is highlighted by records which span the period from 1907-1942. They deal with myriad issues such as the repatriation of Jamaicans to Jamaica, Jamaicans migrating to Panama post-1914 and the ov erall living conditions of Jamaicans in Panama both during and following the construction of the Pa nama Canal. These documents span largely the first half of the 20th century and help to bring to mind the impor tant reality that despite the short period during which the Canal was constructed, the legacy of the West Indian experience continues nearly a century after the Canal was completed and opened. Place – For the first few decades of the 20th century Panama became the most important piece of earth within the whole region and beyond. Images and docum ents record not only the transformation of the natural landscape of the Isthmus under the constr uction of the new Canal, but also the working practices of some of the largest conglomerates in history. The engineering aspects of the Canal’s construction particularly the Culebra Cut, the excava tion of Lake Gatun, the construction of the Mira Flores and Pedro Miguel locks – were all massive projects in which new forms of machinery, as well as new forms of imported [West Indian] labour were heavily engaged in executing. Equally evocative

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16are the documents which record th e inequitable and often deplorable working, living, education and health conditions of all who inhabited the Cana l Zone, migrants and ma nagers, merchants and military. The burgeoning philatelic prod uction of the Canal Zone in Panama evidences the need of the Canal Zone Authority to have its own postal designa tion to cater to the tens of thousands of people employed in the construction of the canal, its ad ministrative staff and the thousands of sailors, travellers and tourist who passed through and or vi sited the Panama Canal. Internationally, the promise of the Canal indicated a pa radigm change in the ways in wh ich maritime and economic affairs were undertaken and conducted. People – People both as individuals and in groups lie at the heart of this story. The construction of the Panama Canal triggered the largest mass movement of West Indians in the post-emancipation period. The actions of individuals such as William J. Karner the Isthmian Canal Commissions chief recruiter in Barbados, who formally introduced the notion of recruiting labour from Barbados to the colony’s Governor, Sir Thomas Gilbert-Carter are central to the importance of this nomination. This meeting later initiated the recruitment machinery which le d some 20,000 Barbadian men to work on the canal and inspired a further 25,000 men, women and childre n to migrate to Panama, a total of some 45,000 people. Parallel to Karner’s role was the advocacy work of Claude Mallet, British Consul in Panama since the 1880’s. Mallet became the only individual to whom British West Indians could turn if they encountered difficulties in Panama, such as discrimina tion or destitution. At the same time the British Colonial Secretary and various Governors of the British West Indians colonies depended on Mallet to receive information about their subjects and charges. Mallet wrote hundreds if not thousands of letters and reports many of which describe intimately the da y-to-day experience of thousands of British West Indians, European migrants workers, Americans and curiously enough, Panamanians as well. The role of the Colonial policy of the British West Indian governments, particularly the three main sending territories – Barbados, Jamaica and Saint Lucia – produced the most extensive legislation and documentation regarding the movement of their peop le, and ruptured forever the stranglehold of the plantation upon West Indian populations both at home and abroad. In Jamaica, the House of Assembly passed the Emigrants Protection Law of 1902 and la ter amended it 1905, which was based on the Law No. 35 passed in 1893. The Barbadians passed the Emigration Act of 1904 and the St. Lucians established the most robust law in the form of the Emigrants Ordinance Act, 1911. The Emigrants Registers for Barbados recorded the names and demographic details of 6,500 Barbadian men who migrated to Panama. Some caches of documents of vital importance record official, constitutional and police efforts to contain and control the movements of their workers. There are few known images focusing on the workers at the Canal. Of exceptional import therefore is the image of a Barbadian crew of tripod drill operators boring holes for the preparation of blasting. Images highlighting places such as the Gorgas Hospital where almost all West Indians passed through at some stage of their stay on the Isthmus, and the sad images of cemeteries at Balboa and Ancon where thousands of workers, including several thousand from the West Indies were buried after succumbing to illness or killed in accidents document the hardships suffered by workers at various stage of the Canal’s construction. Historian Ju lie Green has recently published an extraordinary account of the lives and contributions of the Pana ma Canal Workers that especially recognizes the harsh conditions of the West Indian labourers durin g the construction period. This very enlightening work, The Canal Builders: Making the America’s Empire at the Panama Canal, illuminates this compelling story through new documentary sources. Subject and Theme The voluntary migration over one hundred thousand West Indians who migrated to the Isthmus of Panama between 19051915, transformed the social, economic and political landscape not just of the insular Caribbean, but of Panama as well. One of the most important impacts caused by the migration of thousands of West Indi ans to Panama was the in crease in relative economic wealth and self-empowerment, particularly in th e insular Caribbean. “Remittance Money” became the source of tremendous changes in land, home and sm all business ownership in the West Indies. Bonham Richardson in his ground br eaking study on these remittances to Barbados has explored the impact of this phenomenon. More importantly perhaps was the transformation of entire villages and

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17communities, through the uprooting of its working male population and the psychological impact which inevitably occurred at both community and family levels. These changes were a form of reverse depopulation (in the centuries following the denuding of West Africa to create a new labour force in the West Indies) occurred as a result. Community Significance Panama and the documentary heritage associated wi th the migrant workers in Panama does have huge significance for both Caribbean and Panamanian communities and in that this transformative experience affected both the demographics, econo mies and identities of all those involved. The Afro-antillian community in Panama is a very active and cohesive one. They are still mainly established in the same areas were historically th ey first settled cities and communities formed near the railroad and canal construction sites. Panama City (the capital of the Republic) located by the Pacific side, and Colon on the Atlantic side of the country, contain the core of the Afro-antillian population. As a community with a strong sense of heritage it has been ve ry active in keeping, promoting, conserving and sharing its cultural her itage. The museum established by the community in the capital in 1980 is located in a historical build ing dating from 1909. Originally a church named the Christian Mission Chapel, it was constructed by a group of Barbadians. The museum’s mission is to conserve and acknowledge of the presence and many c ontributions of the West Indies immigrants to Panama and celebrate and strengthen their very important cultural heritage. The museum has the support of the Instituto Nacional de Cultura and The Society of Friends of the West Indian Museum of Panama (SAMAAP) a very active association that also celebrates many fairs and festivals celebrating this heritage. The most popular and best attende d are the Afroantillian celebrations (February to March). The Afro-antillian communities are present in every part of the everyday life of Panama and still have a strong presence in the Panama Canal Workforce. Many others professionals guilds (examples: teachers, nurses, lawyers and Panama Canal worker s) also have a strong Afro-antillian presence. Their cultural heritage is strongly blended in the Panamanian identity in ev ery aspect: arts, music, gastronomy, sciences, academics, folklore among many This cultural heritage is an important aspect of what defines Panama, as we now know it, as a country. Michael Conniff in his book Black Labor on the White Canal: Panama 1904-1981 indicates that: “THREE PRINCIPAL GROUPS worked together to build the Panama Canal: North Americans, Panamanians, and West Indians. When they fini shed, they created a microsociety in the tenmile-wide Zone to run the Canal. From the very beginning, the canal was a body of water surrounded by controversy, partly because of the large number of West Indians who stayed on after their canal work was completed. American managers exploited them in a regime I call a third-country labor system. Pana manians labeled them undesirable immigrants and tried to send them away. Many did leave Panama during hard times, moving to other parts of Latin America or to the United States. The majority remain ed as an unwanted minority and built a defensive subculture to cope with American racism and exploitation, as well as Panamanian chauvinism. The story of the West Indians in Panama is fi nally moving toward a satisfactory ending. The U.S. government has gradually reduced racism a nd exploitation and in 1977 concluded a treaty with Panama providing for the latters eventual ownership of the canal. Descendants of the West Indian immigrants are treated fairly under its terms –neither as a disadvantaged minority nor as a protected group. They share the same benefits and responsibilities as their Latin Panamanian compatriots. Many Panamanians have recognized the faults of their earlier rejection of the West Indian community and are dealing with the resultant problems of prejudice and discrimination. The treaty still has years to run and Panama must continue to combat racism, but both processes are moving in compleme ntary and humane directions.” Page xiii It is estimated that nearly half of all of the West Indians who migrated to Panama never returned to their homelands but instead settled in Panama perman ently and their legacy is felt in many ways. For

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18those who returned to their Caribbean homes, the lives of both their families and their descendants were changed irrevocably and still resonate in the 21st century. 4.4 Are there issues of rarity, integrity, threat and management that relate to this nomination? In relation to the rarity of the documentary herita ge represented in this nomination, quantitative and qualitative issues must be considered. With regard to documents such as the Official Gazettes, Minutes of Houses of Assembly and the Visitor Books of Governors, these documents were common byproducts of the overall colonial administration in each of the British West Indian colonies as represented by Michael Chandler and E. C. Baker in their respective work s about the records of Barbados, Leeward and Windward Islands. Howeve r, the assembly and access to such a complete grouping of the original record remains minimal at best. With respect to the documentary heritage held by Barbados, the District A Emigrants Registers are recorded at being held by the District A Magistrates Court by Michael Chandler. [ The District A Emigrants Registers were subsequently moved to the Barbados Department of Archives in 1969 from the Magistrates court and the Savings Bank Deposito rs Legers were moved from Barbados Public Building to the Barbados Archives Department in 1973.]This was confirmed by Chief Archivist, David Williams. Additionally, Chandler states an d Williams confirms the presence of the Savings Bank Depositors Register which range from 1882 to 1936 twenty volumes in total. These two collections of documentary heritage exist only in their original format, although an edited/annotated copy of the District A Emigrants Registers was produ ced by Richardson in 1982. This copy is made available for researchers in the research room at the Department of Archives in Barbados. Lady Carter’s Visitor Book which bears the signature of William J. Karner is one of a pair of visitor books which Lady Carter donated to the Barbados Museum and Historical Society in 1952 with a cache of other documents and artifacts. Entries in the Visitor Book in question span the years 19041910. The Visitor Book exists only in its original form at and is made available to researchers, although plans are afoot for its complete digitization. The Hutchinson Panama Stamp Collection is a co mplete collection of Ca nal Zone Stamps (Nonprinting error versions) ranging from 1904-1978. Th e stamps in Hutchinson Collection are recognized in the Scott Stamp Catalogue (U.S. equivalent to Stanley Gibbons) and carry designations. The Hutchinson Collection can be divided into two ma in categories: Period one, 1904-1925 which carry the Scott Catalogue number CZ1 through to CZ 81: and, Period two which ranges from 1926-1978 (which can be further divided into regular posta ge stamps, Scott numbers CZ C1 through CZ C53). Additionally, the Hutchinson Stamp Collection also features three other sub divisions which are referred to Back of Books (or BOBs). These include Air Post Official Stamps CZ CO 1 through to CZ CO 14, Postage Due Stamps CZJ1 through to CZJ29 and Official CZO1 through CZO5. The designation CZ refers to Canal Zone in the Sco tt Stamp Catalogue. Each designation is accompanied by the relative value of the item listed. With regard to the Postcard Collections, it must be noted that no comparable price catalogue exists such as a Scott Catalogue or Stanley Gibbons for stamps. Despite this, postcard collecting societies such as the Metropolitan Postcard Club of New York City provide insights into the rarity of postcards produced by specific publishers which have proven u seful. While individual postcard items remain on the market, it is considered unlikely that the asse mbly of such comprehensive collections will be achievable in today’s environment. [ The Documentary heritage which is of Jamaican origin is represented by two organizations, the National Archives of Jamaica and the Institute of Jamai ca. In relation to the rarity of information held by the Jamaican Archives it should be noted that the Colonial Secretary’s information only exists in paper file format and has not been digitized or micr ofilmed. This is also the situation with regards to the Jamaica Gazette 1905-1915 which are also available in paper format. With respect to the central

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19Government Department Records, the Statutory Re cords/Jamaica Broadcasting Corporation, Laws of Jamaica and Private Records the rarity status is not known, i.e if these documents are in paper, microfilm or digital format] The Saint Lucia Gazettes range in date from 1894-1964 and is comprised of 71 volumes inclusive of 27th January 1904 and to? 11th August 1906 issues. Not listed in the E. C. Baker’s 1964 work on the records of the Windward islands are the Bounded Ordinance Volumes which contain the August 11, 1911, Emigration Protection Ordinance of St. Lucia. Fi nally, in relation to the Saint Lucia Gazettes of 1904-05 and the Bound Ordinance for 1911, both collections of these documents exist at the St. Lucian National Archives only in their original format. The Charles Muller collection is a complete collection of postcards (Printing and non-printing error versions) dating from 1880`s through the completion of the Panama Canal in 1915. The collection can be divided into 4 main categories: Postcards, phot ographs, stereoscopic images and souvenir booklets relating to the Panama Canal construction; Canal workers; Ethnic groups (race segregation which were present during the construction of the canal, as well as living conditions at that time both for Caribbean workers and for Panamanians).; Cities an d villages; National symbols; Panama and Colon buildings; Street scenes and parks; Canal Zone build ings (The natural environm ent was replaced by an industrial and man made environment); Ships tran siting the Canal (progress of technology and science and how they were both applied to the construction of the Panama Canal. Military and Naval activity, global trade and communications) and Entertainment. The collection features images from several recognized publishers such as I.L. Maduro Jr.; Vibert and Dixon; Albert Lindo; A. Papio y Ca.; Irvin & Thomas; G. W. Heron; Toledano BROS. & De Lemos; Verl. V. Albert Aust Hamburg and Victor Azrak. With regard to the management of the documentary heritage featured in this nomination all with the exception of the Claude Mallet Papers are in the possession of Archives and/or Museums which adhere to international standards of record k eeping, conservation and preservation. There is no perceived threat to any of the documentary heritage featured on this nomination form. 5 LEGAL INFORMATION 5.1. Owner of the documentary he ritage (name and contact details) Barbados: The Barbados Museum and Historical Society, St. Ann’s Garrison, Bridgetown, Barbados, West Indies. Tel. 1-246-427-0201 Fax.1-246-429-5946 Email: museum@caribsurf.com director@barbmuse.org.bb registrar@barbmuse.org.bb Barbados Department of Archives, Black Rock St. Michael, Barbados, West Indies. Tel: 1-246-424-1270 Fax: 1-246-425-5911 E-mail archives@sunbeach.net Or bda@caribsurf.com Jamaica: Jamaican Archives and Records Department, Corner of King and Manchester Streets,

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20Spanish Town, St. Catherine, Jamaica, West Indies. Tel: 1-876-984-5061 Fax: 1876-984-8254 Email: jarchives@jard.gov.jm National Library of Jamaica 12 East Street Kingston Jamaica Tel: 1-876-967-1526/ 1-876-976-2516 Fax: 1-876-922-5567 Email: nlj@infochan.com OR nljresearch@cwjamaica.com Saint Lucia: Saint Lucia National Archives, P.O. Box 3060, Castries, St. Lucia. Mrs. Margot Thomas, National Archivist Tel: 1-758-452-1654 Fax: 1-758-453-1405 Email: mariette900@yahoo.com Panama: Museo del Canal Interocenico de Panam San Felipe, Plaza De La Independencia Between Fifth And Sixth Street P.O. Box 0816-06779 Panama, Republic of Panama Tel: (507)211-1649/50 Fax: (507) 211-1994/95 Email: directora@museodelcanal.com info@museodelcanal.com The United Kingdom: Mrs. Primrose Mallet-Harris, Mallet Court, Taunton, TA3 6SY, Somerset, United Kingdom USA: The National Archives and Records Administration, National Archives at College Park, 8601 Adelphi Road, Maryland 20740-6001, Archivist, Archives II reference Section, Textual Archives Services Division. Tel. 1-866-272-6272 The George A. Smathers Library, The University of Florida, P.O. Box 117011, Gainesville Florida-32611-7011 5.2 Custodian of the documentary heritage (nam e and contact details, if different to owner)

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21The Custodians do not differ from the owners of the documentary heritage liste d in this documents. Please see 5.3 Legal status: (a) Category of ownership – All of the document ary heritage sited in this joint nomination are individually owned by their respective nominators. (b) Accessibility – With the exception of the Mallet Papers, all of the documentary heritage which is listed can is accessible under supervision by staff of the respective nominators. (c) Copyright status – Copyright resides with the owners of the listed documentary. (d) Responsible administration – With the exception of the Mallet Papers, all of the documentary heritage featured in this nomination form are pr esently under the direct administration and care of Museum and Archive personnel who have been trained and observe the highest international standards in record keeping, preservation, conservation and exhibition display. (e) Other factors – Not applicable. 6 MANAGEMENT PLAN 6.1 Is there a management plan in exis tence for this documentary heritage? YES If yes, attach a summary of the plan. If no, please attach further details about current storage and custody of the materials. With the exception of the private collection of Cl aude Mallet papers, for which the management plan is unknown, all of the documentary heritage subm itted in this nomination is owned and housed by Museums and Archives which have implemented their own management, preservation and conservation plans to match international standards. Collections Management Policies have been created at the institutional level which are applied to most of these holdings. Collect ions are documented within versatile and regularly updated databases employing specially designed software programmes which assure easy access to data. Trained curatorial, registration or records manage ment personnel manage and maintain these records. Long-term preservation of collections is coordinate d either by professional conservators, curators and/or the regisrars, establishing the exact c ondition of the object and setting priorities for conservation care and treatment. Dehumidifiers and silica gel are also used by most facilities to bring relative humidity closer to optimal levels and both te mperature and relative humidity are maintained at constant levels 24 hours a day. Light levels are generally kept low and ar e fitted with filters to protect against both intense visible and ultraviolet light. Collections are generally stored in climate-controlle d, secured facilities with the required alarm system for fire, smoke, water and intruders. Documents and re lated artifacts are stored in acid-free and inert archival storage containers or folders. The holding s are then placed in stab le metal closed cabinets with shelving, or map drawers to provide shelter and insulation in case of fire. Emergency Response Plans have been prepared by mo st of the facilities included in this nomination, and are reviewed and practiced on a regular basis. 7 CONSULTATION

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227.1 Provide details of consultation about this nomin ation with (a) the owner of the heritage (b) the custodian (c) your national or regional Memory of the World committee In gathering information for the preparation of this document all of the mentioned were contacted in relation to their respective documentary heritage as well as to the overall nomination. This nomination is fully supported by the Chair, Barbados Memo ry of the World Committee, Ms. Elizabeth Watson, Dr.Angeles Baquero, Museo del Canal Interocenico de Panam and Ms. Alissandra Cummins, in her capacity as Chair, Barbados National Commission for UNESCO. PART B – SUBSIDIARY INFORMATION 8 ASSESSMENT OF RISK 8.1 Detail the nature and scope of threats to this documentary heritage (see 5.5) Because the documentary heritage listed in this no mination is stored in Museums and Archives which adhere to internationally recognized standards of documentation, record keeping, preservation and conservation including proactive disaster management polices, there is little threat to most of the mentioned documentary heritage. Risk expos ure of the Mallet Papers is not known. 9 ASSESSMENT OF PRESERVATION 9.1 Detail the preservation context of the documentary heritage (see 3.3) With the exception of the Mallet Papers, whose mana gement and preservation status is not known, the remainder of the documentary heritage described in this nomination is owned and stored in Archives and Museums which adhere to internatio nally recognised preservation standards.