Pepper-Hearst Expedition: Frank Hamilton Cushing Memorial by Sawyer. Circa 1900

http://web.uflib.ufl.edu/spec/pkyonge/sawyer.htm ( A Guide to the Wells M. Sawyer Collection )
MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Pepper-Hearst Expedition: Frank Hamilton Cushing Memorial by Sawyer. Circa 1900
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Language:
English
Creator:
Sawyer, Wells, 1863-1960
Publication Date:
Physical Location:
Box: 1

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Archaeological expeditions -- Florida -- Gulf Coast
Cushing, Frank Hamilton, 1857-1900 -- Journeys -- Florida
Pepper-Hearst expedition
Sawyer, Wells, 1863-1960
Watercolorists -- New York (State)
Genre:

Notes

Abstract:
Correspondence, drawings, and other papers related to Wells M. Sawyer's life, travels, and the 1895-1897 Pepper-Hearst Expedition in Florida.
Scope and Content:
This collection contains Wells M. Sawyer's personal correspondence, photographs, drawings (including sketches on several of the letters), watercolors, news clippings, and notes and other materials pertaining to the Pepper-Hearst Expedition of 1896. This collection is useful to researchers interested in the life and artistic career of Sawyer, particularly his role as a member of Pepper-Hearst Expedition. Although the collection spans his entire life and covers many important events, the collection is not comprehensive and has numerous gaps. For example, Sawyer's sketches primarily date from his later travels (circa 1920-1947), and there are only two examples of his watercolors. His personal correspondence includes photocopies and transcriptions of original and duplicate copies, and some pages are missing from the correspondence. The Pepper-Hearst Expedition papers primarily consist of Sawyer's own draft report on the expedition, as well as his correspondence, and field notes. The folders also include a few Frank Hamilton Cushing letters and newspaper clippings. One folder contains a catalog of the photographs that Sawyer took on the expedition (the actual negatives are kept at the Smithsonian Institute and are not present in the University of Florida collection). Additionally, some photographs mentioned in the Pepper-Hearst correspondence are not enclosed with the corresponding letter and are not in the collection. The papers are organized alphabetically by subject, and the sketches and watercolors are organized according to a numeric identification scheme.
Biographical:
Wells Moses Sawyer was born on January 31, 1863 to Moses Calvin Sawyer and Helen Jane Cass Sawyer in Keokuk, Iowa. Sawyer acquired a law degree in 1882, but he never practiced law. While studying law in Chicago, he began pursuing his career as an artist when he took art courses under John Vanderpoel at the Art Institute of Chicago. Sawyer had several types of employment throughout his life including working as an illustrator for leading newspapers such as the Chicago Daily News and the Chicago Tribune, and later in life he held the secretaryship of the Trustee Securities Company. Sawyer's position as a Paleontologic Draughtsman for the U.S. Geological Survey office in Washington D.C. enabled him to join Frank H. Cushing's Pepper-Hearst Expedition to Tarpon Springs and Key Marco in Florida in 1896. A controversial aspect of the expedition regarded the artifacts that the archeologists and diggers removed from the pre-historic mud mounds in the region. Upon their removal, the artifacts quickly faded and deteriorated in the sunlight. Consequently, Sawyer's original photographs and sketches of the artifacts made soon after the digging became even more important to the artifact documentation and historical significance of the expedition. Sawyer married Kathleen Bailey upon returning from Florida, and they subsequently had two children, Helen and Bailey (Bill). The family lived in New York, but later in life Sawyer retired due to health issues and moved to Spain with his wife. They traveled throughout Europe, as well as in Central and South America. Sawyer began to sketch and paint more in his retirement, and he had many exhibitions in both Spain and the U.S. Sawyer and his wife made a final move to Sarasota, Florida, in 1944. He continued to show his artwork in Spain, Mexico, England, and the United States, and was a member of the Art Students League, Salmagundi Club, and the American Watercolor Society. He died on March 21, 1960.
Restriction:
The collection is open for research. Some of the Pepper-Hearst Expedition notes and larger sketches are extremely fragile and need to be handled with care. Please consult a staff member for handling these fragile materials.
Acquisition:
The Sawyer drawings were acquired from the Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art in 2007. Two folders of additional papers were donated by the Gilliland family.
Preferred Citation:
Identification of item, Wells M. Sawyer Collection, Special and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Record Information

Source Institution:
P.K. Yonge Library of Florida History, UF
Holding Location:
P.K. Yonge Library of Florida History, UF
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the submitter.
System ID:
AA00021036:00005

Full Text
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S.It was night on the Anclote as we rowed almost noiselessly

ar o the troubled vraters whichh gushed forth from. the famouss sprtn..

A ?nan stood in the bow of the boat and raised his voice in song to

the 13stic personalities wh o people the -'nyth world; to those who

furni;h TMotives for poe, tale or song.

There was' no mioon. A faint uiggesti.on of phosphoresence

wound warmer lines of golden thread mnid the, paddle swi rls, and the

great starry lamps, of the heavens dropped from ripple to ripple in

long btinds of light. The pine-clad hillside vwas but a somabre form

against the Sky.

In the harbor were fortunately situated masses of land and
trees, and echo repeated the Iords of t.he stranger as he spake to

the night,. We had gone to hear the voice of the echo and. had

paddled far dovn the river. As we oeane back, he who was, stodd in

the bow and sang the ,ongs of a people who were. His voice was

strong and clear. It was a high baritone, resonant and barbaric,

that s'ent ent the echoes vibrating over *t. tb southern waters.
The seas were once more peopled by the pile dwellers of the Gulf

coast The song brought forth the dusky warriors and the boys

splashing in the water, We had rested from the roots of pine

trees, thoe hones and handiwork of this people, and fancy woved it all

into a reafied pre-Columbian epoch, and our captain gave it the magio

touch which made it live again. He was, in fact, a captain, for


before the Silver Spray weighed anchor in the Anclote he had secuOred

captain 's papers, and when the little schooner sailed to Caxsinbas'




. .. 4







2


Pass she nailed under the command of Captain Gushing.

The delay in sailing from Tarpon Springs was of great impor-

tance to the expedition, as a collection of exceedingly valuable ar-

tioles was secu.red. During the delay two mounds were simultaneous-

ly opened; one at Tarpon Springs, under thie personal supervision of

Mr. Cushing, and one nt Ca4mp Hope, where Mr. ,ushin; placed n e in

charge of the excavations, Both were productive, and the results
formed an itortant -:,art of the collection. Mr. Cushing tas able

to curee men who haed been trained in the mounds at Tarpon Springs

for the -work. further downMn the coast ind by his representations, ex-
planations and enthusiasm everyone who was actively e.miployed in the

work was kept in the best of spirit s

It i' more tha-]n Ea pleasure to be ,permitted to enjoy such ex-
periences,, to bo( on hpnd w.hen splendid finds are made, when unique

pottery is brou.,ht to light, when nevw designs, suggesting one or

the other influence, are riscoverecd, and above all to have been with
the other inT lue~nce, -., n.... .

Gushing at unch a time was a great privilege, for he wove about all

the web of enchantment, and brought forth from rude fragments stories

of splendor. The genius of Ousehing supplied the details which

brought t1e fragments into a unit. Generally accurate in judgment,

he could supply causes for nearly all things.
Imp-.tient to possess the information which could be gained

from the rinds merely for the sa.ke of the knowledge, his ardor and
enthusiasm, limitless and all-pervading, dominated his life in the

field.

Battling against ill-health, disappointment, temporary reverses

and delays, Gushing brought together a collection of vast interest,




N









regarding the integrity of which I now, as heretofore, am pleased to

attest.

I shall never forget the first imipressions of the muck hole in

Marco, which, under the sane magic touch, became the feaemous Court

of the RPile Dwellers. The little shoots4 of mangroves coming up

here and there, r',.ny Ourious weeds growing not more than twelve or

sixteen inchele highJ, all uilaid"i by foul-smelling black hmuc, into

which a fee trencPhes' had. been duig; these were filled with water,
and indeed, the whole p lace was lie a thick sponge saturated with

water hol-Iing a tremendous quantity of salt and a large variety of

sBmells.

We had. brought a crew of workmlen from ,p the coast, but almost

to n. anI they looked vi.th absolute revolt upon the unpromising hole.

Each face showed the feelings, of its owner, and in the group of faces

only one v"I.s lPighted by enthusiasm as wer stood on the edge of the

Court of the Pile Dwellers.

Captain Oushing waded into the rnud, moved boards about and in

a short time the neni who reluctantly began work, were following him

and working with an enthusiasm and will which hardly flagged through

the weeks of wading in mud and slime and of working under a semi-

tropical um in a nmuck-covered swamp, where the mosquitoes were

plentiful and. the ,sand-flies almost like the sands of the sea, and
where the smoke of the smudge was su0pored to bring relief. Squat-

ting on their knees in the slime, with hands and arms covered with

mud, these good fellows worked day after day, bringing forth trea-

sures which, if seen now as we then saw them, would comnmand the at-

tention of every student of American 'archaeology.





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4


Mr. Cushing in the midst of it, down in the diggings, was often

the fortunate one to imearth a find,

Of those who worked all were kept keyred up to concert itch

by te nthusi of the leader and rwhn something of special in-

terest was found all would eagerly crowd to hear its import.

often it swened that the v.ork was progressing too rapidly,*

The diggings were o -o productive that we ,wore fairly bewildered with

the results, When evening cr-ime and George, the cool, had prepared

the evening e1Hal, across, the shell heaps carme the defile of the re-
turning orken, bearing, on their hads, or in their arm3, the trays

contpiininrg th}ie choicest 1kz their hard day 's work had won.

After dinner these were washed on the rail of the schooner,
and when free from mid, we saw them perfect in form and in many

cases brilliant in color and fairly solid, all eloquent commentaries

on the 1lifw of the people.

As night fell, Mrs OCushing, Mr. Guhing and I would sit on

the stern of the Silver Spray, GCushing rolling his cigarette and pass-

ing matches or tobacco to me and then far into the evening we would

talk of what we had seen,

Major Powell saw the life we led, but day after day, for over

five months, the party labored to produce results.
Photographs a.nd (drawings were ade of hundreds of articles;

surveys and sketch maps of many shell settlements, and copious notes

were taken. I sincerely hope that the data is in such shape that

it can be published and that others will have an opportunity of

studying the results of the labors of this great anthropologist.


Even if incomplete, the notes would bO of great value, They


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certainly cannot be -o incomplete as the fragraentn leftby Paschal
,# *: ,1 ,- .
:< In anthropology there must be great value in the tggestive,

sketchy notes of a. ran of genius,, Time alone can establish the

ultimate value of deductions; but there iS rmch, I a sIre, that

will last for ages in the rough field notes from the hand of Frank

Hamilton Gushing.


Wk. t A U O


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-:- M E M 0 R I E S




It was night on the Anclote as we rowed almost noiselessly

over the troubled waters. which gushed forth, fro thie Famous spring.

A man stood in the bow of the boat and raised his voice in song to

the m-rystic personalities who people the rmyth world; to those who

furnish motives for poem, tale or song.

There was no moon. A faint suggestion of phosphoresence

wound warmer lines of golden thread amid the paddle swirls, and the

great starry lamps of the heavens dropped from ripple to ripple in

long b.nds of light. The pine-clad Thi!llide was but a sombre form

against the sky.

In the harbor were fortunately situated masses of land and

trepts, and echo repeated the words of the stranger as he spake to
the night. We had gone to hear the voice of the echo and had

paddled far down thLe river. As we came back, he who was stodd in

the bow and sang the songs of a people who were. His voice was -----

strong and clear. It was a high baritone, resonant and barbaric,

that sent sent the echoes vibrating over the southern waters.

The seas were once more peopled by the pile dwellers of the Gulf

coast. The song brought forth the dusky warriors and the boys

splashingp in the water. WVe hadV-ested from the roots of pine

trees, the bones and handiwork of this people, and fancy wove it all

into a reafied pre-Columbian epoch, and our captain gave it the magic

touch which made it live again. He was, in fact, a captain, for

before the Silver Spray weighed anchor in the Anclote he had secured

captain's papers, and when the little schooner sailed to Gaxsimbas'
S.*.,


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2

Pass she sailed14nder the command of Captain. Gushing.
The de,ay in -.ilinr .n 5r Ta)Sre as o:get impor-

tale to ;he ex-dition"as a collection of exceedingly valuable ar-
//4'^yivo -- o^^ re sirm^P-eo fs-
'/" c r 0"--' "
ticles was. ecure. Q.. r.

ad.-l e.ep ; one at Tarton ? S-rings, under t, personal supervision -b.
-@RAg, and one rCt Camrp Ho pe, where Yr rett, it placed me in

charge, ee e'e. 1 Both were productive, and the results

formed an in>ortant >art of the collection. M,,r. Gushing ims able

to secuLre men who had been trained in the mounds at Tarpon Springs

for the wor further dowvrn the coast and by hi9s representations, ex-

a'.1anaon..i onnd enthusiasrev eroe who vas activelv employed in the

work A." in the best of smirits.>

I wri.c: r-,re- than a 1eawre ao be permitted to enjoy such ex-

periences, to be on, hand when splendid finds are made, when unique

pottery is broj-ught to light, when new designs, suggesting one or
vy-k/% V-LQLk -t~/Yt V& a-dttWbw
the other influence, are discovered, d nd above jll to have been with
vS,' a
Gushing at such a time was a great privilege, for he wove about all
CL
She web of enchantment, and brought forth from rude fragments stories

of splenoor. genius .... ... supplied the details which
f a m ns, Mm- ..'..; : .- .. accurate i21.
r.mg-.gt the fragments i-t@a turit. Generally accurate in judgment,

he could supply causes for nearly all things.

Impatient to possess the information which could be gained

from the finds merely for the sake of the knowledge, his ardor and

enthusiasm, limitless and all-pervading, dominated his life in the

field.


*L








41


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regarding Rt.9vhntegrity of h oi- oesnohre.. .taoem2p toeas
F, t t e-srT%'.
apitffsed


I shall never forget the first impressions of the muck hole in
Ma--rc', -wrhich, under the esane magic touch, became the famous Court

of thle Pile Dwellers _e little ,-shoots of mangrove' coming up

here and there, many curious weeds growing not more than twelve or

sixteen inches high, all laid by foul-smelling black muck, into

which a few trenches haad been dug L.ese were filled with water,

and indeed, the whole place was lie a thick sponge saturated with

water oalding. a tremendu quantity of salt and a large variety of

sm.ells.

We had brought a crew of vTorkren from up the coast, but almost

to -a man they looked with absolute revolt upon the unpromising hole

Each, face howed the feelings of it, owner, and in the group of faces
o -1v.oe, .was .in-' t _'de i g:,of i m o,,n r .

only one was lighted by enthusiasm as we stood on the edge of the

Court of the Pile Dwellers.

Captain Gushing waded into the mud, moved boards about and lin

a short time the men, who reluctantly began work, were following him

and working w :ith an enthusiasm and will which hardly flagged through

the weeks of wading in mud and slime and of working under a semi-

trop-ical sun in a muck-covered swarm,p where thle mosquitoes were

plentiful and the sand-flies almost like the sands of the sea, a4 f
,syM1 k Ak Ad,,C -i -.C.,. A-'l
fZg the smoke of the smudge ra supposed to bring relief. Squat-

ting on their knees in the slime, with hands and arms covered with

mud, these s --e.&-llow worked day after day, bringing forth trea-

sures which, if seen now as we then saw them, would. command" the at-

tention of every student of American archaeology.


^


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wr. Gushing in the midst of it, down in the diggings, was often

the fortunate one to imearth a find.

Those who worked a.-were kept keyed .up to concert pitch

by tie enthuisiasir, of the leader, and Twhen o.,m.ething of special in-

terest was, found all would eagerly crowd to hear its import.
Often it seemed that the work was progressing too rapidly.
0 .L P.,. v Ij.L 1.b. g r '

The diggings Were so productive that wve were fairly bewildered with

the re!sul.ts. -When evening came and George, the cook, had prepared

the evening iieal, across the shell meaps cane the defile of the re-

turning workmen, bearing on their heads, or in their arms, the trays

containing the choicest ptfes'W7hich their hard day-'s work had won

After dinner these were washed on the rail of the schooner,

and when free from Iurd, we saw then perfect in form and in many
.,, *iefc infr ndi ao

cases brilliant in color and fairly.solid, all eloquent conmmentaries
V R .- ^ h. ^LS "" '_*.... -...... .... .... .i
on the lift .. of t.-, eople... ....

SAs --iht Leil, rtrtT;T would sLt on

( the ,tarn os the c; i-,r- S-)rny, Gushing r"l. 7 i cigarete a pa-

\ inL :.tches or tob',co e n far into.nthe evenim>< ffOir ...
SIn
.I4 tP.-1tof wh.t we ha.d seen.

) h^ffor~PflreTl sTawr^T +^ 4hy after day, for over

( five months, the party labored to produce results.

'>^^^ Photographs. and drawings were -,ade of hundreds of articles;
/ ..srveys and sketch rnwn of manv shell set tlements, and copious notes ,
f . . . j -.. .. ^ 4 .
were taken.j i-s5ineery p",tat the data in such shape that

can be rublihed and that others will have an opportunity of


studying the results of the labors of this S*t anthropologist.

Even if incomplete, the notes would bb of great value. They
: ... , *




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certainly cannot be so incomplete as the fragments left byr Paschal.

In anthropology there mist be great value in the suggestive,

n;ketchy notes of a man of genius. Tine alone can establish the

ultimate value of deductions; "but there is much, I an sure, that

will last for ages in the rough field notes from the hand of Frank

Hamilton Gushing.



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