Damage to sugar cane in Louisiana by the sugar-cane borer (Diatraea saccharalis Fab.)

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Material Information

Title:
Damage to sugar cane in Louisiana by the sugar-cane borer (Diatraea saccharalis Fab.)
Series Title:
Circular / United States Dept. of Agriculture. Division of Entomology ;
Physical Description:
12 p. : ; 22 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Barber, T. C
Publisher:
Government Printing Office
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Sugarcane -- Diseases and pests -- Louisiana   ( lcsh )
Sugarcane borer -- Louisiana   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by T. C. Barber.
General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
"Issued June 8, 1911."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029725815
oclc - 761697328
System ID:
AA00020949:00001

Full Text
r/ / I /


U. S. DE1\ IT\ARTMENT (')t RIICET1 E.
;:!REAU OF 'E DTOIOl ',,,Y..C IRCUjLA X 1 ".
1 I 0. H A()W \RD., it,, l :' .,,I i u. Ao Hburwm,.


1I)AMIA(A;E TO S:(AI CAM'N IN L(N!NANA

l I S [I(A (; .Io Ai



I;Y

T. ('. BA. IA BI-I;,
Ai~ Ip ~ /*: J I .


^ fi 11 ^ *





















B UREA U OF ENTOMOLOGY.


L. 0. HOWARD, I'ih,,i.,': and ( .,'of fBurcau.
C. L. MARLATT, F,', .. ..,. andAct', .,, ,, fin Absemnc of I-i.;'f.
IR. S. (CLIFT'ON, Exccntice Assistant.
\V. F. TASTET, ( / ('(Chr.


F. II. CIIITTENIEN, in charge, of truck crop and stored product insect
A. D. HOPKINS, inl (,, of forest insec isc in rsiti/gations.
W. I). IHxNTEm in chirrc of sothcriin fidd crop insIct in ristigations.
F. M. WVEBSTER, in i..." of cereal (nd forage insect iH t stiIt;IIions.
A. L. QI'AINTANCE. in CIr'ta/c Of deciduous fruit insicl il vrstiyalions.
E. l'. PIIII,LI'S. in charye of be ciltdire.
I). M. RlOLERS, in f. prcrcnting spread of moths, Jnid work.
ROLLA P. CiRRIE, iln ctlt/ ouf (diturial c iror:.
MABEL COLCIORD, in charge of library.


SOVlTHEIIRN FIELD CR()P INSECT INVEISTI(,ATIONs,.

W. 1). IIHUNTER in chlarc.

F. C. Bisnorr, H. P. Woom, W. V. KING, (. N. WOLCOTT ,'...'.. in tick investi-
gations.
NV. D. P|I.I 1. ). n. nrciELL, E. S. TUCKEIR, T. E. ih Oi.LOW.Y, G. 1). SMn-T, E. A.
Mc('i6.l o). I ImXY PINIs's, W'. A. THOMtAS, T1HOM,\S ]JtCAS. ?,,..,',.'., 1n cotton
holl 11cri1. int stiqutions.
A. C. MoI;AN, (I. .. RlUN'x. ni S. [. ('RI'MB, .'.... I i ttobIIco insect inlestial ions.
T. c. l (iAKlI. C,. E. 1IoO'. enlqyd in suquor-cit' tiaw id ric iiivsct ilnrlsitigations.
'. C. Plt rrT. .- ... .'. in cac( ts insect infcstiyg i. ions.
. A. COOLEY'). I). L. VAN DIE,. WVILMON NEWEI. LA. Y. ('ONRiADI, C. C. KRI'MB-

It
H1AARi collaborolors.
11


;I, / - .I ; II.%.












CIRCULAR No. 139.


United States Department of Agriculture,
BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY.
L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.


1)AM.IAGE TO SUGAR CANE IN LOUISIANA BY THE
SU(A R-('ANME BORER.
(DI)ailri a siCrltralr s Fab.)
B>y T. C'. ISI \ I;zI:f
Al I'II o fo d 1" 1'p, cIt,
(Thie work Illi which Ihiis c(ircl. r is bhalM, w,1 co>)'i!ici l Ini direct ,' ,];r i )iT wi1h tho Lo' LiAna
S i.'ur Ixpiri',::tit Suliiii, Au Plnlni1 ['ark, N<". O)rli';t!L, I.;!. ,,
IXTt1 K >)l"(TI<)\".

The. -ij ir-cane borer (Illower,' ( 'htIb, Fah.) li i Ieen I hlie mIost
serious insect enemiv of sugir cale 1i1li wliicl hlie Liiisinii )lhintter
has aiid to contenll for imanyv years. In a bulletill of tihe lt Lfi.-ila
Experiment St ation )r. W. (C. Stu)bbs (ave an exihalustive accmiil (if
the probable source of introduclion in lS.'56, illn ane iiiitl, oed flt'ji,
Southi America. lie also referred l Ii numer MLs Cases (of severe iiil'ela-
tion which occurred at various times previous o1 ',{ IM. ]ii i ss(3
Dr. L. 0. Howard conducted investigations on tilis inse.t, and men-
tioned that tlie first slpeciimen was sent inll to t lie I )cptlri icl off Ac o i-
culture at Wa-hiiniton in 17S. lie ils-o cites se'xeral ins 'anca of
previous severe infestntionll, onle occurrinl as far hack as 1,.',7 "alog
the lower Mississi)ppi." In Is-1 lProf. II. A. -M\loran ipl)ulisi!.l a
billletin on the "Sii ,--Cane ole atind it rs l'aasi'i ,* ifin rFe'spol, tIo a
demand for infionnation fIollowiiini a severe iul Ircak aof tile calle I rer
in I,9(0. Anltliert severe out break ill Loiti-jma il lPo,,( wis followl e,d
lyv tlie publ)licat ion of Bullelin 7Il), referred to aLbove, ii xxwlicl I ll.
Stlbbl)ls ga\'e tile fir-t statcltellt aIs 1to Ot a t101 tl allaIlIIt of Iiia li il I
,'lli:' ."e Caued to stiar canIe I" tie canle bo(ero' (1). 11). the Iase
of oneI faIctory, where fair comptarisomi was ,obtainablie Letwleen calne
1 F} h r (i ril l w li ti ; .tc' li ; lhlr .stllk' tif <'or }irr',* iol l.3 (*i aflII.l I *A i l h /.) 'l' ,* "^ **^* ~t ,| }: lll ,Ir 'l' found

{,C,ir II. -'d :> St1 ii h itil[ II \. M ori.:in.
; li r;> I '., .'. A ;:r l,',i. ]i -'Hi
--- -. --: .. St-,. IS-..,
"N 1 ,ri .1 1:i 1nd
"'x0





2 I)AMAGE TO SUGAR CANE BY THE SUGAR-CANE BORER.

uinifested and infested for a number of consecutive years, lie esti-
miited thec damage at $13(),.'.:)5 for three years onil plant cane alone,
(,r 15,4-15 per year, nearly S ,0010 per day during the -i inliig season
f(r, this one factory. When it is considered that most of the area
devoted to cane groin, in Lmouisi:ma is infested with thlie borer, it can
ea-ilv be appreciated from the above figures that thle total financial
loss imist be ellorillouls.
One (of the special lines of work planned by Mr. D. L. Van Dine,
when tlie laboratory for tle investigation of sugar-cane insects was
established by tins Bureau in 1910, was tlie determination of the
various (classes of injury caused b)y the cane borer. Observations and
experiments were conducted by the writer in 1910. It was discovered
tIhat the borer is responsible for m1uch more injury than is apparent at
first sight. Its harmful work 1,i _i-, with the destruction of eyes
of seed cane, reduciing tlie stand during the following year; con-
tiinues through llie growing season of the cane by stunting its growth,
and causing damage from xxinlstorms, owing to the weakening of the
stalk due to the burrows and girdles; and ends by (,' ..- i..: a much
lower percentage of juice, which is again of a much poorer quality in
infested( canes than in uninfested canes. The last is an important
form of injury, which appears to have been overlooked byinvestigators
and planters.
Moreover, the holes made by the cane borers are the chief means
of entrance to thlie stalk afforded the various fungous diseases of
the sugar cane. T'lie tonnage yield per acre is reduced bv b}orer-.
and the average weighlit of canes othlierwise similar in appearance is
found to l)e reduced by borer infestation.
These points will be explained in detail under tlie following hIead-
ings: IiJiiry to seed cane; injury to growing cane; injury to mature
cane andl juice.

INJURY To SEED CANE BY TIHE SUGAR-CANE BORER.

Thlie buds of cane are favorite places for the attack of thec young
borers wlile the stalk is gro,. 'i-, due to thlie softness of the tissue
compared to thei woodiness (of the rind of theic cane stalk in other
locations. Tlie young larva oft tlie si.:. r-caue borer will enter the
buds or eyes of thlie cane, and in nearly every case tlie attack will
result in tlie destruction of lhe bud. Fre(puently canes will be seen
in wlichl i more than 50 per ceiit of ( lithe buds have been destroyed Lby
the borer. (O)f co() -i -'. many v borers enter tlie stalk at other places,
around and between thlie joints, as an average cane will contain only
from G; to 1.-) joints, wliile canes will often be found with from 6 to 10
borer lolehs in a single joint. In nearly every ease of severe infesta-






tion, Ih evXer, it will Wl foIlliIl Iliat a co siderallhe percent tai 1' I' tle
, .,,, has ll eevn des| Coved.
II order toI seI re hlin I ite dal i t as t t, t ext1110t nut ei r i f l ( tr if4ore (. t pitlerie i iates picN.,l a0 Ut) t ie a nd t frloi i
pil otI' cane Xn a prope rt' v w aic plor ili.iy rpree llts, t ypiel Cto li-
tions il In tuiIat i. Ti et-is ,.ere et'tln l i'(ltt l 4 l it l X >I ) weirei
reaclet, ;tiltl tie tnlitltl'r t i' in iur al ayes 1Otdl. N o ;ti( lt X oio l wias
paim d to the aimollt f or err inketaioii in (:;ich stalk. be vond ascer-
t iI'. t'lint a eit a t>'O l ome borer Ihole' X vas ',* i>I. I In tl I it) f \i i I1tc s
counted 23 had W itn Ihst rI,)* d IQ tlhe boirers. On tejt'" titnt tlhe
abo\e experincnlO it w\ms found thtol I;s ,('ys Iulu hwen r-h t(lit t he lot o I0 t1ilhtn .in i iI lotal oe' 11 ex.Ics d stro, d ,i'ult Iof l
total o l' f200, or M .5 per int i infelst ;>t io i o (lie Ipal faln
whiMich t-ins enne wns s c/rvd wais ;ii)]roxiqunalelv tihteiirniinied ait W:i
per cen1t, w Niih i womld indicate thiat over 10 per cvni of Ilie t Itire
nulenr ot eyes in t he plat liad beenti dht roy-ed hv bloi'ers.
The e:l'ect of illis is to ured Iuce tlte stand ol e.tile tlt allowingg i e ,a"
Qv reduNtiln tlie itniiwl"r of viable ev+yes il illn t planted ca ell. The
borers also d 1 i ', the seed cane to i cetai!n l exnit hv aisrlhing't ;t
considerable amount of tlhe sap or jtice Wliieli nature intended I- be
used to iiolurish tlhe bud(.s ,wlien liwv coninliuiito gri'ow, ( thibis
injury probably (loes not assline tinh economic impuorlance.

IN.JtRY TM (MiIOWIN(i C'ANE IBY TilE SMRl'AK-ANE "HOI;I:I;.

When the cane sproIts in the isprinllg a certain amlnotUnt of daimagoe
is (lne to ia 1v thle larvwa ol' ftie list brood, which bore into tlie
hearts o(,' 1 le tn and teller sil)loos. Ai(erv freqelpiently th (e 1,riiinnal
leaves tlrin fellow, and ol beingg. pulled colile o/t of th(e whorl of (lie
plant odlilv. ]Exaininati(on reveals the f'act that the' v hoav(e ten
alnost cut ofA in tlie heart,o' tlie ilani, aid (often thle smIall w\ irtl is
found in the excavation. It is lik(elv tha this sourceo' f injury

imets have Yet lbeen iadie to dietrniine the percent *o of ifjun.
Borers Iarel : ils[>o respm-sible for very omnsidehorale II ,i .1 v wilnd-
stornms. After a severeo w dll st!-iorlil ill tle fall thle obs Ierver ( ca/i iotice
two ei\ ets upon (,r::ir 11aie. lit >In s ome cases the vane will l6e tlo=1
prostrate, Weing 0'1 lying nearly oiSzontally tpon thle -rolndL. In
other case< I1ma111Y of tlhe stalks are broel+n r I)J lie mind, so, etil esiwc,.
close if) thie t g ound, som! etimies in, tle cetiler owr iie"r thie top o4 ( tle
cane. In thsecam, or cane wich lias eeni lwn I=over, it wi!l "flte
eco eti, Ino=e or less uplright, and in a"IV even I it will c nti iinti growthll.
Tle ._',i' l. t injury prodt uced upol it is crooked ind ]enlit slalks.
which are troublesome to harvel.


DAMA. E 10 SI MIC R CANE BIY Tuim SIV\It C,\NI linlNl IM.





4 DAMAGE TO SUGAR (CANZE BY THE SUGAR-CANE BORER.

Inll the event of the stalks ,ii.:_ broken, however, the (L;imLgre is
very different. In this case thle growth of tlhe cane stops, and the
buds on the top joints beloww thlie fracture sprout and commence to
glow. The process of growth draws upon the supply of sugar stored
in thlie parent cane, so that the cane is not only prevented from
reaching its fullest maturity, but also stands a very good chance of
losing a percentage of the sugar already(V stored up) in thle stalk.
A close examination of a cane field after a heavy wind will show
that to borer injury is directly due the great majority of broken stalks.
A (a.le will seldom break in a wind unless the stem has been phys-
ically injured, and examination of broken stalks nearly always shows
that the breaks occur at a borer girdle or a large burrow near the
surface of the cane. The burrows and tunnels in the stalks frequently
concentrate up)on a certain joint, with the result that it will be mate-
rially weakened and will snap) off at the slightest provocation. Maniy
canes are literally girdled by borers, a tunnel being made just inside
the rind completely around the cane and only the center is left to
hold ull) thle top.
To a large extent, also, borers are directly responsible for the spread
of fungous diseases in sugar cane. In order that the fungigus may
enter a plant it is nearly always necessary for the spores to settle on
an excision or wound in the rind of the cane. These openings are
furnished in great numbers by the borer holes. Dr. C. W. El'r-,.on,'
in ''SomeSugar-Cane Diseases, advises that all "seed" cane showing
(xt(rnml ,evidence of borer injury be thrown out, as a prireentive of
fil, /.,'I/, discascs. L. Lewton-Brain 2, in (,ri-i.'iiri the rind disease
(Mlan co iun saccth ari), says:
hi,,l ,' r it is possible to trace the discoloration t) its I.Lrtiiw: point, this will
always be found io) bi a wtioundl of some sort. Tlhe wound may be a borer hole, a leaf-
hopper puncture, or a wound made in stripping, the borer wounds being i perhaps
most favorable to tlhi f especially in the older parls of the stalk.

INJURY TO MATURE CANE BY TIlE SUGAR-CANE BORER.
AMOUNT OF INFESTATION.

In order to determine the extent of borer infestation an elaborate
examination of canes was made during the fall of 191)10. Thle gen-
eral practice was to examine 100 canes across each end(l of a plat and
100 canes across the midl(lle. These hundreds were divided into 4
groui)s of 25 canes each at different points in thlie row. This plan was
mIodified in varying degrees as circumstances made it necessary or
advisable. In all, tlhe infestation was approximately (leterminied
in 9 p)lats plante l to cane. (Of tWhese 9 plats 3 were in stubble and 6
I Bul. 12o, Li. xp. Sta., 1. 12, 1910-
2 [BIll. 7, llawaii Siwar Planters' Association ExIperiment Station, 1907.








in plant cane. lThe leatl ilijulry to a cane 1>\ a lbor-e r ved, to throw
it into the infested cohlm .ll .Tle ..:, l res lls are s1(mow[I ill Table 1"

T x .l. I I j" 1 tii i r


'i1,' ] .>i I l! ,~ r l 1lr *; t

.. . . . . ... . . . . . . .. . . .. .. i M',
riI iil nin . 1 in ).-i > (



In a thli(tioI to lie I t leI I I(s ref (red to i (lIe aIlNle, Iw o ollier la'1r-e
lots were removed from the( platl-s f()r I. ()l]e(r purpos'es 1a)nd ex,1(xamnie(,d
for borer infe'statimi. ()iOe hrhrndlred canes wevre takel, fromil a pla)I-
can(e plat for ldetellrmimig (lhe complarl'tliv(' welJihtls o()f inllf' -elcd ad)(
itinfestetd cales. The,.se (aieMs Wr, inlfe,,4ed t) (lie(, extent ofl 72 per
cent. lFrom I stubble h t Ilat 7:- I (-ca es wer t(' r Ilov(ei'( f()Ir (letIr [Iiiini the ellet of tIll( oer- ubpon (hie ._.r content of hlle a me. ()f tliwe>e
caries 393, ()r 1.5).. 1 per ct,(' were ifestel. Itth, of w eI(Ie eIxpeedrimernls-
are describedd in delail else\\ here. Adding Ithese courts i l tho lie pre-
vious I ellbller wt e hia' (e a t(l)(al (f ,.:{"-|ti cal-es, o( whlcth I .: 1.);x were
borer free arid 2.521. or 6;.'75 per (ee-n(lt. xwere ijf(lel vby t(he ler.

I\'FFSTATI()N M1' T(lO'S

In five insitallces lit e sa le, IIul),ber of ftops as of candless were (,Xall-
ined and showed ta dtintiit lotr)'uel:ti(on Ietwxeen Ilie iresaionblliont of tie
two parts (of lithe stalk, tile ifiestalion in tlie tops itl, ii i u (to corre-
slpo)lndl within thle icreastie it the iffest at tio)n (Io tlie ea'le.s. This is vxr v
-.-, liv, is to t lie ,valie of clean b rI nie) o()f th(e Irahl afler relim o\ i,
caine froim ai se-vereIv inlfstedI lieldl. Thie daia o()I ill*s point are gixen
in Table I1:



1'ir .ia | l '< <'I



------ - . . ..., .,..,..,..,.., . . . .. i i |!
I'urlle....................
I) ,7 . . . . . .... . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . .) 7
7 . .. :. .... ... ... ... I- T 1r
I I .. . . . .. . . . . . --
I. .T .......


That it is tlie tendencyv of thlie l)borers, l .eek t lie middle of thlie plat,
is -.ii_'-.-ted bv (tlie 'aict tliat in *I -caes tlhe hi lWie- t percent I_'. of
infestation wi -s found l in thatt p)rti(oll, while inl Il I ca''e was tlie


DAMAGE To srA.t CAE I; BY THE, SLUGA-CANt: UBIEll.





6 DAMAGE TO SUGAR CANE BY THE SUGAR-CANE BOBER.

lowest infestation found in the middle of the plat. On the other
hand, in 6 cases out of 7. where comparison could be made, the
lowest infestation was found at the ends of the plates. It may be
said in general thalit the highest infestation will be found in tie most
luxuriant cane.
CHAIiR 'Ti;1 'F INFESTATION IN' PLANT CANE AND STUBBLE CANE,
In fall plant cane the majority of the infestation is in the upper
half of the cane, while in stubble cane the infestation is more notice-
able near thle ground, altholigh the whole stalk is mire or less infested.
This may be due to the earlier sprouting of thie stubble cane in the
spring, thus causing it to be liable to attack from thle early broods
of borers; and also a certain number of borers may hibernate in tihe
stubble, thus being present in the sprili, to infest thlie early spiii .,iig
cane. On thlie other hand, fall plant cane does not appear above thlie
ground as early in thle sprilig, as stubble, and as tile adults that
appear in tie seed cane are too delicate to dig thr, igh the soil to the
surface they perish underground. A field of fall plant cane may be
regarded as bworer free in tlie spring, and will become infested during
the following summer from outside sources, prol)ablv to a lde, cIe
depending iup n the severity of infestation in the surrounldilig terri-
tory.
Thie fact that the most evident borer injury occurs in thle lower
half of the stalk in stubble cane makes the ,.hIIIg,. greater than in
plant cane for several reasons. Tlie first is that thle actual mechanical
injury by thie borer is in thle lower joints, which are more mature
and Iave tie greater sugar intentn. Again, thie presence of the borer
burrows and tunnels in tlhe lower joints affects the flow of sap to the
top of tIle icane, thus interferilng, more or less. with tile growth of the
whole cane. Also, tlie joints near tlie base of tile plant tend to
become hard and woodv following borer attack. thus increasing the
percentage of[ filber aind decreasing tlhe percentage of juice. Inciden-
tally lie laItter pIl int increases tlie difliculty of grinding, as was called
to the attention of the writer by a suga'r-houise I iI i,.,.'Cr attributilng
tlhe breakillng of some machinery to the crushiling of heavily infested
sili' Ir cane.
IF:I'TI'
In order to fItid out lie effect of bor-er infestat ion up)n tlie weight
(f cane, 100 stalks were picked out and ca(rehullv av erased in size.
All were cut oilff thle sameae lengtll. No attention was paid to borer
iflestal ioll in selectil.g' tlhe Ii ;i.,, and the opinions of several gentle-
Mlen were cMsullted, all canes larger or smaller than thle average
being tllVo\\wn out and replaced bv others until on examination it
was imps11111))si le to select canes larger or smaller than the others.








These (.1iies ,re (hen examn lineidl for Norr inpjry, 7:2 Ibeinu fui d
infested air!2 Wi a nine b% ai
lor(r was su ,ciot I" l<> lace it ainwmgi the iMl',tcd an'd. c TVe canes
were then wei e,. it IlWe resils homn i 'I ;h III :
l hT j i i l w; . 'H+pJ j : *, *' / '.




%i r
m+
72,


lh >iir r- il<"- l '. l . .. .. .. .. .>+ 7 +" .>? ,; ".+ ++.". *;. i .>


l'(>r ful'tlli "r results ai,\ ll[a ] (l' <'til<( \\onboal;I 4 ( s ( n > t" i' the su ar-
lio(use, aind was t h ire s<'l>nrut Ito int11 I wo lto intNo\(A andI ji i fn i n w 1.
O f t lie 7:34 ca'ties, .:i13. o> r w 51.5I 1 )( er re!I .IvI were it11 ,'c t ", 'I'lThe Ijei-.
injury b)y borers Fpha<*(la a c(iane iii thli itifesied [)( t. I-:acli ht ()f callfK
+was then v can'es wei.ghl d (W11 lI inmls. an a\v(,rmy(, Of' 1.76< ]>irndn s jir cl'++ 1,.
while thet :4-1 ImI r(r-f'r( anes weig. i ,ed (l-i |n ds. >)r G 6m an nvcraI,_, of
1.
I T iM r I V. ,.I,1'1+ n/ i, tP dm ,to r WNWILk






i i r r :, 1 I i I,
Fiori T -rri . . ... . . ..... :i ,.'i I l i 7
11)1w ii

lio p-, r -ir d -K'. ( . . .. .. .. . .. -. . . ..:.'.: i-++, + ',' 1, : ; : 1 1


(On thI l 'b sis o|f T'ald IV 1 lih lijlTircoi in vihl Ilwwi va n ltrtr v
ind Iwl,)r('r-inf("st('ed cane lihlvs would amount 1(oa l),- af in tl I ion
of catnl1. r p Tavre wlih n tIr' l)ori'r-fr(><' uit n(, t._ i ;i vei, a l f 2 iotr s
I r c 'm.
!F Mi" i' iO liti ,i ,N INi'S''AI' I')O" N t N CANE Jii K.
The foll(hiwiii stris +l| ('W v 'eriit'nm wasi iarnid i I l t,, is I" i.i, 11i1
just wv.hat danttiL'i* 1lw l +r li hcane owr inHllics tiouF, tire cam' juicr, in)
adhition to (tire sical *MY damage to)tin' (the canell Quo
E/rpt< ;A ,,ul /. Six stalky of |I). 71 canc wv, re s lctdI. 111"Yo I)H',:)z
hluavilyv infested 1') l hv the Imeer ;FmI thm, lvhin r W r-frlv. TI'he w; akAS
wvllows:
(0 ) 3,1 htm m joints. !Wre-freve canes.
(2) H l3 otto in jinls, l)o rer-in(,.tet l canes.
(3) 3. t(o) joints, lo -er) -ree canet .
(4.) 31 to j()in P s, ho)re-infstd (oanes.


DAM.UA E TP) S (;"Al; CANE BY THll,- S";.\);*A\N l;o10 W IM:.





8 DAMAGE TO SUGAR CANE BY THE SUGAR-CANE BORER.

Samples 1 and 3 and samples 2 and 4 were thus from the same canes.
Each sample was carefully weighed, run through a 3-roller hand
mill, and the weight of juice from eachli sample recorded. The juice
was then analyzed, the latter operation 1,,iii- kindly performed by Air.
W. G. T.-_j rt, chemist at the sugar experiment station.
Sample 2 (bottom joints) showed, compared with sample 1, losses
due to thlie borer of 4.59 per cent of juice, 2.6 per cent total solids,
4 per cent sucrose, and 12 per cent purity, and an increase of solids
not sugar of 0.8 per cent.
Sample 4 (top joints), compared with sample 3, showed losses of
7.27 per cent of juice, 4.2 per cent total solids, 4.9 per cent sucrose,
and 13.7 per cent purity, and an increase of solids not izg.ir of 0.8
per cent. It can thus be seen that the borer not only reduced the
juice quantitatively but qualitatively as well and to a more marked
degree.
Placing these figures on a basis of 1 ton of cane to the sample,
we have the following results: Sample 2 showed losses of 91.8 pounds
of juice, 35.2 pounds of total solids, 59 pounds of sucrose, and a
percentage loss of sucrose of 34.04 per cent. The increase in solids
not sugar was S pounds per ton of cane. Sample 4 showed losses of
145.4 pounds of juice, 68.6 pounds total solids, 70.9 pounds sucrose,
and 46.43 per cent sucrose actual loss, with an increase of solids not
sugar of 5.4 pounds per ton. The average production of the total
borer-free cane (samples 1 and 3) was 163 pounds sucrose per ton of
cane and of the total infested cane (samples 2 and 4) 98.1 pounds
sucrose per ton of cane. This gives an average loss of 64.9 pounds,
or 39.81 per cent, of sucrose per ton of cane due to the borer. The
results of this experiment are given in tabular form in Table V.

TABLE V.--. li11/1sis Qf .'. cane (D. 741) to (letcrinm ie r. on content of the
borer injury to iCatne.

i asI
P-2
| Nattire of sample. C .:
-Ah s ^ ; 2 -r. -.w 3 > 0 ,

1 3.1,ottom joints borer- Grams. Grams. Pl.ct. P. ct. P. t c. P. Ct. P. ct. P. c ct. P. Ct.
free canIws ........... 1,12 41962.33 .... 16 .. 9A : 1. 4 13. 9 ..... 3. 7
2 3'. bol omjointsb orcr- I I I I
infested canes...... 1,00S 582 57.74 4.59 14.0 2.6; 1. 19.2 1 .2 9.9 4.071.7 12.0
3 3!. top joints borer- i I I I
free canes .. ... 1,22 7S il Os 1. ..... .I I 2. 0 2 2 12. 5. ..... 78. 6.....
4 .' lop joints lorer- I i I I
infested canes.... 9o 530; 53. 1 7.27| 11.9; 4.2 1.3 17.1 1 3.0 7.6 4.964.9 13.7
Iifse a e . 9 5 I _____ [ I

No'nt. -Samiples I and 3, 2 and 4, were from the saito canes. Each sample consisted of .i i ii .t of three
canes. Analysis made Nov. 10, 1910.





DAMAGE T U SLGAl C ANE IBY TIlE S'UGAtI-('AN I' II BOIIH.


TABLE V. -Awdif if -i/r mi'a I. fi w oI(iii i l 1 di f
/p4*?f nP tri to I/i f 'lIt i i f'unnn t'd.
i{ES LI'S 01i XtLU\LE ANt\X I l.-l ; I 1 1. I > \ A IS. 1 <> Il FI T N OF C.ANE TOi
I'HK i \MII E.1


7- -~ ---- -t



1 U)o o j in l t ,< .. [ 1 1 I 1 1, II I I I l <
2 I ti jt ,< I16r- I. 1 I 1
| llltesK <;l n>< . *-', O'N i 1 l:rl. ^ ill > 1 7 7 :tgi. 1.* l 7'i 7 ..i *I' t l ll,.t .'* i> :i4. tt~
23 l ) 1 1tp71 ji1 ort1- 35 i I : i I I
I f Iiw r m ". .. . 2, . .. i ; 7 17 I .. .. . ..
4 'I : up joinlts ltionl-r-i
I illf s tl l2 c, 1 .. .. t t 7'i I076 2 1 1 .12 1 6. '; I t tl A I 7I I ', *!.t
f ie\ 0.' Nei;r l tof ,0u i vr e Ie iit ubtaie (I o :I i lis p
(1,110 pr, bow: 1 and 10 were lic. . . i1e t ( (
l ^'l 1 .., .i .1~ ~ . i I I . . . . . . . ... i '1 I ''I ''


ExAx]CI tn i
larc r se alle in i r(Ip e r t oll u)ltaiI iS irt (ole cilllsiXe t''.ilt.ll l'or tlii
expierilletiit 3)0 c Ie e're selected ai rlallnldo fr'uii I). 71 cane. (f
thiese 10 were Iborerl-free, 10 \were' niiedhiin infes ted (1 to ;l .Joints [XT'
('a11ne sini ]L(r" intju), and 1(0 we're halvily int tfI ieil (et 5 or inore
inlf'ested joihits pei cane). It shloluhl )he I'enarikhedl thalt lit itlesiiletatliol
in the heavily infested calltes was al ot s() heavy a t ha lie 11inl'e-atiln
of samLples 2 aid l of the first experimenilt, ill which ever V joill was
infested. Eaclh saiiple olf 10 called was sipar'ltely weihel, runl
throl'wi.l the hand mill, alid anliyzed exacitlv as ]liad heell (olle wXiti
tlhie sample les of lie first experilillent. 'h'ie all i se.s Xwere aiTaill mlmdade
)by Mr. JV. (i. T.,4,' art 'IThe rI-esuilts olbtailned fully' upheld tise (
the lirs-t experilimeint.
Sample il 2 (eliii h infested ) slimwed loe dIle to I(lie bor)(er (4 11.3
per'l ceint juice, 1 per cent tital -l1is,1 1.2 per c ient sllicrls(e, 2.2 p-r
cenlt pulirity, a11d ali iincrl'ease o( sxlids llnt suI1aIr of t0.1 p''r cnl.
Sample 3 (lwavilv infested) s e ()liwed l (1 of 2.3 pe.r cent juice. :;.
per ce('lit total solids. 4 -.( l t t silcroet, 12.7 per cent puiirity, a dii
ali i increase ()f 0.7 )pe'r ('cenit solilds noi t s i-.'.
l'hRedulced i )to basis ()f 1 tol (f alie to thle sample, lihe rl' 1Ilt w-Xre
as follovX : Sailmple' 2 (niliumlli ihinfestedu)t slim e'll per Xo'i lli (if
(c1a e Of G pound"is juice, 1:.19 t)ollldsk total soll(di,, 15.16I [ !iids
s 11se, 8.7S per l -I (ceit actm all lo()s ()f sillwr(ose, ind anll ini '(ea-w ill
solids not siar i f' 1 l poiluinds. Sa()11le 3 I ( eia il, iilit- 'c xl -l.ixxXXed
losses per ItIolI' (f llte oIf 4t; po(iu ds juice', 17.S'S5 p linds tiltal olidls,





10 DAM\(;I' TO( SI(;AI CANE BY TTIE SUGAR-('ANI E I',,!- .

6i).72 pounIs sucro(se, and aii increase in solids inot sugar of 7.73
pol)und(s.
(Comparing, the percentage loss of sucrose in the heavily infested
canlle of this experiment, 34.51 per cent, with the average loss of
samples 2 andt 4 in the first experiment, 39.S1 per c((it, aid ('on-l-
sidering that the latter cane was more thoroughly infested than the
former, it will be seen that the results o ttlie first experiment weren't
e( I_.....led to any great de-ree bv rea'soln of the smallness of the
saip)lts. Thie (complete results Of this experiment are shown in
Table VI.

TABi.K VI.-AAiolysis [of .. .r (D). 7 t; /o (ic;rittii c I.; ot , coiitct of the
lo r 1;11,ira/ 0 10 (im,.



i, Nature of --5..



Gmin Gins. P.ct. 1. c. 1'. ct. P. ct. P. I c 1 1. ct.
I lorer-fr ', ..... !'.>(i I ~' (, 1. 1 I.. 17. 1 .1 1 1 1 1 14.4 . .... 4.2
2 Medium infested I. 1M i i,7735 6O0..S ( :3 1i. 1 i 1.0 1.7 1.2 12.> 13.2 1.2 82.0 2.'2
3 HIeavily inf's dI ',S24 5,190 5.1 2. 1. 7 1 .4 2.1 : 21.4 4.6 71.5 12.7

NOTEU.--Emh similnle con11sitd of 10 am'es. Each of tile iedhium-itrm sled canies conl!aii'lled from OneP to
thimre lfcshid joint, nid euo'hi of tih' heavily infested canes' live or more infested joints. AInalysis maile
Nov. 12, 1910)
R1S('LTS OF AI OVE ANALYSIS FIl 7F.I) O(N A BASIS OF 1 TON OF CAXNE TO



-, N at i ir of I
TiIl p 'AMI'I,



Lbs. bS. 11m.Lbs, LbX,,
lblix II iLbs. l J Lbs. Lb' l P. ct.
1 Horcr-frc ... 2, () 1.222 ... 20S. 9, ..... 19, 55 ...... 13. 44 ..... 175. 97 ....... ...
2 Mrd Hi- I I III
l,'( d. .. . 2 o 1,211 | ; 1 i.77 13 1 20.l7 1.12 1. 1 2 1. 15 1I( 5 1 1 .41 S. 78
; i | 1c v i Iv inl- !i I
fc,sl< ..... 2, 001 1176 46; D, l 1 -7.,5 2,1. c! 1 5. 14 21.17 7.73 115. 25 0.72 l34. 51


l t'.rf> experimenlts, aind also to( secure aldd(itionllal accurate data ul)pon a
larger scale, a third anl larger experiment was (conducted early in
December, 19)10. A :,_oniiload of I). 74 cane was taken to (the
-,ii' W house ain1d wNas 1here divided into) two lots, borer-illnfested nid
borler-h'free, (hlie least sign of borer injury throwing a chance upoln hlie
infesled pile. Of the 731 canes, 39:3, or 53.541 per cent, were infested.
l1ach pile of canes. s ws h loaded selaralitely upon a \wagon and v..i.-li'l
oil the platform scales. Thie 3''; infested canes we\i._r .,q I p'iiids.






DAI 1AG TI.O Ut \Alt CANE In THE S'(+AlI-( N *A' ; Ila)i;Il. 1 Il

















I' I~l. -
rtll (dl' I mi jm, inolip per (vote nd (a i I'. the1 ho )11 f 341 mii,



l\\ Ii>^lef t ,- p ll ; t anil vergei ttc o-s in w ghtli our OndS loouDiid pe c;V;A Il I to" (ot cotio



liko each o 1f tlh ( tt1 w (-.; \ < i l (). lv("1 1,r-l r,' 1 ( np nIp I+
1 =1 ho\. )t rOlt'-to'rin l'c ., ,r ; ",~' ;." t I'r W\K(W ,'i (01 T W r lht, it \ ,W ild tijtr, K V.)tiof-



KlNilI'2t v i c1ti a li 2i5ikc i ( il tIinc n rni)
!);++ ofM ton 4 i o cane nT- :Tvl' (hins wolhl li\\' ;i I",, W'



il() juice 1 tc l ( <>1 <';1) (> n c' C (U l lCT l o l l l('+ .2 ) }x i T '!t.



W -1 ,,2r t { can F. nun, (v I"' the "MT
s i, cli lot of (cane w ts W it' T run 1t 5+m I i t'lj tthe indi l > [);ir l-,l :n. l a.



2eit Kt he<,' jnh- to len. T'i' m (06 li io ii, >' ,I ) l ," ga)ve
t'3 1 I2O.2 illcls o ji li. tir .tSt li' r > I 't 2xrac.it2 l] ilp 1 l2i (J' j tt n"[t
Oft l l),'rl Xi2nl'i l 'N |)-( l Nr (n alv' )(>v 155 X22 (vof Gi,+, ;c n;l t) i TheI
lhs -i juive< (d~i toi I lhe 1vorer'i \\vas I loius :.29'J. jwr runt .
The* two samiphs old juice "vi'i ;nak wl\',i !\ Mr. IV K Torgusirt. anid
sliow d *it loss huc A) llh> bo of' 1,-- .. j rc eni (o l 2.i per
cent. s ll'o-I,, arml 5A jocr ( nt. piinl W H\ it ^ W((S (a In I iT ....
pglullc se ai"d 0).5' p< cciit solids, nol sm r. Flgurcd (-n ;a hoia our I E(01
of cani( e l nTsanilplf, the' Wosps are Q;( luminids 0o' juicr, W Kld) pounds
,to al so is, }:07 [)o nils, "r l93)..A'!3 [ i yn sucrv.l '). ;al l iW Yci'(' t-. d+ d|'
).72 l|)tli(ls ghlico(>- ant!i T';.17 lpttlo ds )lids no(, su,', ar. Tlhe rc-,Plh-,
of tids atiilysis ar:r sliovi in Table VII :

TAI4LI \'t 1 A i t 7 1 I N f WA "1 4 0
h t)/'' /' '/ !/ t 1 + ,'l












J1 12 7 + + j 2 f : J f ....
IH Lo TA I H + 56



'+ /:vt~ ) .2 I I.I ,:. '!. U. I ",< ...+ + .. .. A I I 'It N + +


I nf +lr l + + .NN i +.il l i>++ i l'J. v, +JIT ^i o ,'+ ++,> I I l.7 ',+ ; h ig ^'+ 's 1: k t '' s5, -;l'+ ,^< >, l"^ .U+ + +
T i L' 2,+ t!+ I
I 1 3 -1 :. :





12 DAMAGE TO SUGAR CANE BY THE SUGAR-CANE BORER.

It should be noted as having a bearing on all of these analyses
that the lower the purity of the juice the lower is the percentage
of total sucrose that is recoverable in the form of sugar. Therefore
the percentage loss of sugar in the impure samples somewhat exceeds
the loss of sucrose. The sucrose which (can not be recovered is
al)proximatelY equal in amount to the glucose present. On this
basis the present experiment would show a production of 176.26
pounds sugar per ton for thie borer-free cane, while the borer-infested
cane would give 138.97 pounds sugar, a loss of 37.29 pounds per
ton of cane, equaling a loss of 21.16 per cent sugar, which is 1.83
per cent in excess of the sucrose loss.
It may be computed from the figures in Table VII that an acre of
borer-free cane yieldi', 25 toms of cane of the above quality would
yield 4,716.25 ])oundmls sucrose per acre, while if it were infested to
the same degree by borers, the yield under similar conditions would
be 23.92 tons of cane and 3,637.75 pounds of sucrose per acre-a
loss of 1,078.50 pounds sucrose per acre.

SUMMARY.

The sugar-cane borer damages cane in the field by destroying a
considerable l)percent;i,_', of the eyes, thus redu, iin'_ the stand of plant
cane; by stunting thie growth of the cane, owing to the physical
iniijury of the stem; by adminitting fungous diseases through the
- wouInds in the stemi; and is the main cause of injury by the wind,
owing t(, the weakening of the stalk due to the tunnels and burrows.
These (classes of injury have been appreciated 1)y planters. It now
develops that there is another and very important class of injury
which has been overlooked. This is the reduction of both the
quantity and quality of the juice, which is dealt with specially in
ilis cicutilar. It b)ecoiimes evident that both the planters and the man-
ilfal' urers are vitally interested in thlie work of the Sv,-';[r-cane borer.
Investigations of methods of control in the held are now under way.
Thle results will be published in due time. In the meantime planters
are re',erred to thlie bullletin on tlie subject (Bulletin 70), by W. C.
Stubbs and 11. A. Morgan, of thlie Louisiana Experiment Station.







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


3 1262 09216 7963