MUSIC IN OUR YOUNG FOLKS, 1865-1873
MARY ELAINE YONTZ
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
Mary Elaine Yontz
To my husband Jack Randall Fisher II,
to my mother Marguerite S. Yontz and in memory of my father Harry Edward Yontz,
and in memory of Ruth M. Baldwin
It is a pleasure to express my appreciation to the many people who have
assisted in the completion of this dissertation.
I am grateful to the members of my supervisory committee, who have given
generously of their time and expertise. Special thanks are due to the chairman, Dr.
David Kushner. The other members of the committee who gave me the benefit of
their guidance are Dr. Kandace L. Brooks, Dr. Giacomo Oliva, Dr. Camille Smith,
Dr. Budd Udell, and Dr. E. C. Barksdale.
Four "honorary members" of my committee have enriched my doctoral
experience. Dr. Daniel Popp served on the committee during the qualifying
examinations and reviewed the first draft of the dissertation. Dr. Leslie Odom
substituted at the defense and provided essential support. Dr. Larry Crook and Dr.
Russell Robinson offered valuable advice at critical junctures.
I am happy to acknowledge the assistance of librarians and library staff
members. I am indebted to the late Dr. Ruth Baldwin, whose "canine appetite" for
collecting historical children's literature put primary research materials at my
fingertips. The current staff of the Department of Special Collections in the George
A. Smathers Libraries of the University of Florida made my work possible. Dr. John
Ingram, Chair of the Department, and Rita Smith, Curator of the Baldwin Library of
Historical Children's Literature, were particularly generous with their time, advice,
and encouragement. Robena Eng Cornwell and her staff at the University of Florida
Music Library provided consistently excellent and cheerful service throughout my
tenure in graduate school. Thanks to the efforts of the University of Florida
Interlibrary Loan Department, chaired by David Fuller, I had access to valuable
materials not owned locally. The staff of the Special Collections Department of the
Tampa Campus Library at the University of South Florida graciously made their
copies of Our Young Folks available during the final stages.
Dorothy Hope and Martha Hruska, my supervisors at the George A. Smathers
Libraries, have been staunch supporters of my educational goals over a period of
years. John Dewey, who wrote "Education is not preparation for life, education is life
itself," would be very proud of them both.
The participation of Dr. Kathleen McCook and the faculty and staff of the
School of Library and Information Science at the University of South Florida
(USF/SLIS) has been instrumental. Their faith in me, coupled with the promise of
unemployment should I fail to finish, provided a carrot-and-stick package that has
made a significant difference.
I am grateful to Jenna Freedman of the USF/SLIS and to Gerald Langford of
the George A. Smathers Libraries for valuable research assistance. William Parker
provided important help with the figures. Phyllis Schmidt, Maurice Sarns, Eleanor
Humphries, and Arnold Penland gave me straight, unemotional answers to direct
questions. The examples set and encouragement offered by Dr. Larry Newcomb and
Dr. Tom Terrell propelled me over the finish line.
I also owe this moment to all the people who sent positive thoughts, said
prayers, lit candles, bought coffee, and otherwise did whatever they thought would
work. I trust that they know who they are, and I hope that they know that this
dissertation would not have been completed without them.
My deepest gratitude is reserved for my family. My parents Marguerite S.
Yontz and the late Harry Edward Yontz made all of my educational achievements
possible through many years of moral and financial support. In addition, my mother
Marguerite provided valuable assistance to this particular project through
proofreading and data entry. My husband Jack Randall Fisher II has given me
emotional and financial support through three degrees. That must be some kind of
record. Above all of that, he sustains my life with his daily expressions of humor,
kindness, generosity, and compassion.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOW LEDGM ENTS .......................................................................... iv
A B STR A C T ......... .. ......... ............................. .... .. .... x
I INTRODUCTION ........ ....... ..................... 1
Statem ent of the Problem .................................................................. I
Need for the Study ............. .. .................... 2
Description of the Study ... ........ ...................... 4
A Review of Related Literature .......................................................... 6
2 A HISTORY OF OUR YOUNG FOLKS .. ......... ............. 12
Magazines in Nineteenth-Century America .................... 12
O ur Y oung Folks ................................................................................... 15
3 A SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION OF THE MUSIC IN
OUR YOUNG FOLKS ..................... ........ 20
4 ANALYSES OF THE MUSICAL WORKS IN
OUR YOUNG FOLKS ....... ... ................. 29
W inter Song: 2-1866-February, 124 ..................................................... 29
Nutting Song: 2-1866-October, 630-31 ................................................. 31
Skating Song: 2-1866-December, 766-67 .............................................. 32
New-Year Song: 3-1867-January, 58-60 ..... .................. 33
W inter Night: 3-1867-February, 122-24 ................................................ 34
Night W inds: 3-1867-M arch, 186-87 .................................................... 34
The Song of the Robin: 3-1867-April, 250-51 ....................................... 35
M aying: 3-1867-M ay, 315-16 ................................................................ 36
A Song of the Roses: 3-1867-June, 378-80 ............................................. 37
M making Hay: 3-1867-July, 442-43 ......................................................... 38
Summer Morning: 3-1867-August, 506-07 ............................................. 39
Boat Song: 3-1867-September, 571-72 .................................................. 39
Beautiful Summer: 3-1867-October, 634-35 .......................................... 40
November: 3-1867-November, 699-700 ................................................. 41
Pictures in the Fire: 3-1867-December, 761-62 ..................................... 42
Children's Hymn: 4-1868-January, 60 .................................................... 43
Child's Evening Prayer: 4-1868-February, 122 ....................................... 44
Melody for Piano: 4-1868-February, 123-24 .......................................... 45
Gypsies in the Village: 4-1868-March, 186-88 ....................................... 45
M elody: 4-1868-M arch, 188 ................................................................... 46
The Happy Farmer: 4-1868-April, 249-50 ............................................. 47
Andante Cantabile: 4-1868-April, 250-51 ............................................. 48
Turkish March: 4-1868-May, 312-15 .................................................... 48
From the "Serenade." Op. 8: 4-1868-May, 315 ..................................... 49
Children Soldiers: 4-1868-June, 377-78 ................................................ 49
Venetian Barcarole: 4-1868-June, 378-80 ............................................. 50
Reapers' Song: 4-1868-July, 442-43 ....................................................... 51
Evening Song: 4-1868-July, 444 ............................................................ 52
Polonaise: 4-1868-August, 505-07 ......................................................... 53
Andantino: 4-1868-August, 507 ............................................................. 54
Hunting Song: 4-1868-September, 569-70 ............................................. 54
Andante Gracioso: 4-1868-September, 570 ............................................ 55
Sunday Morning: 4-1868-September, 571 ............................................. 55
Melody from the Opera of "Les Huguenots": 4-1868-October, 634-37.. 56
Theme and Variations: 4-1868-November, 697-700 .............................. 56
Rondo Mignon: 4-1868-December, 758-59 .................... 57
Utopia: 5-1869-February, 128-29 .......................................................... 58
Little Nannie: 5-1869-May, 338-39 ....................................................... 58
The Rivulet: 5-1869-June, 418 .............................................................. 59
Lady M oon: 5-1869-July, 491 ................................................................ 60
Berying Song: 5-1869-August, 563-64 ................................................ 60
Swing Away: 5-1869-September, 633-34 .............................................. 61
Three in a Bed: 5-1869-October, 706-07 ............................................... 61
Christmas Carol: 7-1871-January, 58 .................................................... 62
Christmas Carol: 8-1872-January, 52 .................................................... 63
The Robin: 8-1872-M ay, 311-12 ............................................................ 63
Four Black and White Mice: 8-1872-July, 441 ....................................... 64
Song to September: 8-1872-September, 571 .......................................... 65
M ay Polka: 9-1873-M ay, 20 ................................................................... 65
Apple Blossom Waltz: 9-1873-November, 694 ..................................... 66
The Chickadee: 9-1873-December, 759 .................................................. 67
5 COMPARISON TO PREVIOUS RESEARCH ..................................... 75
6 DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS .................................................... 81
Differences and Sim ilarities to Adult M magazine M usic ......................... 81
Composers, Arrangers, and Poets ......................................................... 86
Eichberg's Impact ................................................................................... 88
7 CONCLUSION ........................................................................................ 91
Evaluation of the M usic ......................................................................... 91
Pedagogical Im plications ....................................................................... 94
Directions for Further Study .................................................................. 97
BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................................ 105
A DATABASE PRINTOUT ........................................................................ 110
B DATABASE REPORTS .......................................................................... 116
C INDEXES TO THE MUSIC IN OUR YOUNG FOLKS ........................ 141
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................................................................ 145
Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
MUSIC IN OUR YOUNG FOLKS, 1865-1873
Mary Elaine Yontz
Chairman: David Z. Kushner
Major Department: Music
The goals of this study are to identify, describe, and analyze the music in Our
Young Folks: an Illustrated Magazine for Boys and Girls and to use the descriptions
and analyses to draw conclusions about nineteenth-century American musical
activities and beliefs. Each issue has been searched for printed music. The music has
been indexed by composer, arranger, and poet. The characteristics of the music have
been recorded and categorized. This music has been compared to printed music found
in adult general-interest magazines of the same time period, as described in Julia
Ekiund Koza's study "Music and References to Music in Godey's Lady's Book 1830-
1877" and in the research of Bonny H. Miller.
Fifty-one pieces of printed music were discovered. The music is stylistically
similar to the music studied by Koza and Miller in many characteristics, including
form, meter, tempo, key, and use of dynamics. The percentage of composers who can
be assuredly identified as women is lower, 5.9% in Our Young Folks compared to
10.7% in Godey's Lady's Book, and nearly 10% in Miller's research. The percentage
of lyricists who are obviously female is considerably larger in Our Young Folks than
in Godey's Lady's Book, 79.3% in Our Young Folks and 11.1% in Godey's Lady's
Pioneering music educator Julius Eichberg (1824-1893) was directly
responsible for over one-fourth of the music published in the magazine as either
composer or arranger. The magazine published some pieces by composers who are
renowned today, including Mozart, Beethoven, and Schumann.
Themes used in the vocal and programmatic instrumental music in Our Young
Folks most frequently concern nature and the out-of-doors. This attention to the out-
of-doors is also reflected in the numerous articles about nature which appear in
children's magazines of the period. The interest in nature topics may reflect nostalgia
for the rural lifestyle which was disappearing in that era of widespread urbanization.
The inclusion in the printed music of piano writing which is moderately
difficult to execute and of part-songs which exploit adult vocal ranges provides
evidence that parents and children performed music together in the middle- and
upper-class homes of nineteenth-century America.
Statement of the Problem
The goals of this study are to identify, describe, and analyze the music in Our
Young Folks: an Illustrated Magazine for Boys and Girls and to use the descriptions and
analyses to draw conclusions about nineteenth-century American musical activities and
beliefs. Each issue has been searched for printed music. The music has been indexed by
composer, arranger, and poet. The characteristics of the music have been recorded and
categorized. The purposes of this research are to analyze the characteristics of the printed
music in order to identify stylistic characteristics and to reach conclusions about
nineteenth-century musical life in the United States based on the types of music found in
the magazine. This music has been compared to printed music found in adult general-
interest magazines of the same time period, as described in Julia Ekiund Koza's study
"Music and References to Music in Godem's Lady's Book 1830-1877"l and in the
research of Bonny H. Miller.2
' Julia Elldund Koza, "Music and References to Music in Godey's Lady's Book, 1830-77 (Ph.D.
dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1988).
'Bonny H. Miller, "Ladies' Companion, Ladies' Canon? Women Composers in American Magazines from
Godey' to the Ladies Home Journal," in Cecilia Reclaimed: Feminist Perspectives on Gender and Music
(Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994), p. 156-182.
Need for the Study
Nineteenth-century periodicals provide a treasure trove of primary source material
which has been underutilized by scholars in music history. This is particularly true for
children's periodicals. Koza and Miller have studied the music-related contents of
magazines for adults, particularly Godey's Lady's Book. But no similar studies using a
children's periodical have been identified. According to Kelly,3 the scholarly study of
children's literature dates only from the 1960s and the examination of children's
periodicals has been particularly neglected. The use of children's magazines as research
material is a "new frontier" in many disciplines, including music history.
Adults strive to instill their most cherished beliefs and values in their children.
The adults who create magazines for children reveal their own attitudes through choices
of content. As Kelly has written,"... children's literature is significant and illuminating
for the cultural historian because it constitutes one important way in which the adult
community deliberately and self-consciously seeks to explain, interpret, and justify that
body of beliefs, values, attitudes, and practices which, taken together, define in large
measure a culture... ."A Children's periodicals offer valuable first-hand evidence of the
belief systems of the contemporary society; therefore, they deserve careful examination
3 R. Gordon Kelly, "Introduction," in Children's Periodicals of the United States (Westport, Conn.:
Greenwood Press, 1974), p. x-xvi.
4 R. Gordon Kelly, Mother Was a Lady (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1974), p. xiii-xiv.
The contents of magazines are especially relevant to the study of life in
nineteenth-century America. As one of the chief vehicles for recreation within the home
in the era before broadcasting, magazines enjoyed wide circulation and consistent
attention from their subscribers. With no radio, television, movies, or World Wide Web
sites to provide instruction and entertainment to young people at home, magazines played
a much larger role in the lives of their readers than subsequently came to be the case. The
magazines of the period, therefore, are a chief source of information about nineteenth-
century activities and beliefs. Lyon's 1942 assessment of the relative importance of
magazines in the lives of the children of late nineteenth-century America is equally valid
The period from 1865 to 1899 is, in the
opinion of the writer, the most important
period in the entire history of children's
magazines because they reached their
greatest point of excellence and popularity
at a time when they did not have to compete
with the many other kinds of entertainment
now open to children. They played a far
more important role in the lives of their
readers than magazines before or since
have been able to do.5
Study of the contents of popular nineteenth-century periodicals provides a distinctive and
valuable view of the attitudes and attributes of the people who created the publications
and the people who purchased and used them.
5 Betty Longenecker Lyon, "A History of Children's Secular Magazines Published in the United States from
1789 to 1899" (Ph.D. dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 1942), p. 270.
The author of the present study began with the following hypotheses:
1) The printed music in Our Young Folks will be stylistically similar to printed
music in contemporary general-interest magazines for adults.
2) Composers of printed music will include Mozart, Beethoven, and Schumann.
3) The characteristics of the music found in Our Young Folks will provide evidence
for drawing conclusions about musical activities and beliefs in nineteenth-century
Description of the Study
Our Young Folks was issued monthly from January 1865 through December
1873. All published issues of the magazine are housed in the Baldwin Library of
Historical Children's Literature at the University of Florida. From the several nineteenth-
century periodicals available for review in the Baldwin Library, Our Young Folks was
chosen for several reasons. Called "the first modem juvenile periodical" by Lyon,6 it is
one of the most significant titles in the genre. Because its publication dates coincide with
the dates covered in Koza's study, a valid comparison to this previous research is
possible. Friedberg's published synopsis of the content of the magazine indicates
significant musical content.7 The number of issues is such that the entire run of the
magazine could be examined and a comprehensive analysis of the music published in the
magazine could be offered within the scope of the present inquiry.
6Lyon, p. 271.
7 Joan Brest Friedberg, "Our Young Folks: An Illustrated Magazine," in Children's Periodicals of the
United States, edited by R. Gordon Kelly (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1984), p. 332.
Each issue was examined, and the printed music was located. The issues are
bound in annual volumes which are numbered I through IX.. Each volume is paginated
continuously. The printed music has been identified by volume number, year, month,
and page number, using Arabic numerals.
The stylistic characteristics of the printed music have been recorded in a computer
database using Microsoft Works software. Instrumentation and the gender identities of
composers, arrangers, and lyricists have been of primary interest. Keys and meter
signatures, the form of both music and text, and the length in measures of each piece have
been noted. For strophic songs, the number of verses was recorded. In the case of vocal
music, the topic of the text was included. The presence or absence of piano introductions,
interludes, and postludes was identified for vocal works with piano accompaniments. For
programmatic instrumental music, the topic of the program was recorded. Tempo
considerations included the beginning tempo, the presence of internal tempo changes, and
the type of tempo indications used. Characteristics of dynamic levels include the
presence or absence of an opening dynamic marking, presence or absence of internal
dynamic changes, and the dynamic indicators used. The range of both vocal and
instrumental parts has been recorded. The stylistic characteristics were then analyzed to
identify representative traits.
Difficulty of the piano writing has also been analyzed. The system used to
determine levels of difficulty is the approach used by Maurice Hinson in his Guide to the
Pianist's Repertoire, Second Edition.8 Hinson uses four levels: Easy, Intermediate,
Moderately Difficult, and Difficult. In the introduction to the Guide, he offers several
standard works as examples of each level. For the present study, the following piano
works were used to provide examples of the various levels for comparison:
Easy: J.S. Bach's "Minuet in G" from Anna Magdelena Notebook
Schumann's "Melodie," number 1 from Album fur die Jugend
Intermediate: Mendelssohn's Sechs Kinderstucke, number 1
Moderately Difficult: Mozart's Sonatas KV 189d and 189e
J.S. Bach's "Allemande" from French Suite I
Difficult: Beethoven's Sonate op. 57
J.S. Bach's Ouverture from Partita no. IV
The findings of this study have been compared to the results of Koza's and
Miller's research on printed music in Godey's Lady's Book and other contemporary
general-interest periodicals for adults. The similarities and differences found have been
analyzed and discussed. Pedagogical implications and directions for future research have
A Review of Related Literature
Areas of study which have relevance for the current project include the political
and social conditions of the United States in the mid-nineteenth century; the histories of
American music and music education for the same period; the history of Our Young
8 Maurice Hinson, Guide to the Pianist's Repertoire, Second Edition (Bloomington: Indiana University
Press, 1987), p. xv-xvi.
Folks and contemporary magazines, particularly those aimed at children; and the use of
nineteenth-century periodicals as research materials.
Our Young Folks shared the stage with the American Civil War and the period of
Westward expansion. The Civil War ended five months after Our Young Folks began
publication, and the influence of the War is seen in all volumes of the magazine. Among
the abundant sources on the United States during the Civil War and immediately
thereafter, the works of Bruce Catton are particularly useful.9 Catton identifies the
dissolution of the nation's ability to compromise over the slavery issue as a manifestation
of the dislocation of living in an era in which all fundamentals of social and economic life
were changing radically. Historians Frederick Jackson Turner10 and Ray Allen
Billington" have studied the effect of the frontier on American life and character. The
vast American continent presented a situation in which land was plentiful and people
relatively few. This was a sharp contrast to many parts of Western Europe, where
humans were plentiful and uninhabited land rare. This made the United States a
completely different environment from Europe. The resulting adjustments in
immigrants' lives and attitudes produced a distinctive American character, identified by
such traits as mobility, wastefulness, experimentation, materialism, and hard work.12 All
these scholars agree the mid-nineteenth century was a time of fundamental change in the
9 Bruce Cation, The Centennial History of the Civil War (Arden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1961-65); The
Civil War (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1960).
10 Frederick Jackson Turner, The Frontier in American History (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston,
" Ray Allen Billington, America's Frontier Heritage (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1966).
12 Billington, p. 3.
lives of Americans, as is the late twentieth century. This similarity offers an explanation
for the value of nineteenth-century studies in advancing our understanding of the present.
Among the scholarship in American music history, the works of Wiley Hitchcock
and Edith Borroff are of particular interest. Hitchcock's Music in the United States13
discusses cultivated and vernacular traditions of the nineteenth century. Hitchcock also
describes the ubiquity of pianos in the nineteenth-century American home. The effect of
the piano on American music is discussed in detail in Loesser's Men. Women and
Pianos.14 Borroff covers all styles of music in social context; her timeline which relates
events in music, related arts, and the nation's political, economic, and social history is
The history of American music education is relevant, particularly because Our
Young Folks was published in Boston, where music was first included in the curriculum
of an American public school system in 1838. Comprehensive histories include Edward
Bailey Birge's classic History of Public School Music in the United States,16 as well as
the more recent A Histor of Music Education in the United States by James A. Keene17
and A History of American Music Education by Michael L. Mark and Charles L. Gary.18
The introduction of music into Boston's public schools and the career of Lowell Mason
13 H. Wiley Hitchcock, Music in the United States: a Historical Introduction (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.:
Prentice Hall, 1988).
14 Arthur Loesser, Men. Women. and Pianos: A Social History (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1954).
15 Edith Borrof& Music Melting Round: A History of Music in the United States (New York: Ardsley
16 Edward Bailey Birge, History of Public School Music in the United States (Boston: Oliver Ditson, 1928).
17 James A. Keene, A History of Music Education in the United States (Hanover: University Press of New
1" Michael L. Mark and Charles L. Gary, A History of American Music Education (New York: Schirmer,
have been chronicled by scholars including David Z. Kushner,19 Carol Pemberton,20 and
Arthur Rich.21 Of special interest are Mason's justifications for teaching music in
schools, which include the beneficial effects of music on religious devotion, physical
health, and cohesive family life.22 Sondra Wieland Howe has contributed to the study of
Boston's school music program in the years after Lowell Mason.23 She has also done
preliminary research on Julius Eichberg, another pioneer music educator of nineteenth-
century Boston who was a significant contributor of printed music to Our Young Folks. 24
Crucial work in the history of American children's periodicals has been done by
R. Gordon Kelly. Kelly edited Children's Periodicals of the United States, for which he
authored a review of scholarship on American children's periodicals25 and a succinct
history of the development of children's magazines in the United States.26 Friedberg's
article in the Kelly volume discusses Our Young Folks in some detail.27 Although she
includes an analysis of the periodical's treatment of such subjects as the Civil War,
'9 David Z. Kushner, "The 'Masonic' Influence on 19W-Century American Music Education," Journal of
Musicological Research 4 (1983), 443-454.
20 Carol A. Pemberton, Lowell Mason: His Life and Work (Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1985); Lowell
Mason: A Bio-Bibliography (New York: Greenwood Press, 1988).
21 Arthur Lowndes Rich, Lowell Mason: The Father of Singing Among the Children (Chapel Hill:
University of North Carolina Press, 1946).
22 Lowell Mason, "Manual of the Boston Academy of Music," in Source Readings in Music History, edited
b2y Michael L. Mark (New York: Schirmer, 1982), p. 127-132.
2 Sondra Wieland Howe, "Music Teaching in the Boston Public Schools, 1864-1879," Journal of Research
in Music Education 40 (1992), 316-328.
24 Sondra Wieland Howe, "Julius Eichberg: String and Vocal Instruction in Nineteenth-Century Boston,"
Journal of Research in Music Education 44(1996), 147-159.
25 R Gordon Kelly, "Preface," in Children's Periodicals of the United States, edited by R. Gordon Kelly
(Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1984), p. ix-xvi.
2 R. Gordon Kelly, "Introduction," in Children's Periodicals of the United States, edited by R, Gordon
Kelly (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1984), p. xix-xxix.
27 Friedberg, p. 329-341.
blacks, native Americans, and Jews, Friedberg mentions the arts only briefly. She does
point out that the magazine included printed music by Mozart, Beethoven, Schumann,
and others.28 Kelly's Mother Was a Lady: Self and Society in Selected American
Children's Periodicals. 1865-189029 examines cultural transmission of values through the
fiction in popular nineteenth-century children's magazines, including Our Young Folks.
Frank Luther Mott's classic multi-volume study A History of American Magazines30
includes valuable background information but no substantive discussion of Our Young
Folks. Smith and Price31 and Tebbel and Zuckerman32 have contributed useful, more
recent analyses of the socio-historical development of American magazines. Betty
Longenecker Lyon's 1942 dissertation "A History of Children's Secular Magazines
Published in the United States from 1789 to 1899"03 offers a most useful developmental
analysis of American children's periodicals and a description of Our Young Folks.
No other examinations of the musical content of nineteenth-century children's
magazines have been identified. A small number of scholars have conducted such studies
of adult magazines. Julia Eklund Koza34 indexed and analyzed the sheet music,
nonfiction references, and selected fictional references to music in the issues of Godev's
2S Friedberg, p. 332.
29 R. Gordon Kelly, Mother Was a Lady (Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1974).
30 Frank Luther Mott, A History of American Magazines (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press,
31 Susan Belasco Smith and Kenneth M. Price, "Introduction: Periodical Literature in Social and Historical
Context," in Periodical Literature in Nineteenth-Century America. edited by Kenneth M. Price and Susan
Belasco Smith (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1995), p. 3-16.
32 John Tebbel and Mary Ellen Zuckerman, The Magazine in America 1741-1990 (New York: Oxford
University Press, 1991).
33 Betty Longenecker Lyon, "A History of Children's Secular Magazines Published in the United States
from 1789 to 1899" (Ph.D. dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 1942).
34 Koza, 1988.
Lady's Book published between July 1830 and December 1877. The research of Bonny
H. Miller focuses on sheet music in general-audience periodicals.35 Joan Berman Mizrahi
used two music journals and The Saturday Evening Post to study the perception of
women as musicians and pianists in late nineteenth-century America.36 Mary Herron
Dupree likewise reviewed both musical and general-audience periodicals to identify
major issues in art music during the 1920s.37 A similarly small number of investigators
have analyzed non-musical content of nineteenth-century juvenile periodicals. Joel
Shrock's study of masculine imagines included both magazines and books as source
materials.38 Kenneth Klassen examined the treatment of nature in St. Nicholas
Mgazn.39 Carolyn Karcher's article describes the history and content of The Juvenile
A review of previous research indicates that children's magazine music has been
overlooked as source material for research into nineteenth century American musical life.
The study of children's magazine music provides a hitherto unexplored direction which
should add to our knowledge of the era and open new avenues for further research.
31 Miller, 1994 and 1986.
36 Joan Berman Mizrahi, "The American Image of Women as Musicians and Pianists, 1850-1900" (D.M.A_
dissertation, University of Maryland, 1989).
37 Mary Herron Dupree, "The Art Music of the United States during the 1920s: A Study of the Major Issues
in Contemporary Periodical Sources" (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Colorado, 1980).
38 Joel D. Shrock, "Images of Manliness: Respectable Manhood in Juvenile Popular Media, 1870-1929"
(Ph.D. dissertation, Miami University, 1996).
39Kenneth Guy Klassen, "The School of Nature: An Annotated Index of Writings on Nature in St. Nicholas
Magazine During the Editorship of Mary Mapes Dodge, 1873-1905" (Ph.D. dissertation, University of
40 Carolyn L. Karcher, "Lydia Maria Child and The Juvenile Miscellany: The Creation of an American
Children's Literature," in Periodical Literature in Nineteenth-Century America, edited by Kenneth M. Price
and Susan Belasco Smith (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1995), p. 90-114.
A HISTORY OF OUR YOUNG FOLKS
Magazines in Nineteenth-Century America
The discussion of general trends in nineteenth-century magazine publishing in the
United States is drawn from Tebbel and Zuckerman' and Smith and Price,2 except as
otherwise noted. Comments on the history of children's magazine publishing come
largely from Lyon.3
The Postal Act of 1794, which permitted distribution of magazines via the United
States mail, set the stage for an explosion of magazine publishing in the following
century. The number of American magazines in circulation grew from 100 in 1825 to
600 in 1850, from 700 in 1865 to 1200 in 1870 and 3300 in 1885. In the 1830s, a number
of factors converged to make periodicals easier to produce: technological advances in
papermaking and printing; less expensive postage; the availability of rail distribution;
increased literacy due to the development of common schools; and a healthy economy
which provided increased leisure time and a corresponding need for entertainment in the
home. Civil-War soldiers who had used books and magazines to fight boredom in camp,
1 John Tebbel and Mary Ellen Zuckerman, The Magazine in America 1741-1990 (New York: Oxford
University Press, 1991).
2 Susan Belasco Smith and Kenneth M. Price, "Introduction: Periodical Literature in Social and Historical
Context," in Periodical Literature in Nineteenth-Century Americai edited by Kenneth M. Price and Susan
Belasco Smith (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1995), p. 3-16.
3Betty Longenecker Lyon, "A History of Children's Secular Magazines Published in the United States from
1789 to 1899" (Ph.D. dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 1942).
along with the rise of public libraries, contributed to the development of a culture in
which reading was a habit. The practice of reading aloud informally for family and
friends helped make magazines a main source of entertainment in the home. The rise of a
robust market for periodicals made it possible to earn a living through writing in the
United States, and virtually all of America's prominent nineteenth-century authors
contributed to journals, magazines, or newspapers during their careers. Magazines were
used to promote books, and this attention was needed to make a book successful
financially. Typically magazines were funded through subscriptions rather than
advertising until the 1890s. The premiums offered to new and renewing subscribers
included books, clothes, tools, and pianos.
Children's magazines shared in this "boom time" for American periodicals. The
first children's magazine published in the United States was The Children's Magazine,
begun in 1789 by the Hudson and Goodwin firm of Hartford. This and the other
magazines produced for children prior to 1826 appeared irregularly and had short life
spans. Lyon4 identifies the first successful juvenile magazine as The Juvenile
Miscellany, published in Boston from 1826 until 1834 and edited by Lydia Child. The
year 1827 saw the advent of The Youth's Companion, a milestone in children's magazine
publishing which would run for one hundred and two years.
Children's magazines before 1900 were typically addressed to both girls and
boys. Betty Lyon has identified three stylistic stages in the history of American children's
4 Betty Longenecker Lyon, "A History of Children's Secular Magazines Published in the United States from
1789 to 1899" (Ph.D. dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 1942), p. 9.
periodicals of the nineteenth century. She called the period from 1789 to 1839 "The First
Fifty Years," 1840-1865 "The Transition Years," and 1865-1899 "The Progressive
Years."5 From 1789 through the end of the 1830s, religious, educational, and reform
messages dominated the content. Reform literature was intended to encourage the
readers' support for social-change movements such as temperance and abolitionism.
From 1840 through the end of the Civil War, educational content was dominant. From
1865 until 1900, the focus in secular magazines became entertainment, and the finest
magazines published the work of the era's best writers and illustrators. Lyon emphasizes
the role that the possibility of publication in children's magazines played in the
development of authors, and thus in the development of literature for all ages:
Many authors who became well known later
as writers for children and adults were encouraged
in the beginning by some discerning editor of a
child's magazine who accepted and printed their
first contributions. This was true of such writers
as Frank Stockton, C.A. Stephens, Jack London,
Richard Harding Davis, Ring Lardner, Horatio
Alger, Jr., and many others.
The decade after the Civil War, when Our Young Folks was published, has been
identified by Kelly as "... perhaps the richest [decade] in the history of American
children's periodicals."7 Urbanization contributed to a growing base of readers; the move
from farm to city created a life in which children had more leisure time which could be
spent reading. The development of children's magazines was stronger in the United
5 Lyon, p. 7.
6 Lyon, p. 1.
7 R. Gordon Kelly, "Preface," in Children's Periodicals of the United States (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood
Press, 1984), p. xxii.
States than in any other nation. Moralism was replaced by content which was more
appealing to children, and secular magazines gained new prominence. The Youth's
Companion had the largest circulation, and St. Nicholas is widely regarded as the most
distinguished children's magazine of the period. Kelly reports that under the editorship
of Mary Mapes Dodge St. Nicholas became the ... preeminent American children's
periodical, a judgment that lapse of time has only enhanced."8
Our Youn! Folks
The description of Our Young Folks which follows is taken from Friedberg9 and
Lyon,10 except as otherwise noted.
Our Young Folks ushered in a new era in American children's periodicals. Lyon
found the magazine to be ". so thoroughly modem in spirit"" that she chose the date
of its founding as the beginning point of her third period in the stylistic history of
children's magazines in the United States.
Our Young Folks: an Illustrated Magazine for Boys and Girls was issued
monthly, beginning in January of 1865 and ending with the December issue of 1873. It
was established in Boston by the publishing firm of Ticknor and Fields, which also
published The Atlantic Monthly. The magazine was a 64-page octavo with an orange
cover and colored title page. The subscription price was $1.50 per year until 1869, when
9 Joan Brest Friedberg, "Our Young Folks: An Illustrated Magazine," in Children's Periodicals of the
United States, edited by R. Gordon Kelly (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1984), p. 329-341.
10 Betty Longenecker Lyon, "A History of Children's Secular Magazines Published in the United States
from 1789 to 1899" (Ph.D. dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 1942), p. 271-276.
Lyon, p. 242.
it was raised to $2.00. This same year the publisher changed from Ticknor and Fields to
Fields, Osgood and Company. The magazine reported a circulation of 50,000 at the end
of 1867 and 76,543 in 1869.
Content included serial and non-serial fiction, non-fiction articles, poetry and
woodcut illustrations. "Round the Evening Lamp" and "Our Letter Box" were featured
departments in all issues. "Round the Evening Lamp" featured charades, puzzles,
rebuses, music, plays, and pantomimes. "Our Letter Box" printed letters from readers
and the editors' replies. A new department was established in 1870, "Our Young
Contributors," which offered stories, poems, and music composed by readers. "Our
Young Contributors" launched the writing career of C.A. Stephens, who went on to write
frequently for Our Young Folks, The Youth's Companion, St. Nicholas, and other
magazines of the time. Another youthful contributor who became an adult writer was
Eudora Stone Bumstead. Our Young Folks was born in the final year of the American
Civil War, and the nation's preoccupation and pain are reflected in numerous pro-Union
and anti-slavery articles and stories.
The original editors of Our Young Folks were John Townsend Trowbridge, Gail
Hamilton (pseudonym of Mary Abigail Dodge), and Lucy Larcom. Hamilton left the
magazine in 1868. As was typical of secular children's periodicals of the era, the editors'
goal was to provide ... entertainment and attractive instruction."12 They published the
work of the excellent authors and illustrators of the time. Distinguished writers who
12 Quoted in John Morton Blum, "Introduction," in Yesterday's Children (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1959),
contributed short stories, articles, or poetry included Harriet Beecher Stowe, Thomas
Bailey Aldrich, Louisa May Alcott, Edward Lear, James Russell Lowell, Mayne Reid,
Charles Dickens, Lucretia P. Hale, John Greenleaf Whittier, and Henry Wadsworth
Longfellow. Longfellow's "Christmas Bells," Aldrich's "The Story of a Bad Boy,"
Lear's "The Owl and the Pussycat," and Hale's "The Peterkin Papers" were first published
in Our Young Folks. The three editors also wrote for the magazine. Trowbridge's
numerous contributions included serials which were later published as books, such as his
"Jack Hazard" series. The commitment to quality extended beyond the writing of prose
and poetry. For example, Winslow Homer is among the illustrators and Mozart,
Beethoven, and Schumann among the composers represented in the pages of the
Most readers were between 10 and 18 years of age. Correspondence in "Our
Letter Box" shows that children were reading the magazine in New England, the Eastern
Seaboard states, Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Missouri, Iowa, Kentucky, Alabama, Colorado,
California, Canada, and abroad. The typical subscriber family was middle- or upper-
middle class, well-educated by the standards of the era, and Protestant.
One young reader who was destined to achieve world renown as an adult was
Theodore Roosevelt. In his autobiography, Roosevelt wrote,
As a small boy I had Our Young Folks,
which I then firmly believed to be the very
best magazine in the world a belief, I may
add, which I have kept to this day unchanged,
for I seriously doubt if any magazine for old
or young has ever surpassed it. Both my wife
and I have the bound volumes of Our Young
Folks which we preserved from our youth.
... my beloved Our Young Folks ... taught
me much more than any of my text-books.'3
Roosevelt biographer Carleton Putnam also emphasized the importance of the
magazine to the future President:
More than casual reference must be made
to the influence upon Theodore during these
first ten years of a magazine called Our
Young Folks.... Reviewing the issues of
the later sixties, one finds in Our Young
Folks a high percentage of articles and
stories on natural history, outdoor life, manly
enterprise, and womanly virtue. They were
invariably written to convey a moral, but
they gained and held the attention by every
wholesome device appealing to the young....
Any child who loved and followed the cast
in Our Young Folks absorbed enough sturdy
principles, kindheartedness, and natural lore to
last a lifetime.14
Our Young Folks ceased publication at the end of 1873 and was absorbed by St.
Nicholas in 1874. Kelly reports that as a result of financial problems, the magazine was
sold to Scribner and Company, which began publishing St. Nicholas in November of
1873.15 Lyon speculates that the heavy losses which Fields, Osgood and Company
sustained in the great Boston fire of 1872 may have been a contributing factor in their
decision to sell the still-successful magazine.'6
Our Young Folks made a significant contribution to the history of American
children's magazines. Lyon chose 1865 as the beginning year for her third stylistic period
13 Theodore Roosevelt, An Autobiographv (New York: Macmillan, 1913), p. 17, 27.
14 Carleton Putnam, Theodore Roosevelt: the Formative Years 1858-1886 (New York: Charles Scribner's
Sons, 1958), p. 28-29.
15 Kelly, "Preface," in Children's Periodicals, p. xxii.
16 Lyon, p. 276.
in the history of children's secular magazines in the United States specifically because
Our Young Folks began publication in that year. She reports that Our Young Folks shows
"... distinct advances over magazines of the previous period."17 Through its success as
one of the first nationally-distributed, high-quality periodicals of the post-War era, it
helped to establish the place of the secular magazine which aimed to educate through
entertainment. In addition, Our Young Folks' influence on St. Nicholas, the
acknowledged jewel of the genre, was considerable. The circulation list of Our Young
Folks was sold to Scribner along with the magazine, and these names helped St. Nicholas
to quickly establish a circulation of 70,000.18 The absorption also enabled St. Nicholas to
acquire new writers, including Our Young Folks editor John Townsend Trowbridge.
Trowbridge joined St. Nicholas as a staff member and leading contributor, thus making
the editorial philosophy of the predecessor a vital factor in the development of the young
magazine. Friedberg summarized Our Young Folks' influence as follows:
"Our Young Folks achieved a standard that
makes it a worthy associate of St. Nicholas
It offered to its readers entertainment,
instruction, and inspiration; expecting much of
them in attention and performance, it
rewarded them by believing them capable of
responding to the best the editors could publish."19
'7 Lyon, p. 7.
"Fred Erisman, "St. Nicholas," in R. Gordon Kelly, Children's Periodicals of the United States (Westport,
Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1984), p. 378.
'9 Friedberg, p. 339.
A SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION OF THE MUSIC IN OUR YOUNG FOLKS
The following description of the music in Our Young Folks is based on inspection
of the printed music, analysis of the database of characteristics found in Appendix I, and
on the database reports, printed in Appendix II.
Fifty-one complete musical works were published in the magazine. The
appearance of printed music is strikingly irregular.
Volume/Year Number of Musical Works
Two of the musical works (4%) are hymns, 22 (43%) are works for piano solo,
and 27 (53%) are pieces for voice and piano. The hymns are settings suitable for group
singing with keyboard accompaniment. All pieces which are purely instrumental are for
The average length in measures is 41.24. The minimum length in measures is 8
and the maximum 183. Thirty-one of the pieces, 60.7% of the total, are organized in a
consistent four-measure phrase pattern.
Among the pieces for voice and piano, the most commonly used form is strophic
(74%). Verse/refrain form also appears (26%). Number of verses ranges from 2 to 7,
with 3 verses being predominant. For the piano works, ABA form is predominant (68%).
Two piano pieces are in AB form, two are rondos, and two are through-composed.
Of the 22 pieces which are purely instrumental, 12 (54.6%) have programmatic
titles. Half of these programmatic titles deal with the out-of-doors. Four are meant to
describe outdoor activities such as farming, boating, and hunting, and two evoke natural
settings. Other programs include gypsies, religion, and soldiering.
Of the 29 pieces which include lyrics, the preponderance, 76%, have words
which deal with the out-of-doors. Sixteen discuss the natural world, including changes of
seasons, animals, and natural features such as the moon. Six more concern activities
which happen out-of-doors, including farm chores, boating, and skating. Three of the
vocal pieces are holiday songs, and only three are set in the home.
Nineteen named composers are represented among these pieces. Three piano
works by Robert Schumann and three by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart were published in
volume four. This volume also includes one piano piece each by Ludwig van Beethoven,
J. N. Hummel (Johann Nepomuk Hummel, 1778-1837), F. Kuhlau (Friedrich Kuhlau,
1786-1832), and Diabelli (probably Antonio Diabelli, 1781-1858). J. R_ Thomas
(perhaps John Rogers Thomas, 1830-1896) contributed eleven compositions for voice
and piano to volume three. Other composers whose work appears in the magazine more
than once include F. Boott (Francis Boott, 1813-1904), T. Crampton, H. M. T., and
Julius Eichberg (1824-1893). Three of the compositions, 5.9%, were definitely written by
women. Four other works, 7.8%, are signed with initials and could have been written by
women. Two composers of piano pieces were readers of the magazine. Mary A. Leland,
who composed "May Polka," was a ten-year-old reader. Fourteen-year-old Sophie Olivier
composed "Apple Blossom Waltz." Both reader-composed works appeared in volume
Eight of the twenty-two instrumental works are arrangements. Julius Eichberg
arranged seven of these from the piano works of Schumann, Mozart. Beethoven, Diabelli,
and Kuhlau. The remaining arranged piece is a piano rendition by Alberti of a melody
from Meyerbeer's opera Les Huguenots. All of the arrangements were done by men.
Julius Eichberg (1824-1892) had a large effect on the music in volume four of
1868, the volume in which music was published most frequently. Eichberg's six
composed pieces and seven arrangements were all published in this volume. All these are
piano works. The composed pieces are of Intermediate difficulty while the arrangements
are Moderately Difficult.
A native of Germany, Eichberg was an active violinist and conductor in Boston
from 1859. He was born in Dusseldorf to a musical family. His violin teachers included
his own father, F.W. Eichler in Mainz, J. Frohlich in Wurzburg, and Julius Rietz in
Dusseldorf. When Rietz arranged for Eichberg to play for Felix Mendelssohn, noted
composer and educator of the day, Mendelssohn concluded that". young Eichberg
joins to [sic] ... a great deal of true expression, which will lead him, I doubt not, to
become a great artist."1 From 1843 until 1845, Eichberg attended the Brussels Royal
Conservatory, from which he graduated with first prizes in violin playing and
composition. His teachers there included Lambert Meerts and Charles-Auguste de Beriot
in violin and Francois-Joseph Fetis in music theory. After graduation, Eichberg spent
eleven years in Geneva, where he served as professor of violin at the Geneva
Conservatory and directed music for an opera troupe and a church. He moved to the
United States in 1857. Eichberg taught and performed in New York for two years, then
moved to Boston.
Eichberg had an active and varied career in Boston as a composer, performer, and
organizer of concerts. From 1859 until 1866, he directed the Boston Museum Concerts.
For this series he composed operettas such as The Doctor of Alcantara, which was
performed in Boston and elsewhere in the country for over twenty years. Eichberg
performed regularly as a recital violinist in the 1860s. In 1862 he performed a series of
concerts with Louis Moreau Gottschalk. The programs included compositions of both
Gottschalk and Eichberg as well as Gottschalk accompanying Eichberg's performance of
the Mendelssohn Violin Concerto and a Mozart sonata.
N A, Eison, "Eichberg, Julius," in Dictionary of American Biography (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons,
1958), p. 58.
Eichberg's most lasting contribution was his work as a pioneering music educator.
He founded one of the country's most distinguished conservatories, and he served as the
first supervisor of music for a large urban public-school system.
Eichberg founded the Boston Conservatory of Music in 1867. One of the
priorities of the new school, which remains in operation to the present day, was to make
high-caliber instruction in music available to talented students with limited financial
resources. Eichberg served as director of the conservatory in addition to teaching violin,
composition, and harmony.
In that same year of 1867, Eichberg began teaching vocal music in Boston public
schools. From 1870 until 1884 he supervised the music program in Boston's public
schools, thus becoming the first supervisor of school music in a large American city.
Eichberg authored numerous textbooks for classroom use, including The High School
According to Judith Tick, the activities of Eichberg, who taught violin to both
males and females and encouraged his female students to perform, were largely
responsible for creating public acceptance of women as violinists. Recitals by Eichberg's
female pupils generated a large amount of favorable publicity. In his prose writing for
such periodicals as Town and Country, Eichberg encouraged the inclusion of women as
players of all musical instruments, and the Boston Herald credited Eichberg with
establishing the participation of girls as players of the violin. The Eichberg Ladies String
2 Julius Eichberg, The High School Music Reader for the Use of Mixed and Boys' High Schools (Boston:
Ginn and Heath, 1876).
Quartette and the Eichberg String Orchestra gave concerts in New York and Boston in
Ten named poets provided lyrics for the vocal sheet music in Our Young Folks.
Emily Huntington Miller wrote the words for fifteen of the songs. Lucy Larcom, an editor
of the magazine, penned the verses for four songs by F. Boott in volume five. A woman
was the lyricist in twenty-three, or 79.3%, of the twenty-nine pieces which include words
for singing. In another three cases, or 10.3%, the lyricist is either unnamed or signed only
intials and could be female. Eudora M. Stone, who wrote the poetry for "The Chickadee"
in volume nine, was a reader of the magazine.
Accompaniments to the vocal pieces are generally chordal. 77.8%, or twenty-one
of the twenty-seven pieces for voice and piano, have piano introductions and postludes.
One of the vocal pieces has a piano introduction but no postlude. None of the twenty-
seven has a piano interlude. An instance of tone painting, where the piano imitates a bird,
is found in the postlude of Thomas' "The Song of the Robin" in volume three. The
introduction and accompaniment, with 6 / 8 phrases, create a barcarole effect in Thomas'
"Boat Song," also in volume three.
In terms of the difficulty of the keyboard parts, thirty-three pieces (64.8%) are
Intermediate and the remainder are Moderately Difficult.
3 Judith Tick, "Passed Away Is the Piano Girl: Changes in American Musical Life, 1870-1900," in Women
Making Music, edited by Jane Bowers and Judith Tick (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1986).
Ten different keys are used in the fifty-one pieces. The major keys of C, G, and F
are most prevalent. A key with four flats or sharps appears only twice.
Number of Occurrences
Four pieces have modulations. In two of these, the modulation is from A Minor to
A Major and back. In one, D major modulates to G Major and back. A third relation is
used in one piece which modulates from A minor to F Major and back.
In regard to meter, time signatures of 2 / 4,4 / 4 or Common Time, and 6 / 8 are
most prevalent. The time signature changes in two pieces, in one from Common Time to
2 / 4 and in the other from Common Time to 3 / 4. The capitol C to indicate Common
Time appears thirteen times, while 4 / 4 appears only once.
Number of Occurrences
4/4 or C
Forty-one of the fifty-one pieces have opening tempo markings. Allegretto is used
most often, having sixteen occurrences or 39%.
Not too fast
Vivace con grazia.
Number of Occurrences
An opening dynamic marking appears in twenty-eight, or 54.9%, of the fifty-one
pieces. Piano (p), the most prevalent opening dynamic, is used fifteen times (29.4%).
Thirty-eight (74.5%) of the pieces show varying internal dynamic markings.
The vocal solos are for treble voice and typically have a range of either an octave
and a third or an octave and a fourth. Nine pieces, including the two hymn settings,
include part singing, descending into the bass range in three cases. Keyboard range
typically spans at least two octaves. The strong diatonicism of the pieces is expressed in
the range, with vocal ranges most often reaching to a third or a fourth above the tonic and
the keyboard ranges to a fourth below the tonic.
ANALYSES OF THE MUSICAL WORKS IN OUR YOUNG FOLKS
The analyses which follow are based on examination of the music. Each work is
identified by title, followed by volume, year, and name of month, followed thereafter by
the page number on which the music may be found. The volume number, year, and name
of month are separated by hyphens.
Winter Song: 2-1866-February, 124
The first publication of sheet music in Our Young Folks occurred during the
second year of the magazine's existence, in February. Appropriately for February in
Boston, the topic of the lyrics is winter. This is one of the fifteen songs in Our Young
Folks for which Emily Huntington Miller wrote the words. For three of those fifteen
efforts, including this one, the composer is named as H. M. T.
The poetry features two verses. Each stanza is eight lines long. The rhyme scheme
is abcbdefe. The most common poetic foot used is the dactyl, with an occasional iamb.
Winter is anthropomorphized as a king. Perhaps as wishful thinking, Winter is portrayed
as joyful and gleeful.
Hurrah for the jolly old Winter!
The king of the year is he;
Though his breath is cold and icy,
His heart is full of glee.
He piles up the beautiful snowflakes
On the apple trees bare and brown;
And laughs when the north wind shakes them,
Like a shower of blossoms, down.
Hurrah for the jolly old Winter!
He shouts at the door by night;
"Come out where the ice is gleaming
Like steel in the cold moonlight.
Like swallows over the water
The skaters merrily go;
There is health in the blustering breezes
And joy in the beautiful snow."
The preoccupation with nature, which is a distinguishing characteristic of the
music in Our Young Folks, is evident in this piece. The lyrics emphasize natural
phenomena including wind, snow, trees, ice, and moonlight. King Winter extols his
listeners to come outside into the invigorating cold and skate.
The musical work is for voice and piano. The piano serves merely as
accompaniment. The bass of the piano consists largely of eighth notes, and the treble
piano part duplicates the vocal line. The piece is of intermediate difficulty for the pianist.
There are a few minor misalignments between the treble and bass parts, typically
occurring when the treble part has a Scotch snap which must be coordinated with even
eight notes in the bass. Measure two and measure ten furnish examples of this. Another
misalignment is found in measure thirteen, where sixteenth notes in the treble are aligned
with eight notes in the bass. In general, however, alignment is accurate and the
misalignments which occur would not provide a significant obstacle to the performer.
The key is C major. The vocal range is a minor tenth. The singer's notes extend
upward to g", with a g" occurring in points of melodic and rhythmic stress in measures
three and thirteen. The vocal range of the piece offers an example of evidence that adults
were involved in the use of these musical works in the home, since melodic and rhythmic
stress on g" would be difficult for most children.
Nutting Son2: 2-1866-October, 630-31
Another of Miller's collaborations with H. M. T. appears in Nutting Song. The
poetry in this piece is composed of three stanzas, each of which consists of eight iambic
lines. The rhyme scheme for verses one and three is abcbdefe; for the second verse the
rhyme scheme is ababcded. The theme of the out-of-doors again is used. The song depicts
an outing to gather nuts under a "yellow moon" and a "frosty sky." Uncharacteristic of
the magazine is the identification of this outing as a boys' activity; as was typical of
children's magazines of the era, most features in Our Young Folks are aimed at children
of both sexes.
In comparison to Winter Song, Nutting Song is noticeably more complex from a
musical standpoint. The pianistic difficulty is moderately difficult. The piano does not
double the voice in this work. The piano accompaniment is more varied rhythmically.
There is a piano prelude of four measures and a piano postlude of four measures. The
prelude and postlude both use melodic material from the vocal line. The postlude features
sixteenth-note scalewise runs. Harmonic interest within the F major tonality is provided
by movement from the tonic chord to a sustained fully diminished seven of five chord (B
natural, F, Ab, and D) in measures twenty-one and twenty-two, which is approximately
midway in the piano postlude. The diminished seven of five chord is immediately
preceded by an Eb melodic sixteenth-note appoggiatura, and it moves to a dominant
seventh chord which resolves to the tonic chord. The diminished seven of five chord
provides heightened tension by delaying, and thus emphasizing, the movement to the
dominant seven chord. The use offermatas over both the diminished seven of five chord
and the dominant seven chord further contributes to the dramatic harmonic novelty of the
There are some minor misalignments in the prelude and postlude.
Skating Song: 2-1866-December, 766-67
Miller's final work with H. M. T. was Skating Song from the December 1866
issue. The appearance of this work in the December issue maintains the practice of
publishing songs related to the season in which the issue appears. The theme of nature
and outside activity is also maintained. This song again describes a group activity out-of-
doors. Natural features including icicles and moonlight are mentioned. The setting of the
activity is near a village with a church steeple. The song has two dactylic verses and a
rhyme scheme of ababcdcd.
This piece features a piano prelude and postlude of four measures apiece. As was
seen in Nutting Song, the postlude includes scalar runs. The Bb Major key is consistent.
This work includes a change in tempo, a slowing down in measures thirteen through
sixteen, for the phrases "We wait till the shadows are dusky and long" and "Then home to
the dear ones that love us the best," followed by an a tempo.
New-Year Song: 3-1867-January, 58-60
For twelve of her contributions as a writer of song lyrics for Our Young Folks,
Miller collaborated with composer J. R. Thomas. New-Year Song from volume three was
the first such joint effort. Appropriately the song appears in the January issue. The two
iambic verses have a rhyme scheme of ababcdcd. The New Year is depicted as a young
baby whose arrival is greeted with gladness and without regret for the passing year.
The C major tonality remains constant throughout the piece. There is a piano
prelude and postlude. The piano interlude between the two verses is identical to the
postlude. A notable feature of the song are frequent tempo variations, ritards followed by
returns to the original tempo, which add expressiveness to the lyrics. Other noticeable
characteristics includefermatas in the voice part and staccato in the piano interlude and
J. R. Thomas is quite possibly John Rogers Thomas, who was born in Wales in
1830 and died in New York in 1896. Thomas lived in the United States from 1849 and
was a successful baritone soloist, particularly in oratorio. He composed several songs
which were popular at the time, including Rose of Killamev in 1876. His cantata The
Picnic is a work for children.'
Nicholas E. Tawa, "Thomas, John Rogers," in New Grove Dictionary of American Music (London:
Macmillan, 1986), v. 4, p. 378-379; "Thomas, John Rogers," in Baker's Biographical Dictionary of
Musicians (8eh ed., 1991), p. 1875.
Winter Night: 3-1867-February, 122-24
Emily Miller repeats the pattern of using seasons and the outdoors as poetic
subject matter in Winter Night, another collaboration with Thomas. Each of the three
stanzas in this poem consists of eight lines with a rhyme scheme of abcbdefe. The poetic
feet used are trochees and spondees.
The lyrics depict a Winter Night at home. While it is cold outside, the people
inside are listening to a singer who is reminding them of warmer days.
Several expressive devices are seen in both vocal and instrumental parts. These
include contrasting dynamic markings ofpp, p, andff, crescendi and decrescendi,
fermatas, and variations in tempo. The piano introduction is played chiefly in the treble
clef, offering a contrast in register to the remainder of the work. Staccato is indicated in
both vocal and piano parts. As was seen in the previous piece, Thomas provides an
identical interlude and postlude for piano alone which is characterized by scalewise
Night Winds: 3-1867-March, 186-87
Night Winds represents another joint effort from Miller and Thomas. Again the
theme is nature, with wind and the seasons mentioned prominently in the poetry. In this
song the wind is personified and described as a voice. There are three trochaic verses
with abcbdefe used as the rhyme scheme.
The key of A Major is constant throughout the piece. Expressive devices include
fermatas, varying dynamics, and accent marks. This piece gives an example of tone
painting in the use of sixteenth notes, alternating at the interval of a minor second, in both
bass and treble staves of the piano part to depict the wind in measures one through three,
six, and eight. There is a four-measure piano introduction and a two-measure piano
postlude. The prelude and postlude use melodic material not found in the vocal part.
These two sections both end with a dotted-eighth and sixteenth note rhythmic figure.
The Song of the Robin: 3-1867-April, 250-51
Miller and Thomas' Song of the Robin continues their pattern of contributing
songs related to nature and to the season of the issue. As the title of the song suggests, the
robin is depicted as a singer, and the emphasis in the poem is on the songs of the bird.
Other natural features are also mentioned in the words, including rain, wind, sunshine,
roses, and the bird's migration. There are two verses. The rhyme scheme used is
aabbccbb, and the most frequently used poetic foot is the dactyl.
This is one of the few pieces in Our Young Folks which has a 3 / 8 time signature.
The piano accompaniment shows alternation between single bass notes under sixteenth-
note arpeggiated treble chords and sustained bass notes with treble rhythmic chords. The
piano introduction features melodic material from the vocal part followed by scalar runs.
The piano postlude, measures forty-one through forty-eight, shows one of the most
interesting instances of tone painting in Our Young Folks. Accented sixteenth-notes at
the interval of a minor second in the treble piano provide a very convincing musical
representation of a robin's call (see Figure 1).
Maying: 3-1867-May, 315-16
This song continues the practice of publishing an appropriate seasonal song by the
team of Miller and Thomas. The poetry depicts a happy spring outing as has long been
associated with the custom of Maying. Several features of a natural landscape, such as
hills, wild flowers, bees, singing birds, and poplar trees, are mentioned in the song. The
occasion is a celebration of the departure of "the dreary hours of winter." The three
stanzas show a rhyme scheme of abcbdefe and trochaic versification.
In comparison to such Miller and Thomas collaborations as Night Winds and The
Song of the Robin, the piano accompaniment in Maying is extremely simple. The pianist
plays block staccato chords almost exclusively. There is a two-measure introduction
which consists only of soft block chords. A more melodic four-measure piano postlude
uses a rhythmic pattern of dotted-quarter followed by three eighth notes which is
characteristic of the vocal melody. Varying dynamics, includingp,f, and crescendo, are
used. This is one of the few pieces in Our Young Folks which calls for optional part
singing. The work opens with the direction "For One or Two Voices." A two part treble
duet is notated. The upper part is in the soprano range and the lower in the alto range. The
intervals between the two voices are chiefly thirds and sixths.
A Son! of the Roses: 3-1867-June, 378-80
Thomas and Miller again contribute a nature-based song. The words extol the
roses blooming outside as being superior to splendid castles and fine art. The open red
rose is compared to a queen, with her "red robes" and "jewels of dew." Both poetry and
music are verse and refrain form. The rhyme scheme of the verses is abab while the
rhyme scheme of the refrain is cded. The predominant poetic foot is dactylic.
The key of Ab Major is one of the more difficult keys appearing in this magazine
music. A Song of the Roses is one of the few pieces of music in Our Young Folks which
calls for four-part chorus. The verses are scored for a solo treble voice, with a mezzo-
soprano range. The refrain is repeated, the first time by the solo singer and the second
time by the four-part chorus. The use of tenor and bass voices in this work provides
another bit of evidence that adults were involved in performing this music. The Allegretto
tempo is typical of the musical works in Our Young Folks. Outside of the use of four flats
in the key signature, the piano writing is relatively unadventuresome in comparison to
some of Thomas' other pieces. The work is devoid of dynamic markings or tempo
changes. While accompanying the singers, the pianist plays only chords divided between
the two hands. The piano introduction and postlude are identical. As a result, the same
four-measure phrase is heard four times, at the beginning, the end, and as an interlude
Making Hay: 3-1867-July, 442-43
Miller and Thomas again provide a song about an outdoor activity. Haymaking is
a common job to be done on the farm in mid-summer. This depiction of a farm task may
represent a nostalgic look back at a life which the readers of Our Young Folks would not
live as their parents did. Urban children were more likely than farm dwellers to have
enough time to read a monthly magazine. Another reason to suspect that this song is more
nostalgia than reality for the readers is the tone. The making of hay, which is an arduous,
sweaty task for young and old alike, is characterized with a "tra la la" refrain, and the
children are described as eagerly creating garlands out of the byproducts of the mowing.
Children who were actually at hand during a hay harvest would more likely have been
hard at work alongside the adults. This song has four stanzas. The music and poetry are in
verse and refrain form. The poetic feet alternate between trochees and dactyls. The verses
show a rhyme scheme of aabb, while the rhyme scheme of the refrain is cc. The "tra la la"
syllables of the refrain are characterized by anapestic poetic feet in measures eighteen
The C Major tonality is consistent throughout, with a brief use of secondary
dominant in measure sixteen. The only dynamic marking used is p. The eight-measure
piano introduction opens with melodic material from the vocal line. The four measure
postlude, which also serves as an interlude between verses, is identical to the final four
measures of the introduction.
Summer Morning: 3-1867-August, 506-07
Thomas and Miller's contribution to the August issue of 1867 is another song
about the season. Summer Morning returns to strophic form. The three verses show one
of Miller's more complex rhyme schemes, aabbcccb. The words describe a experience
out-of-doors in summer and mention natural features including birds, mountains, forests,
In comparison to Making Hay and A Song of the Roses, there are many more
expressive notations in Summer Morning. Dynamic indications include p, crescendo, and
decrescendo. The pianist is expected to execute various articulations such as staccato and
accents. Afermata in the piano introduction appears at the apex of a crescendo and is
followed immediately by a soft dynamic. Afermata on fP appears in the vocal writing. As
he did in Making Hay, Thomas scored an eight-measure piano introduction and a four-
measure postlude which is identical to the last four measures of the introduction.
Boat Song: 3-1867-September, 571-72
The New Harvard Dictionary of Music defines barcarole as "A song of the
Venetian gondoliers, or a vocal or instrumental composition modeled on such a song. In
the latter, a rhythmically repetitive accompaniment, usually in moderate 6 / 8 or
12/8 meter, evokes the motion of a boat in the waves."2 Thomas and Miller's Boat Song
in the September 1867 issue fits this definition well. The Allegretto tempo mark, the
2 Entry "Barcarole," in New Harvard Dictionary of Music (Cambridge: Bellnap Press, 1986), p. 77.
most commonly used in Our Young Folks, can be described as an indication of a
moderate tempo. The time signature is 6 / 8. In each of the thirty measures except one,
the piano part features six eighth notes connected by slurs into two groups of three eighth
notes apiece. In the introduction and postlude, these groups of eighth notes appear in the
bass. During the verses, the eighth notes move to the treble clef of the piano part. The
eighth-note patterns which imitate the movement of the boat along the water remains
consistent. Thomas repeats his pattern of writing an eight-measure introduction and a
four-measure postlude, the postlude being identical to the second half of the introduction.
Triple motives using a half step are seen in introduction, postlude, and vocal line.
Expressive marks are relatively sparse, although one dynamic marking of/is found near
the end of measure seven. The four-measure phrase structure is broken in the final phrase
of the verse, measures 21 through 26, where a six-measure phrase and afermata on the
peak note of the vocal line, e", are used.
The poetry features four verses. The rhyme scheme is ababbcded. The poetic feet
used are dactyls and spondees. Consistent with other of Miller's songs, the outdoor
activity is depicted as very pleasant.
Beautiful Summer: 3-1867-October, 634-35
In Beautiful Summer, Thomas alters his pattern in writing of piano introductions
and postludes by offering a shorter introduction than postlude. In this piece, which is in 3
/ 4 time, the introduction is eight measures long. The postlude is ten measures long.
Another change from Thomas's frequent practice is that the musical material in the
introduction differs from that of the postlude. The introduction is characterized by jump-
bass quarter notes and by quarter and half notes in the treble. In the postlude, the
dominant musical figure is eighth note arpeggios The bass part in the postlude the
dominant musical figure is running eighth notes in the treble, matched with quarter notes
and quarter rests in the bass.
This piece offers another piece of evidence for musical collaboration between
children and adults in the home, as the work calls for a vocal trio of soprano, alto, and
baritone. The form is strophic. The first half of each verse is for a solo singer with a
mezzo-soprano range. The second half of each verse, designated "Trio" in the score,
features a soprano part which reaches to f' and a baritone part which extends downward
to Bb. The range of the second soprano part in the Trio is the same as the range of the
solo voice part. Perhaps one of the children sang the solo vocal part then took the
harmony part when Mother and Father joined in singing the Trio section.
There is no initial tempo marking in this work, which is another of Thomas and
Miller's joint efforts. The Trio section is marked "A little Faster." This song, published as
October began to herald the coming winter, expresses longing for the
summer which is past. As is frequently seen in the songs in Our Young Folks, the natural
world is the theme.
November: 3-1867-November, 699-700
Thomas and Miller collaborated again on November. The form of this piece is
strophic, with the last line of each verse, "And stormy winds are loud," remaining
constant. Atypically for song in Our Young Folks, a brisk tempo of Moderately Fast is
indicated. The accompaniment is characterized by arpeggiated chords. Expressive
devices are confined to a single dynamic marking, f in measure eighteen and afermata
over f in the same measure.
The poetry consists of three verses. The rhyme scheme, abcbddde, is atypically
complex. The iambic poetic meter is consistent throughout. The lyrics describe the "old
year" which is drawing to a close. The old year is personified as a king who looks back
on the delightful outdoor life of the previous seasons, including the red roses of May and
the grapes of autumn, yet has no regret for the passage of time. Miller's interest in writing
verses about nature is continued in this effort.
Pictures in the Fire: 3-1867-December, 761-62
Pictures in the Fire is an appropriate offering for a December issue. In keeping
with the nature themes of Thomas and Miller's previous songs, the visions which the
sleepy children see in the fire include blooming flowers, bees, and birds of a spring and
summer yet to come.
This is a strophic song of three verses in the key of D Major. The piano
introduction and postlude are identical in length, which is not typical of Thomas' writing.
The introduction features the melodic material of the opening two measures of the voice
part. The postlude, which also functions as an interlude between verses, consists of
hocket-like alternation between sixteenth notes in the bass and treble. The same hocket-
like figure supports the penultimate phrase of the vocal verse. The often used opening
tempo of Allegretto remains constant except for a rallentando in the final two measures.
Expressive devices are more numerous than in some of Miller and Thomast other works.
Articulation marks include staccato and slurs in the piano part and one accent mark for
the voice part. Dynamic indications include p and crescendo. An unusual device for
Thomas is afermata on a rest in all parts on the last half-beat of measure twenty-two.
Children's Hymn: 4-1868-January, 60
Volume four of 1868, the volume in which music appears most frequently, saw
the end of J. R. Thomas' and Emily Huntington Miller's contributions to the music in Our
Young Folks and the beginning of Julius Eichberg's participation. This change resulted in
a shift away from the nature-centered pieces for voice and piano which Thomas and
Miller produced toward the type of pieces which Eichberg favored. It is reasonable to
suppose that the large number of instrumental works, many of them by recognized
composers, which appear in volume four are there because of Eichberg's activity and
The first musical work to be published in volume four, Children's Hymn, was
composed by F. Weber, who is identified as "Organist of the Royal German Chapel, St.
James Palace, London." This is a composition in the style that one would expect from a
church organist writing a hymn for children. It is a four-part setting in note-against-note
style which calls for soprano, alto, tenor, and bass voices (see Figure 2).
This is one of very few overtly religious pieces of music to be found in Our
Young Folks. The words by Mrs. Anna M. Wells are organized into four verses.
Interestingly, this piece combines a sacred theme with the preoccupation with the natural
world which was seen so frequently in the songs in previous issues of Our Young Folks.
The singers entreat the Father to enable them to live as pure a life as that enjoyed by the
lilies and the stars.
Child's Evening Prayer: 4-1868-February, 122
Another of the few religious pieces of music in Our Young Folks is the Child's
Evening Prayer in the February issue of 1868. This is the first piece of music in the
magazine by Julius Eichberg and the first purely instrumental work to be seen in the
periodical. The work is programmatic in the sense that it is an instrumental piece with an
extra-musical, descriptive title.
Although there are no words, the style of musical writing is reminiscent of a
hymn. The setting is almost exclusively in note-against-note style. The ranges of the
piano lines are appropriate to the ranges of soprano, alto, tenor, and bass singing voices.
The initial tempo marking of Andante is not unusual in Our Young Folks. The
tonality is C Major. There are several expressive devices in the piece. Dynamic
indications include pp, p, crescendo, and diminuendo. In measure thirteen, the
designation rinf., the abbreviation for rinforzando, appears. This infrequently used term is
a synonym for sforzando.3 A harmonic device characteristic of Eichberg's compositions
in Our Young Folks is found in measure two, in the use of a half-step passing tone which
is outside the key. In measure two of this piece, a G#, which is preceded by a G and
3 Entry "Rinforzando," in New Harvard Dictionary of Music (Cambridge: Belknap Press, 1986), p. 708.
followed by an A, sounds along with C and E, creating an augmented triad which
introduces an unexpected harmonic sound.
Melody for Piano: 4-1868-February, 123-24
Eichberg followed Child's Evening Prayer with the first instance of absolute
music in Our Young Folks, also in the February 1868 issue. His Melody for Piano is
forty-three measures in length. The piece is in G Major, the most commonly-used key in
Our Young Folks. The meter signature is 3 / 4. The dominant rhythmic characteristic is a
consistent pattern of eighth-note triplets. These triplets occur chiefly in the bass. There
are several examples of treble eighth notes superimposed on the flowing triplet rhythm,
including the second and third beats of measure five and the second and third beats of
measure twenty-three. Dynamic markings include pp, p, crescendo, diminuendo, andf
Fingering numbers and one pedal mark are indicated.
The characteristic half-step passing tone is used in measures four, thirty-one, and thirty-
Gypsies in the Village: 4-1868-March, 186-88
The following month, another of Eichberg's compositions and one of the more
complex pieces to grace the pages of Our Young Folks was published. Gypsies in the
Village is one-hundred and five measures in length (see Figure 3). The length is not the
only indicator of the relative complexity of the work, however. The piece is definitely in
the range of Moderately Difficult. The meter signature is 2 / 4. The opening tempo of
Allegretto is altered by six instances of ritardando. The form is ABA, which is typical of
the piano pieces in Our Young Folks. This is one of the few pieces in the magazine to be
in a minor key and one of the few to use a modulation. The opening key of A Minor
moves to the parallel major, A Major, for the B section, then returns to the original key of
A Minor for the recapitulation section. Rhythmically the A section is characterized by
patterns of staccato eighth notes and slurred sixteenth notes. Syncopation in a pattern of
eighth-quarter-eighth notes is seen in measures thirty-one through thirty-four. The grace
notes seen in measures twenty-five through twenty-seven and thirty-one through thirty-
four create an imitation of a gypsy violin sound. The B section features quarter notes and
eighth notes in the treble set against eight-note triplet figures in the bass. The addition of
pedal in the B section provides yet another contrast to the A section. Fingering numbers
exist in both right- and left-hand parts. Ledger lines in the A section take the bass part as
high as a'.
The difficulty of this selection serves as another piece of evidence that adults used
the music in this children's magazine. To perform this piece at home would require an
accomplished amateur, child or adult.
Melody: 4-1868-March, 188
Also in the March issue, Eichberg follows the challenging Gypsies in the Village
with a shorter, simpler work of absolute music. In comparison to Gypsies in the Village,
Melody offers many fewer demands technically (see Figure 3). Melody opens with an
Andantino tempo indication and an expressive instruction of dolce. Quarter notes and
eighth notes predominate in the A section of this straightforward piece. There is no
opening dynamic indication, but dynamic markings ofp,f, crescendo, and decrescendo
appear later in the piece. Appogiaturas which resolve upward by half-step are used
repeatedly in the bass, particularly in section A of the ABA form. Section B is
distinguished from Section A by shorter note values, with eighth notes predominating and
a few dotted-eighth-sixteenth note patterns used. Syncopated rhythm patterns of eighth-
quarter-eighth notes, with accent marks over the quarter notes, are evident in the bass part
of the B section in measures ten, eleven, fourteen, and fifteen. Another difference
between the sections is the faster tempo, piu vivo, indicated for the B section.
The Happy Farmer: 4-1868-April, 249-50
Robert Schumann is the first composer who is renowned today to make an
appearance in the pages of Our Young Folks. This piano piece with a programmatic title
carries no indication of having been arranged from the original. In this melodic, sprightly
piece in ABA form, Schumann places the melody in the A section in the bass, which is
atypical of the musical works in Our Young Folks. The bass melody is accompanied by
alternating eighth-note chords and eighth rests in the treble part. The opening tempo of
Allegretto scherzando remains consistent. Articulation marks include slurs, accents
marks, and staccato indications under slurs.
This piece of music, in being a piece of instrumental music with a bucolic
program, provides further evidence of the readers' and editors' interest in the outdoors and
in an idealized rural life.
Andante Cantabile: 4-1868-April, 250-51
Eichberg showed his interest in promulgating the works of major composers by
arranging this piece by Mozart. This work falls definitely into the Moderately Difficult
designation. The bass is characterized by Alberti figures over sustained notes. Rhythmic
configurations in the treble include dotted-eighth-sixteenth patterns, dotted eighth notes
followed by two thirty-second notes, and sextuplets. Dynamic indications include pp, p,
f,ff, and decrescendi.
Turkish March: 4-1868-May, 312-15
This piece is an arrangement by Eichberg of Mozart's Rondo "alla Turca" from
his Piano Sonata in A. K. 331. Alla turca, the direction with which this piece opens,
means "In the Turkish style," meaning in imitation of Turkish military music, which
became popular in Europe in the late 18'h century. "4 Like Eichberg's Gypsies in the
Village, this Mozart arrangement modulates from A minor to the parallel major.
The pianistic demands include grace notes in both treble and bass, repeated notes
and Alberti patterns in the bass, and running sixteenth-note passages consisting of scales
and thirds. It is one of the longer works in the magazine at 183 measures. This piece, in
another similarity to Gypsies in the Village, is well-deserving of the designation of
4 Entry "Al/a turca," in New Harvard Dictionary of Music (Cambridge: Belknap Press, 1986), p. 885.
From the "Serenade." Op. 8: 4-1868-May, 315
Another Eichberg arrangement appears in the May issue, this time from the
compositions of Beethoven. From the "Serenade." Op. 8 is a relatively short piece of
thirty-two measures in AB form. It is a lyrical work which has Andante and dolce as
opening designations. Dynamic indications include pp, p,f crescendi, and descrescendi.
Rhythmic configurations such as dotted-eighth-sixteenth note patterns
and dotted-eighth notes followed by thirty-second notes are seen. Brief sixteenth note
scalar passages are also used.
In the March issue, Eichberg paired a Moderately Difficult piece, Gvpsies in the
Village, with a less demeaning work, Melody. He appears to have taken a similar
approach in the May issue. Although From the "Serenade" warrants a difficulty
designation of Moderately Difficult due to the amount of rhythmic independent between
parts, it is nonetheless true that From the "Serenade" is noticeably less demanding
pianistically than is the other piece in the same issue, Gypsies in the Village. In each
case, Eichberg was apparently attempting to provide musical works for pianists of
varying skill levels within the same issue of the magazine.
Children Soldiers: 4-1868-June, 377-78
The two musical works in the June 1868 issue are both original compositions of
Eichberg. Children Soldiers is a sprightly piece in march style. Common time is the
meter. The form is ABA and the key is C Major. The difficulty range is Intermediate.
Rhythmically, the A section is characterized by dotted-eighth-sixteenth patterns, while
the B section uses more eighth notes more consistently. The bass accompaniment consists
chiefly of eighth notes separated by eighth rests. One point of contrast between the A and
B sections is dynamics. In the A section, the dynamic designations arefandff The B
section shows more dynamic variation in using pp, p,f, andff
Venetian Barcarole: 4-1868-June, 378-80
The second "boat song" in Our Young Folks shows the consistent rhythmic
patterns in the accompaniment which are part of the definition of the barcarole.
Typically the meter is 6 / 8. In this Eichberg piece, the bass part consists mainly of
eighth notes or of quarter-note-eighth-note configurations. The opening tempo mark of
Allegretto is commonly seen in Our Young Folks. A variety of dynamic levels is
indicated, including p, mf,f,ff, crescendo, and diminuendo. Articulations required include
slurs and staccato. A Da Capo al Fine construction makes clear the ABA form of the
piece and saves page space. The most notable item of contrast between the A and B
sections is a change of key which uses a third relation. The A section is in the key of A
minor, while the B section is in the key ofF Major. Occasional grace notes are used in
the melody, which is consistently played in the treble. A ritard is used in measure twenty-
one, immediately preceding a return of the initial melody.
A comparison of Eichberg's Venetian Barcarole to Miller and Thomas' Boat Song
offers an interesting juxtaposition. Eichberg's work is a piece of instrumental music. He
uses expressive devices such as varying dynamics and contrasting articulations.. Thomas
and Miller produced a work for solo voice and piano. Although the rhythmic pattern of
the accompaniment shows very little variety in Thomas' setting, contrast is achieved by
changing the register by moving the accompaniment pattern from bass to treble and back.
The case could be made that these pieces, which both fit the definition of
barcarole and which both maintain the trend of emphasizing out-of-door activities in the
music in Our Young Folks, are very similar. However, Eichberg's differing status and
values as a German immigrant musician are made clear. Eichberg points out his European
outlook and classical training by his choice of title words, by calling his piece a Barcarole
and adding the qualifier Venetian. Miller and Thomas used the very common words Boat
Song for their title. The difference between a domestic composer who may well have
been an amateur and a professional immigrant musician who was actively purveying the
Germanic classical tradition in his new homeland can be seen in this small contrasted
Readers' Song: 4-1868-July, 442-43
Another piece by Robert Schumann appears in the July 1868 issue. This work has
similarities to the Schumann work previously seen in Our Young Folks, The HM
Farmer. In spite of the use of Song as a title word, both are piano solos. Both have
descriptive titles on a bucolic theme. Both are of Intermediate difficulty.
A contrast is seen in the meter. The Happy Farmer is in 4 / 4, while Reapers' Song
is in 6 / 8. Another difference is in the form. Reapers' Song is a rondo, while The HaVpv
Farmer shows ABA form.
Reapers' Song is characterized rhythmically by consistent eighth notes, mainly in
the treble. The consistent rhythm patterns imitate the regular motion of a hand scythe or
other cutting tool. Grace notes are used in the melody. Articulation requirements include
accents and a contrast between slurred phrases and staccato eighth notes.
This piece offers an interesting comparison to another of Miller and Thomas'
songs, Making Hay. The subject matter of both is harvesting activities on the farm. Each
work makes a clear contribution to the theme of out-of-door activity so often seen in the
music in Our Young Folks. Both pieces are in 6 / 8 meter, and both are in the key of C.
The overall length is different, at 44 measures for the Schumann piece to 26 measures for
Making Hay. The characterizing rhythm pattern is different; in Making Hay, the pattern
of eighth notes separated by eighth rests is noticeable in the bass, while the dominant
rhythmic movement in Reapiers' Song is consistent eighth notes in the treble. The opening
tempo indications show an interesting contrast, with Lively being used in Making Hay
and Not too fast seen in Reapers' Song. The most obvious difference between the two
pieces is the fact that the Thomas and Miller work is scored for solo voice and piano,
while the Schumann is a piano solo.
Evening Song: 4-1868-July, 444
Evening Song by C. Spindler, the other musical offering in the July 1868 issue,
shows contrast to Schumann's Reapers' Song. The meter is different, with the Schumann
work using 6/8 while the Spindler piece shows Common Time. Evening Song uses one
of the more complex keys found in Our Young Folks, E Major, while Reapers' Song is in
the key of C.
The opening tempo indication in Evening Song is Quietly. Numerous finger
numbers appear, particularly in the treble part. Rhythmically, eighth notes and quarter
notes predominant. This is another example of an instrumental work carrying the title
Polonaise: 4-1868-August, 505-07
The New Harvard Dictionary of Music defines polonaise as "A festive,
processional, couple dance of Polish origin in a moderate tempo.... In the 18th century,
the stylized instrumental polonaise acquired the characteristics thereafter considered
typical: moderate tempo, triple meter, lack of upbeats, and repetition of thythmic
figures. "5 The Polonaise in Our Young Folks, composed by Diabelli and arranged by
Julius Eichberg, shows all of these features. The meter signature is 3 / 4. Phrases begin on
the downbeat. There is no opening tempo marking, so a moderate speed can be assumed.
A syncopated rhythm pattern of an eighth note followed by a quarter note is characteristic
of the melody; examples are seen in measures one, five, and seventeen. The melody is
further characterized by scalar passages of sixteenth notes. Articulation indications
include accent marks, staccato, and sforzandi. The difficulty falls into the Moderately
5 Entry "Polonaise," in New Harvard Dictionary of Music (Cambridge: Belknap Press, 1986), p. 644.
Andantino: 4-1868-August, 507
In the August 1868 issue, Eichberg continues his pattern of providing a piece of
moderate pianistic difficulty alongside a work which is considerably less demanding.
Kuhlau's Andantino, arranged by Eichberg, is of Intermediate difficulty. The meter
signature of both pieces in this issue is 3 / 4. However, the Andantino is a slower, more
sustained work than the preceding Polonaise. The piece opens with the designations Con
expressioine and Sostenuto. Smorzando, which means "Dying away,"6 is indicated in
measures seven and eight and again in measure twenty-three. The expected dynamic is
soft throughout, with pp, p, crescendo, and decrescendo indicated. The feminine stress is
obvious at the cadences, such as in measures eight, sixteen, and twenty-four.
Hunting Song: 4-1868-September, 569-70
Appropriately placed in the September issue is another piece by Schumann with a
programmatic title depicting an outdoor activity. Hunting Song is arranged by Julius
Eichberg. The piece opens with an obvious hunting call, in unison between treble and
bass registers. The remainder of the work shows the same rhythm patterns and emphasis
on intervals of a fourth or fifth as seen in the opening passage.
A comparison of Schumann's Hunting Song to his Reapers' Song is instructive.
Both are works for piano which are called "songs." Both are in 6 / 8 meter. The difficulty
of both rests in the Intermediate category. Reapers' Song is somewhat longer, having 44
6 Entry "Smorzando," in New Harvard Dictionary of Music (Cambridge: Belknap Press, 1986), p. 754.
measures to 36 measures in Hunting Song. The dynamics show contrast. Reapers' Song is
generally soft, with eight measures offorte in the middle of the piece for contrast. The
Hunting Song, as is appropriate for the hunting call on which it is based, is mainly loud,
with two instances of a soft echo figure in measures nineteen and twenty-three providing
brief dynamic variety.
Andante Gracioso: 4-1868-September, 570
Eichberg returns to Mozart as the composer of his next arrangement for Our
Young Folks. The Andante Gracioso is in A major and is 26 measures in length.
Sforzandi and piano are the only dynamic markings used. The predominant rhythmic
figure in this piece in 6 / 8 meter is a dotted-eighth note followed by a sixteenth note and
a subsequent eighth note. The piece is of Intermediate pianistic difficulty.
Sunday Morning: 4-1868-September, 571
All three musical works in the September 1868 issue are of Intermediate
difficulty, including Dr. Theodore Kullak's Sunday Morning. This piece in C Major
seems well within the capacities of a student pianist. Repeated notes, as in the four-
measure introduction, and repeated phrases would make the piece relatively easy to learn.
Most note values are half, quarter, and eighth notes.
Some difficulty with performing Sunday Morning, a type of challenge which is
not typical of the music in Our Young Folks, is provided by mistakes in alignment. This
is particular distracting, from the performer's perspective, in measures five through eight,
where half notes in the bass are obviously out of sync with the melody of quarter and
eighth notes in the treble. Thereafter, the alignment improves. When a recapitulation of
the opening section begins at measure thirty-five, the alignment problems seen in
measures five through eighth have been completely corrected.
Melody from the Opera of "Les Huruenots": 4-1868-October, 634-37
Giacomo Meyerbeer (1791-1864) provided the melody for the lone musical work
in Our Young Folks for October of 1868. The arrangement of a melody from his opera
Les Huzuenots, a work of 1836, is attributed to Alberti. Arpeggiated accompaniment
figures in the bass are characteristic of the piece.
With a length in measures of sixty-two, this piece is longer than most others
found in Our Young Folks. The pianistic difficulty is Moderately Difficult. Most of the
work is in Common Time; however, the final twenty-two measures are in 2 /4 time. This
piece requires pianistic flourishes in thirty-second notes and sextuplets and several
changes of tempo. The melodic rhythm is fluid, alternating among half, quarter, eighth,
sixteenth, and thirty-second notes as well as triplets.
Theme and Variations: 4-1868-November, 697-700
One of the more abstract musical works in Our Young Folks is the sole piece of
music published in November of 1868, the Theme and Variations by Johann Nepomuk
Hummel (1778-1837). With a total length of 128 measures, this is one of the longer
pieces of music in the magazine as well.
The theme is in G Major, sixteen bars in length, and characterized by quarter
notes and eighth notes in the melodic rhythm. The tonality of G Major remains constant
throughout the piece. The first variation, which begins in measure thirty-three, transforms
the melodic rhythm of quarter and eighth notes into triplets and sixteenth-note patterns. In
the second half of the first variation, contrast of register is provided by moving the
melody into the bass. The final variation is in waltz style. This variation is marked Walse
[sic] and features a 3 / 4 rendition of the melody in quarter and eighth notes. This version
is characterized by repetition of the treble melody at a higher octave. As a result of such
use of contrasting registers, this work shows a wide pianistic range from G to d"".
Rondo Mignon: 4-1868-December, 758-59
The musical offering for December of 1868, Rondo Mignon, is one of the longer
pieces in the magazine, with a length in measures of seventy-seven. The term mignon,
from the French, is an adjective which means "delicately formed; small and pretty;
dainty."7 The opening tempo phrase, Vivace con grazia, alludes to the dainty quality. The
work is from Opus 49 of Frederic Baumfelder. The pianistic difficulty is Moderately
Difficult. The rondo scheme is ABACABA with Coda. Although the key signature of one
sharp remains throughout, the tonal centers shifts from G in the A section to D in the B
section and C in the C section. Rhythmically the work is characterized by sixteenth-note
figurations in the treble and eighth-note chords in the bass. As in the Hummel Theme and
Variations, use of octave displacement in the treble results in a wide range of G to d"".
7 Entry "Mignon," in World Book Dictionary (edited by Clarence L. Barnhart, 1970), 11, 1305.
The B and C sections are contrasted to the A section by the movement of the left-hand
notes into the treble clef The Coda is in G Major and is characterized by sixteenth-note
scalewise runs in the treble.
Utopia: 5-1869-February, 128-29
The participation of Julius Eichberg and the resulting emphasis on instrumental
music ended with volume four. The first piece of music to appear in volume five of 1869
is a strophic work for voices and piano.
Utopia describes a fanciful land without sadness or pain and full of fine things to
eat. The tune is described as a German air, and the words are attributed to Edward Wiebe
of Springfield, Massachusetts. This is one of few vocal pieces in Our Young Folks to be
scored for more than one singer. Since the opening designation reads "For 1 or 2 voices,"
the use of the second voice is apparently optional. The vocal parts are both in the treble
range. The accompaniment style is relatively simple. The right hand of the piano
generally doubles the vocal parts. Both voice parts and the piano part are in unison in
measures seven and seventeen through nineteen.
Little Nannie: 5-1869-May, 338-39
The dominant composer in volume five was F. Boott. Boott's contributions begin
with Little Nannie in the May issue. The poet for the work was Lucy Larcom, one of the
founding editors of the magazine.
F. Boott is probably Boston-based composer Francis Boott (1813-1904). Educated
at Harvard and in Florence, Italy, he was a prolific composer of vocal music, both sacred
Little Nannie is unusual for Our Young Folks in both its key, A major, and its
time signature, 3 /8. The piano writing is characterized by sustained bass notes with
eighth note chords in the treble. The piano part generally does not double the solo vocal
part. There is an eight-measure introduction and an eight-measure postlude, the latter of
which serves as an interlude between verses.
The piece is relatively short, having only two verses. The theme of nature is
expressed here, with Little Nannie depicted as frolicking among the sunbeams,
moonlight, and glen.
The Rivulet: 5-1869-June, 418
The use of nature as topical material continues in another collaboration between
composer Boott and poet Larcom. The Rivulet is in D Major and in 6 / 8 meter. Examples
of tone painting are seen in both the piano introduction and in the piano postlude, where
arpeggiated figures suggest the movement of water.
The piano accompaniment in this piece is stylistically similar to that of Little
Nannie, in that the piano part generally does not double the vocal line. Rhythmically the
accompaniment is identified by eighth notes on the first and fourth beats of the measures.
8 Charles Eugene Claghorn, "Boott, Francis," in Biographical Dictionary of American Music (West Nyack,
New York: Parker, 1973), p. 60;" Boott, Francis," in Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians (6t'
ed., 1978), p. 202.
The lyrics show a rhyme scheme of aabbaaa. Similarly to the poetry of Little
Nannie, several natural features are mentioned, including meadows, pine forests, birds, a
waterfall, and the ocean.
Lady Moon: 5-1869-July, 491
Lord Houghton contributed the words to the next song by F. Boott. Lady Moon is
stylistically similar to Boot's previous two offerings. Like Little Nannie, the time
signature is 3 / 8. In common with both other pieces by Boott, the work is for solo voice
and piano. The scoring for the piano accompaniment is reminiscent of Boott's previous
work, in that the piano does not in most measures double the vocal line and in that the
predominant accompaniment style consists of single bass notes answered by eighth-note
The song is relatively short, having only two voices. Again we see a natural
feature, this time personified, as the topic of the lyrics. Interestingly the poetry consists of
a dialogue between the moon and a child.
Berryin2 Sona: 5-1869-August, 563-64
Another joint effort of Larcom and Boott is Berr ing Song. This song is
reminiscent of several by Miller and Thomas and of the character pieces by Schumann in
that the extra-musical reference is to an outdoor cultivational activity.
The poetry is organized into a verse and refrain arrangement with three verses.
The scoring of the verses indicates a solo singer. In the refrain section, additional singers
and part singing are required. The first portion of the refrain calls for the solo singer with
short divisi chords for treble voices in the background. In the second part of the refrain,
all singers render the melody in unison.
Swinm Away: 5-1869-September, 633-34
Yet another Boott/Larcom collaboration appears in the September 1869 issue.
The lyrics of the two-verse song continue to reflect a fascination with farm life. The
swing in the song is in a barn. The children who are playing on the swing enjoy the wind,
the smell of the hay, and the cooing of doves under the eaves.
Swing Away atypically uses a key of three flats, Eb major. A prelude and a
postlude for the piano are seen. Both the solo vocal part and the instrumental lines are
characterized by staccato eighth notes in 2 / 4 meter.
Three in a Bed: 5-1869-October, 706-07
An example of part singing for treble trio occurs in the next of Bootf s
compositions for the magazine, Three in a Bed.
The three are Topsey, Johnny, and Ned, three cats. The words describe their
velvet coats, their prowling mother cat who feeds them at the expense of the local mouse
population, and their cozy arrangement as they sleep and purr. Sixteenth-note arpeggios
and reiterated eighth notes at the interval of a second are used in the treble piano line in
the introduction and postlude to imitate the sound of the cats' purr.
This is another work in verse and refrain form which calls for solo singing on the
verses and part singing for the refrain. Appropriately, the part singing is in trio, for two
sopranos and an alto. The two soprano parts are characterizes by movement in eighth
notes at the intervals of thirds and sixths. The alto line provides rhythmic contrast to the
soprano parts. In measures thirty-three through thirty-six, for example, the alto sings
dotted quarter notes against eighth notes in the sopranos, while these rhythmic roles are
reversed in measures thirty-seven through forty.
Christmas Carol: 7-1871-January, 58
No printed music appeared in volume six of 1870. Only one musical work was
published in the subsequent year, Agnes Gay's Christmas Carol. Interestingly, the
Yuletide offering was printed in a January issue rather than in December.
This F-major carol is in 2 / 4 time. The form is verse and refrain, with five verses.
The vocal writing is for a soloist on the verses and part singing on the refrain. The solo is
in the soprano range. The second line which is added in the refrain is called the "chorus"
line and is in the alto range. The scoring in the refrain is characterized by sustained notes
in the solo line which extend upward in range to f coupled with shorter note values in the
second line which emphasize the pitches c' and f. The piano accompaniment is relatively
simple. There is no piano introduction nor postlude. The piano doubles the vocal pitches
at all time. An instance of tone painting occurs in the refrain, beginning at measure nine,
where the treble portion of the accompaniment imitates the sound of Christmas bells
through expansion of the register upward to f" and through use of arpeggiated ascending
Christmas Carol: 8-1872-January, 52
In the first issue of volume eight, we see yet another instance of the publication of
a Christmas piece in the January issue. Again the work is titled Christmas Carol. The
source of the music is listed as "from the German," and the poetry was written by J.V. H.
The scoring is reminiscent of hymn writing. With the exception of the first two
beats of the first measure, which feature three-note chords in the treble, the work appears
to be easily adaptable to four-part singing. The lyrics reinforce the hymn-like character of
the work by referring to the children's Christmas songs as "anthems" and comparing the
youth's carol singing to the rendition of "the angel choir." Both this work and the
Children's Hymn in volume four invoke an image of an entire family singing together.
This piece offers an obvious example of strophic form. Each verse is four lines
long and uses a rhyme scheme of abab.
The Robin: 8-1872-May, 311-12
The second song in Our Young Folks to depict a robin was composed by T.
Crampton. In this piece arpeggios are used to the imitate the sound of the robin,
particularly in the piano introduction and postlude. Appropriately this piece which refers
to a springtime creature was published in the May issue.
The author of the lyrics, Celia Thaxter (1835-1894), was a renowned poet and
china painter. When she was growing up, her father, Thomas Laighton, operated a resort
hotel on the island of Appledore which attracted as visitors such literary giants as James
Russell Lowell, Ralph Waldo Emerson, John Greenleaf Whittier, Nathaniel Hawthorne,
and Henry David Thoreau. As an adult she lived in Maine but also spent time in Boston.9
The poetry is in three verses of eight lines apiece, with a rhyme scheme of
ababcdcd. The opening tempo marking of Allegretto is typically seen in the music in Our
Young Folks. Expressive devices are limited to one appearance of a dynamic marking
in measure fourteen, and eight instances of use of an accent mark in the solo vocal part.
Four Black and White Mice: 8-1872-July, 441
Another musical composed work by T. Crampton was published two months
later. The fourteen-measure piece titled Four Black and White Mice is relatively simple
musically. The time signature is 2 / 4, and the key is D Major. The melodic rhythm is
predominantly quarter notes and eighth notes.
The authorship of the seven verses, which tell the story of young mice who
disregard their mother's admonitions and as a result become lost and are caught in a trap,
9 Catherine Hoover Voorsanger, "Celia Thaxter," in "Dictionary of Architects, Artisans, Artists, and
Manufacturers," in In Pursuit of Beauty: Americans and the Aesthetic Movement (New York: Metropolitan
Museum of Art, 1986), p. 471-472; "Thaxter, Celia," in Webster's Biographical Dictionary (Springfield,
Mass.: G. & C. Merriam, 1974), p. 1456.
Song to September: 8-1872-September, 571
Continuing the irregularity of the publication of music in volume eight, the next
piece of music does not appear until the September issue. Song to September is another
musical effort of T. Crampton in which the writer of the lyrics is anonymous. This three-
verse piece is in 6 / 8 time and in the key of A Major. Again the work is relatively
uncomplicated musically. There is no piano introduction nor postlude. The piano
accompaniment doubles the solo voice notes. The accompaniment is characterized by
bass octaves which appear in rhythm patterns of quarter notes followed by eighth notes.
The only expressive devices used are three accents marks.
This piece, along with Crampton and Thaxter's The Robin, reflect the interest in
nature and the out-of-doors which so often is evidenced in Our Young Folks. Song to
September draws a picture of a rural setting full of sunlight, colored leaves on the maples
and birches, berries and apples to be picked, frosty nights, and misty mornings. The three
verses of poetry show a rhyme scheme of abcbefgf.
May Polka: 9-1873-May, 20
Musicians had to wait eight more months to see another musical work published
in Our Young Folks. This piece is especially interesting in that it is one of the two
included in the magazine which were composed by youthful subscribers. Mary A.
Leland, the composer of this piano solo, is reported to be ten years of age. May Polka is
included in Our Young Contributors, the department of the magazine which offered
poetry and prose by readers.
The piece is in 2 / 4 time and in the key of G Major. The opening tempo of
Allegro remains consistent throughout. The difficulty is in the Intermediate range. The
treble melody moves generally by leap in the outline of arpeggiated tonic, dominant, and
subdominant chords within the key. The bass consists generally of eighth notes is a
chordal accompaniment to the melody. The form of the piece is ABA. The contrast
between the sections is found in the rhythm of the melody. In the A section, the melody
includes prominent eighth notes, while the B section shows a melodic rhythm of
consistent quarter notes. A construction of first and second endings is used in both
appearances of the A section.
Apple Blossom Waltz: 9-1873-November, 694
Fourteen-year-old Sophie Olivier contributed the next piece of music to appear in
Our Young Folks. Apple Blossom Waltz shows more musical sophistication than does
May Polka, the other musical work contributed by a reader.
Apple Blossom Waltz is for piano solo. The piece is one of the few in Our Young
Folks to use the technique of modulation, moving from the key of D Major to the key of
G Major and back again. Both key changes are achieved through direct modulation.
Expressive devices used include accent marks and use of the dynamic indications p andf
The melody moves into the bass for measures nine through sixteen, a device seen
infrequently in Our Young Folks. Grace notes appear frequently. The characteristic
melodic pattern is a quarter note moving by leap to a half note, with a grace note
preceding the half note. In the A section, the leap moves in a upward direction. Contrast
between the A and B section is achieved by changing the direction of this melodic leap to
downward and by changing the key of the work. Wide jumps in the bass part and
sixteenth-note arpeggios which cover two octaves in the treble contribute to a difficulty
rating of Moderately Difficult for this composition by a nineteenth-century teenager.
The Chickadee: 9-1873-December, 759
The last published issue of Our Young Folks included a piece of sheet music. The
work is a song for solo voice and piano titled The Chickadee, with music by T.
Crampton. The poet was a reader, Eudora M. Stone (b. 1860). Eudora Stone, whose
married name was Bumstead, went on to become a teacher and a writer. As an adult, she
was a frequent contributor to magazines for children including St. Nicholas and The
Youth's Companion. She began writing poetry as a child, and her contribution to Our
Young Folks was published when she was ten years of age. Her parents moved the family
from Michigan to Nebraska in 1862. Eudora lived there until at least 1878/79, when she
attended Nebraska State University. So she was living in Nebraska when her poem was
published in Our Young Folks.10 The Chickadee, appropriately for song lyrics published
in December, depicts the migration of birds for the winter, the departure of mild weather
in the face of winter's cold, and the hardiness of the chickadee, the one bird who remains
10 Frances E. Willard and Mary A. Livermore, "Bumstead, Mrs. Eudora Stone," in A Woman of the
Century: Fourteen Hundred-Seventy Biographical Sketches Accompanied by Portraits of LeadinV
American Women in All Walks of Life (Detroit: Gale, 1967), p. 136.
after all the others have fled for balmier skies. This poetry continues the nature theme so
often seen in the content of Our Young Folks.
Musically, the work is relatively unadventuresome, but it does show an interesting
use of tone painting. The piano introduction in this case consists of only one major of
accompaniment chords to set the tonality for the solo vocalist. The time signature is 6 / 8,
and the key of A major, which is consistent throughout, is one of the more complex keys
used in the magazine. The bass part for the pianist consists generally of dotted quarter
notes or quarter notes in octaves. The treble part of the accompaniment is mainly in
eighth notes with eighth rests interspersed. Seven appearances of an accent mark and the
use of the dynamic indication/in measure nine constitute the only uses of expressive
devices in the fifteen-measure piece. The composer employs tone painting in measures
ten, eleven, and thirteen through fifteen, where slurred arpeggios in the treble part of the
piano imitate the sound of the chickadee.
The Song of the Robin.
I r W-s ZUJAU > Ui t TME Kuoin 1 V1
Words by EMILY HUKrINGYON MIl L.R, Mus.- b. R. THoMAS.
*4A*. 1__L 0
is The ramn palters fast, and tie w. d Iu"n"'r iv. 'The snushie
hears the swift drops pat ter soft on the panc. And the Ieaes n thr
lost in the cloud-cosered sk,; But the rob in, he sings as he
dies talk love to the min; There are ech oes of mirth in his
W~ -W WI-0
,- .* .'-. -l z z* ,"-. : .-t f-9-
t y~ -!_ -a *_^ t_ *
Figure 1. The Song of the Robin: 3-1867-April, 250-51
867.] The Song of ite Robin. 251
Sl sins Hin iie tree. For a brat r lit t ie tint,; er 1r* he'
carn l iii- I t-e, tIr a rise lit-tic strrg-er is he!
)-1' -- -;9
He ttt-t i rm a latni chere tite semrer ts fanr Where the
He knno linr the dat c i ii oi l r tltc hill, And
(2J e __ '* L
mn!e~ c gii i gfl ,tin lii tin |);iaiurrs .it mll I. he la tghl a t ihe
(-A'- 7 7j-Ti- -
hce .a.d he ha il it it Foi hue a-rted sirtEer r he!
s a a e 'h e'l a -ninleell nger is he!
-ca i- ue _w #"- tI
C!hildre's Ily[ un.
Words by Mus. ANNA M. WELLS. Music by F. WEBeR.O
,. Where the wave less pond outspreads, Lil ies lean their love ly heads,
a. Where the si lent heavens outspread, Troops of beauteous stars are led;
__l9f. I__I 3 S a
W--J- ^i--- IH= __ s^=-l=
Help me. tla ther, that I may Live as pure a life as they.
Help mZ. Fa there, that I may, Like the wtars, thy will o b hey.
4 4* 4*__^ _~ j6 _.06
Where the grassy fields outspread,
There with dews the lower. are fed;
Thus, moy Father. thus, I pray,
Feed my soul with love alway.
Where life's checkered paths outspread,
By that love would I be led,
Onward, upward, all the way,
To the golden gates of day.
a Organiut of the Royal German Chapel, St. Jaes's Palace, London.
Figure 2. Children's Hymn: 4-1868-January, 60
186 Gypsies in tMIL I [March,
GYPSIES IN THE VILLAGE.
At I AgaL~
0r 0. F604 4 6
i-^s- -^ ^ -t! 5 mt
Figure 3. Gypsies in the Village: 4-1868-March, 186-88; Melody: 4-1868-March, 188.
i868.] GypsiCs in the Flagc. 187
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COMPARISON TO PREVIOUS RESEARCH
The work of Koza and Miller provide relevant comparison material. Both
similarities and differences can be noted. The statements of Koza's findings are drawn
from chapter 6, pp. 452-577 and from the alphabetical list of composers on pp. 1124-
1148.' The reports of Miller's findings come from her article, "Ladies' Companion,
In all the studies, the publication of music was found to be a frequently-occurring
feature of the nineteenth-century general-readership magazines examined. Koza reports
that 560 pieces of music appear in the issues of Godey's Lady's Book published between
1830 and 1877 and that most issues contain one musical work. Miller found
approximately 3500 piano pieces and songs in fifteen selected periodicals published from
1830 to 1930. In Our Young Folks, fifty-one musical works appear in 108 issues. The
ubiquitousness of printed music in nineteenth-century magazines argues for the
consideration of magazine music in all studies of musical life in nineteenth-century
The proportion of composers in Our Young Folks who can be definitely identified
as female is lower than what either Koza or Miller found in adult magazines. Koza
' Koza, p. 452-577, 1124-1148.
2 Miller, "Ladies' Companion, Ladies' Canon?"
reports that in Godey's Lady's Book, 10.7% of the composers can be assuredly identified
as women, and the figure in Miller's research is similar at nearly 10%. The comparable
figure for Our Young Folks is 5.9%. A much larger percentage of Godey's Lady's Book
composers, 41.4% as opposed to 5.9% in Our Young Folks, were anonymous or signed in
a way which obscures their sex. If the percentage of composers who are known to be
women is added to the percentage who could also be female, the resulting figure is much
higher for Godey's Lady's Book (52.1%) than for Our Young Folks (13.7%).
Miller points out that both Godev's Lady's Book and the Ladies' Home Journal
included music composed by readers. This mirrors Our Young Folks, in which two of the
fifty-one musical works were submitted by readers.
The percentage of lyricists who are obviously female is considerably larger in Our
Young Folks than in Godey's Lady's Book; 79.3% in Our Young Folks and 11.1% in
Godey's Lady's Book. The proportion of poets for whom the sex is unspecified is over
five times larger in Godey's Lady's Book, 54.1% to 10.3%.
All of the arrangers in Our Young Folks were men. Koza found that 1.3% of
arranged works in Godev's Lady's Book were arranged by women and 46.7% were
unspecified. She speculates that arranging was more male-dominated than composing but
cautions that it is hard to be sure when the gender of so many of the arrangers is
None of the composers, poets, or arrangers mentioned by name in Koza's study or
in Miller's "Catalog of Women Composers in Selected American Magazines" appear in
Our Young Folks. Koza reports five pieces by composers who are well-known today, two
by Offenbach and one each by Schubert, Weber, and Verdi. Thus only 1% of the musical
works in Godev's Lady's Book which have named composers were written by composers
who are currently recognized. In contrast, of the 49 pieces in Our Young Folks which
have named composers, eleven or 22.4% were written by composers who are known to
the modem student of musical literature. Miller points out that although the magazines
she studied include music by composers such as Mozart, Beethoven, C. M. von Weber,
and Johann Strauss, most of the composers' names she found are now unknown.
Koza found a much larger percentage of vocal music in Godey's Lady's Book than
appears in Our Young Folks, 72.3% to 57%. Miller reports that songs with
accompaniment are the most prevalent type of composition, by at least twenty to one, and
that dance forms for piano are the second most common genre. Both scholars' findings
that most of the music in the magazines they studied is either for voice and piano or for
piano solo mirrors the music in Our Young Folks. Another similarity found by both
Miller and Koza is the occasional appearance of pieces for vocal part singing. A
difference is the occurrence in the adult magazines of pieces for other instruments
including guitar, flute, and harp.
The formal characteristics of the vocal music in the adults' and children's
magazines are very similar. In Godey's Lady's Book vocal music, strophic songs
predominate (63.5%), followed by verse and refrain form (31.4%). This compares to 74%
and 26%, respectively, in Our Young Folks. Miller reports that strophic form appears
often. 34.9% of Godey's Lady's Book piano pieces are in ABA form, compared to 68% in
Our Young Folks.
Similarly to Our Young Folks, time signatures of 2 / 4, 4 / 4 or Common Time,
and 6/ 8 appear frequently in Godey's Lady's Book. These three signatures account for
67.7% of the total meter signatures in Godey's Lady's Book and 75.4% in Our Young
Folks. A difference is the more prevalent use of 3 /4 time in Godey's Lady's Book,
23.9% of the total in contrast to only 17% in Our Young Folks. Koza reports no use of
the capitol C to indicate Common Time, but she may have subsumed this symbol under
Koza reports that Andante is the most common tempo marking. This indication
appears in Our Young Folks only once. Allegretto, the most often used tempo indicator in
the children's magazine, was also used frequently in Godey's Lady's Book.
The use of keys is very similar. As in Our Young Folks, the vast majority of the
music in Godey's Lady's Book is in major mode. G Major, the most prevalent key in
Godev's Lady's Book, is the second most common in Our Young Folks. In both
magazines, modulations, particularly in vocal music, are rare and generally
In both magazines, the piano accompaniments in the vocal pieces are generally
chordal. In both, piano introductions and postludes are more common than interludes.
Koza found some piano interludes but relatively few, in only 5/71% of the accompanied
Usage of dynamic markings is apparently similar in the two magazines. Koza
reports that at least one dynamic or other expressive mark was found in over two-thirds
of the pieces she examined. In comparison, 74.5% of the pieces in Our Young Folks had
at least one dynamic marking.
Koza measured musical difficulty on a seven-point scale, with one designating the
simplest and seven the most difficult. She concluded that 19.35% of the piano pieces fell
at point one ("Very simple" ) and 67.74% at point two. Koza's points one and two would
seem to coincide with the "Easy" category in Hinson's scheme. This provides a contrast
to the piano music in Our Young Folks, none of which fell into Hinson's "Easy" category.
Koza further found that 10.97% fell at point three, which is equivalent to Hinson's
"Intermediate" category, and that 1.94% fell at points four and five, equivalent to
Hinson's "Moderately Difficult." In Our Young Folks, 64.8% are Intermediate in
difficulty and the remaining 35.2% are Moderately Difficult. Miller concludes that most
of the pieces she studied had very few technical difficulties.
Koza reports a high frequency of typographical and printing problems which are
not seen in Our Young Folks. In Godey's Lady's Book, misalignments of solo and
accompaniment parts and apparent misprints of notes are not uncommon. Some minor
misalignments between treble and bass notes within measures can be seen in scattered
pieces of music in Our Young Folks. Otherwise, the alignment and printing problems
reported by Koza, which can greatly interfere with the performance of the music, are
absent from Our Young Folks.
The topics of lyrics show striking contrasts. Love of the opposite sex is the theme
in 31.1% of Godey's Lady's Book vocal music and is the most common theme found
there. This topic does not appear in any of the vocal pieces in the children's magazine.
The second most frequent theme reported by Koza is Nature (10.8%), and she also
reports instances of songs about "Sailing or Boating" (2.7%). The resulting 13.5% of
lyrics which deal with the out-of-doors in Godey's Lady's Book songs in contrast to the
76% of vocal pieces in Our Young Folks which describe the out-of-doors.
Programmatic piano music is much more common in Our Young Folks than in the
adult magazines. Koza found that dance forms predominate among Godey's Lady's Book
instrumental pieces (78.1% of the total). She mentions only two character pieces with
programmatic titles, "Woodland Memories" and "Moonlight Dance." Miller likewise
identifies dance music as the most common type of instrumental work and describes the
abundance of dance movements which were published after 1850. In Our Young Folks,
over half (54.6%) of the instrumental works are programmatic and dance forms appear
only twice (9.1%).
DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS
Differences and Similarities to Adult Magazine Music
A comparison of the music in Our Young Folks to the available analyses of adult
magazine music of the nineteenth century reveals many similarities and some notable
Stylistically, the music is similar in most characteristics. In regard to form,
strophic and verse/refrain predominates in vocal music and ABA form in instrumental
music. 2/4, Common Time, and 6 / 8 are frequently used as meter signatures. Andante
and Allegretto are often seen as tempo markings. The prevalence of major mode, the
avoidance of keys with many sharps and flats, and the infrequent use of modulations are
characteristic of the music studied from both adult and juvenile magazines. The use of the
piano in vocal accompaniments is generally chordal, with frequent introductions and
postludes and infrequent interludes. Dynamic markings appear in most pieces.
The percentage of instrumental music is noticeably higher in Our Young Folks
than in Godey's Lady's Book. Among the instrumental pieces found in the magazines
studied, the amount of programmatic music is much higher in the children's volumes.
The topics of vocal and instrumental music show interesting similarity and
difference. The most frequent topic of vocal music in Godey's Lady's Book, love of the
opposite sex, is absent from Our Young Folks. But the most frequent theme in vocal and
programmatic instrumental music in Our Young Folks, the out-of-doors, is the second
most frequent topic in Godey's Lady's Book lyrics. This attention to the out-of-doors is
also reflected in the large number of prose articles about nature which appear in children's
magazines of the period. This interest in nature topics may reflect nostalgia for the rural
lifestyle which was disappearing in that era of widespread urbanization.
A striking difference is in the level of difficulty of the piano writing. Both Miller
and Koza determined that most of the music they studied has few technical demands, and
the majority of the music Koza examined falls into the two simplest categories on her
seven-point scale. The music in Our Young Folks is "Intermediate" or "Moderately
Difficult" according to Hinson's scale; none of it falls into Hinson's simplest category.
Perhaps in Boston, an acknowledged capitol of musical culture in nineteenth-century
America, children's musical skill was greater than that of adults in other parts of the
country. Music had been a part of Boston's public-school curriculum for over twenty-five
years when Our Young Folks began publication. Howe identifies the years 1864-1879 as
ones in which the city's music program was "strong."1 Perhaps Boston's children were
more musically accomplished and literate than were their adult contemporaries as a result
of the availability and quality of their of school music instruction.
The difficulty level of the piano music, coupled with the occasional inclusion of
part-songs which require adult singing voices, also suggests that adults and children made
music together in the homes of the subscribers. The magazine is obviously aimed at
children, but some of the music requires adult involvement for its performance. Some of
the more difficult piano music may have been played by parents instead of, or as well as,
' Howe, "Music Teaching...," 316.
children. It seems reasonable to conclude that music making was a family activity in
The image of family members of all ages engaged in collaboratively performing
live music in their living rooms or parlors for their own instruction and entertainment
invites a comparison to the musical activities which typically take place in the homes of
the present day. In the late-twentieth century household in the United States, music is
present, perhaps even ubiquitous. A common possession is the stereo system, on which
fine musical performers of today and yesterday can be heard at any time. The Chicago
Symphony can perform in one's living room on demand. Television programs and
videocassettes can bring music into the home in the form of broadcasted or recorded
concerts. Television was predicted to cause the death of radio, but now people can load
the washing machine or relax with personal radios in their ears. These radios can be tuned
to dozens of stations, each of which specializes in a different style of music and
broadcasts around the clock. The amount and diversity of the music which can be heard
within the home is greater than ever before. Moreover, the listener of the twentieth
century has personal control over the style and the timing of the music he hears, to an
extent unimaginable to musicians and music lovers of the last century.
There are at least two important differences between music in the home in the
nineteenth century and the music in the home of today. The first is that almost all of the
music heard in today's living room is being performed by someone outside the family and
comes into the home in a mediated vehicle such as broadcasting or recording. Creating
live music is no longer a common source of domestic entertainment. The human beings
who perform the music heard in today's homes generally do so at a distant place and in
some cases at a far distant time. The act of performing the music has become so far
removed from the aural consumption of the music that it is possible to forget that living
humans were involved in the performance process at one point. The experience of music
in the home has become not a personal concrete expression but an abstraction. Listening
to music is much different from playing or singing. Music in today's home is largely a
passive experience and no longer requires individuals to actively perform the music
Miller characterizes the present circumstance in this regard as a decided loss over
The fundamental difference is the change
from active to passive participation in music.
In this case, the older approach surely is the
more sophisticated and profound musical
experience. The abundant presence of music
[in nonspecialized magazines] to be performed
in the home by nonspecialists is an elegant
testament to the love of music and the high
level of musical literacy in past generations
compared to the present.2
There is, however, another viewpoint that deserves to be considered. Judith Tick
has suggested that many of the "piano girls" who provided live music in the parlors of
nineteenth-century homes were not inspired or skillful performers. She quotes the
eminent music critic James Huneker as applauding in print the fact that "passed away is
the piano girl" for whom societal expectation demanded involvement with music whether
2 Bonny H. Miller, "A Mirror of Ages Past," Notes, 50 (1994), 898.
musical inspiration was present or absent.3 What if much of the music played in
nineteenth-century homes was poorly executed by people who played and sang not
because they wanted to do so but because they felt compelled? Does not the possibility of
filling the living room with the sound of Placido Domingo or the Philadelphia Orchestra
have at least some advantage over hearing tortured renditions by unskilled dilettantes? A
drop in active participation in music making and in music literacy is a change, but a
change that does not necessarily signal a loss in musical activity or love of music. A
person who listens to music with enthusiasm is at least as musical as a distracted
conscript who performs music under duress.
The second major difference between musical activity in the nineteenth-century
and twentieth-century homes concerns private, independent actions in contrast to
collaborative enterprise. Music making in the nineteenth-century home required that
people interact. If family members were to learn to sing and play well enough to provide
pastime for themselves and the other family members at home, someone had to teach
them. The music seen in Our Young Folks offers clear evidence of joint efforts. Many of
pieces are for solo singer with piano accompaniment, a genre which requires
collaboration for performance. A team effort is required to realize the part-songs. Even
the piano solos require that the player was previously taught by another person, and the
performance of this music would typically have involved live listeners. Domestic musical
activity in the nineteenth-century required that people work together.
'Tick, p. 325.
In the twentieth century, in contrast, the music listening which has replaced active
performance as the major musical activity for most people can be a much more solitary
activity. It is true that in order for one person to enjoy a musical recording or broadcast,
numerous people had to work together to produce the mediated product. But these
people, in the overwhelming majority of cases, will never meet the listener. The listener
in the home has much more control than ever before. Along with this control comes the
possibility of musical engagement as an isolationist activity. In past eras, music required
that people get together. Today, a person can have music in his life but be alone with it.
Autonomy and choice undoubtedly enhance the musical experience in some ways. But
there is no doubt that listening to music on one's own is a different experience from
interdependent musical performance.
Composers, Arrangers, and Poets
A striking difference between the children's and adults' magazines is the much
larger percentage of lyricists who can definitely be identified as female. Perhaps writing
for children was considered a more acceptable activity for women than was writing for
adults, and this greater acceptability resulted in more activity and in more women being
willing to sign their full names to the products of their work.
A surprising difference is the much lower percentage of composers in the juvenile
publication who are obviously female. This discrepancy is particularly interesting when
contrasted to the fact that the percentage of named female lyricists is much higher in Our
Young Folks than in Godey's Lady's Book. This infrequency of publication of musical
compositions by contemporary women might be attributed to the fact that Juluis
Eichberg, who was directly responsible for over one-fourth of the music published in the
magazine, was more likely to contribute either his own compositions or arrangements of
recognized European composers who were male. Eichberg's strong record of support for
women as performing musicians negates the supposition that he could have been opposed
to female participation in music. The more likely explanations are that he understandably
wanted to promote his own works and that he naturally chose familiar pieces to arrange.
His classical European training would have ensured that many of the composition with
which he was familiar were by male composers.
Both the adults' and children's magazines published music submitted by readers.
Magazines of the era generally published reader submissions of many kinds, including
letters, prose, and poetry. The publication of musical works by subscribers fits into this
A definite similarity between the children's and adults' magazines is that most of
the named composers, arrangers, and poets are unknown today. Study of magazine music
is necessary to understand the full extent of creative musical activity in nineteenth-
century America. Such study has the capacity, as Miller has written, to". bring a host
of new composers to our attention."4
The assertion that the musical contents of Our Young Folks includes pieces by
Mozart, Beethoven, and Schumann was proven to be correct. In addition, pieces were
4 Miller, "Ladies' Companion, Ladies' Canon?" p. 157.
found by Hummel, Kuhlau, Diabelli, and Meyerbeer, composers who are less famous but
still well known to students of musical history.
A noticeable difference between the adults' and children's magazine music is the
higher percentage of musical works by acknowledged master composers in Our Young
Folks. This may reflect a greater interest in cultivated music in the Boston area. Or
perhaps the editors of the children's magazine had more interest in content which might
prove educational while the adults' editors were more concerned with entertaining their
readers. In addition, Julius Eichberg was heavily involved in the selection of many of the
works by master composers.
From the standpoint of the history of music education, a significant discovery of
this study is the involvement of Julius Eichberg. The educator had a sizable impact on the
music published in Our Young Folks. He either composed or arranged thirteen of the
fifty-one pieces published in the magazine. This means that Eichberg was directly
responsible for over one-fourth of the music published in the magazine.
Eichberg made all of his contributions to volume four, 1868. This is the volume in
which music was published most often. Twenty-one of the fifty-one pieces, almost half of
the total, are found in volume four. In addition, all of the works composed by musical
figures who are recognized today appear in volume four.
Eichberg can also be credited with the large proportion of instrumental works
which appear in Our Young Folks. The educator was responsible, as either composer or
arranger, for thirteen of the twenty-two instrumental pieces. The instrumental pieces in
Our Young Folks are clustered in volume four, with twenty of the twenty-two being
published while Eichberg was involved with the magazine.
The nature of Eichberg's influence on the music in Our Young Folks can be
explained by his own background and musical activities. Born in Germany to a musical
family in 1824, Eichberg enjoyed a classical European education as a violinist. He
attended the Brussels Royal Conservatory, where he won prizes in both violin
performance and composition. With such a background, he would naturally look to
instrumental music and to recognized composers as he chose works to submit for
publication. Though not a pianist, he would have known that pianos were the most
common instrument in the readers' homes and that if Our Young Folks were to publish
instrumental music, piano music was the logical choice. In addition, he was a committed
music educator. As such, he would have been aware of the educational value of a
publication for children, and he would have chosen musical material which he believed
had educational merit. With his classical training, he would have believed that the works
of master composers have much to offer young people who are learning music. The
music he chose to arrange, which was composed by Mozart, Beethoven, Schumann,
Diabelli, and Kuhlau, seems to bear witness to such a philosophy.
Eichberg was a part of the mid-century wave of German immigrant musicians,
described by Loesser in Men, Women, and Pianos, who increased their new countrymen's
awareness of instrumental music in the European classical tradition. Loesser seems to be
exactly describing Eichberg when he wrote: