Music in Our Young Folks, 1865-1873


Material Information

Music in Our Young Folks, 1865-1873
Physical Description:
xi, 145 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.
Yontz, Mary Elaine, 1953-
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Our young folks   ( lcsh )
Music -- History and criticism -- United States -- 19th century   ( lcsh )
Music publishing -- History -- United States -- 19th century   ( lcsh )
Music thesis, Ph.D   ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Music -- UF   ( lcsh )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 1998.
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 105-109).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Mary Elaine Yontz.
General Note:
General Note:

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030045797
oclc - 40987270
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Full Text







Copyright 1998


Mary Elaine Yontz

To my husband Jack Randall Fisher II,

to my mother Marguerite S. Yontz and in memory of my father Harry Edward Yontz,

and in memory of Ruth M. Baldwin


It is a pleasure to express my appreciation to the many people who have

assisted in the completion of this dissertation.

I am grateful to the members of my supervisory committee, who have given

generously of their time and expertise. Special thanks are due to the chairman, Dr.

David Kushner. The other members of the committee who gave me the benefit of

their guidance are Dr. Kandace L. Brooks, Dr. Giacomo Oliva, Dr. Camille Smith,

Dr. Budd Udell, and Dr. E. C. Barksdale.

Four "honorary members" of my committee have enriched my doctoral

experience. Dr. Daniel Popp served on the committee during the qualifying

examinations and reviewed the first draft of the dissertation. Dr. Leslie Odom

substituted at the defense and provided essential support. Dr. Larry Crook and Dr.

Russell Robinson offered valuable advice at critical junctures.

I am happy to acknowledge the assistance of librarians and library staff

members. I am indebted to the late Dr. Ruth Baldwin, whose "canine appetite" for

collecting historical children's literature put primary research materials at my

fingertips. The current staff of the Department of Special Collections in the George

A. Smathers Libraries of the University of Florida made my work possible. Dr. John

Ingram, Chair of the Department, and Rita Smith, Curator of the Baldwin Library of

Historical Children's Literature, were particularly generous with their time, advice,

and encouragement. Robena Eng Cornwell and her staff at the University of Florida

Music Library provided consistently excellent and cheerful service throughout my

tenure in graduate school. Thanks to the efforts of the University of Florida

Interlibrary Loan Department, chaired by David Fuller, I had access to valuable

materials not owned locally. The staff of the Special Collections Department of the

Tampa Campus Library at the University of South Florida graciously made their

copies of Our Young Folks available during the final stages.

Dorothy Hope and Martha Hruska, my supervisors at the George A. Smathers

Libraries, have been staunch supporters of my educational goals over a period of

years. John Dewey, who wrote "Education is not preparation for life, education is life

itself," would be very proud of them both.

The participation of Dr. Kathleen McCook and the faculty and staff of the

School of Library and Information Science at the University of South Florida

(USF/SLIS) has been instrumental. Their faith in me, coupled with the promise of

unemployment should I fail to finish, provided a carrot-and-stick package that has

made a significant difference.

I am grateful to Jenna Freedman of the USF/SLIS and to Gerald Langford of

the George A. Smathers Libraries for valuable research assistance. William Parker

provided important help with the figures. Phyllis Schmidt, Maurice Sarns, Eleanor

Humphries, and Arnold Penland gave me straight, unemotional answers to direct

questions. The examples set and encouragement offered by Dr. Larry Newcomb and

Dr. Tom Terrell propelled me over the finish line.

I also owe this moment to all the people who sent positive thoughts, said

prayers, lit candles, bought coffee, and otherwise did whatever they thought would

work. I trust that they know who they are, and I hope that they know that this

dissertation would not have been completed without them.

My deepest gratitude is reserved for my family. My parents Marguerite S.

Yontz and the late Harry Edward Yontz made all of my educational achievements

possible through many years of moral and financial support. In addition, my mother

Marguerite provided valuable assistance to this particular project through

proofreading and data entry. My husband Jack Randall Fisher II has given me

emotional and financial support through three degrees. That must be some kind of

record. Above all of that, he sustains my life with his daily expressions of humor,

kindness, generosity, and compassion.



ACKNOW LEDGM ENTS .......................................................................... iv

A B STR A C T ......... .. ......... . ............................. .... .. .... x


I INTRODUCTION ........ ....... ..................... 1

Statem ent of the Problem .................................................................. I
Need for the Study ............. .. .................... 2
Description of the Study ... ........ ...................... 4
A Review of Related Literature .......................................................... 6

2 A HISTORY OF OUR YOUNG FOLKS .. ......... ............. 12

Magazines in Nineteenth-Century America .................... 12
O ur Y oung Folks ................................................................................... 15

OUR YOUNG FOLKS ..................... ........ 20

OUR YOUNG FOLKS ....... ... ................. 29

W inter Song: 2-1866-February, 124 ..................................................... 29
Nutting Song: 2-1866-October, 630-31 ................................................. 31
Skating Song: 2-1866-December, 766-67 .............................................. 32
New-Year Song: 3-1867-January, 58-60 ..... .................. 33
W inter Night: 3-1867-February, 122-24 ................................................ 34
Night W inds: 3-1867-M arch, 186-87 .................................................... 34
The Song of the Robin: 3-1867-April, 250-51 ....................................... 35
M aying: 3-1867-M ay, 315-16 ................................................................ 36
A Song of the Roses: 3-1867-June, 378-80 ............................................. 37
M making Hay: 3-1867-July, 442-43 ......................................................... 38
Summer Morning: 3-1867-August, 506-07 ............................................. 39

Boat Song: 3-1867-September, 571-72 .................................................. 39
Beautiful Summer: 3-1867-October, 634-35 .......................................... 40
November: 3-1867-November, 699-700 ................................................. 41
Pictures in the Fire: 3-1867-December, 761-62 ..................................... 42
Children's Hymn: 4-1868-January, 60 .................................................... 43
Child's Evening Prayer: 4-1868-February, 122 ....................................... 44
Melody for Piano: 4-1868-February, 123-24 .......................................... 45
Gypsies in the Village: 4-1868-March, 186-88 ....................................... 45
M elody: 4-1868-M arch, 188 ................................................................... 46
The Happy Farmer: 4-1868-April, 249-50 ............................................. 47
Andante Cantabile: 4-1868-April, 250-51 ............................................. 48
Turkish March: 4-1868-May, 312-15 .................................................... 48
From the "Serenade." Op. 8: 4-1868-May, 315 ..................................... 49
Children Soldiers: 4-1868-June, 377-78 ................................................ 49
Venetian Barcarole: 4-1868-June, 378-80 ............................................. 50
Reapers' Song: 4-1868-July, 442-43 ....................................................... 51
Evening Song: 4-1868-July, 444 ............................................................ 52
Polonaise: 4-1868-August, 505-07 ......................................................... 53
Andantino: 4-1868-August, 507 ............................................................. 54
Hunting Song: 4-1868-September, 569-70 ............................................. 54
Andante Gracioso: 4-1868-September, 570 ............................................ 55
Sunday Morning: 4-1868-September, 571 ............................................. 55
Melody from the Opera of "Les Huguenots": 4-1868-October, 634-37.. 56
Theme and Variations: 4-1868-November, 697-700 .............................. 56
Rondo Mignon: 4-1868-December, 758-59 .................... 57
Utopia: 5-1869-February, 128-29 .......................................................... 58
Little Nannie: 5-1869-May, 338-39 ....................................................... 58
The Rivulet: 5-1869-June, 418 .............................................................. 59
Lady M oon: 5-1869-July, 491 ................................................................ 60
Berying Song: 5-1869-August, 563-64 ................................................ 60
Swing Away: 5-1869-September, 633-34 .............................................. 61
Three in a Bed: 5-1869-October, 706-07 ............................................... 61
Christmas Carol: 7-1871-January, 58 .................................................... 62
Christmas Carol: 8-1872-January, 52 .................................................... 63
The Robin: 8-1872-M ay, 311-12 ............................................................ 63
Four Black and White Mice: 8-1872-July, 441 ....................................... 64
Song to September: 8-1872-September, 571 .......................................... 65
M ay Polka: 9-1873-M ay, 20 ................................................................... 65
Apple Blossom Waltz: 9-1873-November, 694 ..................................... 66
The Chickadee: 9-1873-December, 759 .................................................. 67

5 COMPARISON TO PREVIOUS RESEARCH ..................................... 75

6 DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS .................................................... 81

Differences and Sim ilarities to Adult M magazine M usic ......................... 81
Composers, Arrangers, and Poets ......................................................... 86
Eichberg's Impact ................................................................................... 88

7 CONCLUSION ........................................................................................ 91

Evaluation of the M usic ......................................................................... 91
Pedagogical Im plications ....................................................................... 94
Directions for Further Study .................................................................. 97

BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................................ 105


A DATABASE PRINTOUT ........................................................................ 110

B DATABASE REPORTS .......................................................................... 116

C INDEXES TO THE MUSIC IN OUR YOUNG FOLKS ........................ 141

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................................................................ 145

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy



Mary Elaine Yontz

December 1998

Chairman: David Z. Kushner
Major Department: Music

The goals of this study are to identify, describe, and analyze the music in Our

Young Folks: an Illustrated Magazine for Boys and Girls and to use the descriptions

and analyses to draw conclusions about nineteenth-century American musical

activities and beliefs. Each issue has been searched for printed music. The music has

been indexed by composer, arranger, and poet. The characteristics of the music have

been recorded and categorized. This music has been compared to printed music found

in adult general-interest magazines of the same time period, as described in Julia

Ekiund Koza's study "Music and References to Music in Godey's Lady's Book 1830-

1877" and in the research of Bonny H. Miller.

Fifty-one pieces of printed music were discovered. The music is stylistically

similar to the music studied by Koza and Miller in many characteristics, including

form, meter, tempo, key, and use of dynamics. The percentage of composers who can

be assuredly identified as women is lower, 5.9% in Our Young Folks compared to

10.7% in Godey's Lady's Book, and nearly 10% in Miller's research. The percentage

of lyricists who are obviously female is considerably larger in Our Young Folks than

in Godey's Lady's Book, 79.3% in Our Young Folks and 11.1% in Godey's Lady's


Pioneering music educator Julius Eichberg (1824-1893) was directly

responsible for over one-fourth of the music published in the magazine as either

composer or arranger. The magazine published some pieces by composers who are

renowned today, including Mozart, Beethoven, and Schumann.

Themes used in the vocal and programmatic instrumental music in Our Young

Folks most frequently concern nature and the out-of-doors. This attention to the out-

of-doors is also reflected in the numerous articles about nature which appear in

children's magazines of the period. The interest in nature topics may reflect nostalgia

for the rural lifestyle which was disappearing in that era of widespread urbanization.

The inclusion in the printed music of piano writing which is moderately

difficult to execute and of part-songs which exploit adult vocal ranges provides

evidence that parents and children performed music together in the middle- and

upper-class homes of nineteenth-century America.


Statement of the Problem

The goals of this study are to identify, describe, and analyze the music in Our

Young Folks: an Illustrated Magazine for Boys and Girls and to use the descriptions and

analyses to draw conclusions about nineteenth-century American musical activities and

beliefs. Each issue has been searched for printed music. The music has been indexed by

composer, arranger, and poet. The characteristics of the music have been recorded and

categorized. The purposes of this research are to analyze the characteristics of the printed

music in order to identify stylistic characteristics and to reach conclusions about

nineteenth-century musical life in the United States based on the types of music found in

the magazine. This music has been compared to printed music found in adult general-

interest magazines of the same time period, as described in Julia Ekiund Koza's study

"Music and References to Music in Godem's Lady's Book 1830-1877"l and in the

research of Bonny H. Miller.2

' Julia Elldund Koza, "Music and References to Music in Godey's Lady's Book, 1830-77 (Ph.D.
dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1988).
'Bonny H. Miller, "Ladies' Companion, Ladies' Canon? Women Composers in American Magazines from
Godey' to the Ladies Home Journal," in Cecilia Reclaimed: Feminist Perspectives on Gender and Music
(Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994), p. 156-182.

Need for the Study

Nineteenth-century periodicals provide a treasure trove of primary source material

which has been underutilized by scholars in music history. This is particularly true for

children's periodicals. Koza and Miller have studied the music-related contents of

magazines for adults, particularly Godey's Lady's Book. But no similar studies using a

children's periodical have been identified. According to Kelly,3 the scholarly study of

children's literature dates only from the 1960s and the examination of children's

periodicals has been particularly neglected. The use of children's magazines as research

material is a "new frontier" in many disciplines, including music history.

Adults strive to instill their most cherished beliefs and values in their children.

The adults who create magazines for children reveal their own attitudes through choices

of content. As Kelly has written,"... children's literature is significant and illuminating

for the cultural historian because it constitutes one important way in which the adult

community deliberately and self-consciously seeks to explain, interpret, and justify that

body of beliefs, values, attitudes, and practices which, taken together, define in large

measure a culture... ."A Children's periodicals offer valuable first-hand evidence of the

belief systems of the contemporary society; therefore, they deserve careful examination

and analysis.

3 R. Gordon Kelly, "Introduction," in Children's Periodicals of the United States (Westport, Conn.:
Greenwood Press, 1974), p. x-xvi.
4 R. Gordon Kelly, Mother Was a Lady (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1974), p. xiii-xiv.

The contents of magazines are especially relevant to the study of life in

nineteenth-century America. As one of the chief vehicles for recreation within the home

in the era before broadcasting, magazines enjoyed wide circulation and consistent

attention from their subscribers. With no radio, television, movies, or World Wide Web

sites to provide instruction and entertainment to young people at home, magazines played

a much larger role in the lives of their readers than subsequently came to be the case. The

magazines of the period, therefore, are a chief source of information about nineteenth-

century activities and beliefs. Lyon's 1942 assessment of the relative importance of

magazines in the lives of the children of late nineteenth-century America is equally valid


The period from 1865 to 1899 is, in the
opinion of the writer, the most important
period in the entire history of children's
magazines because they reached their
greatest point of excellence and popularity
at a time when they did not have to compete
with the many other kinds of entertainment
now open to children. They played a far
more important role in the lives of their
readers than magazines before or since
have been able to do.5

Study of the contents of popular nineteenth-century periodicals provides a distinctive and

valuable view of the attitudes and attributes of the people who created the publications

and the people who purchased and used them.

5 Betty Longenecker Lyon, "A History of Children's Secular Magazines Published in the United States from
1789 to 1899" (Ph.D. dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 1942), p. 270.

The author of the present study began with the following hypotheses:

1) The printed music in Our Young Folks will be stylistically similar to printed

music in contemporary general-interest magazines for adults.

2) Composers of printed music will include Mozart, Beethoven, and Schumann.

3) The characteristics of the music found in Our Young Folks will provide evidence

for drawing conclusions about musical activities and beliefs in nineteenth-century


Description of the Study

Our Young Folks was issued monthly from January 1865 through December

1873. All published issues of the magazine are housed in the Baldwin Library of

Historical Children's Literature at the University of Florida. From the several nineteenth-

century periodicals available for review in the Baldwin Library, Our Young Folks was

chosen for several reasons. Called "the first modem juvenile periodical" by Lyon,6 it is

one of the most significant titles in the genre. Because its publication dates coincide with

the dates covered in Koza's study, a valid comparison to this previous research is

possible. Friedberg's published synopsis of the content of the magazine indicates

significant musical content.7 The number of issues is such that the entire run of the

magazine could be examined and a comprehensive analysis of the music published in the

magazine could be offered within the scope of the present inquiry.

6Lyon, p. 271.
7 Joan Brest Friedberg, "Our Young Folks: An Illustrated Magazine," in Children's Periodicals of the
United States, edited by R. Gordon Kelly (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1984), p. 332.

Each issue was examined, and the printed music was located. The issues are

bound in annual volumes which are numbered I through IX.. Each volume is paginated

continuously. The printed music has been identified by volume number, year, month,

and page number, using Arabic numerals.

The stylistic characteristics of the printed music have been recorded in a computer

database using Microsoft Works software. Instrumentation and the gender identities of

composers, arrangers, and lyricists have been of primary interest. Keys and meter

signatures, the form of both music and text, and the length in measures of each piece have

been noted. For strophic songs, the number of verses was recorded. In the case of vocal

music, the topic of the text was included. The presence or absence of piano introductions,

interludes, and postludes was identified for vocal works with piano accompaniments. For

programmatic instrumental music, the topic of the program was recorded. Tempo

considerations included the beginning tempo, the presence of internal tempo changes, and

the type of tempo indications used. Characteristics of dynamic levels include the

presence or absence of an opening dynamic marking, presence or absence of internal

dynamic changes, and the dynamic indicators used. The range of both vocal and

instrumental parts has been recorded. The stylistic characteristics were then analyzed to

identify representative traits.

Difficulty of the piano writing has also been analyzed. The system used to

determine levels of difficulty is the approach used by Maurice Hinson in his Guide to the

Pianist's Repertoire, Second Edition.8 Hinson uses four levels: Easy, Intermediate,

Moderately Difficult, and Difficult. In the introduction to the Guide, he offers several

standard works as examples of each level. For the present study, the following piano

works were used to provide examples of the various levels for comparison:

Easy: J.S. Bach's "Minuet in G" from Anna Magdelena Notebook
Schumann's "Melodie," number 1 from Album fur die Jugend

Intermediate: Mendelssohn's Sechs Kinderstucke, number 1

Moderately Difficult: Mozart's Sonatas KV 189d and 189e
J.S. Bach's "Allemande" from French Suite I

Difficult: Beethoven's Sonate op. 57
J.S. Bach's Ouverture from Partita no. IV

The findings of this study have been compared to the results of Koza's and

Miller's research on printed music in Godey's Lady's Book and other contemporary

general-interest periodicals for adults. The similarities and differences found have been

analyzed and discussed. Pedagogical implications and directions for future research have

been identified.

A Review of Related Literature

Areas of study which have relevance for the current project include the political

and social conditions of the United States in the mid-nineteenth century; the histories of

American music and music education for the same period; the history of Our Young

8 Maurice Hinson, Guide to the Pianist's Repertoire, Second Edition (Bloomington: Indiana University
Press, 1987), p. xv-xvi.

Folks and contemporary magazines, particularly those aimed at children; and the use of

nineteenth-century periodicals as research materials.

Our Young Folks shared the stage with the American Civil War and the period of

Westward expansion. The Civil War ended five months after Our Young Folks began

publication, and the influence of the War is seen in all volumes of the magazine. Among

the abundant sources on the United States during the Civil War and immediately

thereafter, the works of Bruce Catton are particularly useful.9 Catton identifies the

dissolution of the nation's ability to compromise over the slavery issue as a manifestation

of the dislocation of living in an era in which all fundamentals of social and economic life

were changing radically. Historians Frederick Jackson Turner10 and Ray Allen

Billington" have studied the effect of the frontier on American life and character. The

vast American continent presented a situation in which land was plentiful and people

relatively few. This was a sharp contrast to many parts of Western Europe, where

humans were plentiful and uninhabited land rare. This made the United States a

completely different environment from Europe. The resulting adjustments in

immigrants' lives and attitudes produced a distinctive American character, identified by

such traits as mobility, wastefulness, experimentation, materialism, and hard work.12 All

these scholars agree the mid-nineteenth century was a time of fundamental change in the

9 Bruce Cation, The Centennial History of the Civil War (Arden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1961-65); The
Civil War (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1960).
10 Frederick Jackson Turner, The Frontier in American History (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston,
" Ray Allen Billington, America's Frontier Heritage (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1966).
12 Billington, p. 3.

lives of Americans, as is the late twentieth century. This similarity offers an explanation

for the value of nineteenth-century studies in advancing our understanding of the present.

Among the scholarship in American music history, the works of Wiley Hitchcock

and Edith Borroff are of particular interest. Hitchcock's Music in the United States13

discusses cultivated and vernacular traditions of the nineteenth century. Hitchcock also

describes the ubiquity of pianos in the nineteenth-century American home. The effect of

the piano on American music is discussed in detail in Loesser's Men. Women and

Pianos.14 Borroff covers all styles of music in social context; her timeline which relates

events in music, related arts, and the nation's political, economic, and social history is

especially helpful.15

The history of American music education is relevant, particularly because Our

Young Folks was published in Boston, where music was first included in the curriculum

of an American public school system in 1838. Comprehensive histories include Edward

Bailey Birge's classic History of Public School Music in the United States,16 as well as

the more recent A Histor of Music Education in the United States by James A. Keene17

and A History of American Music Education by Michael L. Mark and Charles L. Gary.18

The introduction of music into Boston's public schools and the career of Lowell Mason

13 H. Wiley Hitchcock, Music in the United States: a Historical Introduction (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.:
Prentice Hall, 1988).
14 Arthur Loesser, Men. Women. and Pianos: A Social History (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1954).
15 Edith Borrof& Music Melting Round: A History of Music in the United States (New York: Ardsley
House, 1995).
16 Edward Bailey Birge, History of Public School Music in the United States (Boston: Oliver Ditson, 1928).
17 James A. Keene, A History of Music Education in the United States (Hanover: University Press of New
England, 1982).
1" Michael L. Mark and Charles L. Gary, A History of American Music Education (New York: Schirmer,


have been chronicled by scholars including David Z. Kushner,19 Carol Pemberton,20 and

Arthur Rich.21 Of special interest are Mason's justifications for teaching music in

schools, which include the beneficial effects of music on religious devotion, physical

health, and cohesive family life.22 Sondra Wieland Howe has contributed to the study of

Boston's school music program in the years after Lowell Mason.23 She has also done

preliminary research on Julius Eichberg, another pioneer music educator of nineteenth-

century Boston who was a significant contributor of printed music to Our Young Folks. 24

Crucial work in the history of American children's periodicals has been done by

R. Gordon Kelly. Kelly edited Children's Periodicals of the United States, for which he

authored a review of scholarship on American children's periodicals25 and a succinct

history of the development of children's magazines in the United States.26 Friedberg's

article in the Kelly volume discusses Our Young Folks in some detail.27 Although she

includes an analysis of the periodical's treatment of such subjects as the Civil War,

'9 David Z. Kushner, "The 'Masonic' Influence on 19W-Century American Music Education," Journal of
Musicological Research 4 (1983), 443-454.
20 Carol A. Pemberton, Lowell Mason: His Life and Work (Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1985); Lowell
Mason: A Bio-Bibliography (New York: Greenwood Press, 1988).
21 Arthur Lowndes Rich, Lowell Mason: The Father of Singing Among the Children (Chapel Hill:
University of North Carolina Press, 1946).
22 Lowell Mason, "Manual of the Boston Academy of Music," in Source Readings in Music History, edited
b2y Michael L. Mark (New York: Schirmer, 1982), p. 127-132.
2 Sondra Wieland Howe, "Music Teaching in the Boston Public Schools, 1864-1879," Journal of Research
in Music Education 40 (1992), 316-328.
24 Sondra Wieland Howe, "Julius Eichberg: String and Vocal Instruction in Nineteenth-Century Boston,"
Journal of Research in Music Education 44(1996), 147-159.
25 R Gordon Kelly, "Preface," in Children's Periodicals of the United States, edited by R. Gordon Kelly
(Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1984), p. ix-xvi.
2 R. Gordon Kelly, "Introduction," in Children's Periodicals of the United States, edited by R, Gordon
Kelly (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1984), p. xix-xxix.
27 Friedberg, p. 329-341.

blacks, native Americans, and Jews, Friedberg mentions the arts only briefly. She does

point out that the magazine included printed music by Mozart, Beethoven, Schumann,

and others.28 Kelly's Mother Was a Lady: Self and Society in Selected American

Children's Periodicals. 1865-189029 examines cultural transmission of values through the

fiction in popular nineteenth-century children's magazines, including Our Young Folks.

Frank Luther Mott's classic multi-volume study A History of American Magazines30

includes valuable background information but no substantive discussion of Our Young

Folks. Smith and Price31 and Tebbel and Zuckerman32 have contributed useful, more

recent analyses of the socio-historical development of American magazines. Betty

Longenecker Lyon's 1942 dissertation "A History of Children's Secular Magazines

Published in the United States from 1789 to 1899"03 offers a most useful developmental

analysis of American children's periodicals and a description of Our Young Folks.

No other examinations of the musical content of nineteenth-century children's

magazines have been identified. A small number of scholars have conducted such studies

of adult magazines. Julia Eklund Koza34 indexed and analyzed the sheet music,

nonfiction references, and selected fictional references to music in the issues of Godev's

2S Friedberg, p. 332.
29 R. Gordon Kelly, Mother Was a Lady (Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1974).
30 Frank Luther Mott, A History of American Magazines (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press,
31 Susan Belasco Smith and Kenneth M. Price, "Introduction: Periodical Literature in Social and Historical
Context," in Periodical Literature in Nineteenth-Century America. edited by Kenneth M. Price and Susan
Belasco Smith (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1995), p. 3-16.
32 John Tebbel and Mary Ellen Zuckerman, The Magazine in America 1741-1990 (New York: Oxford
University Press, 1991).
33 Betty Longenecker Lyon, "A History of Children's Secular Magazines Published in the United States
from 1789 to 1899" (Ph.D. dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 1942).
34 Koza, 1988.

Lady's Book published between July 1830 and December 1877. The research of Bonny

H. Miller focuses on sheet music in general-audience periodicals.35 Joan Berman Mizrahi

used two music journals and The Saturday Evening Post to study the perception of

women as musicians and pianists in late nineteenth-century America.36 Mary Herron

Dupree likewise reviewed both musical and general-audience periodicals to identify

major issues in art music during the 1920s.37 A similarly small number of investigators

have analyzed non-musical content of nineteenth-century juvenile periodicals. Joel

Shrock's study of masculine imagines included both magazines and books as source

materials.38 Kenneth Klassen examined the treatment of nature in St. Nicholas

Mgazn.39 Carolyn Karcher's article describes the history and content of The Juvenile


A review of previous research indicates that children's magazine music has been

overlooked as source material for research into nineteenth century American musical life.

The study of children's magazine music provides a hitherto unexplored direction which

should add to our knowledge of the era and open new avenues for further research.

31 Miller, 1994 and 1986.
36 Joan Berman Mizrahi, "The American Image of Women as Musicians and Pianists, 1850-1900" (D.M.A_
dissertation, University of Maryland, 1989).
37 Mary Herron Dupree, "The Art Music of the United States during the 1920s: A Study of the Major Issues
in Contemporary Periodical Sources" (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Colorado, 1980).
38 Joel D. Shrock, "Images of Manliness: Respectable Manhood in Juvenile Popular Media, 1870-1929"
(Ph.D. dissertation, Miami University, 1996).
39Kenneth Guy Klassen, "The School of Nature: An Annotated Index of Writings on Nature in St. Nicholas
Magazine During the Editorship of Mary Mapes Dodge, 1873-1905" (Ph.D. dissertation, University of
Kansas, 1989).
40 Carolyn L. Karcher, "Lydia Maria Child and The Juvenile Miscellany: The Creation of an American
Children's Literature," in Periodical Literature in Nineteenth-Century America, edited by Kenneth M. Price
and Susan Belasco Smith (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1995), p. 90-114.


Magazines in Nineteenth-Century America

The discussion of general trends in nineteenth-century magazine publishing in the

United States is drawn from Tebbel and Zuckerman' and Smith and Price,2 except as

otherwise noted. Comments on the history of children's magazine publishing come

largely from Lyon.3

The Postal Act of 1794, which permitted distribution of magazines via the United

States mail, set the stage for an explosion of magazine publishing in the following

century. The number of American magazines in circulation grew from 100 in 1825 to

600 in 1850, from 700 in 1865 to 1200 in 1870 and 3300 in 1885. In the 1830s, a number

of factors converged to make periodicals easier to produce: technological advances in

papermaking and printing; less expensive postage; the availability of rail distribution;

increased literacy due to the development of common schools; and a healthy economy

which provided increased leisure time and a corresponding need for entertainment in the

home. Civil-War soldiers who had used books and magazines to fight boredom in camp,

1 John Tebbel and Mary Ellen Zuckerman, The Magazine in America 1741-1990 (New York: Oxford
University Press, 1991).
2 Susan Belasco Smith and Kenneth M. Price, "Introduction: Periodical Literature in Social and Historical
Context," in Periodical Literature in Nineteenth-Century Americai edited by Kenneth M. Price and Susan
Belasco Smith (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1995), p. 3-16.
3Betty Longenecker Lyon, "A History of Children's Secular Magazines Published in the United States from
1789 to 1899" (Ph.D. dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 1942).

along with the rise of public libraries, contributed to the development of a culture in

which reading was a habit. The practice of reading aloud informally for family and

friends helped make magazines a main source of entertainment in the home. The rise of a

robust market for periodicals made it possible to earn a living through writing in the

United States, and virtually all of America's prominent nineteenth-century authors

contributed to journals, magazines, or newspapers during their careers. Magazines were

used to promote books, and this attention was needed to make a book successful

financially. Typically magazines were funded through subscriptions rather than

advertising until the 1890s. The premiums offered to new and renewing subscribers

included books, clothes, tools, and pianos.

Children's magazines shared in this "boom time" for American periodicals. The

first children's magazine published in the United States was The Children's Magazine,

begun in 1789 by the Hudson and Goodwin firm of Hartford. This and the other

magazines produced for children prior to 1826 appeared irregularly and had short life

spans. Lyon4 identifies the first successful juvenile magazine as The Juvenile

Miscellany, published in Boston from 1826 until 1834 and edited by Lydia Child. The

year 1827 saw the advent of The Youth's Companion, a milestone in children's magazine

publishing which would run for one hundred and two years.

Children's magazines before 1900 were typically addressed to both girls and

boys. Betty Lyon has identified three stylistic stages in the history of American children's

4 Betty Longenecker Lyon, "A History of Children's Secular Magazines Published in the United States from
1789 to 1899" (Ph.D. dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 1942), p. 9.


periodicals of the nineteenth century. She called the period from 1789 to 1839 "The First

Fifty Years," 1840-1865 "The Transition Years," and 1865-1899 "The Progressive

Years."5 From 1789 through the end of the 1830s, religious, educational, and reform

messages dominated the content. Reform literature was intended to encourage the

readers' support for social-change movements such as temperance and abolitionism.

From 1840 through the end of the Civil War, educational content was dominant. From

1865 until 1900, the focus in secular magazines became entertainment, and the finest

magazines published the work of the era's best writers and illustrators. Lyon emphasizes

the role that the possibility of publication in children's magazines played in the

development of authors, and thus in the development of literature for all ages:

Many authors who became well known later
as writers for children and adults were encouraged
in the beginning by some discerning editor of a
child's magazine who accepted and printed their
first contributions. This was true of such writers
as Frank Stockton, C.A. Stephens, Jack London,
Richard Harding Davis, Ring Lardner, Horatio
Alger, Jr., and many others.

The decade after the Civil War, when Our Young Folks was published, has been

identified by Kelly as "... perhaps the richest [decade] in the history of American

children's periodicals."7 Urbanization contributed to a growing base of readers; the move

from farm to city created a life in which children had more leisure time which could be

spent reading. The development of children's magazines was stronger in the United

5 Lyon, p. 7.
6 Lyon, p. 1.
7 R. Gordon Kelly, "Preface," in Children's Periodicals of the United States (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood
Press, 1984), p. xxii.

States than in any other nation. Moralism was replaced by content which was more

appealing to children, and secular magazines gained new prominence. The Youth's

Companion had the largest circulation, and St. Nicholas is widely regarded as the most

distinguished children's magazine of the period. Kelly reports that under the editorship

of Mary Mapes Dodge St. Nicholas became the ... preeminent American children's

periodical, a judgment that lapse of time has only enhanced."8

Our Youn! Folks

The description of Our Young Folks which follows is taken from Friedberg9 and

Lyon,10 except as otherwise noted.

Our Young Folks ushered in a new era in American children's periodicals. Lyon

found the magazine to be ". . so thoroughly modem in spirit"" that she chose the date

of its founding as the beginning point of her third period in the stylistic history of

children's magazines in the United States.

Our Young Folks: an Illustrated Magazine for Boys and Girls was issued

monthly, beginning in January of 1865 and ending with the December issue of 1873. It

was established in Boston by the publishing firm of Ticknor and Fields, which also

published The Atlantic Monthly. The magazine was a 64-page octavo with an orange

cover and colored title page. The subscription price was $1.50 per year until 1869, when

8 Ibid.
9 Joan Brest Friedberg, "Our Young Folks: An Illustrated Magazine," in Children's Periodicals of the
United States, edited by R. Gordon Kelly (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1984), p. 329-341.
10 Betty Longenecker Lyon, "A History of Children's Secular Magazines Published in the United States
from 1789 to 1899" (Ph.D. dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 1942), p. 271-276.
Lyon, p. 242.


it was raised to $2.00. This same year the publisher changed from Ticknor and Fields to

Fields, Osgood and Company. The magazine reported a circulation of 50,000 at the end

of 1867 and 76,543 in 1869.

Content included serial and non-serial fiction, non-fiction articles, poetry and

woodcut illustrations. "Round the Evening Lamp" and "Our Letter Box" were featured

departments in all issues. "Round the Evening Lamp" featured charades, puzzles,

rebuses, music, plays, and pantomimes. "Our Letter Box" printed letters from readers

and the editors' replies. A new department was established in 1870, "Our Young

Contributors," which offered stories, poems, and music composed by readers. "Our

Young Contributors" launched the writing career of C.A. Stephens, who went on to write

frequently for Our Young Folks, The Youth's Companion, St. Nicholas, and other

magazines of the time. Another youthful contributor who became an adult writer was

Eudora Stone Bumstead. Our Young Folks was born in the final year of the American

Civil War, and the nation's preoccupation and pain are reflected in numerous pro-Union

and anti-slavery articles and stories.

The original editors of Our Young Folks were John Townsend Trowbridge, Gail

Hamilton (pseudonym of Mary Abigail Dodge), and Lucy Larcom. Hamilton left the

magazine in 1868. As was typical of secular children's periodicals of the era, the editors'

goal was to provide ... entertainment and attractive instruction."12 They published the

work of the excellent authors and illustrators of the time. Distinguished writers who

12 Quoted in John Morton Blum, "Introduction," in Yesterday's Children (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1959),
p. xiv.

contributed short stories, articles, or poetry included Harriet Beecher Stowe, Thomas

Bailey Aldrich, Louisa May Alcott, Edward Lear, James Russell Lowell, Mayne Reid,

Charles Dickens, Lucretia P. Hale, John Greenleaf Whittier, and Henry Wadsworth

Longfellow. Longfellow's "Christmas Bells," Aldrich's "The Story of a Bad Boy,"

Lear's "The Owl and the Pussycat," and Hale's "The Peterkin Papers" were first published

in Our Young Folks. The three editors also wrote for the magazine. Trowbridge's

numerous contributions included serials which were later published as books, such as his

"Jack Hazard" series. The commitment to quality extended beyond the writing of prose

and poetry. For example, Winslow Homer is among the illustrators and Mozart,

Beethoven, and Schumann among the composers represented in the pages of the


Most readers were between 10 and 18 years of age. Correspondence in "Our

Letter Box" shows that children were reading the magazine in New England, the Eastern

Seaboard states, Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Missouri, Iowa, Kentucky, Alabama, Colorado,

California, Canada, and abroad. The typical subscriber family was middle- or upper-

middle class, well-educated by the standards of the era, and Protestant.

One young reader who was destined to achieve world renown as an adult was

Theodore Roosevelt. In his autobiography, Roosevelt wrote,

As a small boy I had Our Young Folks,
which I then firmly believed to be the very
best magazine in the world a belief, I may
add, which I have kept to this day unchanged,
for I seriously doubt if any magazine for old
or young has ever surpassed it. Both my wife
and I have the bound volumes of Our Young
Folks which we preserved from our youth.

... my beloved Our Young Folks ... taught
me much more than any of my text-books.'3

Roosevelt biographer Carleton Putnam also emphasized the importance of the

magazine to the future President:

More than casual reference must be made
to the influence upon Theodore during these
first ten years of a magazine called Our
Young Folks.... Reviewing the issues of
the later sixties, one finds in Our Young
Folks a high percentage of articles and
stories on natural history, outdoor life, manly
enterprise, and womanly virtue. They were
invariably written to convey a moral, but
they gained and held the attention by every
wholesome device appealing to the young....
Any child who loved and followed the cast
in Our Young Folks absorbed enough sturdy
principles, kindheartedness, and natural lore to
last a lifetime.14

Our Young Folks ceased publication at the end of 1873 and was absorbed by St.

Nicholas in 1874. Kelly reports that as a result of financial problems, the magazine was

sold to Scribner and Company, which began publishing St. Nicholas in November of

1873.15 Lyon speculates that the heavy losses which Fields, Osgood and Company

sustained in the great Boston fire of 1872 may have been a contributing factor in their

decision to sell the still-successful magazine.'6

Our Young Folks made a significant contribution to the history of American

children's magazines. Lyon chose 1865 as the beginning year for her third stylistic period

13 Theodore Roosevelt, An Autobiographv (New York: Macmillan, 1913), p. 17, 27.
14 Carleton Putnam, Theodore Roosevelt: the Formative Years 1858-1886 (New York: Charles Scribner's
Sons, 1958), p. 28-29.
15 Kelly, "Preface," in Children's Periodicals, p. xxii.
16 Lyon, p. 276.

in the history of children's secular magazines in the United States specifically because

Our Young Folks began publication in that year. She reports that Our Young Folks shows

"... distinct advances over magazines of the previous period."17 Through its success as

one of the first nationally-distributed, high-quality periodicals of the post-War era, it

helped to establish the place of the secular magazine which aimed to educate through

entertainment. In addition, Our Young Folks' influence on St. Nicholas, the

acknowledged jewel of the genre, was considerable. The circulation list of Our Young

Folks was sold to Scribner along with the magazine, and these names helped St. Nicholas

to quickly establish a circulation of 70,000.18 The absorption also enabled St. Nicholas to

acquire new writers, including Our Young Folks editor John Townsend Trowbridge.

Trowbridge joined St. Nicholas as a staff member and leading contributor, thus making

the editorial philosophy of the predecessor a vital factor in the development of the young

magazine. Friedberg summarized Our Young Folks' influence as follows:

"Our Young Folks achieved a standard that
makes it a worthy associate of St. Nicholas
It offered to its readers entertainment,
instruction, and inspiration; expecting much of
them in attention and performance, it
rewarded them by believing them capable of
responding to the best the editors could publish."19

'7 Lyon, p. 7.
"Fred Erisman, "St. Nicholas," in R. Gordon Kelly, Children's Periodicals of the United States (Westport,
Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1984), p. 378.
'9 Friedberg, p. 339.


The following description of the music in Our Young Folks is based on inspection

of the printed music, analysis of the database of characteristics found in Appendix I, and

on the database reports, printed in Appendix II.

Fifty-one complete musical works were published in the magazine. The

appearance of printed music is strikingly irregular.

Volume/Year Number of Musical Works

1/1865 0
2/1866 3
3/1867 12
4/1868 21
5/1869 7
6/1870 0
7/1871 1
8/1872 4
9/1873 3

Two of the musical works (4%) are hymns, 22 (43%) are works for piano solo,

and 27 (53%) are pieces for voice and piano. The hymns are settings suitable for group

singing with keyboard accompaniment. All pieces which are purely instrumental are for

piano solo.


The average length in measures is 41.24. The minimum length in measures is 8

and the maximum 183. Thirty-one of the pieces, 60.7% of the total, are organized in a

consistent four-measure phrase pattern.

Among the pieces for voice and piano, the most commonly used form is strophic

(74%). Verse/refrain form also appears (26%). Number of verses ranges from 2 to 7,

with 3 verses being predominant. For the piano works, ABA form is predominant (68%).

Two piano pieces are in AB form, two are rondos, and two are through-composed.

Of the 22 pieces which are purely instrumental, 12 (54.6%) have programmatic

titles. Half of these programmatic titles deal with the out-of-doors. Four are meant to

describe outdoor activities such as farming, boating, and hunting, and two evoke natural

settings. Other programs include gypsies, religion, and soldiering.

Of the 29 pieces which include lyrics, the preponderance, 76%, have words

which deal with the out-of-doors. Sixteen discuss the natural world, including changes of

seasons, animals, and natural features such as the moon. Six more concern activities

which happen out-of-doors, including farm chores, boating, and skating. Three of the

vocal pieces are holiday songs, and only three are set in the home.

Nineteen named composers are represented among these pieces. Three piano

works by Robert Schumann and three by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart were published in

volume four. This volume also includes one piano piece each by Ludwig van Beethoven,

J. N. Hummel (Johann Nepomuk Hummel, 1778-1837), F. Kuhlau (Friedrich Kuhlau,

1786-1832), and Diabelli (probably Antonio Diabelli, 1781-1858). J. R_ Thomas

(perhaps John Rogers Thomas, 1830-1896) contributed eleven compositions for voice

and piano to volume three. Other composers whose work appears in the magazine more

than once include F. Boott (Francis Boott, 1813-1904), T. Crampton, H. M. T., and

Julius Eichberg (1824-1893). Three of the compositions, 5.9%, were definitely written by

women. Four other works, 7.8%, are signed with initials and could have been written by

women. Two composers of piano pieces were readers of the magazine. Mary A. Leland,

who composed "May Polka," was a ten-year-old reader. Fourteen-year-old Sophie Olivier

composed "Apple Blossom Waltz." Both reader-composed works appeared in volume


Eight of the twenty-two instrumental works are arrangements. Julius Eichberg

arranged seven of these from the piano works of Schumann, Mozart. Beethoven, Diabelli,

and Kuhlau. The remaining arranged piece is a piano rendition by Alberti of a melody

from Meyerbeer's opera Les Huguenots. All of the arrangements were done by men.

Julius Eichberg (1824-1892) had a large effect on the music in volume four of

1868, the volume in which music was published most frequently. Eichberg's six

composed pieces and seven arrangements were all published in this volume. All these are

piano works. The composed pieces are of Intermediate difficulty while the arrangements

are Moderately Difficult.

A native of Germany, Eichberg was an active violinist and conductor in Boston

from 1859. He was born in Dusseldorf to a musical family. His violin teachers included

his own father, F.W. Eichler in Mainz, J. Frohlich in Wurzburg, and Julius Rietz in

Dusseldorf. When Rietz arranged for Eichberg to play for Felix Mendelssohn, noted

composer and educator of the day, Mendelssohn concluded that". . young Eichberg

joins to [sic] ... a great deal of true expression, which will lead him, I doubt not, to

become a great artist."1 From 1843 until 1845, Eichberg attended the Brussels Royal

Conservatory, from which he graduated with first prizes in violin playing and

composition. His teachers there included Lambert Meerts and Charles-Auguste de Beriot

in violin and Francois-Joseph Fetis in music theory. After graduation, Eichberg spent

eleven years in Geneva, where he served as professor of violin at the Geneva

Conservatory and directed music for an opera troupe and a church. He moved to the

United States in 1857. Eichberg taught and performed in New York for two years, then

moved to Boston.

Eichberg had an active and varied career in Boston as a composer, performer, and

organizer of concerts. From 1859 until 1866, he directed the Boston Museum Concerts.

For this series he composed operettas such as The Doctor of Alcantara, which was

performed in Boston and elsewhere in the country for over twenty years. Eichberg

performed regularly as a recital violinist in the 1860s. In 1862 he performed a series of

concerts with Louis Moreau Gottschalk. The programs included compositions of both

Gottschalk and Eichberg as well as Gottschalk accompanying Eichberg's performance of

the Mendelssohn Violin Concerto and a Mozart sonata.

N A, Eison, "Eichberg, Julius," in Dictionary of American Biography (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons,
1958), p. 58.


Eichberg's most lasting contribution was his work as a pioneering music educator.

He founded one of the country's most distinguished conservatories, and he served as the

first supervisor of music for a large urban public-school system.

Eichberg founded the Boston Conservatory of Music in 1867. One of the

priorities of the new school, which remains in operation to the present day, was to make

high-caliber instruction in music available to talented students with limited financial

resources. Eichberg served as director of the conservatory in addition to teaching violin,

composition, and harmony.

In that same year of 1867, Eichberg began teaching vocal music in Boston public

schools. From 1870 until 1884 he supervised the music program in Boston's public

schools, thus becoming the first supervisor of school music in a large American city.

Eichberg authored numerous textbooks for classroom use, including The High School

Music Reader.2

According to Judith Tick, the activities of Eichberg, who taught violin to both

males and females and encouraged his female students to perform, were largely

responsible for creating public acceptance of women as violinists. Recitals by Eichberg's

female pupils generated a large amount of favorable publicity. In his prose writing for

such periodicals as Town and Country, Eichberg encouraged the inclusion of women as

players of all musical instruments, and the Boston Herald credited Eichberg with

establishing the participation of girls as players of the violin. The Eichberg Ladies String

2 Julius Eichberg, The High School Music Reader for the Use of Mixed and Boys' High Schools (Boston:
Ginn and Heath, 1876).


Quartette and the Eichberg String Orchestra gave concerts in New York and Boston in

the 1880s.3

Ten named poets provided lyrics for the vocal sheet music in Our Young Folks.

Emily Huntington Miller wrote the words for fifteen of the songs. Lucy Larcom, an editor

of the magazine, penned the verses for four songs by F. Boott in volume five. A woman

was the lyricist in twenty-three, or 79.3%, of the twenty-nine pieces which include words

for singing. In another three cases, or 10.3%, the lyricist is either unnamed or signed only

intials and could be female. Eudora M. Stone, who wrote the poetry for "The Chickadee"

in volume nine, was a reader of the magazine.

Accompaniments to the vocal pieces are generally chordal. 77.8%, or twenty-one

of the twenty-seven pieces for voice and piano, have piano introductions and postludes.

One of the vocal pieces has a piano introduction but no postlude. None of the twenty-

seven has a piano interlude. An instance of tone painting, where the piano imitates a bird,

is found in the postlude of Thomas' "The Song of the Robin" in volume three. The

introduction and accompaniment, with 6 / 8 phrases, create a barcarole effect in Thomas'

"Boat Song," also in volume three.

In terms of the difficulty of the keyboard parts, thirty-three pieces (64.8%) are

Intermediate and the remainder are Moderately Difficult.

3 Judith Tick, "Passed Away Is the Piano Girl: Changes in American Musical Life, 1870-1900," in Women
Making Music, edited by Jane Bowers and Judith Tick (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1986).

Ten different keys are used in the fifty-one pieces. The major keys of C, G, and F

are most prevalent. A key with four flats or sharps appears only twice.

Number of Occurrences


Four pieces have modulations. In two of these, the modulation is from A Minor to

A Major and back. In one, D major modulates to G Major and back. A third relation is

used in one piece which modulates from A minor to F Major and back.

In regard to meter, time signatures of 2 / 4,4 / 4 or Common Time, and 6 / 8 are

most prevalent. The time signature changes in two pieces, in one from Common Time to

2 / 4 and in the other from Common Time to 3 / 4. The capitol C to indicate Common

Time appears thirteen times, while 4 / 4 appears only once.

Number of Occurrences





C Major
G Major
D Major
A Major
E Major
Ab Major
Eb Major
Bb Major
F Major
A Minor


4/4 or C

Forty-one of the fifty-one pieces have opening tempo markings. Allegretto is used

most often, having sixteen occurrences or 39%.

Tempo Marking

Alla Marcia
Allegretto scherzando
Allegro moderato
Allegro vivace
Andante cantabile
Andante gracioso
Andante moderato
Moderately fast
Moderately quick
Moderate fragioso.
Not too fast
Vivace con grazia.

Number of Occurrences


An opening dynamic marking appears in twenty-eight, or 54.9%, of the fifty-one

pieces. Piano (p), the most prevalent opening dynamic, is used fifteen times (29.4%).

Thirty-eight (74.5%) of the pieces show varying internal dynamic markings.

The vocal solos are for treble voice and typically have a range of either an octave

and a third or an octave and a fourth. Nine pieces, including the two hymn settings,

include part singing, descending into the bass range in three cases. Keyboard range

typically spans at least two octaves. The strong diatonicism of the pieces is expressed in


the range, with vocal ranges most often reaching to a third or a fourth above the tonic and

the keyboard ranges to a fourth below the tonic.


The analyses which follow are based on examination of the music. Each work is

identified by title, followed by volume, year, and name of month, followed thereafter by

the page number on which the music may be found. The volume number, year, and name

of month are separated by hyphens.

Winter Song: 2-1866-February, 124

The first publication of sheet music in Our Young Folks occurred during the

second year of the magazine's existence, in February. Appropriately for February in

Boston, the topic of the lyrics is winter. This is one of the fifteen songs in Our Young

Folks for which Emily Huntington Miller wrote the words. For three of those fifteen

efforts, including this one, the composer is named as H. M. T.

The poetry features two verses. Each stanza is eight lines long. The rhyme scheme

is abcbdefe. The most common poetic foot used is the dactyl, with an occasional iamb.

Winter is anthropomorphized as a king. Perhaps as wishful thinking, Winter is portrayed

as joyful and gleeful.

Hurrah for the jolly old Winter!
The king of the year is he;
Though his breath is cold and icy,
His heart is full of glee.

He piles up the beautiful snowflakes
On the apple trees bare and brown;
And laughs when the north wind shakes them,
Like a shower of blossoms, down.

Hurrah for the jolly old Winter!
He shouts at the door by night;
"Come out where the ice is gleaming
Like steel in the cold moonlight.
Like swallows over the water
The skaters merrily go;
There is health in the blustering breezes
And joy in the beautiful snow."

The preoccupation with nature, which is a distinguishing characteristic of the

music in Our Young Folks, is evident in this piece. The lyrics emphasize natural

phenomena including wind, snow, trees, ice, and moonlight. King Winter extols his

listeners to come outside into the invigorating cold and skate.

The musical work is for voice and piano. The piano serves merely as

accompaniment. The bass of the piano consists largely of eighth notes, and the treble

piano part duplicates the vocal line. The piece is of intermediate difficulty for the pianist.

There are a few minor misalignments between the treble and bass parts, typically

occurring when the treble part has a Scotch snap which must be coordinated with even

eight notes in the bass. Measure two and measure ten furnish examples of this. Another

misalignment is found in measure thirteen, where sixteenth notes in the treble are aligned

with eight notes in the bass. In general, however, alignment is accurate and the

misalignments which occur would not provide a significant obstacle to the performer.

The key is C major. The vocal range is a minor tenth. The singer's notes extend

upward to g", with a g" occurring in points of melodic and rhythmic stress in measures


three and thirteen. The vocal range of the piece offers an example of evidence that adults

were involved in the use of these musical works in the home, since melodic and rhythmic

stress on g" would be difficult for most children.

Nutting Son2: 2-1866-October, 630-31

Another of Miller's collaborations with H. M. T. appears in Nutting Song. The

poetry in this piece is composed of three stanzas, each of which consists of eight iambic

lines. The rhyme scheme for verses one and three is abcbdefe; for the second verse the

rhyme scheme is ababcded. The theme of the out-of-doors again is used. The song depicts

an outing to gather nuts under a "yellow moon" and a "frosty sky." Uncharacteristic of

the magazine is the identification of this outing as a boys' activity; as was typical of

children's magazines of the era, most features in Our Young Folks are aimed at children

of both sexes.

In comparison to Winter Song, Nutting Song is noticeably more complex from a

musical standpoint. The pianistic difficulty is moderately difficult. The piano does not

double the voice in this work. The piano accompaniment is more varied rhythmically.

There is a piano prelude of four measures and a piano postlude of four measures. The

prelude and postlude both use melodic material from the vocal line. The postlude features

sixteenth-note scalewise runs. Harmonic interest within the F major tonality is provided

by movement from the tonic chord to a sustained fully diminished seven of five chord (B

natural, F, Ab, and D) in measures twenty-one and twenty-two, which is approximately

midway in the piano postlude. The diminished seven of five chord is immediately


preceded by an Eb melodic sixteenth-note appoggiatura, and it moves to a dominant

seventh chord which resolves to the tonic chord. The diminished seven of five chord

provides heightened tension by delaying, and thus emphasizing, the movement to the

dominant seven chord. The use offermatas over both the diminished seven of five chord

and the dominant seven chord further contributes to the dramatic harmonic novelty of the


There are some minor misalignments in the prelude and postlude.

Skating Song: 2-1866-December, 766-67

Miller's final work with H. M. T. was Skating Song from the December 1866

issue. The appearance of this work in the December issue maintains the practice of

publishing songs related to the season in which the issue appears. The theme of nature

and outside activity is also maintained. This song again describes a group activity out-of-

doors. Natural features including icicles and moonlight are mentioned. The setting of the

activity is near a village with a church steeple. The song has two dactylic verses and a

rhyme scheme of ababcdcd.

This piece features a piano prelude and postlude of four measures apiece. As was

seen in Nutting Song, the postlude includes scalar runs. The Bb Major key is consistent.

This work includes a change in tempo, a slowing down in measures thirteen through

sixteen, for the phrases "We wait till the shadows are dusky and long" and "Then home to

the dear ones that love us the best," followed by an a tempo.

New-Year Song: 3-1867-January, 58-60

For twelve of her contributions as a writer of song lyrics for Our Young Folks,

Miller collaborated with composer J. R. Thomas. New-Year Song from volume three was

the first such joint effort. Appropriately the song appears in the January issue. The two

iambic verses have a rhyme scheme of ababcdcd. The New Year is depicted as a young

baby whose arrival is greeted with gladness and without regret for the passing year.

The C major tonality remains constant throughout the piece. There is a piano

prelude and postlude. The piano interlude between the two verses is identical to the

postlude. A notable feature of the song are frequent tempo variations, ritards followed by

returns to the original tempo, which add expressiveness to the lyrics. Other noticeable

characteristics includefermatas in the voice part and staccato in the piano interlude and


J. R. Thomas is quite possibly John Rogers Thomas, who was born in Wales in

1830 and died in New York in 1896. Thomas lived in the United States from 1849 and

was a successful baritone soloist, particularly in oratorio. He composed several songs

which were popular at the time, including Rose of Killamev in 1876. His cantata The

Picnic is a work for children.'

Nicholas E. Tawa, "Thomas, John Rogers," in New Grove Dictionary of American Music (London:
Macmillan, 1986), v. 4, p. 378-379; "Thomas, John Rogers," in Baker's Biographical Dictionary of
Musicians (8eh ed., 1991), p. 1875.

Winter Night: 3-1867-February, 122-24

Emily Miller repeats the pattern of using seasons and the outdoors as poetic

subject matter in Winter Night, another collaboration with Thomas. Each of the three

stanzas in this poem consists of eight lines with a rhyme scheme of abcbdefe. The poetic

feet used are trochees and spondees.

The lyrics depict a Winter Night at home. While it is cold outside, the people

inside are listening to a singer who is reminding them of warmer days.

Several expressive devices are seen in both vocal and instrumental parts. These

include contrasting dynamic markings ofpp, p, andff, crescendi and decrescendi,

fermatas, and variations in tempo. The piano introduction is played chiefly in the treble

clef, offering a contrast in register to the remainder of the work. Staccato is indicated in

both vocal and piano parts. As was seen in the previous piece, Thomas provides an

identical interlude and postlude for piano alone which is characterized by scalewise

running passages.

Night Winds: 3-1867-March, 186-87

Night Winds represents another joint effort from Miller and Thomas. Again the

theme is nature, with wind and the seasons mentioned prominently in the poetry. In this

song the wind is personified and described as a voice. There are three trochaic verses

with abcbdefe used as the rhyme scheme.


The key of A Major is constant throughout the piece. Expressive devices include

fermatas, varying dynamics, and accent marks. This piece gives an example of tone

painting in the use of sixteenth notes, alternating at the interval of a minor second, in both

bass and treble staves of the piano part to depict the wind in measures one through three,

six, and eight. There is a four-measure piano introduction and a two-measure piano

postlude. The prelude and postlude use melodic material not found in the vocal part.

These two sections both end with a dotted-eighth and sixteenth note rhythmic figure.

The Song of the Robin: 3-1867-April, 250-51

Miller and Thomas' Song of the Robin continues their pattern of contributing

songs related to nature and to the season of the issue. As the title of the song suggests, the

robin is depicted as a singer, and the emphasis in the poem is on the songs of the bird.

Other natural features are also mentioned in the words, including rain, wind, sunshine,

roses, and the bird's migration. There are two verses. The rhyme scheme used is

aabbccbb, and the most frequently used poetic foot is the dactyl.

This is one of the few pieces in Our Young Folks which has a 3 / 8 time signature.

The piano accompaniment shows alternation between single bass notes under sixteenth-

note arpeggiated treble chords and sustained bass notes with treble rhythmic chords. The

piano introduction features melodic material from the vocal part followed by scalar runs.

The piano postlude, measures forty-one through forty-eight, shows one of the most

interesting instances of tone painting in Our Young Folks. Accented sixteenth-notes at


the interval of a minor second in the treble piano provide a very convincing musical

representation of a robin's call (see Figure 1).

Maying: 3-1867-May, 315-16

This song continues the practice of publishing an appropriate seasonal song by the

team of Miller and Thomas. The poetry depicts a happy spring outing as has long been

associated with the custom of Maying. Several features of a natural landscape, such as

hills, wild flowers, bees, singing birds, and poplar trees, are mentioned in the song. The

occasion is a celebration of the departure of "the dreary hours of winter." The three

stanzas show a rhyme scheme of abcbdefe and trochaic versification.

In comparison to such Miller and Thomas collaborations as Night Winds and The

Song of the Robin, the piano accompaniment in Maying is extremely simple. The pianist

plays block staccato chords almost exclusively. There is a two-measure introduction

which consists only of soft block chords. A more melodic four-measure piano postlude

uses a rhythmic pattern of dotted-quarter followed by three eighth notes which is

characteristic of the vocal melody. Varying dynamics, includingp,f, and crescendo, are

used. This is one of the few pieces in Our Young Folks which calls for optional part

singing. The work opens with the direction "For One or Two Voices." A two part treble

duet is notated. The upper part is in the soprano range and the lower in the alto range. The

intervals between the two voices are chiefly thirds and sixths.

A Son! of the Roses: 3-1867-June, 378-80

Thomas and Miller again contribute a nature-based song. The words extol the

roses blooming outside as being superior to splendid castles and fine art. The open red

rose is compared to a queen, with her "red robes" and "jewels of dew." Both poetry and

music are verse and refrain form. The rhyme scheme of the verses is abab while the

rhyme scheme of the refrain is cded. The predominant poetic foot is dactylic.

The key of Ab Major is one of the more difficult keys appearing in this magazine

music. A Song of the Roses is one of the few pieces of music in Our Young Folks which

calls for four-part chorus. The verses are scored for a solo treble voice, with a mezzo-

soprano range. The refrain is repeated, the first time by the solo singer and the second

time by the four-part chorus. The use of tenor and bass voices in this work provides

another bit of evidence that adults were involved in performing this music. The Allegretto

tempo is typical of the musical works in Our Young Folks. Outside of the use of four flats

in the key signature, the piano writing is relatively unadventuresome in comparison to

some of Thomas' other pieces. The work is devoid of dynamic markings or tempo

changes. While accompanying the singers, the pianist plays only chords divided between

the two hands. The piano introduction and postlude are identical. As a result, the same

four-measure phrase is heard four times, at the beginning, the end, and as an interlude

between verses.

Making Hay: 3-1867-July, 442-43

Miller and Thomas again provide a song about an outdoor activity. Haymaking is

a common job to be done on the farm in mid-summer. This depiction of a farm task may

represent a nostalgic look back at a life which the readers of Our Young Folks would not

live as their parents did. Urban children were more likely than farm dwellers to have

enough time to read a monthly magazine. Another reason to suspect that this song is more

nostalgia than reality for the readers is the tone. The making of hay, which is an arduous,

sweaty task for young and old alike, is characterized with a "tra la la" refrain, and the

children are described as eagerly creating garlands out of the byproducts of the mowing.

Children who were actually at hand during a hay harvest would more likely have been

hard at work alongside the adults. This song has four stanzas. The music and poetry are in

verse and refrain form. The poetic feet alternate between trochees and dactyls. The verses

show a rhyme scheme of aabb, while the rhyme scheme of the refrain is cc. The "tra la la"

syllables of the refrain are characterized by anapestic poetic feet in measures eighteen

and nineteen.

The C Major tonality is consistent throughout, with a brief use of secondary

dominant in measure sixteen. The only dynamic marking used is p. The eight-measure

piano introduction opens with melodic material from the vocal line. The four measure

postlude, which also serves as an interlude between verses, is identical to the final four

measures of the introduction.

Summer Morning: 3-1867-August, 506-07

Thomas and Miller's contribution to the August issue of 1867 is another song

about the season. Summer Morning returns to strophic form. The three verses show one

of Miller's more complex rhyme schemes, aabbcccb. The words describe a experience

out-of-doors in summer and mention natural features including birds, mountains, forests,

and meadows.

In comparison to Making Hay and A Song of the Roses, there are many more

expressive notations in Summer Morning. Dynamic indications include p, crescendo, and

decrescendo. The pianist is expected to execute various articulations such as staccato and

accents. Afermata in the piano introduction appears at the apex of a crescendo and is

followed immediately by a soft dynamic. Afermata on fP appears in the vocal writing. As

he did in Making Hay, Thomas scored an eight-measure piano introduction and a four-

measure postlude which is identical to the last four measures of the introduction.

Boat Song: 3-1867-September, 571-72

The New Harvard Dictionary of Music defines barcarole as "A song of the

Venetian gondoliers, or a vocal or instrumental composition modeled on such a song. In

the latter, a rhythmically repetitive accompaniment, usually in moderate 6 / 8 or

12/8 meter, evokes the motion of a boat in the waves."2 Thomas and Miller's Boat Song

in the September 1867 issue fits this definition well. The Allegretto tempo mark, the

2 Entry "Barcarole," in New Harvard Dictionary of Music (Cambridge: Bellnap Press, 1986), p. 77.

most commonly used in Our Young Folks, can be described as an indication of a

moderate tempo. The time signature is 6 / 8. In each of the thirty measures except one,

the piano part features six eighth notes connected by slurs into two groups of three eighth

notes apiece. In the introduction and postlude, these groups of eighth notes appear in the

bass. During the verses, the eighth notes move to the treble clef of the piano part. The

eighth-note patterns which imitate the movement of the boat along the water remains

consistent. Thomas repeats his pattern of writing an eight-measure introduction and a

four-measure postlude, the postlude being identical to the second half of the introduction.

Triple motives using a half step are seen in introduction, postlude, and vocal line.

Expressive marks are relatively sparse, although one dynamic marking of/is found near

the end of measure seven. The four-measure phrase structure is broken in the final phrase

of the verse, measures 21 through 26, where a six-measure phrase and afermata on the

peak note of the vocal line, e", are used.

The poetry features four verses. The rhyme scheme is ababbcded. The poetic feet

used are dactyls and spondees. Consistent with other of Miller's songs, the outdoor

activity is depicted as very pleasant.

Beautiful Summer: 3-1867-October, 634-35

In Beautiful Summer, Thomas alters his pattern in writing of piano introductions

and postludes by offering a shorter introduction than postlude. In this piece, which is in 3

/ 4 time, the introduction is eight measures long. The postlude is ten measures long.

Another change from Thomas's frequent practice is that the musical material in the


introduction differs from that of the postlude. The introduction is characterized by jump-

bass quarter notes and by quarter and half notes in the treble. In the postlude, the

dominant musical figure is eighth note arpeggios The bass part in the postlude the

dominant musical figure is running eighth notes in the treble, matched with quarter notes

and quarter rests in the bass.

This piece offers another piece of evidence for musical collaboration between

children and adults in the home, as the work calls for a vocal trio of soprano, alto, and

baritone. The form is strophic. The first half of each verse is for a solo singer with a

mezzo-soprano range. The second half of each verse, designated "Trio" in the score,

features a soprano part which reaches to f' and a baritone part which extends downward

to Bb. The range of the second soprano part in the Trio is the same as the range of the

solo voice part. Perhaps one of the children sang the solo vocal part then took the

harmony part when Mother and Father joined in singing the Trio section.

There is no initial tempo marking in this work, which is another of Thomas and

Miller's joint efforts. The Trio section is marked "A little Faster." This song, published as

October began to herald the coming winter, expresses longing for the

summer which is past. As is frequently seen in the songs in Our Young Folks, the natural

world is the theme.

November: 3-1867-November, 699-700

Thomas and Miller collaborated again on November. The form of this piece is

strophic, with the last line of each verse, "And stormy winds are loud," remaining


constant. Atypically for song in Our Young Folks, a brisk tempo of Moderately Fast is

indicated. The accompaniment is characterized by arpeggiated chords. Expressive

devices are confined to a single dynamic marking, f in measure eighteen and afermata

over f in the same measure.

The poetry consists of three verses. The rhyme scheme, abcbddde, is atypically

complex. The iambic poetic meter is consistent throughout. The lyrics describe the "old

year" which is drawing to a close. The old year is personified as a king who looks back

on the delightful outdoor life of the previous seasons, including the red roses of May and

the grapes of autumn, yet has no regret for the passage of time. Miller's interest in writing

verses about nature is continued in this effort.

Pictures in the Fire: 3-1867-December, 761-62

Pictures in the Fire is an appropriate offering for a December issue. In keeping

with the nature themes of Thomas and Miller's previous songs, the visions which the

sleepy children see in the fire include blooming flowers, bees, and birds of a spring and

summer yet to come.

This is a strophic song of three verses in the key of D Major. The piano

introduction and postlude are identical in length, which is not typical of Thomas' writing.

The introduction features the melodic material of the opening two measures of the voice

part. The postlude, which also functions as an interlude between verses, consists of

hocket-like alternation between sixteenth notes in the bass and treble. The same hocket-

like figure supports the penultimate phrase of the vocal verse. The often used opening

tempo of Allegretto remains constant except for a rallentando in the final two measures.

Expressive devices are more numerous than in some of Miller and Thomast other works.

Articulation marks include staccato and slurs in the piano part and one accent mark for

the voice part. Dynamic indications include p and crescendo. An unusual device for

Thomas is afermata on a rest in all parts on the last half-beat of measure twenty-two.

Children's Hymn: 4-1868-January, 60

Volume four of 1868, the volume in which music appears most frequently, saw

the end of J. R. Thomas' and Emily Huntington Miller's contributions to the music in Our

Young Folks and the beginning of Julius Eichberg's participation. This change resulted in

a shift away from the nature-centered pieces for voice and piano which Thomas and

Miller produced toward the type of pieces which Eichberg favored. It is reasonable to

suppose that the large number of instrumental works, many of them by recognized

composers, which appear in volume four are there because of Eichberg's activity and


The first musical work to be published in volume four, Children's Hymn, was

composed by F. Weber, who is identified as "Organist of the Royal German Chapel, St.

James Palace, London." This is a composition in the style that one would expect from a

church organist writing a hymn for children. It is a four-part setting in note-against-note

style which calls for soprano, alto, tenor, and bass voices (see Figure 2).

This is one of very few overtly religious pieces of music to be found in Our

Young Folks. The words by Mrs. Anna M. Wells are organized into four verses.


Interestingly, this piece combines a sacred theme with the preoccupation with the natural

world which was seen so frequently in the songs in previous issues of Our Young Folks.

The singers entreat the Father to enable them to live as pure a life as that enjoyed by the

lilies and the stars.

Child's Evening Prayer: 4-1868-February, 122

Another of the few religious pieces of music in Our Young Folks is the Child's

Evening Prayer in the February issue of 1868. This is the first piece of music in the

magazine by Julius Eichberg and the first purely instrumental work to be seen in the

periodical. The work is programmatic in the sense that it is an instrumental piece with an

extra-musical, descriptive title.

Although there are no words, the style of musical writing is reminiscent of a

hymn. The setting is almost exclusively in note-against-note style. The ranges of the

piano lines are appropriate to the ranges of soprano, alto, tenor, and bass singing voices.

The initial tempo marking of Andante is not unusual in Our Young Folks. The

tonality is C Major. There are several expressive devices in the piece. Dynamic

indications include pp, p, crescendo, and diminuendo. In measure thirteen, the

designation rinf., the abbreviation for rinforzando, appears. This infrequently used term is

a synonym for sforzando.3 A harmonic device characteristic of Eichberg's compositions

in Our Young Folks is found in measure two, in the use of a half-step passing tone which

is outside the key. In measure two of this piece, a G#, which is preceded by a G and

3 Entry "Rinforzando," in New Harvard Dictionary of Music (Cambridge: Belknap Press, 1986), p. 708.

followed by an A, sounds along with C and E, creating an augmented triad which

introduces an unexpected harmonic sound.

Melody for Piano: 4-1868-February, 123-24

Eichberg followed Child's Evening Prayer with the first instance of absolute

music in Our Young Folks, also in the February 1868 issue. His Melody for Piano is

forty-three measures in length. The piece is in G Major, the most commonly-used key in

Our Young Folks. The meter signature is 3 / 4. The dominant rhythmic characteristic is a

consistent pattern of eighth-note triplets. These triplets occur chiefly in the bass. There

are several examples of treble eighth notes superimposed on the flowing triplet rhythm,

including the second and third beats of measure five and the second and third beats of

measure twenty-three. Dynamic markings include pp, p, crescendo, diminuendo, andf

Fingering numbers and one pedal mark are indicated.

The characteristic half-step passing tone is used in measures four, thirty-one, and thirty-


Gypsies in the Village: 4-1868-March, 186-88

The following month, another of Eichberg's compositions and one of the more

complex pieces to grace the pages of Our Young Folks was published. Gypsies in the

Village is one-hundred and five measures in length (see Figure 3). The length is not the

only indicator of the relative complexity of the work, however. The piece is definitely in

the range of Moderately Difficult. The meter signature is 2 / 4. The opening tempo of


Allegretto is altered by six instances of ritardando. The form is ABA, which is typical of

the piano pieces in Our Young Folks. This is one of the few pieces in the magazine to be

in a minor key and one of the few to use a modulation. The opening key of A Minor

moves to the parallel major, A Major, for the B section, then returns to the original key of

A Minor for the recapitulation section. Rhythmically the A section is characterized by

patterns of staccato eighth notes and slurred sixteenth notes. Syncopation in a pattern of

eighth-quarter-eighth notes is seen in measures thirty-one through thirty-four. The grace

notes seen in measures twenty-five through twenty-seven and thirty-one through thirty-

four create an imitation of a gypsy violin sound. The B section features quarter notes and

eighth notes in the treble set against eight-note triplet figures in the bass. The addition of

pedal in the B section provides yet another contrast to the A section. Fingering numbers

exist in both right- and left-hand parts. Ledger lines in the A section take the bass part as

high as a'.

The difficulty of this selection serves as another piece of evidence that adults used

the music in this children's magazine. To perform this piece at home would require an

accomplished amateur, child or adult.

Melody: 4-1868-March, 188

Also in the March issue, Eichberg follows the challenging Gypsies in the Village

with a shorter, simpler work of absolute music. In comparison to Gypsies in the Village,

Melody offers many fewer demands technically (see Figure 3). Melody opens with an

Andantino tempo indication and an expressive instruction of dolce. Quarter notes and

eighth notes predominate in the A section of this straightforward piece. There is no

opening dynamic indication, but dynamic markings ofp,f, crescendo, and decrescendo

appear later in the piece. Appogiaturas which resolve upward by half-step are used

repeatedly in the bass, particularly in section A of the ABA form. Section B is

distinguished from Section A by shorter note values, with eighth notes predominating and

a few dotted-eighth-sixteenth note patterns used. Syncopated rhythm patterns of eighth-

quarter-eighth notes, with accent marks over the quarter notes, are evident in the bass part

of the B section in measures ten, eleven, fourteen, and fifteen. Another difference

between the sections is the faster tempo, piu vivo, indicated for the B section.

The Happy Farmer: 4-1868-April, 249-50

Robert Schumann is the first composer who is renowned today to make an

appearance in the pages of Our Young Folks. This piano piece with a programmatic title

carries no indication of having been arranged from the original. In this melodic, sprightly

piece in ABA form, Schumann places the melody in the A section in the bass, which is

atypical of the musical works in Our Young Folks. The bass melody is accompanied by

alternating eighth-note chords and eighth rests in the treble part. The opening tempo of

Allegretto scherzando remains consistent. Articulation marks include slurs, accents

marks, and staccato indications under slurs.

This piece of music, in being a piece of instrumental music with a bucolic

program, provides further evidence of the readers' and editors' interest in the outdoors and

in an idealized rural life.

Andante Cantabile: 4-1868-April, 250-51

Eichberg showed his interest in promulgating the works of major composers by

arranging this piece by Mozart. This work falls definitely into the Moderately Difficult

designation. The bass is characterized by Alberti figures over sustained notes. Rhythmic

configurations in the treble include dotted-eighth-sixteenth patterns, dotted eighth notes

followed by two thirty-second notes, and sextuplets. Dynamic indications include pp, p,

f,ff, and decrescendi.

Turkish March: 4-1868-May, 312-15

This piece is an arrangement by Eichberg of Mozart's Rondo "alla Turca" from

his Piano Sonata in A. K. 331. Alla turca, the direction with which this piece opens,

means "In the Turkish style," meaning in imitation of Turkish military music, which

became popular in Europe in the late 18'h century. "4 Like Eichberg's Gypsies in the

Village, this Mozart arrangement modulates from A minor to the parallel major.

The pianistic demands include grace notes in both treble and bass, repeated notes

and Alberti patterns in the bass, and running sixteenth-note passages consisting of scales

and thirds. It is one of the longer works in the magazine at 183 measures. This piece, in

another similarity to Gypsies in the Village, is well-deserving of the designation of

Moderately Difficult.

4 Entry "Al/a turca," in New Harvard Dictionary of Music (Cambridge: Belknap Press, 1986), p. 885.

From the "Serenade." Op. 8: 4-1868-May, 315

Another Eichberg arrangement appears in the May issue, this time from the

compositions of Beethoven. From the "Serenade." Op. 8 is a relatively short piece of

thirty-two measures in AB form. It is a lyrical work which has Andante and dolce as

opening designations. Dynamic indications include pp, p,f crescendi, and descrescendi.

Rhythmic configurations such as dotted-eighth-sixteenth note patterns

and dotted-eighth notes followed by thirty-second notes are seen. Brief sixteenth note

scalar passages are also used.

In the March issue, Eichberg paired a Moderately Difficult piece, Gvpsies in the

Village, with a less demeaning work, Melody. He appears to have taken a similar

approach in the May issue. Although From the "Serenade" warrants a difficulty

designation of Moderately Difficult due to the amount of rhythmic independent between

parts, it is nonetheless true that From the "Serenade" is noticeably less demanding

pianistically than is the other piece in the same issue, Gypsies in the Village. In each

case, Eichberg was apparently attempting to provide musical works for pianists of

varying skill levels within the same issue of the magazine.

Children Soldiers: 4-1868-June, 377-78

The two musical works in the June 1868 issue are both original compositions of

Eichberg. Children Soldiers is a sprightly piece in march style. Common time is the

meter. The form is ABA and the key is C Major. The difficulty range is Intermediate.

Rhythmically, the A section is characterized by dotted-eighth-sixteenth patterns, while

the B section uses more eighth notes more consistently. The bass accompaniment consists

chiefly of eighth notes separated by eighth rests. One point of contrast between the A and

B sections is dynamics. In the A section, the dynamic designations arefandff The B

section shows more dynamic variation in using pp, p,f, andff

Venetian Barcarole: 4-1868-June, 378-80

The second "boat song" in Our Young Folks shows the consistent rhythmic

patterns in the accompaniment which are part of the definition of the barcarole.

Typically the meter is 6 / 8. In this Eichberg piece, the bass part consists mainly of

eighth notes or of quarter-note-eighth-note configurations. The opening tempo mark of

Allegretto is commonly seen in Our Young Folks. A variety of dynamic levels is

indicated, including p, mf,f,ff, crescendo, and diminuendo. Articulations required include

slurs and staccato. A Da Capo al Fine construction makes clear the ABA form of the

piece and saves page space. The most notable item of contrast between the A and B

sections is a change of key which uses a third relation. The A section is in the key of A

minor, while the B section is in the key ofF Major. Occasional grace notes are used in

the melody, which is consistently played in the treble. A ritard is used in measure twenty-

one, immediately preceding a return of the initial melody.

A comparison of Eichberg's Venetian Barcarole to Miller and Thomas' Boat Song

offers an interesting juxtaposition. Eichberg's work is a piece of instrumental music. He

uses expressive devices such as varying dynamics and contrasting articulations.. Thomas

and Miller produced a work for solo voice and piano. Although the rhythmic pattern of


the accompaniment shows very little variety in Thomas' setting, contrast is achieved by

changing the register by moving the accompaniment pattern from bass to treble and back.

The case could be made that these pieces, which both fit the definition of

barcarole and which both maintain the trend of emphasizing out-of-door activities in the

music in Our Young Folks, are very similar. However, Eichberg's differing status and

values as a German immigrant musician are made clear. Eichberg points out his European

outlook and classical training by his choice of title words, by calling his piece a Barcarole

and adding the qualifier Venetian. Miller and Thomas used the very common words Boat

Song for their title. The difference between a domestic composer who may well have

been an amateur and a professional immigrant musician who was actively purveying the

Germanic classical tradition in his new homeland can be seen in this small contrasted


Readers' Song: 4-1868-July, 442-43

Another piece by Robert Schumann appears in the July 1868 issue. This work has

similarities to the Schumann work previously seen in Our Young Folks, The HM

Farmer. In spite of the use of Song as a title word, both are piano solos. Both have

descriptive titles on a bucolic theme. Both are of Intermediate difficulty.

A contrast is seen in the meter. The Happy Farmer is in 4 / 4, while Reapers' Song

is in 6 / 8. Another difference is in the form. Reapers' Song is a rondo, while The HaVpv

Farmer shows ABA form.


Reapers' Song is characterized rhythmically by consistent eighth notes, mainly in

the treble. The consistent rhythm patterns imitate the regular motion of a hand scythe or

other cutting tool. Grace notes are used in the melody. Articulation requirements include

accents and a contrast between slurred phrases and staccato eighth notes.

This piece offers an interesting comparison to another of Miller and Thomas'

songs, Making Hay. The subject matter of both is harvesting activities on the farm. Each

work makes a clear contribution to the theme of out-of-door activity so often seen in the

music in Our Young Folks. Both pieces are in 6 / 8 meter, and both are in the key of C.

The overall length is different, at 44 measures for the Schumann piece to 26 measures for

Making Hay. The characterizing rhythm pattern is different; in Making Hay, the pattern

of eighth notes separated by eighth rests is noticeable in the bass, while the dominant

rhythmic movement in Reapiers' Song is consistent eighth notes in the treble. The opening

tempo indications show an interesting contrast, with Lively being used in Making Hay

and Not too fast seen in Reapers' Song. The most obvious difference between the two

pieces is the fact that the Thomas and Miller work is scored for solo voice and piano,

while the Schumann is a piano solo.

Evening Song: 4-1868-July, 444

Evening Song by C. Spindler, the other musical offering in the July 1868 issue,

shows contrast to Schumann's Reapers' Song. The meter is different, with the Schumann

work using 6/8 while the Spindler piece shows Common Time. Evening Song uses one

of the more complex keys found in Our Young Folks, E Major, while Reapers' Song is in

the key of C.

The opening tempo indication in Evening Song is Quietly. Numerous finger

numbers appear, particularly in the treble part. Rhythmically, eighth notes and quarter

notes predominant. This is another example of an instrumental work carrying the title

word Song.

Polonaise: 4-1868-August, 505-07

The New Harvard Dictionary of Music defines polonaise as "A festive,

processional, couple dance of Polish origin in a moderate tempo.... In the 18th century,

the stylized instrumental polonaise acquired the characteristics thereafter considered

typical: moderate tempo, triple meter, lack of upbeats, and repetition of thythmic

figures. "5 The Polonaise in Our Young Folks, composed by Diabelli and arranged by

Julius Eichberg, shows all of these features. The meter signature is 3 / 4. Phrases begin on

the downbeat. There is no opening tempo marking, so a moderate speed can be assumed.

A syncopated rhythm pattern of an eighth note followed by a quarter note is characteristic

of the melody; examples are seen in measures one, five, and seventeen. The melody is

further characterized by scalar passages of sixteenth notes. Articulation indications

include accent marks, staccato, and sforzandi. The difficulty falls into the Moderately

Difficult range.

5 Entry "Polonaise," in New Harvard Dictionary of Music (Cambridge: Belknap Press, 1986), p. 644.

Andantino: 4-1868-August, 507

In the August 1868 issue, Eichberg continues his pattern of providing a piece of

moderate pianistic difficulty alongside a work which is considerably less demanding.

Kuhlau's Andantino, arranged by Eichberg, is of Intermediate difficulty. The meter

signature of both pieces in this issue is 3 / 4. However, the Andantino is a slower, more

sustained work than the preceding Polonaise. The piece opens with the designations Con

expressioine and Sostenuto. Smorzando, which means "Dying away,"6 is indicated in

measures seven and eight and again in measure twenty-three. The expected dynamic is

soft throughout, with pp, p, crescendo, and decrescendo indicated. The feminine stress is

obvious at the cadences, such as in measures eight, sixteen, and twenty-four.

Hunting Song: 4-1868-September, 569-70

Appropriately placed in the September issue is another piece by Schumann with a

programmatic title depicting an outdoor activity. Hunting Song is arranged by Julius

Eichberg. The piece opens with an obvious hunting call, in unison between treble and

bass registers. The remainder of the work shows the same rhythm patterns and emphasis

on intervals of a fourth or fifth as seen in the opening passage.

A comparison of Schumann's Hunting Song to his Reapers' Song is instructive.

Both are works for piano which are called "songs." Both are in 6 / 8 meter. The difficulty

of both rests in the Intermediate category. Reapers' Song is somewhat longer, having 44

6 Entry "Smorzando," in New Harvard Dictionary of Music (Cambridge: Belknap Press, 1986), p. 754.


measures to 36 measures in Hunting Song. The dynamics show contrast. Reapers' Song is

generally soft, with eight measures offorte in the middle of the piece for contrast. The

Hunting Song, as is appropriate for the hunting call on which it is based, is mainly loud,

with two instances of a soft echo figure in measures nineteen and twenty-three providing

brief dynamic variety.

Andante Gracioso: 4-1868-September, 570

Eichberg returns to Mozart as the composer of his next arrangement for Our

Young Folks. The Andante Gracioso is in A major and is 26 measures in length.

Sforzandi and piano are the only dynamic markings used. The predominant rhythmic

figure in this piece in 6 / 8 meter is a dotted-eighth note followed by a sixteenth note and

a subsequent eighth note. The piece is of Intermediate pianistic difficulty.

Sunday Morning: 4-1868-September, 571

All three musical works in the September 1868 issue are of Intermediate

difficulty, including Dr. Theodore Kullak's Sunday Morning. This piece in C Major

seems well within the capacities of a student pianist. Repeated notes, as in the four-

measure introduction, and repeated phrases would make the piece relatively easy to learn.

Most note values are half, quarter, and eighth notes.

Some difficulty with performing Sunday Morning, a type of challenge which is

not typical of the music in Our Young Folks, is provided by mistakes in alignment. This

is particular distracting, from the performer's perspective, in measures five through eight,

where half notes in the bass are obviously out of sync with the melody of quarter and

eighth notes in the treble. Thereafter, the alignment improves. When a recapitulation of

the opening section begins at measure thirty-five, the alignment problems seen in

measures five through eighth have been completely corrected.

Melody from the Opera of "Les Huruenots": 4-1868-October, 634-37

Giacomo Meyerbeer (1791-1864) provided the melody for the lone musical work

in Our Young Folks for October of 1868. The arrangement of a melody from his opera

Les Huzuenots, a work of 1836, is attributed to Alberti. Arpeggiated accompaniment

figures in the bass are characteristic of the piece.

With a length in measures of sixty-two, this piece is longer than most others

found in Our Young Folks. The pianistic difficulty is Moderately Difficult. Most of the

work is in Common Time; however, the final twenty-two measures are in 2 /4 time. This

piece requires pianistic flourishes in thirty-second notes and sextuplets and several

changes of tempo. The melodic rhythm is fluid, alternating among half, quarter, eighth,

sixteenth, and thirty-second notes as well as triplets.

Theme and Variations: 4-1868-November, 697-700

One of the more abstract musical works in Our Young Folks is the sole piece of

music published in November of 1868, the Theme and Variations by Johann Nepomuk

Hummel (1778-1837). With a total length of 128 measures, this is one of the longer

pieces of music in the magazine as well.

The theme is in G Major, sixteen bars in length, and characterized by quarter

notes and eighth notes in the melodic rhythm. The tonality of G Major remains constant

throughout the piece. The first variation, which begins in measure thirty-three, transforms

the melodic rhythm of quarter and eighth notes into triplets and sixteenth-note patterns. In

the second half of the first variation, contrast of register is provided by moving the

melody into the bass. The final variation is in waltz style. This variation is marked Walse

[sic] and features a 3 / 4 rendition of the melody in quarter and eighth notes. This version

is characterized by repetition of the treble melody at a higher octave. As a result of such

use of contrasting registers, this work shows a wide pianistic range from G to d"".

Rondo Mignon: 4-1868-December, 758-59

The musical offering for December of 1868, Rondo Mignon, is one of the longer

pieces in the magazine, with a length in measures of seventy-seven. The term mignon,

from the French, is an adjective which means "delicately formed; small and pretty;

dainty."7 The opening tempo phrase, Vivace con grazia, alludes to the dainty quality. The

work is from Opus 49 of Frederic Baumfelder. The pianistic difficulty is Moderately

Difficult. The rondo scheme is ABACABA with Coda. Although the key signature of one

sharp remains throughout, the tonal centers shifts from G in the A section to D in the B

section and C in the C section. Rhythmically the work is characterized by sixteenth-note

figurations in the treble and eighth-note chords in the bass. As in the Hummel Theme and

Variations, use of octave displacement in the treble results in a wide range of G to d"".

7 Entry "Mignon," in World Book Dictionary (edited by Clarence L. Barnhart, 1970), 11, 1305.


The B and C sections are contrasted to the A section by the movement of the left-hand

notes into the treble clef The Coda is in G Major and is characterized by sixteenth-note

scalewise runs in the treble.

Utopia: 5-1869-February, 128-29

The participation of Julius Eichberg and the resulting emphasis on instrumental

music ended with volume four. The first piece of music to appear in volume five of 1869

is a strophic work for voices and piano.

Utopia describes a fanciful land without sadness or pain and full of fine things to

eat. The tune is described as a German air, and the words are attributed to Edward Wiebe

of Springfield, Massachusetts. This is one of few vocal pieces in Our Young Folks to be

scored for more than one singer. Since the opening designation reads "For 1 or 2 voices,"

the use of the second voice is apparently optional. The vocal parts are both in the treble

range. The accompaniment style is relatively simple. The right hand of the piano

generally doubles the vocal parts. Both voice parts and the piano part are in unison in

measures seven and seventeen through nineteen.

Little Nannie: 5-1869-May, 338-39

The dominant composer in volume five was F. Boott. Boott's contributions begin

with Little Nannie in the May issue. The poet for the work was Lucy Larcom, one of the

founding editors of the magazine.


F. Boott is probably Boston-based composer Francis Boott (1813-1904). Educated

at Harvard and in Florence, Italy, he was a prolific composer of vocal music, both sacred

and secular.8

Little Nannie is unusual for Our Young Folks in both its key, A major, and its

time signature, 3 /8. The piano writing is characterized by sustained bass notes with

eighth note chords in the treble. The piano part generally does not double the solo vocal

part. There is an eight-measure introduction and an eight-measure postlude, the latter of

which serves as an interlude between verses.

The piece is relatively short, having only two verses. The theme of nature is

expressed here, with Little Nannie depicted as frolicking among the sunbeams,

moonlight, and glen.

The Rivulet: 5-1869-June, 418

The use of nature as topical material continues in another collaboration between

composer Boott and poet Larcom. The Rivulet is in D Major and in 6 / 8 meter. Examples

of tone painting are seen in both the piano introduction and in the piano postlude, where

arpeggiated figures suggest the movement of water.

The piano accompaniment in this piece is stylistically similar to that of Little

Nannie, in that the piano part generally does not double the vocal line. Rhythmically the

accompaniment is identified by eighth notes on the first and fourth beats of the measures.

8 Charles Eugene Claghorn, "Boott, Francis," in Biographical Dictionary of American Music (West Nyack,
New York: Parker, 1973), p. 60;" Boott, Francis," in Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians (6t'
ed., 1978), p. 202.


The lyrics show a rhyme scheme of aabbaaa. Similarly to the poetry of Little

Nannie, several natural features are mentioned, including meadows, pine forests, birds, a

waterfall, and the ocean.

Lady Moon: 5-1869-July, 491

Lord Houghton contributed the words to the next song by F. Boott. Lady Moon is

stylistically similar to Boot's previous two offerings. Like Little Nannie, the time

signature is 3 / 8. In common with both other pieces by Boott, the work is for solo voice

and piano. The scoring for the piano accompaniment is reminiscent of Boott's previous

work, in that the piano does not in most measures double the vocal line and in that the

predominant accompaniment style consists of single bass notes answered by eighth-note

treble chords.

The song is relatively short, having only two voices. Again we see a natural

feature, this time personified, as the topic of the lyrics. Interestingly the poetry consists of

a dialogue between the moon and a child.

Berryin2 Sona: 5-1869-August, 563-64

Another joint effort of Larcom and Boott is Berr ing Song. This song is

reminiscent of several by Miller and Thomas and of the character pieces by Schumann in

that the extra-musical reference is to an outdoor cultivational activity.

The poetry is organized into a verse and refrain arrangement with three verses.

The scoring of the verses indicates a solo singer. In the refrain section, additional singers

and part singing are required. The first portion of the refrain calls for the solo singer with

short divisi chords for treble voices in the background. In the second part of the refrain,

all singers render the melody in unison.

Swinm Away: 5-1869-September, 633-34

Yet another Boott/Larcom collaboration appears in the September 1869 issue.

The lyrics of the two-verse song continue to reflect a fascination with farm life. The

swing in the song is in a barn. The children who are playing on the swing enjoy the wind,

the smell of the hay, and the cooing of doves under the eaves.

Swing Away atypically uses a key of three flats, Eb major. A prelude and a

postlude for the piano are seen. Both the solo vocal part and the instrumental lines are

characterized by staccato eighth notes in 2 / 4 meter.

Three in a Bed: 5-1869-October, 706-07

An example of part singing for treble trio occurs in the next of Bootf s

compositions for the magazine, Three in a Bed.

The three are Topsey, Johnny, and Ned, three cats. The words describe their

velvet coats, their prowling mother cat who feeds them at the expense of the local mouse

population, and their cozy arrangement as they sleep and purr. Sixteenth-note arpeggios

and reiterated eighth notes at the interval of a second are used in the treble piano line in

the introduction and postlude to imitate the sound of the cats' purr.

This is another work in verse and refrain form which calls for solo singing on the

verses and part singing for the refrain. Appropriately, the part singing is in trio, for two

sopranos and an alto. The two soprano parts are characterizes by movement in eighth

notes at the intervals of thirds and sixths. The alto line provides rhythmic contrast to the

soprano parts. In measures thirty-three through thirty-six, for example, the alto sings

dotted quarter notes against eighth notes in the sopranos, while these rhythmic roles are

reversed in measures thirty-seven through forty.

Christmas Carol: 7-1871-January, 58

No printed music appeared in volume six of 1870. Only one musical work was

published in the subsequent year, Agnes Gay's Christmas Carol. Interestingly, the

Yuletide offering was printed in a January issue rather than in December.

This F-major carol is in 2 / 4 time. The form is verse and refrain, with five verses.

The vocal writing is for a soloist on the verses and part singing on the refrain. The solo is

in the soprano range. The second line which is added in the refrain is called the "chorus"

line and is in the alto range. The scoring in the refrain is characterized by sustained notes

in the solo line which extend upward in range to f coupled with shorter note values in the

second line which emphasize the pitches c' and f. The piano accompaniment is relatively

simple. There is no piano introduction nor postlude. The piano doubles the vocal pitches

at all time. An instance of tone painting occurs in the refrain, beginning at measure nine,

where the treble portion of the accompaniment imitates the sound of Christmas bells

through expansion of the register upward to f" and through use of arpeggiated ascending

grace notes.

Christmas Carol: 8-1872-January, 52

In the first issue of volume eight, we see yet another instance of the publication of

a Christmas piece in the January issue. Again the work is titled Christmas Carol. The

source of the music is listed as "from the German," and the poetry was written by J.V. H.

The scoring is reminiscent of hymn writing. With the exception of the first two

beats of the first measure, which feature three-note chords in the treble, the work appears

to be easily adaptable to four-part singing. The lyrics reinforce the hymn-like character of

the work by referring to the children's Christmas songs as "anthems" and comparing the

youth's carol singing to the rendition of "the angel choir." Both this work and the

Children's Hymn in volume four invoke an image of an entire family singing together.

This piece offers an obvious example of strophic form. Each verse is four lines

long and uses a rhyme scheme of abab.

The Robin: 8-1872-May, 311-12

The second song in Our Young Folks to depict a robin was composed by T.

Crampton. In this piece arpeggios are used to the imitate the sound of the robin,

particularly in the piano introduction and postlude. Appropriately this piece which refers

to a springtime creature was published in the May issue.

The author of the lyrics, Celia Thaxter (1835-1894), was a renowned poet and

china painter. When she was growing up, her father, Thomas Laighton, operated a resort

hotel on the island of Appledore which attracted as visitors such literary giants as James

Russell Lowell, Ralph Waldo Emerson, John Greenleaf Whittier, Nathaniel Hawthorne,

and Henry David Thoreau. As an adult she lived in Maine but also spent time in Boston.9

The poetry is in three verses of eight lines apiece, with a rhyme scheme of

ababcdcd. The opening tempo marking of Allegretto is typically seen in the music in Our

Young Folks. Expressive devices are limited to one appearance of a dynamic marking

in measure fourteen, and eight instances of use of an accent mark in the solo vocal part.

Four Black and White Mice: 8-1872-July, 441

Another musical composed work by T. Crampton was published two months

later. The fourteen-measure piece titled Four Black and White Mice is relatively simple

musically. The time signature is 2 / 4, and the key is D Major. The melodic rhythm is

predominantly quarter notes and eighth notes.

The authorship of the seven verses, which tell the story of young mice who

disregard their mother's admonitions and as a result become lost and are caught in a trap,

is unattributed.

9 Catherine Hoover Voorsanger, "Celia Thaxter," in "Dictionary of Architects, Artisans, Artists, and
Manufacturers," in In Pursuit of Beauty: Americans and the Aesthetic Movement (New York: Metropolitan
Museum of Art, 1986), p. 471-472; "Thaxter, Celia," in Webster's Biographical Dictionary (Springfield,
Mass.: G. & C. Merriam, 1974), p. 1456.

Song to September: 8-1872-September, 571

Continuing the irregularity of the publication of music in volume eight, the next

piece of music does not appear until the September issue. Song to September is another

musical effort of T. Crampton in which the writer of the lyrics is anonymous. This three-

verse piece is in 6 / 8 time and in the key of A Major. Again the work is relatively

uncomplicated musically. There is no piano introduction nor postlude. The piano

accompaniment doubles the solo voice notes. The accompaniment is characterized by

bass octaves which appear in rhythm patterns of quarter notes followed by eighth notes.

The only expressive devices used are three accents marks.

This piece, along with Crampton and Thaxter's The Robin, reflect the interest in

nature and the out-of-doors which so often is evidenced in Our Young Folks. Song to

September draws a picture of a rural setting full of sunlight, colored leaves on the maples

and birches, berries and apples to be picked, frosty nights, and misty mornings. The three

verses of poetry show a rhyme scheme of abcbefgf.

May Polka: 9-1873-May, 20

Musicians had to wait eight more months to see another musical work published

in Our Young Folks. This piece is especially interesting in that it is one of the two

included in the magazine which were composed by youthful subscribers. Mary A.

Leland, the composer of this piano solo, is reported to be ten years of age. May Polka is


included in Our Young Contributors, the department of the magazine which offered

poetry and prose by readers.

The piece is in 2 / 4 time and in the key of G Major. The opening tempo of

Allegro remains consistent throughout. The difficulty is in the Intermediate range. The

treble melody moves generally by leap in the outline of arpeggiated tonic, dominant, and

subdominant chords within the key. The bass consists generally of eighth notes is a

chordal accompaniment to the melody. The form of the piece is ABA. The contrast

between the sections is found in the rhythm of the melody. In the A section, the melody

includes prominent eighth notes, while the B section shows a melodic rhythm of

consistent quarter notes. A construction of first and second endings is used in both

appearances of the A section.

Apple Blossom Waltz: 9-1873-November, 694

Fourteen-year-old Sophie Olivier contributed the next piece of music to appear in

Our Young Folks. Apple Blossom Waltz shows more musical sophistication than does

May Polka, the other musical work contributed by a reader.

Apple Blossom Waltz is for piano solo. The piece is one of the few in Our Young

Folks to use the technique of modulation, moving from the key of D Major to the key of

G Major and back again. Both key changes are achieved through direct modulation.

Expressive devices used include accent marks and use of the dynamic indications p andf

The melody moves into the bass for measures nine through sixteen, a device seen

infrequently in Our Young Folks. Grace notes appear frequently. The characteristic

melodic pattern is a quarter note moving by leap to a half note, with a grace note

preceding the half note. In the A section, the leap moves in a upward direction. Contrast

between the A and B section is achieved by changing the direction of this melodic leap to

downward and by changing the key of the work. Wide jumps in the bass part and

sixteenth-note arpeggios which cover two octaves in the treble contribute to a difficulty

rating of Moderately Difficult for this composition by a nineteenth-century teenager.

The Chickadee: 9-1873-December, 759

The last published issue of Our Young Folks included a piece of sheet music. The

work is a song for solo voice and piano titled The Chickadee, with music by T.

Crampton. The poet was a reader, Eudora M. Stone (b. 1860). Eudora Stone, whose

married name was Bumstead, went on to become a teacher and a writer. As an adult, she

was a frequent contributor to magazines for children including St. Nicholas and The

Youth's Companion. She began writing poetry as a child, and her contribution to Our

Young Folks was published when she was ten years of age. Her parents moved the family

from Michigan to Nebraska in 1862. Eudora lived there until at least 1878/79, when she

attended Nebraska State University. So she was living in Nebraska when her poem was

published in Our Young Folks.10 The Chickadee, appropriately for song lyrics published

in December, depicts the migration of birds for the winter, the departure of mild weather

in the face of winter's cold, and the hardiness of the chickadee, the one bird who remains

10 Frances E. Willard and Mary A. Livermore, "Bumstead, Mrs. Eudora Stone," in A Woman of the
Century: Fourteen Hundred-Seventy Biographical Sketches Accompanied by Portraits of LeadinV
American Women in All Walks of Life (Detroit: Gale, 1967), p. 136.

after all the others have fled for balmier skies. This poetry continues the nature theme so

often seen in the content of Our Young Folks.

Musically, the work is relatively unadventuresome, but it does show an interesting

use of tone painting. The piano introduction in this case consists of only one major of

accompaniment chords to set the tonality for the solo vocalist. The time signature is 6 / 8,

and the key of A major, which is consistent throughout, is one of the more complex keys

used in the magazine. The bass part for the pianist consists generally of dotted quarter

notes or quarter notes in octaves. The treble part of the accompaniment is mainly in

eighth notes with eighth rests interspersed. Seven appearances of an accent mark and the

use of the dynamic indication/in measure nine constitute the only uses of expressive

devices in the fifteen-measure piece. The composer employs tone painting in measures

ten, eleven, and thirteen through fifteen, where slurred arpeggios in the treble part of the

piano imitate the sound of the chickadee.

The Song of the Robin.


I r W-s ZUJAU > Ui t TME Kuoin 1 V1
Words by EMILY HUKrINGYON MIl L.R, Mus.- b. R. THoMAS.

eModeraly quick
*4A*. 1__L 0

is The ramn palters fast, and tie w. d Iu"n"'r iv. 'The snushie
hears the swift drops pat ter soft on the panc. And the Ieaes n thr

lost in the cloud-cosered sk,; But the rob in, he sings as he
dies talk love to the min; There are ech oes of mirth in his

W~ -W WI-0
,- .* .'-. -l z z* ,"-. : .-t f-9-
t y~ -!_ -a *_^ t_ *

Figure 1. The Song of the Robin: 3-1867-April, 250-51


867.] The Song of ite Robin. 251

Sl sins Hin iie tree. For a brat r lit t ie tint,; er 1r* he'
carn l iii- I t-e, tIr a rise lit-tic strrg-er is he!
.~~ .....

)-1' -- -;9

He ttt-t i rm a latni chere tite semrer ts fanr Where the
He knno linr the dat c i ii oi l r tltc hill, And

(2J e __ '* L

mn!e~ c gii i gfl ,tin lii tin |);iaiurrs .it mll I. he la tghl a t ihe

(-A'- 7 7j-Ti- -

nf -

hce .a.d he ha il it it Foi hue a-rted sirtEer r he!
s a a e 'h e'l a -ninleell nger is he!

-ca i- ue _w #"- tI
(;^^.*Ia- .

Figure 1-continued.

C!hildre's Ily[ un.

Words by Mus. ANNA M. WELLS. Music by F. WEBeR.O

,. Where the wave less pond outspreads, Lil ies lean their love ly heads,
a. Where the si lent heavens outspread, Troops of beauteous stars are led;
__l9f. I__I 3 S a

W--J- ^i--- IH= __ s^=-l=

Help me. tla ther, that I may Live as pure a life as they.
Help mZ. Fa there, that I may, Like the wtars, thy will o b hey.
4 4* 4*__^ _~ j6 _.06

Where the grassy fields outspread,
There with dews the lower. are fed;
Thus, moy Father. thus, I pray,
Feed my soul with love alway.

Where life's checkered paths outspread,
By that love would I be led,
Onward, upward, all the way,
To the golden gates of day.

a Organiut of the Royal German Chapel, St. Jaes's Palace, London.

Figure 2. Children's Hymn: 4-1868-January, 60


186 Gypsies in tMIL I [March,


At I AgaL~

joco~~ 2~4
0r 0. F604 4 6

p- t*
i-^s- -^ ^ -t! 5 mt

Figure 3. Gypsies in the Village: 4-1868-March, 186-88; Melody: 4-1868-March, 188.


i868.] GypsiCs in the Flagc. 187

) ~ ~ A -0 ~i-^^ fi
A$( If t

v R0
(f ~ ~ f

mer -0 f01-
*^ ._ ..!-? ls= ]s .S .j

4- ..4a--


A :: V- 00 .0. 5,t 44 .4-
(k- i ^^^< t;'_- -l_^ lg_ '^_l_^.J

Figure 3-continued.


_ 2 x i2 :2I---. i* **' '',' ^

A Lit, Ednti"..
1 T 32 4 6

E^^^A-.a-^'^'*^-]'^E^'' *

^n~ ?, i ^ ,si?4'^ s
ifE : '1---l^. ^3-l^4. _ ^1l ---^
r -c= =;di

puP?' Vim~

3 43 1 3 2 4 .
-c .1 -F i,_.
F^ e~ _ ^i^^ ---<* S*:tfF-* >-4 --P -

Figure 3-continued.


The work of Koza and Miller provide relevant comparison material. Both

similarities and differences can be noted. The statements of Koza's findings are drawn

from chapter 6, pp. 452-577 and from the alphabetical list of composers on pp. 1124-

1148.' The reports of Miller's findings come from her article, "Ladies' Companion,

Ladies' Canon?"2

In all the studies, the publication of music was found to be a frequently-occurring

feature of the nineteenth-century general-readership magazines examined. Koza reports

that 560 pieces of music appear in the issues of Godey's Lady's Book published between

1830 and 1877 and that most issues contain one musical work. Miller found

approximately 3500 piano pieces and songs in fifteen selected periodicals published from

1830 to 1930. In Our Young Folks, fifty-one musical works appear in 108 issues. The

ubiquitousness of printed music in nineteenth-century magazines argues for the

consideration of magazine music in all studies of musical life in nineteenth-century


The proportion of composers in Our Young Folks who can be definitely identified

as female is lower than what either Koza or Miller found in adult magazines. Koza

' Koza, p. 452-577, 1124-1148.
2 Miller, "Ladies' Companion, Ladies' Canon?"

reports that in Godey's Lady's Book, 10.7% of the composers can be assuredly identified

as women, and the figure in Miller's research is similar at nearly 10%. The comparable

figure for Our Young Folks is 5.9%. A much larger percentage of Godey's Lady's Book

composers, 41.4% as opposed to 5.9% in Our Young Folks, were anonymous or signed in

a way which obscures their sex. If the percentage of composers who are known to be

women is added to the percentage who could also be female, the resulting figure is much

higher for Godey's Lady's Book (52.1%) than for Our Young Folks (13.7%).

Miller points out that both Godev's Lady's Book and the Ladies' Home Journal

included music composed by readers. This mirrors Our Young Folks, in which two of the

fifty-one musical works were submitted by readers.

The percentage of lyricists who are obviously female is considerably larger in Our

Young Folks than in Godey's Lady's Book; 79.3% in Our Young Folks and 11.1% in

Godey's Lady's Book. The proportion of poets for whom the sex is unspecified is over

five times larger in Godey's Lady's Book, 54.1% to 10.3%.

All of the arrangers in Our Young Folks were men. Koza found that 1.3% of

arranged works in Godev's Lady's Book were arranged by women and 46.7% were

unspecified. She speculates that arranging was more male-dominated than composing but

cautions that it is hard to be sure when the gender of so many of the arrangers is


None of the composers, poets, or arrangers mentioned by name in Koza's study or

in Miller's "Catalog of Women Composers in Selected American Magazines" appear in

Our Young Folks. Koza reports five pieces by composers who are well-known today, two

by Offenbach and one each by Schubert, Weber, and Verdi. Thus only 1% of the musical

works in Godev's Lady's Book which have named composers were written by composers

who are currently recognized. In contrast, of the 49 pieces in Our Young Folks which

have named composers, eleven or 22.4% were written by composers who are known to

the modem student of musical literature. Miller points out that although the magazines

she studied include music by composers such as Mozart, Beethoven, C. M. von Weber,

and Johann Strauss, most of the composers' names she found are now unknown.

Koza found a much larger percentage of vocal music in Godey's Lady's Book than

appears in Our Young Folks, 72.3% to 57%. Miller reports that songs with

accompaniment are the most prevalent type of composition, by at least twenty to one, and

that dance forms for piano are the second most common genre. Both scholars' findings

that most of the music in the magazines they studied is either for voice and piano or for

piano solo mirrors the music in Our Young Folks. Another similarity found by both

Miller and Koza is the occasional appearance of pieces for vocal part singing. A

difference is the occurrence in the adult magazines of pieces for other instruments

including guitar, flute, and harp.

The formal characteristics of the vocal music in the adults' and children's

magazines are very similar. In Godey's Lady's Book vocal music, strophic songs

predominate (63.5%), followed by verse and refrain form (31.4%). This compares to 74%

and 26%, respectively, in Our Young Folks. Miller reports that strophic form appears

often. 34.9% of Godey's Lady's Book piano pieces are in ABA form, compared to 68% in

Our Young Folks.

Similarly to Our Young Folks, time signatures of 2 / 4, 4 / 4 or Common Time,

and 6/ 8 appear frequently in Godey's Lady's Book. These three signatures account for

67.7% of the total meter signatures in Godey's Lady's Book and 75.4% in Our Young

Folks. A difference is the more prevalent use of 3 /4 time in Godey's Lady's Book,

23.9% of the total in contrast to only 17% in Our Young Folks. Koza reports no use of

the capitol C to indicate Common Time, but she may have subsumed this symbol under


Koza reports that Andante is the most common tempo marking. This indication

appears in Our Young Folks only once. Allegretto, the most often used tempo indicator in

the children's magazine, was also used frequently in Godey's Lady's Book.

The use of keys is very similar. As in Our Young Folks, the vast majority of the

music in Godey's Lady's Book is in major mode. G Major, the most prevalent key in

Godev's Lady's Book, is the second most common in Our Young Folks. In both

magazines, modulations, particularly in vocal music, are rare and generally


In both magazines, the piano accompaniments in the vocal pieces are generally

chordal. In both, piano introductions and postludes are more common than interludes.

Koza found some piano interludes but relatively few, in only 5/71% of the accompanied

vocal works.

Usage of dynamic markings is apparently similar in the two magazines. Koza

reports that at least one dynamic or other expressive mark was found in over two-thirds


of the pieces she examined. In comparison, 74.5% of the pieces in Our Young Folks had

at least one dynamic marking.

Koza measured musical difficulty on a seven-point scale, with one designating the

simplest and seven the most difficult. She concluded that 19.35% of the piano pieces fell

at point one ("Very simple" ) and 67.74% at point two. Koza's points one and two would

seem to coincide with the "Easy" category in Hinson's scheme. This provides a contrast

to the piano music in Our Young Folks, none of which fell into Hinson's "Easy" category.

Koza further found that 10.97% fell at point three, which is equivalent to Hinson's

"Intermediate" category, and that 1.94% fell at points four and five, equivalent to

Hinson's "Moderately Difficult." In Our Young Folks, 64.8% are Intermediate in

difficulty and the remaining 35.2% are Moderately Difficult. Miller concludes that most

of the pieces she studied had very few technical difficulties.

Koza reports a high frequency of typographical and printing problems which are

not seen in Our Young Folks. In Godey's Lady's Book, misalignments of solo and

accompaniment parts and apparent misprints of notes are not uncommon. Some minor

misalignments between treble and bass notes within measures can be seen in scattered

pieces of music in Our Young Folks. Otherwise, the alignment and printing problems

reported by Koza, which can greatly interfere with the performance of the music, are

absent from Our Young Folks.

The topics of lyrics show striking contrasts. Love of the opposite sex is the theme

in 31.1% of Godey's Lady's Book vocal music and is the most common theme found

there. This topic does not appear in any of the vocal pieces in the children's magazine.

The second most frequent theme reported by Koza is Nature (10.8%), and she also

reports instances of songs about "Sailing or Boating" (2.7%). The resulting 13.5% of

lyrics which deal with the out-of-doors in Godey's Lady's Book songs in contrast to the

76% of vocal pieces in Our Young Folks which describe the out-of-doors.

Programmatic piano music is much more common in Our Young Folks than in the

adult magazines. Koza found that dance forms predominate among Godey's Lady's Book

instrumental pieces (78.1% of the total). She mentions only two character pieces with

programmatic titles, "Woodland Memories" and "Moonlight Dance." Miller likewise

identifies dance music as the most common type of instrumental work and describes the

abundance of dance movements which were published after 1850. In Our Young Folks,

over half (54.6%) of the instrumental works are programmatic and dance forms appear

only twice (9.1%).


Differences and Similarities to Adult Magazine Music

A comparison of the music in Our Young Folks to the available analyses of adult

magazine music of the nineteenth century reveals many similarities and some notable


Stylistically, the music is similar in most characteristics. In regard to form,

strophic and verse/refrain predominates in vocal music and ABA form in instrumental

music. 2/4, Common Time, and 6 / 8 are frequently used as meter signatures. Andante

and Allegretto are often seen as tempo markings. The prevalence of major mode, the

avoidance of keys with many sharps and flats, and the infrequent use of modulations are

characteristic of the music studied from both adult and juvenile magazines. The use of the

piano in vocal accompaniments is generally chordal, with frequent introductions and

postludes and infrequent interludes. Dynamic markings appear in most pieces.

The percentage of instrumental music is noticeably higher in Our Young Folks

than in Godey's Lady's Book. Among the instrumental pieces found in the magazines

studied, the amount of programmatic music is much higher in the children's volumes.

The topics of vocal and instrumental music show interesting similarity and

difference. The most frequent topic of vocal music in Godey's Lady's Book, love of the

opposite sex, is absent from Our Young Folks. But the most frequent theme in vocal and

programmatic instrumental music in Our Young Folks, the out-of-doors, is the second


most frequent topic in Godey's Lady's Book lyrics. This attention to the out-of-doors is

also reflected in the large number of prose articles about nature which appear in children's

magazines of the period. This interest in nature topics may reflect nostalgia for the rural

lifestyle which was disappearing in that era of widespread urbanization.

A striking difference is in the level of difficulty of the piano writing. Both Miller

and Koza determined that most of the music they studied has few technical demands, and

the majority of the music Koza examined falls into the two simplest categories on her

seven-point scale. The music in Our Young Folks is "Intermediate" or "Moderately

Difficult" according to Hinson's scale; none of it falls into Hinson's simplest category.

Perhaps in Boston, an acknowledged capitol of musical culture in nineteenth-century

America, children's musical skill was greater than that of adults in other parts of the

country. Music had been a part of Boston's public-school curriculum for over twenty-five

years when Our Young Folks began publication. Howe identifies the years 1864-1879 as

ones in which the city's music program was "strong."1 Perhaps Boston's children were

more musically accomplished and literate than were their adult contemporaries as a result

of the availability and quality of their of school music instruction.

The difficulty level of the piano music, coupled with the occasional inclusion of

part-songs which require adult singing voices, also suggests that adults and children made

music together in the homes of the subscribers. The magazine is obviously aimed at

children, but some of the music requires adult involvement for its performance. Some of

the more difficult piano music may have been played by parents instead of, or as well as,

' Howe, "Music Teaching...," 316.


children. It seems reasonable to conclude that music making was a family activity in

these homes.

The image of family members of all ages engaged in collaboratively performing

live music in their living rooms or parlors for their own instruction and entertainment

invites a comparison to the musical activities which typically take place in the homes of

the present day. In the late-twentieth century household in the United States, music is

present, perhaps even ubiquitous. A common possession is the stereo system, on which

fine musical performers of today and yesterday can be heard at any time. The Chicago

Symphony can perform in one's living room on demand. Television programs and

videocassettes can bring music into the home in the form of broadcasted or recorded

concerts. Television was predicted to cause the death of radio, but now people can load

the washing machine or relax with personal radios in their ears. These radios can be tuned

to dozens of stations, each of which specializes in a different style of music and

broadcasts around the clock. The amount and diversity of the music which can be heard

within the home is greater than ever before. Moreover, the listener of the twentieth

century has personal control over the style and the timing of the music he hears, to an

extent unimaginable to musicians and music lovers of the last century.

There are at least two important differences between music in the home in the

nineteenth century and the music in the home of today. The first is that almost all of the

music heard in today's living room is being performed by someone outside the family and

comes into the home in a mediated vehicle such as broadcasting or recording. Creating

live music is no longer a common source of domestic entertainment. The human beings


who perform the music heard in today's homes generally do so at a distant place and in

some cases at a far distant time. The act of performing the music has become so far

removed from the aural consumption of the music that it is possible to forget that living

humans were involved in the performance process at one point. The experience of music

in the home has become not a personal concrete expression but an abstraction. Listening

to music is much different from playing or singing. Music in today's home is largely a

passive experience and no longer requires individuals to actively perform the music


Miller characterizes the present circumstance in this regard as a decided loss over

the past.

The fundamental difference is the change
from active to passive participation in music.
In this case, the older approach surely is the
more sophisticated and profound musical
experience. The abundant presence of music
[in nonspecialized magazines] to be performed
in the home by nonspecialists is an elegant
testament to the love of music and the high
level of musical literacy in past generations
compared to the present.2

There is, however, another viewpoint that deserves to be considered. Judith Tick

has suggested that many of the "piano girls" who provided live music in the parlors of

nineteenth-century homes were not inspired or skillful performers. She quotes the

eminent music critic James Huneker as applauding in print the fact that "passed away is

the piano girl" for whom societal expectation demanded involvement with music whether

2 Bonny H. Miller, "A Mirror of Ages Past," Notes, 50 (1994), 898.

musical inspiration was present or absent.3 What if much of the music played in

nineteenth-century homes was poorly executed by people who played and sang not

because they wanted to do so but because they felt compelled? Does not the possibility of

filling the living room with the sound of Placido Domingo or the Philadelphia Orchestra

have at least some advantage over hearing tortured renditions by unskilled dilettantes? A

drop in active participation in music making and in music literacy is a change, but a

change that does not necessarily signal a loss in musical activity or love of music. A

person who listens to music with enthusiasm is at least as musical as a distracted

conscript who performs music under duress.

The second major difference between musical activity in the nineteenth-century

and twentieth-century homes concerns private, independent actions in contrast to

collaborative enterprise. Music making in the nineteenth-century home required that

people interact. If family members were to learn to sing and play well enough to provide

pastime for themselves and the other family members at home, someone had to teach

them. The music seen in Our Young Folks offers clear evidence of joint efforts. Many of

pieces are for solo singer with piano accompaniment, a genre which requires

collaboration for performance. A team effort is required to realize the part-songs. Even

the piano solos require that the player was previously taught by another person, and the

performance of this music would typically have involved live listeners. Domestic musical

activity in the nineteenth-century required that people work together.

'Tick, p. 325.


In the twentieth century, in contrast, the music listening which has replaced active

performance as the major musical activity for most people can be a much more solitary

activity. It is true that in order for one person to enjoy a musical recording or broadcast,

numerous people had to work together to produce the mediated product. But these

people, in the overwhelming majority of cases, will never meet the listener. The listener

in the home has much more control than ever before. Along with this control comes the

possibility of musical engagement as an isolationist activity. In past eras, music required

that people get together. Today, a person can have music in his life but be alone with it.

Autonomy and choice undoubtedly enhance the musical experience in some ways. But

there is no doubt that listening to music on one's own is a different experience from

interdependent musical performance.

Composers, Arrangers, and Poets

A striking difference between the children's and adults' magazines is the much

larger percentage of lyricists who can definitely be identified as female. Perhaps writing

for children was considered a more acceptable activity for women than was writing for

adults, and this greater acceptability resulted in more activity and in more women being

willing to sign their full names to the products of their work.

A surprising difference is the much lower percentage of composers in the juvenile

publication who are obviously female. This discrepancy is particularly interesting when

contrasted to the fact that the percentage of named female lyricists is much higher in Our

Young Folks than in Godey's Lady's Book. This infrequency of publication of musical

compositions by contemporary women might be attributed to the fact that Juluis

Eichberg, who was directly responsible for over one-fourth of the music published in the

magazine, was more likely to contribute either his own compositions or arrangements of

recognized European composers who were male. Eichberg's strong record of support for

women as performing musicians negates the supposition that he could have been opposed

to female participation in music. The more likely explanations are that he understandably

wanted to promote his own works and that he naturally chose familiar pieces to arrange.

His classical European training would have ensured that many of the composition with

which he was familiar were by male composers.

Both the adults' and children's magazines published music submitted by readers.

Magazines of the era generally published reader submissions of many kinds, including

letters, prose, and poetry. The publication of musical works by subscribers fits into this


A definite similarity between the children's and adults' magazines is that most of

the named composers, arrangers, and poets are unknown today. Study of magazine music

is necessary to understand the full extent of creative musical activity in nineteenth-

century America. Such study has the capacity, as Miller has written, to". bring a host

of new composers to our attention."4

The assertion that the musical contents of Our Young Folks includes pieces by

Mozart, Beethoven, and Schumann was proven to be correct. In addition, pieces were

4 Miller, "Ladies' Companion, Ladies' Canon?" p. 157.

found by Hummel, Kuhlau, Diabelli, and Meyerbeer, composers who are less famous but

still well known to students of musical history.

A noticeable difference between the adults' and children's magazine music is the

higher percentage of musical works by acknowledged master composers in Our Young

Folks. This may reflect a greater interest in cultivated music in the Boston area. Or

perhaps the editors of the children's magazine had more interest in content which might

prove educational while the adults' editors were more concerned with entertaining their

readers. In addition, Julius Eichberg was heavily involved in the selection of many of the

works by master composers.

Eichberg's Impact

From the standpoint of the history of music education, a significant discovery of

this study is the involvement of Julius Eichberg. The educator had a sizable impact on the

music published in Our Young Folks. He either composed or arranged thirteen of the

fifty-one pieces published in the magazine. This means that Eichberg was directly

responsible for over one-fourth of the music published in the magazine.

Eichberg made all of his contributions to volume four, 1868. This is the volume in

which music was published most often. Twenty-one of the fifty-one pieces, almost half of

the total, are found in volume four. In addition, all of the works composed by musical

figures who are recognized today appear in volume four.

Eichberg can also be credited with the large proportion of instrumental works

which appear in Our Young Folks. The educator was responsible, as either composer or

arranger, for thirteen of the twenty-two instrumental pieces. The instrumental pieces in

Our Young Folks are clustered in volume four, with twenty of the twenty-two being

published while Eichberg was involved with the magazine.

The nature of Eichberg's influence on the music in Our Young Folks can be

explained by his own background and musical activities. Born in Germany to a musical

family in 1824, Eichberg enjoyed a classical European education as a violinist. He

attended the Brussels Royal Conservatory, where he won prizes in both violin

performance and composition. With such a background, he would naturally look to

instrumental music and to recognized composers as he chose works to submit for

publication. Though not a pianist, he would have known that pianos were the most

common instrument in the readers' homes and that if Our Young Folks were to publish

instrumental music, piano music was the logical choice. In addition, he was a committed

music educator. As such, he would have been aware of the educational value of a

publication for children, and he would have chosen musical material which he believed

had educational merit. With his classical training, he would have believed that the works

of master composers have much to offer young people who are learning music. The

music he chose to arrange, which was composed by Mozart, Beethoven, Schumann,

Diabelli, and Kuhlau, seems to bear witness to such a philosophy.

Eichberg was a part of the mid-century wave of German immigrant musicians,

described by Loesser in Men, Women, and Pianos, who increased their new countrymen's

awareness of instrumental music in the European classical tradition. Loesser seems to be

exactly describing Eichberg when he wrote: