The Icerya, or Fluted Scale

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Title:
The Icerya, or Fluted Scale
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Unknown
Creator:
Riley, Charles V ( Charles Valentine ), 1843-1895
Publisher:
Govt. printing office ( Washington )
Publication Date:

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aleph - 29686047
oclc - 191964158
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Full Text





rWARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY.

fr BULLETIN No. 15.
_L^ g iini in ,ni ,i ,j .i~iiiin 111


THE E


JUN 1 6 960


[A OR FLUTED SCALE,


OTfURW18 KNOWN AS TIlB



)OTTONY CUSHION-SCALE.


HW N BOME RECENT ARTICLES BVIK,,
A P*11kT FROM THE AORICULTITRAI
.,: STATION, UNIVERSITY OF CAL
-LA


--eec--.


WASHINGTON:
OOTVIMRINT PAINTING OFFIOCL
1887.


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U.S. I-EI).\RT NII- T) OF .\GRIT UII[TRE.
I)IVISI i N (IF I. T ,() I L (; ,
I') I. I.I. I I N (. 5. I


T T r ]K



ICEIY\A OR FLITI'EI) SCAlE,





(' I)TTOXNY I siii( N-Su1\AJ.





[I{I-:I' sI;\ r -" s'%MI. I '" .\ I A I;1[ 'I: I IY I I i m +njH;:- +\A I>
'"1' A i i'T" I i ii; ,I I I, I. I I I. 1 1 I. I i .1 .I i
..r \ri,.' I. I" N \1.,;- 'I \LItI- iNIA.]









WASIIIN' TON:
rOv F. .I, MENT 1I'5I TIN OFi'I'.
1 -'7.
4( -4-1 I'lll. 15

































CONTENTS.



Page.
Letter of .ili tal ......................................................... 5
Inrtr liirct ion ................................................................ 7
Th. Sce .-I,,' ,f the Oraiyig, iii California, and particularly the Icerya or
F tlutid Sc .l A. I .......................................................... 9
Notth. on Iic r iya-lt probable Ori i i the Ilalnds of Bourbon and Mauritis... 27
The I.'l, Ol' Gasi ;> :lill'l .S'alll 'lll .l .......................................
3
























































4


























LETTER OF SUBMITTT AL



1DE)I VISII O 'F 1 n' i; I. i i('yl .
DII~ 'Sl10N 41F IE.N'ri'm l~ .iw(;Y.
W ri.'i inqhifin. 1). C., June '27, 1.,i,7.
Suni: I lhave the honor to submit for publicationi Bulletin No. .15, fromi
this D)ivision, prepaireid under viur instructions.
IespectfIIlly C. V. itILEY,
1,' t, lillllll!lfi.t.
Hou. NORMAn. J. COl.M.\A,
Co tin in issi'ncr .f Agriculture.
5


















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013












http://archive.org/details/icerysc00usde












I I T R 0 I) 1 C(T I N.
1~

This Bullehtin eonniq0q, 1st, of a nri, int nt n iilolri-. 'lirerc,1 at
Ili Vi'r..iih., ('.il., onil the treatment ,,: .I' i,. *, >and nuore particu-
lyurlv tilt- Ih Ic'. at uf the Oit.ti ,,'. kioi nii variolsly as the "i.\n"ti.ili:,II
hint+, ('Ottitroy t.I(umn I.'.lh,.' \\'ltll.lSl .ti.," t lllL-d S, al,.." N\<-. I
2,1Id, asilIb l.iitlu it ((iillllllllTlrl''iIIl as to its possible iu I i i ;il l nu ii+I, Iil\ ;
3rtl, a iriit'en important; bulletin rt'iii the .-t.i t,. Ui-iversity ,i ('.ili,,iii i.b
Otil t ilt e Uist' O(l'fg;;-l .,g",lill. it'iid tttioi aiidl aire .ill .-i|l h,'iiit iii, ry to an extenlided article upon the
Ih -y.'l, M i( 11i will appear in tits annual report.
T"ie iiiiiort.,ii'r oil this insect .iil 1t all the I iil'i it scale-insects if.
flctijug tllie ().inc in (C.ill',,i 1ni.i is suLch as to i,,ii' the republieation
oft IIN.e l)piKIrs, as there is a c(nstant demand I,,w ''iii. of tlinm. Tim
report bly I'rolet.r._. '.- Oil the use i'l g. i k is valinalde ',,4nti ilJl-
tiol 1t0 thit a.11 riL c iniiit ut, outr kt (Li,, ,l._,, a;1nd nealls of pil,,I.'cling
trIIes floin ilh-S' si .' .iii-ui'-t. It may l1e 1.-,1kei upon as a (direct
outgrowtih i"' the expiiiiiini-mi made Iur tlhe I 'p.ii tmelit by .I r. D.
W. Coquillett, as he Ii.i-iliift legunii to experiment with .it-,. when his
(oililii siiu bellied fiOr want of, l,111i[k. CIl..ii'-'liriihily 1eitiniued these
expleriuienit. ill a private *.1),. it y with more or less '.ii.,,.-. tiili that
wlhihlh I'rullf.sOI-r MoiMst. Ilnii m1ost satisfactory i-. I believe, ,..-,.ri i, lly
thoi alil ;is l liat pievioiil1' h,,id ,t l ly 1 1 M .-I ;. (_'iii|],il -i t. (Craw, and
Wolfskll I ii it' lrri I to ii. my li\' yZ IlI aLIdress. What is said ill
that addllre.ss u tnder the htlt.i- l i 't Fliiiill, iii ')1 will, ii"'Vi'i l i-,1
hold tirue, tin niiftctr how silii.lV.i..i n the use ,i these gases )i:y
become, alnd Prlc''.or u'-rI,'s experiments rathlier ,'iiriii the 4iliuii'l-
ties which I I.irve inidicit,-l inl the ".,iy (it' pi,.lii, ilil a gas which will
destroy tirh Irvi-Y.i and its ;I;. aIs also the ,i, ul ,itl,,IIli n, the use of
anly poisoiin, ga. aiilin the grek"ter expense .ilt ii(lii; the use (d' g.i"'s,
as conipard %ith w.isl i.., 1.-ii.,illy Ii. those li,, hllave ftrw trees
to treat. Sill,, I\rIl'Iiilt improvements havre been made in the ,., .lot'
nozzle, wliI ilicr fur ficilit.liiig thile ,li.. *4 Il direction or amount t ii1
slpray, or w liilni, tr i" ease 4f cl'.i -iii .iiil I %. ,iilI t-p'i ially va.il at-
tentiili to tlhit. if John I'ii'rr.i .idn, L D. I). ii. C, 1 \\Wallut ;i\r,
C.ill., nii. 1(f V\'rniiilrl, 11" France.
As Vei'itlreIl'.4 arr;iali-ii lif tiif i liii.,liii- is as vet unknown in thiis
counltr.. we i11iv Ilri,.]v d,.-wrili, it as lIi,,. :
Thle in//luh is pierced below v\ a circular ie Iii, 1'i., irimll live to six
millimeters iln diameter, which can be closed 1-% a ilv-valve. Til. leg-






8

ulating fliers of the valve pr-jeit. on the outside of the apparatus: In
the middle of the valve a needle is welded which occupies the axis of
the (3 linider, aud which, when the valve is raised, may be longed in the
aperture A ith which the stopper of the cylinder is provided. In this
way, when the valve is raised up and the lower orifice L masked, the
upper orifice is closed by the iieedle. When, on the contrary, the valve
closes the lower orifice, the aperture of the stopper is uncovered aud
allows the liquid to pass out.
C. V. R.















THE SCALE-INSECTS OF THE ORANGE IN CALIFORNIA. AND PAR.
TICULARLY THE ICERYA OR FLUTED SCALE, .llI'S WHITE
SCALE, il.l i COTTONY CUSHION-SCALE. ETC.



[AiIIIr, 1> 1'rl C. V. il. l furi thl ('.liI'. 11.1 Stal, Bo 1 rd o4f 1..rriciiltiir<>, at
II [ .,'iii..il ll 1. c s it a t'll, ,.I,. ,' lI 31i il 1 1. It*7, as rninrtfi i l the ]'.t-
Iti,. I Inrl n l w, A1.1i l -'.1 It-7.]


A.I l iii~it sessionl.

The coivelitiotII met inll the a;tlremiii at the P.ivilion. It 1,'in-i cus-
toniaiiy tIo appoint triniii the Irnilh-growe" a: t l.ir-,, two honoralry vice-
prNsidents ait t.ieh mteltinii,, L. M. IlHolt, of the Riverside Dailty PI,-.
iiiIl S. C. Evail- (1l' lvcr.-id, were elected to ili ll those positions. Mr.
BIt. M. I'vLoi, of Los .\A rligles, was invited to act as assistant secretary.
The orgdiizati .a lhaviiiv been I'lly emi;cr'l., 1rI. '(iIllI.i. the l)resi-
dent, gave it brief statement of tihe work (,' the oioard since its org.iii-
ization. le relirit.l, to its previous -.iesIi,. ,ini stated that it was tihe
expressed i..h i of prominent fiuit-growers of Los A Angelr-; that its next
sseiol I be hleld either in Sau Dir'o, S lita Barbara, or Riverside. He
haild uiecorIliniigly, in the hope that the well-known interests if the Ilopli.
of this se'ti on ill horticulture woilull lead to a better attendance than
w.is som't iies ol hiii ilt,, ;airr'inii for the meeting here. The previous
sessioi h.d l.roiilit out valuable ilfoi iiN.tii,. which was 1uil I inl'l,
;indtl w11ul, li, distributed. It was necessary that the mass ofl new-
cot)I r.s to till. ], il ti ii of the S:t.it. '.Ihoull be furnished ft. t.s which iii..lit
.sav. thtiiin fioiii i.,ikiiiL 'expensive blunders. '1i1. insect pests are nlot
b'iig o\elt-i lle as rtiill be wished. lie il'l, i,,l to the presence ofi'
Profi sor thVil onle of the most proinilent tiitI:iln.hi-! inll the conIn-
1try. ;11iil t.itr'ld thIat he would give us some Wvaluable iil,'i .1ii,,iii ti at a
slnl1 .'. iiicnt st"sioil. l oe l 'ii l C'i,.+il|t'r.Itiull .li'tL l l tr il *zrit .'-r, ".i ,iinl
hpull .al 1.-lIrt would Ie made to modify the ti1'r.t It" the inllterstate
tuliill l TIi i tc lull.
The pit'siilliit then introduced IMr. II. J. lVu,,li-ill. a promilnenlt hor-
ti lulti i-l 1 If i eit sidl', who .ivt av n m i'|,ii'iit and v\'.r\i 'l.,l i.tr
hlr'ss t l' \ 41111111lontr.
At thte 1'0mi'lnsion ol, this address tile secretary read a \.]] written
andtild .iih" e -.ly pn'r.ird 11Y M r.11 II. 11. ;,'ri.zir, all --S il Fi.n,.ivv .
(l ..li ti| 'Se s l tiits.








At the conclusion of the essay, Mr. Wilcox, of Santa Clara, suggested
that the convention consider the points in Mrs. Berger's paper, and re-
ferred to the high character of our fruits exhibited at New Orleans,
making special mention of the persimmons there exhibited. They could
be grown successfully over the larger portion of the State, and were
really a very fine fruit.
Mr. Klee spoke of the fact that most of the Japanese persimmons
were grafted on inferior stock, but that we have a better stock upon
which to graft in the European persimmon, and that with it we may
expect an improvement in the fruit. He had an idea that while the
persiimmon would grow well in all sections, it would do better in the
more humid portions of the State. He suggested that it would be well
to experiment with the Japanese oranges in Riverside. Didn't think
they would grow of large size, but had excellent points in their favor.
Mr. Klee said the loquat could be grafted on tihe quince, but did well
on its own root. Said the Chinese had better varieties tlhian those
with which we are familiar. This fruit could be dried like the fig.
Mr. Starr, of Lugonia, said the persimmon did excellently in the
sandy soil of his neighborhood, bearing freely and regularly.
Mr. IIolmes thought experience in Riverside had demonstrated the
correctness of Mr. Klee's theory that a more humid climate was prefer-
able for this fruit, although it fruited satisfactorily here.

Tuesday's session.

The convention assembled at 9.30 a. m. The first business on the
prog ram inme was the address of Professor R iley on Scale-insects. lie was
introduced by President Cooper in a very oflimanid but happy and ap
propriate manner, alluding at some length to the efficient manner in
which the professor had conducted the labors of his office, in studying
the habits of some of the most destructive insects which have afflicted
the farmer and horticulturist, and in devising ways and means to get
rid of them.
The professor, on taking the floor, very modestly disclaimed the i euI-
logy which the president had pronomiced, and proceeded at oice with
his address, which was full of valuable information, and which, though
quite lengthy, was listened to with the most marked attention through-
out.
Professor Riley said:
Mr. PRESIDENT, LADIES, AND GENTLEMEN: When I left WashinIIg-
ton it was with the intention of resisting all invitations to speak, as I
have been suffering for some time from the effects of overwork andl de-
sired quietly to pursue some iinvestig:tlions in relation to inserts in-
juriously affecting fruit culture here and at the same time get rest
from exacting office duties. But it was impossible to refuse the urgent
appeal of your president, Ellwood Cooper, to address this meeting. I
have, however, no formal address to offer you.








Till, subjlit'ct anll w l, ; Il I ''r ', I'll ,i ',:rI.'' it its I:, lT. I,, to IlIor
tiltIIt'll ri." 1 OIt; IhosH I lC 1[I, Irslli t- |iiI I1 I i-i ilil i 10,l f 1o r I ii.tI
iniii i.s iillh,;.','ln-x too 'ompllrri lifni\ tl) II* dr'ilt with wvithout, llolrn timel(
itil I il ll l' II,,nii.tI l t 111i I h 1v1 e had at c1 olltIt l dt I shall 1 ilndla or 11to
0*ilh' il\ remarks to Iciiled eets, aId pI Lli I Irl3 I ) to wl t \ 1iI1 kn tI
.ii. flir \\'fll," ."** I,'*. Tin'l, i. tih iliiif't" whi{'h u md~b lbtdly must emto
(II liii iiil- now, t lil I l I i I i Ivt t aIn l a ti i eio I I | i it I w II i I I I
hI I .- llt Ir s it, \V Ii l ii ,l I'LI. I n., howIrt wo Il Il I i ,'1 iim t11
ur ttirr* lih ii to rI..[l, itl I ill t Is? iv' Ir the pI rely ii TIriIal aIl/ d
t'ili -it' ,ii.i ,'Ial d details atI1 tIilh oiinly Uion such1 points ;a 'ill P11olhill

NOME'CLAI TIR i.
"rl i 'r, it no doubt whatever about. this insu'qt 1>rii., tie' [ ,.'. pur
eha. i ,ti M a.,kril, and it. 111,% t, l ,, l l , ;tn ,1 l.i ,' iixid.t) I4-1 t.r .1
cli i, it popular i,. rtn\ there are several it Sa. ald "SI betll. 1en
', ".\Austi.uiilin TBi ." "W hite S'.il,..anlld 'i i ~iy1 'ii-lniiii 'sc;l there is
ivery lit Iht rl,,M '. and it i-'. as t I ,l,. useless )to e ul.ir 11II:1tle that have once collie into N, '.h'lv S I',ir aS tlhey\ catll Ibw
ch..iit.,l. I,,iwvi.. ad with rt view ,1" indueini uguanimity in tihe adop-
tic of 1. sinl I It.I ,IV it were better to .i,.i aIll these n mI es and call
it the FIoItil S,.il,.. I'iiii, are many Australian l,,.-, ani mnany white
scles. ? l4-St '\-' iliihat cn-'fiiriiliI I ',tIIiii y CIlshion-seale is both toeo ,,r," to I'
;icc[pt.lhh .vnd would likewise apply to the species ,' this last .hi'I. sII i I Is
w lit, Ias iA1 scale-insect inju II Ii' t ti o I'u iT or other trI -, at present
exist I it; ini this country, secretes its white, waxy nIlatter in Suich a per-
t'fevtly I I v ',l mI ass as this. 'iti.- "lt'l'il" termI, T< .1.'I'I. if once pIopular-
izt.d lik. GC 'inzranii I' lIi'11 il ,. tI ... I lhas the ;i.LIIt,\-,l t-. il brevity and
still greater accuracy.

tIEO(IRAlPHICAL I'lS I li I ION.

Ifistorictal evidence all points to Australasia as the iri.iuiml home uft
this insect, andi its introduction I'hoTii Australia to N,.w Z1i1,1n1l. Cape
Town, Souti -\fi;i- mland ('Aliflorti.. NotliiiinL was known or ilfil ihdl.l
upon the species prior to the seventh dcr.ilt, ol' this century, i Til it seems
to have liirst attracted attention almost 'iitii:iitaromi-ly in .\ l-trdt.i.-ii.
Arnic.', aind America. Till evidence as to whIether it is iiili.iuinu- to
Australiia or New Z,'.l.indI. or to both, is not yet s.tlI-l'.uct'l,,y. The first
personal IniwIcihIze which I li.id it it was I r-,in specimIens sent to ime in
IS72 by Mr. R. II. Sht'irhi. then livinui in Sain Francisco, .inii .ill the
evidence points to its iitr,1-l iti, 1ii into (':alrtfinuit by i lif late ;t.,o' .
Gordon, of Menlo Pa:ilk, about the year I -,;. and probably ti 'i Allus.-
tralia, on A. ,ivi ni i tlt ',ia.

SThis' statement is, oft ceurte, 'I,. ,1 on th. aisImption that MaWskel'pIrchai is a
good pe*'c It mIay i et ,r-,l, toI be ynoltni of Aaw,\< i ii rf T.








More light is, however, yet needed on this point, as in a recent letter
received from Baron von M3iller, of Victoria, he claims that it could not
have been imported on Acacia into this State, as all the Acacias in the
State havebeengrown from seed. This is a matter upon which I should
lrke to have definite information from members of this body, if such
information is extant.
It is at present widely distributed in the State, and a very full ac-
count of its distribution kindly furnished to me by IMr. Matthew Cooke
shows that there aresome ten infested districts, namely, six in the coun-
ties of Marin, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Sacramento, Sonoma, and Napa,
and four in the counties of Santa Barbara and Los Angeles. I find that
it has also obtained a foothold in a few isolated places around San Diego,
from which it may yet be stamped out.

FOOD PLANTS.

A very long list of plants might be enumerated upon which this in.
sect is either found accidentally or upon which it can live more or less
successfully. But the list of plants, especially of trees important to us
for their products, which are seriously affected by it is comparatively
limited, and will include the Acacias, Lime, Lemon, Orange, Quince,
Pomegranate, and Walnut. Some few other trees might be added, and
it is particularly partial to the Rose and the Nettle; but it is doubtful
whether the species could permanently thrive and multiply to an inju-
rious extent on many other trees than those mentioned.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INSECTS.

The genus Icerya was founded by Signoret, a French entomologist, in
1875, being based upon the single species, lcerya sacchiari (Guerin), which
lives on siugar-cane in the island of Bourbon. This species and the one
we are now dealing with are the only two species of the genus, and the
diagnosis as given by Signoret, and subsequently elaborated by Maskell,
of New Zealand, is incomplete and does not include the characteristics
of the male.
In the report already alluded to I have given a very full character-
ization of the species in all conditions aind stages, but the only facts
that I need draw attention to on this occasion are, first, that the female
mldierm.oels three molts and the male two; i. e., each hais one more
htane than has hitherto been re'ognizil.d by entomil)]ogists and ob-
servers; secondly, that it diff'urs from all other members of its family
(CoccidT) in its extended powers of locomotion in most of its stages;
in its extreme linardiness or power of surviving for a given period with-
out food, and in its polypha]i;tgous alibl)it, or the ease with which it accom-
modates itself to so great a variety of plants. The.se a;ire the three char-
acteristics which most concern you as fruit-growers, and which make it
one of the most dilifflicuilt species to contend with.








\lniln : li: ,i- r l.-r Ml % In ]i 'l- 'llil I i hn +

-l l tI I I-II 8actleIi-;seIcts aIt1 ,Itiirl av %tiv\ w ,hI I I lI. I in 'I h.ir i. .I ,ii

0 11111 '-i ; r,'u. Instiuctively, I or at least \<'r\ easily, i ,,I, lii,,,, in' tI drtil il
I%%i x il I r. licithes. I lhi,- ir s i" i l- i.,vityal t tlisti lie id 'o li 1 t ti t
thi v i i- re ..iil ,1 ili.,l with the I I id in their Ilsetiit. I l' .ti i.,T
itru ll i a l rl-u, w ith I ,l i,, 11. I;''' p the i \I .1, w hi x\ is [reI I dily+ r;.oi- d
'fri l1tl 1... I, I Iree ,Ii l h 1i[i1 orclha+rd to orei ard i' \ thI .I., in, y ,I I I \ i.l,
lt, ril Iii I III \ I IIi. or I\% birds or other i usctd. A ot li hl Ildil ic.1iis
ill trlll.lirt IOf t IN i nl,',.,I, i. ul|>,rl till* ; i ll, lill, ,, |4 1 I' ?M1 S I Is I I' w].i
ill c'lt vial ll.i, oilnl I.t' ,k.i'' -. and U1oq n aTll i iiitl h'iit* ? lil'.cd, wht helr
IIn tII lli1 i I l or harvesting t tI herop|. I'll]i. iirti i luar lin it alisto I isv
tIiltr 'I li.ilut ,Ii i.i." Iii,:I over tle I.i Iiv:,-. anl its l I1l spirea niiiiciir.illvy niliiinced the'reby.
It is i' ZIIid lIIII.I, ,i't.Litl v., ]mowever, ,.lrll liy li h 1 iinl., l irdlJ,
11n4l c ilimii n.41 a<, aid its iliitrodulctin rl I ll r ni o1 1 co tit I -eIIt to aiot her L lI t Ihi
iiiiliiitilltNv beet efected li the latter I ietholid iiioll yvIiL,' I ItI or
cuItti IIgs.
N \'I IA.\ i. E1NEMI I.

N. li ird is known yet to attack this insect in Calif ornia, an id hit (one
is mtiioil ulod iOVen in Australia, alld thIIt upj Io vir.% -llit (*v+idlhir W
ire'l'vollc s ilSeCtse a .|i.,i,,. of ILav ," Li. U N I111 l ,WO,,) \%la IIitiC
tolbstrved lto t'etl ilIlili it, as also thte .AIl- Ti-I. t)l u I .,Il\ 1 -L ird I (ll/ 1 n linip
niiHuiifia ). 'The larva of a little i,) lli. wliich I have descrili'd a-s Id%.,
tbx i. ue,'r.q'lIbr.iI, is also known t to pe 10on the ,;:'.. Arg 'i.I tI Lw
I Icteropltr.i. or true qli g. ,i1it, 1 a nitn1ber have blen t11 iud upoIn tIit
trees inil'?..te l with the iviic.l, but nlion hae a ye t ben i noticed to I,.
uponli it. Tihe most important lt' its insect elemieti-s are a '"I" i. it'-i W r-+
wig not yet ihtilntili''il, and a itnumbll r i t l ites no(it yet r.1i',i, 11y vstidii d.
Of triltt p'arasites, umone have hitherto lween i 'I ,m .1.A w n'tlthr ii Au it-
traliii. Afril.i. or A iiit'i'.i. but I ait l .i to announce thiat t+o slir(i-
iiti.s of ;I ninilite I .'lihl.d4 l ly 1 iave beell breid lmie i' ', ni spe inliil
ilroUlind Lo.-s Anugel-'., aind will be descril, 1,I\ Ilin assistant, Mlr. L. t.
Ilion iid. ho l i;il ,- a .It|lr'i.illy ,11' the I.iiiiily, ituitlertlie taini ,, J'I r/ -
ll s. if.,.ii".l '. 'ril i 7,i1 s is tew to our iili1 1.1. illd t itli r, ,lil'll7 is titi
tliis lihtt. I'ifriill was introlliduced Iroli Au-stralia with its ho-st,

PI;I.\ I'EN"I iV vIlF %sI'R.^raE.
1Most of tlie members ofl this society are doubtless aware that I.i1'
some four ye:nrs I was vmioli.it iI.I a series of v.'I\v I, I ii experimIIents-
with a view of co,)ti-onl.iii the scale insects and ,ul,,n insect |i,-t- that
injuriously anilct the or.ali.' trees ini I' 'ida. 'I'l; work was ur.ii1' im,

SMr. D1). '. Cn ,uilI'lli itr i -rr, Mw tl hat lie lia s;ilit e rear'.I a Pi.. rr.,lriili.I, pr .1.
bly of thl' geniiu ?'.i-,m., iaja, I'r,-i 1 the in.tle pupi.








on through the instrumentality of Mr. IT.G. Hubbard,and the Depart-
ment of Agniculture has published a special report prepared by him
upon this subject. All that is said in that report in reference to the
value of preveniitive measures against the scale-insects of that part of
our country will apply with equal force here in California.
The value of cleanliness; of thorough cultivation; of pruning judi-
ciously so as to get rid of all dead wood, open the top of the trees to the
light and to thle sun, and facilitate the spraying of the trees needle scarcely
be emphasized. There may be some difference of opinion as to the
value of pruning, while different kinds of pruning, or no pruning, will
have their advocates here as they have had elsewhere. The orange
makes, naturally, a very dense head, and in the moist climate of Flor-
ida, where they have a much larger average of shade, cloudiness, and
moisture than you hare here, juLdicious pruning has all the advantages
stated, and whether needed or not in California for the purpose of more
fully ripening and maturing the fruit, I am quite satisfied from what I
have seen that it is just as much needed to facilitate proper spraying of
the trees and to prevent overproduction.
Some years ago, and prior to the discoveries resulting from the in-
vestigation in Florida just referred to, the inadequacy of most washes
caused many of the orange-growers of that State to cut back their trees
most rigorously, leaving little more than the main trunk, in tie hope of
thus being able to kill out or exterminate the scale-insects t hat troubled
them there. I find that many of your orange-growers are going through
the same sad experience and resorting to the same sad means. It is a
pity to find men thus re-enacting a farce which has been proved in an-
other part of the country to be quite unnecessary. Such wholesale lop-
ping of limbs requires much labor, and even with the greatest care,
which is seldom bestowed upon it, the tree receives an immediate and
material injury,and is destined to suffer still more in years to come.
Moreover, this radical means often proves futile so far as the results
aimed at are concerned, and unless the greatest precaution is taken to
properly cover and heal the stumps and to absolutely kill all the iusei ts
upon the remaining trunk, as well as those upon the severed branches
and the ground, the new growth will soon be as elffectually infested as
was the old. Many of your own growers have thus lopped or are now
cutting back their trees in a very blind way and without the precautions
here indicated, on the popular but erroneous supposition that without
such precautions they will get rid of the troublesome scales.
Thevalueof shelters in theform of surroundliug trees and wind-breaks
is, I am sure, just as appreciable here, if not so much to protect from
frost and winds, fully as much to protect from infection from scale-in-
sects. A row or tall hedge of coniferous trees, such as your cypress,
upon which the scale-insects will not thrive-or, better still, a belt of
the same-will often serve as an effectual screen to prevent the young
insects from being carried from an infested to an uninfested grove.








l'r ,'It1inlq its 1[ntrodeu tio t.--I',,tI I1, -6W p.LIsiz,1 this ,z-II I 't nIl" pre-
ventiv ie.VvireIV 'I-. I must nott omit the irIII, l.ni', F)1' anyI effort l1Ikin I
to I r ii c tilf the iut ',Iiii,1tiu1 (df this insect tIoIii one section of the
elintrI or fO 'roum one fi -hii h-riliiiill to another. Ni Insete, so r,. i ly
ber tr.ai' It A s these s.i.LI, inim c. s, I ii.il it is t.-iiinint Ih true r 'I this plar-
ticular Iecrya.
All tite worst sli.s I,, 'riui which they siitl;r in lIlhriu.L have been in-
troduced nfrlI .tli r, idl. Thliir Li,,:; S ir ( i/it;i,<), ile,', rni) was in-
troduiied about the year I.s.!5. their 4ii f s..tl. (Parlatiria pi .aiitiii )
from liernmuila sonie twenty years l.iter. ail their hul S..il, f(.1 ,iidi-
tu ficut) from Havana in 18;.
%WVt have already seen how this h'r\.L was introduced into your
State from Au.tr.alia. and the next worst species which you have to di.al
with, i;tmiiely., your Ied Sr..tl (Aipidiotus aiurfiiriii), was likewise intro-
duced, so far ais the evidence g, si, friim the same country.
To ,,miiterate merely the dil'fervi t species of insects destructive otf
your fruit interests that lhai. been iintroliie.il 1'frim other parts of1 the
country or from other parts Of the world w hiild consume too much tinii,
anl I caInnot atteiipt to do so. But I would liy stress ii pol this con-
viction, which has fI'r,'vil itself upon me after pretty extended experi-
ence in :tll parts of the country, namely, that however much you should
enioutritge aill Co-.(perative efforts to prevent such traiifvrriiing and
spread of injurions pests, they cannot be Ifully exterminated when onIce
they obtainiii a foothold, and in the end each individual fruit grower
must depend on his own efforts.

IK EM DIES.

It follows without saying that what we should seek in atiny direct
remedy is, first, perfect killing lpo l'r. or, to be more exact, purtcct in-
secticide quality associated with hai;rimlessiwes.. to the tree; second,
reasoniable chea pness.
Aiflt'rrmt Wahess.-I will not delaitin y.\i with any giier:il remarks on
the subliject of insecticides, because it has received full attention in Imy
oticiial reports. I)ry insecticides have been found, in the main. 1niv;il.
able hert., m.ill we must ,hliciiid tilpoll washes or materials in solution
that ,i.ay be spl'-.,-dl upon the tree. itre. ;iz.uin. I would remind yon
of tih c.1reftill and extended expriienit-s made by Mr. liubbard in the
ormi'ge ;roives ,fl Flhrid.i witli a view ift' solv'ini, the important question
aits to what is, on the wlhol. the most siti-f.ici'ry Iiji1ilil .tpldi;itioI,
cheailmness and cfliiteui.y considered. (iarlili, i .1 ijl. 'i,'oote. sulphur-
iat'il lime, silicate oft sod.i, sulphurie aridl, sulphuret ift, irii. ii-.iul1lndiI[,
of carbonll, and many other materials have been tliiroitn-yv t i ivil, as w.il
as whale-oil so.ip, potash and sol.i lye iiini their various 1oi,01 .ii .iii.os ;
but in tithe end nothing ; proved equal locimiitliedl kerosene. Whale-oil
soap)1) is all exihtlleiit wash for d,',t roy in. some insects upon some plants,
but it fails to kill the v,.L. of our ;v.h iinit. 't-. so thati. however gofil it








may be forscirubbing the trunks and braiiches of a tree, I c.cniot (con-
scientiously urge it as, on the whole, satisfactory, I)articularly as it is
known to stain the fruit, and because of the many different grades, -
variing in their elti.ect and in their value, which are upon the market.
Potash anil sodI lye. injure the tree more than kerosene does mand do not
destroy the insects as well, admirable though they iare as washes in
weaker solution for some other purposes. The act ion of sulphurated
lime (flowers of sulphur boiled in milk of lime) is very similar to that
of caustic potash.
-Not wiIthstaiiidinpg the kerosene emulsions, in proper proportions, have
proved so satisfactory against the scale-insects of tlie Orange in Flor-
ida, they have, as a rule, failed to win the good opinion of the orange-
growers in California. I have alvays believed thlie wait (if suiece.s in
this State with the kerosene eminulsions was due to) iiiimperfect preparation
of them, or to imperfect application. I was inclined to give some cre-
dence to the theory advanced by my old-time friend, P'ro. E. W. lil-
gard, who is so keenly alive toeverything that interests you, and whose
services have been so invaluable to the agriculture annd horticulture of
the State, namely, that the drryieL's of the atmosphere in Calibfornia
induced a more rapid evaporation of the kerosene, whilh may partly
account for the dilfierence in experience between thle At lantic and Pa-
cific. For these reasons I had long desired to ainke a series of ex-
periments in California, and tiially, last year, didl have such a series
carried on by Messrs. D. W. Coquillett and Albert Koebele. It were
diftlicult to find in the whole State two geutlemen combining in the
one instance more care and reliable entomological capability. alnd in
the other more industry, earnestness, and enithusia.mi, and this I say
without desire to flatter, but as evidence thl it their experiments, so far
as they went, were trustworthy-in fact, I may say, the most careful
and thorough that have hitherto been made. These experiments ex-
tended over a period of three monthsin the spring :iud three mouths in
the autumn, and the detailed reports which these gentlemen have made
will be published in connection with my forthiuoiiiing aiimnual report.
They show that the kerosene emulsions must still be placed at t lie head of
the list of washes, not only forordinary scale ii-sects, but for this Icer.va
or Fluted Scale. Among the dinl'ereiit sub-lst:ices thoroughly experi-
mented with were caustic potash, caustic so'i, harird and soft soaps, to-
bacco, sheep dip, tobacco soap, whale-oil soap, vinegar. Paris green,
resin soaps and coinmpotuids, and so on. It is imlpossible to give even a
digest of the very many experinme ts, and thie varying results obtained
with the (lditlerent washes. It suffices tosay that the kerosene emulsion
diluitedil with from eight to ten parts of water v.-as lounnd to kill all the
eg(s as well as the old females, and that,.even wlheii used still stronger,
it left the tree uninjured. Mr. Coquillett reports with reference to the
much-praised caustic soda, that it has no effect onm the eggs of this scale
even when applied so strong as to burn the ,hark andl kill all the leaves.






17

Similarly, thl whaileoil soap does not kill thle l,- iliyi tli, tiihli it
imay hardehi the g lm.la- so as to prevent the li.i'hlii ii ,,t a l.ul,, pro-
portiol of young larva.
JII/i'i" ,%,,mps.--M r. K mil vh.experim renting i l .)i ;li i iign.t.il f Su1 i,1 ,''r,
1111d Octobler. iliil miiilillirlv ni,,l results I'miii the k,.',-,ii emilbim.
but that tihe crude pIetrolvulii. allhoiighl much cheaper, was more apt to
ijlutre tihe tre. His attention "; -. however, directed mainly to the
preparation( tf resinous 11.i ], and ti[colin ill 1i Il, on account olI t heir *I 1 .ii r
cheapness. He succeeded ill iii.ikiil.i a number oftlithese nixtures lii.- ,
nell' prolt]iy dilihrvd, need not cost more than one half I to one cent
per gallon and which pIri limltd very ..t i.l-.iitr i -,ilt].. I ki]liII tIhe
insects or eitlier p] viil .Ittinl or l.ilr id 'liiil i the 4.g niassies so as to pre-
vetnt t lte haitchiiii;. of the I I ut.o O1ne or the most i.i iilt.iliry inethods
of making ;i resin soiup is to dissolve one pound cansti s' h d in I .i1A
lons water to Mlodu'cc tilhely' ; thlien dissolve 2 pounds resin amnd one
pouInd tl;iIw by moderate i.it, stirniTii, in gv.l i11.ii1 ll 1 ill the cook-
ing one iquart of the lh v,. and then .MlliiL.. waIter until you iav e about
'2'2 pints t'f brown aind thi.k .uiI. I "'li'-1 will make 44 I .111,11N or, \% .,i1.
costing less thliirtoi m half cent per ;-illiTi.
There is some slight (differenee between the \],.1 iiii. of Mr. Ko anil Mr. Co.puillet as to thile value ol .' N p washes, and thle "1'*.it1,' SI.
CCss which tihn frorll'i had with thenil as compared with the latter was
p)rol ablv duci to the fact that his experiments were iI.idI dti4i in" tlhe
dry or rainlt-s season. The .rnat point (f iut01,0I-1. however, in t iese
e xpe riieiiets is that tey .i vr i fliii ill a remarkable manner the experience
had inll Florida. Anti I think you will ._' ,er with lme that theyji'T iily
the opinions which I have expressed in lflii.i;il writini2-. Suih lobserva-
tions as 1 have been personally able to make diirin g my brief -'Iiiirii
amniong you have gre.iIttly served to cililliin mle inll those ,iq iiii-1. and
while the resin soaps experimented with by Mr.Koebele are a valuable
addition to our insecticides fur the scah..ilstct'. I liuill the experience
in Florida: repeatedly here, and all the more satisfailctory washes have
kerosene as thi-ir effective lb:>i.. There las b-11.1. hilowev er, a -IV
great waste inll applying it. and it is inll this direction that reform is
most needed.
The lact cannot be too strmn.:iy urged that in tilhe case (,I this T<.tix.;i,
ao It' nlos t their or.11 l'-Ie*l-4 Ilug scale-inlsects, it is practically i ", ,- lil.
with the most varl'ttiil and tlhinroii \i.sra\ iiin. to reach every one of the
myriads onil the tree. Soillne fi'v, protected 1,y h.%lii,'.il. bark *'.il,-. or
other shelter, will s.L)ape, and with their f'ciuiid' inoL2iy soo8n V pit.il
over the tree aigmin it' lef't 1nin oli.-ti.d. I li nti two or three pira,' in,_-.
not too far a p. irt, are f.i r pitft'rnilId to a .-i I tr; itii.' (t, however
thorough. And this is particularly true It' the pest we arec 'iill.-i iii-'.
which lives on so Ini.Li3 other ] l.uliri. and whliihi in li.illy iiil-',ttI rov'v-.
is frequently found crawling over the gromiiil between the trees.
4il-Bull. 15-- f








V'alc of Kerosene Emulsion.-It is now the custom to use the time of
a team and, say, two men for fifteen or twenty minutes or more, and 30,
40, or 50 gallons of liquid on a single medium-sized tree. In this way
the tree is slisprayed until the fluid runs to the ground and is lost in great
qiiinitities, some growers using sheet-iioin 'onitrivances around the base
of the tree in order to save and re-use the otherwise wasted material.
Now, however much this drenclhing may be necessary, or has come into
vogue, in the use of soap, and potash and soda waslies, it is all wrong,
so far as the oil emulsion is concerned, as the oil rising to the surface
falls from the leaves and wastes more, proportionately, than the water.
The essence of successful spraying of the kerosene emulsion consists
in forcing it as a mist from the heart of the tree first andti then from the
periphery, if the tree islarge, allowing as little as possible to fall to the
ground, and permitting each spray particle to adhere. It is best done
in the cool of the day, and, where possible, ini calm and cloudy weather.
There has been no morning since my sojourn among you-that I have seen
the sun rise in a clear sky. Cloudiness has prevailed for some hours
after dawn, and in this regard you are favored, as this would be the
time of day, of all others, to spray. Proper spraying should be done
with one-fifth of the time and material now expended, or even one-tenth
of that which I have seen wasted in some cases, so that three sprayings
at proper intervals of from four to six weeks in spring and summer will
be cheaper and far more satisfactory than one as ordinarily conducted.
In this particular neither Mr. CoqIiillett's nor Mir. Koebele's experiments
were entirely satisfactory, as I was too far from the field to permit of
the detailed direction necessary.
I cannot emphasize the fact too strongly that it is practically impos-
sible to eradicate, by any system, every individual insect and egg upon
a tree in one spraying. It is almost futile to attempt to do so.
Improved Wash recommended.-Let us now see whether the kerosene
emulsion, pure and simple, can be improved upon by the addition of
any other material. It is plain to be seen from the circulars and docu-
ments, both official and unofficial, that have been published in the
State and distributed among you, that, in many cases, the proper use
of kerosene has been entirely misunderstood. Having already seen
that it destroys the eggs of Icerya, only when used in the ratio of one
part of kerosene to about seven or eight of the diluent, it follows that
any lesser amount will give less satisfactory results. Moreover, it is
extremely important to prepare the emulsion properly. This has usu-
ally been done by the use of milk or of soap, because they are cheap
and satisfactory. Raw eggs and sugar, and other mucilaginous sub-
stances may be used. Experience has shown that the best pro-
portions are two parts of the oil to one of the emulsifying agent,
whether milk or soap, i. e., for instance, two gallons of the oil to one of
milk or one of the soap-water made by dissolving half a pound of soap
in one gallon of water. So long as these proportions are maintained








it 11irgt. Illiiintity canll be ,iiiiil.iiitl as rapidly as a smaller qu(lil h asi
violent n; itaititl Ii IlnIl.Jil a sp>ray- 1oz1 e atit / ,iI i[,r[t vm r nf li" I I v ani
u Ir'tq iiitl ih I-, ill. ill I rep'i III. gives the qItikes1t results.
'rake, tor instance, the mixture it H I ',iii.i"iiIl.Il by IIoIr eouInt board
"r hiot'l io ul:ii:d oumnissioners. You w i %% i lil ,l that with tli soap .1nI
woiol i,,,I.'l.i there are twenty t! parts i, the lili,.-ii to one t tihe kc
sene rrcui'nimiidi',, and there is every reasoi to belrliteve i hat t he kerosene
Iin l1 l1 wash iiigiht just as well be th rownl" ;\t andi tI hat it adds corn-
par.alively little. to the .llit, ii, y -. thlie %.%1'i. at least Ir the
finted .c'ale. It. on tihe contrary, we could add to the ordinary enul-
sion any materials that would i\\ .v i..iti.1 adlh-,i\c, ii.. such an addi-
ion I nI ill prove an :id a tiifi;t 1;liIi wNte t II, to IsomIe exteI t, in the
soasI eIiii il.,itiI ,I r which reason it has a '.li lit ad\ .1l.i,' g over the 1t1il%
emiili.ion. A ind al'i'r cx.imiiiiiii tlie trees treated within resin i .i'dhe'%. I
am strongly inclined to recominendI that these resin waslics be ii,-'d as
tlhe diluent to the soap emulsioll made after the usual ii' il.i. S III.-
thiig ii siniilIr was tried some years a,.- 1,\ on(e of I y .itl'-ii in Florida,
Mr. Joseph Voyle, who used tir bIalsam in place I resin, i in ConnectionI
wit l tlhe oil emulsion, and olit.iiii,.l most satist.il,. i,\ results. A cer-
tain amount of dl.xtrilie, or, \ 't better, il 'ii, it'f mixed with the w\.;Ishi.
wouhli prove valuable f-r the same purpose.
Again, if" pe i.ilinnelIly can be "i,'ii to the otl'ri ,I a wash so ll.itt
the ftew insects eml.pinig the lirnt ap;iplai.il inm, or which would hatch out
thereafter, would succmulm, such addition would be invaluable ; and
though lit' arsenites are., als I nilh. effective ulii.ll ia .aiil't ilaiililiii.
late insects, or those which masticatet their IAiM',t (in other ,i"-.
alki:hough the action Il tliese Ii-,,'i- is mainly Hllt iiiiJ the stomachh,
y't I happell to know Ii ill experience that tlhov have also a direct
effect 1y contact. '"hli'rifzlt. I recomnnmenid, with ru.i-tihil,.ili ahv iiii.
dei 'e. that in this dilute kerosene emulsion there be added ai small
proportion of arsenious arid,l s.V I'm ii 2 t to t; ounces to ,*ii i\ .'ii (.il.
lols of wa-li. l'This arsenious acid may be prepared a ad ilid in va-
rious \was. Probably one of the siiimple.stl would be to take hi;li a
poilund of arsenic to li,.t a plminil if sal o.il.. boil this in one half a.il
Ion ull' water until the arsenic is dis-,lI .,1, and mix this with about IIHI
galhlonis of the iili utvd emulsion. A quarter ill a pound t' ILondon piur-
pie to 5A galliis of the diil vi, l td n'll.i,,1i. or even a still gil.ill.r anillolllt.
wouldl. peilhaii,. serve the same purpose and be less liklv to itiiii the
t ree.
I :i; aware -i' the dainger or i"ahkin._ reconimendations that have not
yvet had th1iiiiohli ltiiil, but I have already made a few liiiiit.,l .\,.Ji-
'Ilents (.iiul intend Iaiikillu more) which N% iilh. seem to li-lila flhu. and
at all events if care be taken not to liuse too) l,ii., a quantity oi tlih ar-
seuic no liarni u ill re.-iilt fromi it, either to the tree or to those who use
tlie fIruit.








Kerosene is not so cheap as the resin compounds, nor as some of the
soap and lye washes, but it has this great advantage, that it can be
used in much less quantity. It permits a great reduction in the amount
of material and the cost of labor. At the rate of 20 cents per gallon
wholesale, the effective wnshli will cost 2_ cents per gallon, and from
one to two gallons are sufficient, if properly sprayed, on a medium-
sized tree.
SPRAYING APPARATUS.

Just as there is a great wastage of time and money in drenching a
tree with kerosene emulsion, so the spraying nozzle most iu vogue with
you is also somewhat wasteful. That most cowimmouly used is the San
Josd nozzle, in which the water is simply forced through a terminal slit
in a narrow and rather copious jet of spray. It is the force and direct-
ness of the spray which gives this nozzle its popularity under the mis-
taken spraying notions that prevail, and to this I should probably add
the fact that, being a patented contrivance, it is well advertised, and
on the market, for somehow or other people rarely value a gift as much
as what they buy, and too often rate value by price. The Cyclone noz-
zle, or Riley atomizer, as it is called in France. which has proved so sat-
isfactory in the East as well as to my agents at Los Angeles, hasscarcely
had such trial among you, so far as I have been able to see, as to prop-
erly impress its advantages. That originally made and sent out by the
late G. N. Iilco, of Stockton, was patterned in size and form after one
which I sent him, and which was designed to spray from near the sur-
face of the ground.
What I would use for the orange grove, or for trees, is a bunch of
nozzles of larger capacity, the size of the outlet to be regulated by the
force of the pump. I have witnessed all forms and sorts of spraying
devices, and while there are many that are ingenious and serve a use-
ful purpose, I can safely say that there is no form which will produce a
spray so easily regulated and altered to suit different conditions, and
which is so simple and so easily adjustable to all purpl)oses. Since
among you I have endeavored to get a bunch nozzle, such as I would
recommend, made at Los Angeles, and the difficulties I have had iu get-
ting it made properly illustrate, perhaps, some of the reasons why this
nozzle has not become more popular on this coast. All the parts must
be well fitted; the inlet must be tangential and the outlet so made as
not to overcome the whirling or cyclonic action of the water. The
breadth, directness, force, or fineness of the spray are all regulated by
the form and size of the outlet, and if a thick cap be used it must be
gradually countersunk on both sides until the thickness at the outlet
does not exceed one-sixteenth of an inch or less. A bunch of four noz-
zles, one arranged so as to have the outlet distal or from the end of the
piping, which may be ordinary gas pipe, and the other three in bunches,
so that the outlet is at nearly right Iangles, each about an inch below








ntio othw', and so 0l. it that thv ale o.. O -in tl,[ the t ifroi lr li, nu,. fit'
:; tiu an ii pipe apart, will be t'f.lniil, I think, most serviceable ill your
groves. MAilI a hunch working t'r, mi tie center al' a ordinlary-sized
tre, will eviivl.l|> it i t a l,,'r;,t ball of mist.
For tall trees a more liorildlu stream li il bii l, .i Ii ,1,iii the end iby
uIt tIit tingI an ordinary jet with a wirt extension. e 'h. is a recent
dtvie lirst iim. rlit to my attention I Mr. A. 11. Ni ,, i, oft ) I .,m,
O(hio, animl W;r spending a Ii, spray llr a gi it distance it has tadvan-
tagem.. It is simply anll extensiou screwed over anll ordinary iiippl, the
enil or" the tube lIin.i covered with wire im.t lii]., which breaks up the
liquid Iforceid through it. 'Th1t brass nlipple should le about one illch
in I ingtli, the pu I'li.1ii'ii vi'ly true and vati ;i' in l .timli r according
t" tlie I'Ar't of spray desired. The ni"iilh screws n thedie 1hi.6n. pipe,
aind'l j11on a shoulder threaded for tlhe piiip-'.. is .i .\\ r, I a chamber or
tnbe iiabout one inch illn diaiitit.r aInd three inichels hli.' ,, to t-he outer end
of which is soldered a 'i,.,.'of wire g i/z'. varyi_ inll size ,'f mesh to
suit thin l'ilrcm lit" ]tIlipj atd thile lsize l' apertutre in iiiIiil, .
Finally, it' a service o' blind caps ami several sets of ",P low.u nozzle
caps ot1' \'ryinr aperture are k'lit oI li.iml. tlle spray innr may be ad-
.justed at; will to eoidition ot' winid, size ,l tim0,1.
Your wvorthliy president has 'i y well I''rmm.ii kmil that what we walntl( is
nut generalization, iult hard I'.mir. andl experience presented inll the
silniplest and blii-'6fst manner. Ift' I have dealt sointewhat with princi-
ples rather than with drt'tiik, I shall look lir your excuse in thle t.-act
that extended ,xperim.in, presents sueh a itult ipli.ity 1,' details as to
WaIrn. Ine ftroim (ilt'rinig into them.

FT'M ii. \ I'ION.

Fiiiniga;ting trees will always hait\ '. ewtAeriq ip,,'ri i. some disad v.i nt.iLgo
ais ('oimli>ired with s|i"A lie_. Tit' mechanism; is llore cumbersome; the
tillie rerqi-I1 I 'nr treatillent andi thie i'i osI co iln nII.,iJ.I preparation
greater, and these I m.r, "ill al.i,.v., i,. spra In, thie a'l\.iil.L-' N with
sm.dall proprietors and those who are I1 lini with y,,inig; trees. Sulphur
f'uinnes have lI,,i, t I i,.,l, but lvy burn the leaves and injure the tree.
Torbaci'> smoke and vapor fail to kill the e;go-. .\Aiimii. is ra.vrllilu,
liut fat l.s to kill .ll, I lion.-_i I have known the most 1.1-,i, fi i.l results I'i ,'ii
thoi niumonia aiin,,, sheep) manure used as la i'rr ilizer in a.i ill '
-titting the lrigt jii.iititiry its ,ipsr will kill the insects without ,illin,i
the till ; lint its application requires too munch time ,ill is il .i-iulir with
imi11k or' less risk to manll. Tlt. is equally true il ,y idle ,tf potassinni
and to' other substances ili. vapors froin which are killown to be vry
diedlly to insect lit'. It will be tl i litlr. ll t.t,mt, to will ta mode 4nt
fltnig;itiin., tlh.t will be harmless to the tree and ,I,.i.lyv to the iTin-i't',
iand at the same time as r.illlv and easily .i,[,i.id as a -MCr.t,








Many of you already know that Mr. Co'quiillett, in connection with
Mr. Alex. Craw and Mr. Wolfskill, of Los Angeles, have for some time
been conducting a series of experiments which lead then to believe that
they have discovered a gas which possesses the requisite qualities. The
trees which I have examined that have been treated with this gas, both
there, at San Gabriel, and at Oranmge, lea'd me to the conclusion that
they are fully justified in this belief, and several ingen ious contrivances
have been perfected in Los Aingeles County which h give promise of great
utility and feasibility. Whether the trees are left uninjured, it is per-
haps premature to say. That they are affected is ev ident it some cases,
and what the ultimate eflict will be time alone will decide. Let us all
hope that the promise of this g.is will be abunidantly fulfilled. Let me
add, however, that even if it be found that no solitary insect or egg will
escape treatment with this or any other g:;t;, fumigation will yet no
more fully exterminate or free the orchard than thie proper spraying of
the kerosene emulsion, but, for the reasons already state(l, will have to
be repeated. In other words, one application, however perfect in de-
stroying insect life, cannot and should not be depended on. The disad-
vantage about this gas in miy estimation is that it is kept so far a se-
cret. We cannot lierhaps blame the gentlemen for endea voring to re-
alize something out of what they consider a valit able discovery that
will compensate them for the time theyhave devoted to the purpose; but
I am always suspicious of secret or patent insect remedies. Mly friend,
M3r. Coquillett, perfected this gas after his employment by the Depart-
ment of Agriculture ceased. But itis a general truth that the moment
any person or persons become interested in a patent or in any remedy
they desire to control, from that moment theirjuIlg ment can no longer
be depended on as to the value of other remedies.
I have been asked why [Mr. Coquillett was not continued in the serv-
ice of the Department for a longer period, and it is perhaps due to the
fruit-growers of California and to him to explain why the experiments
which he began were interrupted. It had been my desire to have two
agents permanently located on the Pacific coast to carry on the work
of my Division here, for I have long felt that your fruit interests, to say
nothing of the other agronomic interests of the State, demanded such
recognition at the hands of our National Government. It so happens
that in my desire to aid other investi^a-tions that be.ir upon tile promo-
tion of agriculture, I took part in urging the cre.itiom of a Division of
(olnithology and iiniiiminlogy for the purposeof in vestigating t lie habits
of birds and mammals so far as they affect agriculture and horticulture.
The friends of ornithology were successful in getting that Division cre-
ate(1, but were unable to get an aprolpriati)on to ca rry on thie work, ex-
cept by taking it out of the appropriation for the Entomological Divis-
ion; and during my absence fromi the country last Junme, and after all
my arriatuigenti.its had been inade for work on the Pa.iciic coast on the
basis of the appropriation bill passed by the House of Representatives,








|1 tle amout Was Cut down in the S.,U.ili, and part WI it giv 6i, ,r the or-
I ilhoilogi -al work, ltii4 r'.iiiirilii+ the ,i, .'i.iaz, .' a it il .r ,f tio o
S lreadyil eiliggrdl, and iwst.'i.liu the work ,1" the Depa)rtenlt inll eiltO-
llology.
BA. lI;'.S \lIh)lNl) TIE I 11I1 \k.

Thtre is alwa.' s d.iiigvr that a tret once 'i'r.o \.,1 por li-iit''i,'Il "ill
get rinstrmil Iroum the insects that inave not btcnl reached uioli ;i,-
jalcenitt plhints or ipni tlihe giiiid, and which inime iin.i' crawl il,,,ii
the trIink. Any of the sticky 1l;iiil.i'., used l'i. the llcanker worm will
check this aisent, but wlili the sticky inateri il is pliceld directly on
tihe trunk it mI.i do4 more harmi thin g ,il. It f1il-hIl, i plif'd ip i nii strips of tar paper or other -tit p.iii, i, tied bty i .,itl .ir-iiinal
the middle. ti h, 1llh|I|1T end ll;'ird shlghtly outward, and the space be.
tweteni it aiilil thIo trunk killed with soil to prevent the N 11111;i, illsects ir li1
creeping beneath. ( ',tlifn should not be used "l -i this piirlli-.e. as 1iirn,,
for nesting pii'-pOses, carry away particles <'o it which M i.iy contain the
young 1i i"mtts aild i.ill3iy tlii help to disseminate them.

].l;i;lsi..\ rlON.

Next t thlie destructive locusts which occasionally ravage our grain-
fieldils no other insect has pirli:i-, been more ihl',i ,ilily h.gil.iti.l
against than tili Icerya in <';ilitili'ia. ilhr.ldh thel manner in whitilt
the people of this Stite have taken hold of this insect question and
have endeavored by all h-.gil-ditive means to iiliir,' such action on the
part of fru it-growers as best subserve the interests of the whole State,
is highly coininelliable. Yet, while much g.,i).1 has undoubtedly re-
sulted, the laws have too oftein proved inoperative, either tlhroilih the
negligence or ignorance of those appointed to execute tleim, or still
more oMten through the inditileiei', or oi|il>piti,,i ,f iuiliviluiI grwirr,
or iinwilHlinigne.s of the courts to enforce the l;tIwss \%ili vigor. And
while tihe greaite.st co-operation should be iii .,nl. fnil, if i,,>-ilih,. en-
forcedil, in I'battling with these insect pct -. .\ ,.1 so i.ir as this particular
Species is voiillriltd, I1o hlillaill elindeavor calln now exteriiinate it ftilinl
thle noiilltryV. It has come to 1t.1v, and liitliiti has miore 1illy I'nreld
itself 1 ii11on iit conviction tlian tli.it, in the 4.ii1. witli all our lai" each
iarange.,grower must depend upon his owni exertions. It ik. hlin.l;t',
tortiiliat. that the pest in iv be c',iirnn l'll li l sIch iudividuial Iexertions.
WVhile, lhowiV\r., we m llst ;il i lit that it is 1,.y, \i1 oiur power to t'ill:y
eradicat.t it fri,', those districts in which it lilas obtaiiined a fiiiitIi. the
case is hiite different when it collins to rI'-ti ii'li-i' it ss iri:ll. :in l it is
in this di-e'ction that wise h...i.it' in. and the strict '.1 ir\viigoutof the
legislative measures yo"i have :ilo-itirl.or may adopt, will be Irdml'iivv.
or munch liigol.
IRecent history has 'iirnii-hliih very good viiliir.' ,i>' the plw.,r ti'f
stringent measures adopted ihv giv'r'il:li'it-. whether to prevent tlhe








introduction of an insect pest or to stamp it out when first introduced
and before it has acquired a strong foothold. Several European nations
have, in this way, averted, so far, the Grape Phylloxera, and the Ger-
man Government, on one occasion at least, effectually stamped out our
Colorado Potato-beetle, which became established in a restricted locality.
The danger which threatens orange-growing districts in this State
not yet affected, as well as the orange belt on the Atlantic seaboard, is
great, and we cannot too earnestly appeal to the authorities that be for
means to employ still greater vigilance to avert it.

RIVERSIDE.

What a relief it is to get from a scale-infected region, with the at-
tending evils of blighted and withering growth, smut tiness, and unmar-
ketable fruit, into a neighborhood yet exempt from these pests, like this
enterprising locality in which you meet! What a joy in contemplating
by contrast the bright and cleanly aspect of the trees And what is
there more beautiful in nature than a perfect orange grove at this sea-
son, and yet untainted by Coccid or Aphid, or other insect enemy? In
all my travels I have nowhere felt nearer the ideal Garden of Eden than
in some of your lovely valleys, yet unvisited by these destroying atoms.
The profusion and perfection of fruit and flower, the elysian character
of the landscape, the genial sun-all appeal to the higher esthetic feel-
ing in man, and one is moved toenthusiastic conteml)lation and admira-
tion of the glories of nature and the bounties of Hea yen under such
favoring conditions!
STATE ENTOMOLOGIST.

You know better than I do how your laws have acted in the past and
are acting now, and how far your State inspector aund your different
county inspectors have succeeded.
But, before passing this matter of legislation, I should be derelict in
my duty if I did not urge upon you the value of on e form of legislation
which has not yet been tried. Without abating one iota the work al-
ready being done, whether by individuals or boards, it does seem to me
that if you had a State Entomologist, i. e., an officer appointed to devote
his entire time to this subject of economic entomology in the State,
much additional good might be acco mplished. provided lie were properly
supported and given the means to carry on his work effectually. You
should not commit the same error that lihas been committed by some of
the Eastern States, in which the cultivators of the soil have desired to
have such a State entomologist appointed. In three cases which I now
have in my mind there has been quite a disposition on the part of the
legislature to pass a proper bill, but it has failed in each case because
of the conflicting interests which aimed to control the office. Either
the State Board of Agriculture, or a State Horticultural'Society, or a
State Agricultural College, or some St.iate university, or some other








SStlil' iiitin liti'ii. l,'.iir.l to alive the hli ono 1nd thle |i i\ il,,L,. p)rait i -
ill', to ti tl l ii', .111(1, liatnd .'l thiem ill,,i lill, Ili la'-illri' I ,Ilipilll,
like ti sv, ('aliiillii.i \ ilh a competent S,.t, Eitoi ol gist .iel l,,inii'al,
il: nder aI luill ci' refiill\ dr.li lip pio,,1idlii, his tliili'L. 1s tlit .,\'oliiit1 1'.
tI, u ol Iec ill 'i lit' t eil o i l''-ilt lor vrl'itl, and tilt' prel i denl t Alt" such othtler St.1it hotlticultulrail alnd :; Iii'ul
Ui'iil I odits as II t' i xist. In tis imnll t-1ie in Ite'sts oA -a ill t1 Sest
bodi esl. iiiig;lit lli' rrniii~l, ,rln i tl m i the S1i~Ii, +oullh li,,l, i(n miy" Ji~iilgii,'iit.
I nimike li illort hlIt-lit .ill, iitIV tIe tlt.il thtIMl in tlit' CrAi'1tion I1 sucli ani olcie_.

Ill i)Ii ',A i [ON i' PAi I I I:S.
I C l as dninill .,-;s ov'iillrted to illian of y nll tlhat it \% ,iill i he viI I l.t I '-.
Aili tl iliiit roi lit 'e r i' iii Alist 'ali snchli plara;isites as serve to I4.1-1 this
ilitull scale in 'll.k iii its native lild. We lav already seen tllihat
tlierit is oit' iiiiilt, .i'iisite which liis. ii all pril'.i'hil)ii been i-,r' ,ilit
(OVerwl Wilt it 11liii Austri. a ilii, and there is i questionI hut tlihat it is v-ry"
ilesiraille to intritdic t'liit\ such '>1' its elienits anld plarasites a.s clan he
itinltrodi'ed. This St.it- v,', even Los Alnl,,'.ls County-could well
afford to ;ap[i pi i i at i ,O ple ot"l ill .in I 4.iil di1l 1. Ii It)o otuiler lipuirlpose
thli l'li t se illiii of aill ,x,'lrt to Australia to devote smie ln months to
thlestuiily o t'liese piriit. thliere and to their .iri li-i.il introduction liviv.
But tihe agent iiii.Nt Iiv alii xl)epI't 'iiti iiueL,'i-', liand hIis selection should
be. left to soliic ollilletiit ui hhollivil. T'lih result l ,iiif 11 l. in the enld,
would lIe ;a Iilllioi. tfldl, in III .1 hive ino i'l.Ir huIt w i\t I 1; I ,I. as IS -.1 ie-
growers, will aiilcrec tate, as United Siates it, Itll iillll i' ., to send some one there with the
consent of the 'Coiiiii-ioneior if A lriculture, w lere lthle means ti"r the
purpose iat In" ioiilil uinuid biu it Ilil'iirtiii.imrly, the mere >ii t .li ii that
I wanted ,1.50() or -,1iliii f"r such a pu;VrpsO would hle llmOe apt to caullse
laughter ainL ridicuilt on the e.i-i of ithe i \.-iT:r com inittee in 1'oi ,_.00
than seriousII and .liin r ii 'iiiil',intiii. anlill the action o1 the last I'oll.
i gress hais reitilerl ;i% ii suleh work impossible by liiitinl. iinvestigationll
to thle I'lnitcl S .tilk".

IE IKi l CIIN T1 i N : 1) TO I II E, lRAN'.l:.
let n'. in ci'hini, l.iy stress onil the fii,.ti that I li.'ve. inll all that has
liteeni saidI rul.i tliti Ig to 'iii'li'-, had ,I(rI'-ill A solely to the Aii l. tI' andll
thie social ixisects .illtc.lit it.
Thie l-'liiid Scilh is iti lielm [ilcl. thl e most dlillinilt to mia.ster. anil lie
ilie.ii is I live r'ccniiiillecl .iiii it apply t-li.illy to your other
orange s tih's. s ei p i 'ii it 1.is already Scale, iln soilie respctls e-veli worse than the 1.- 1i. and f,1 which I
should like ti s.Aiy silltlii.ii in ll't. il 1ilI time permIl it. -ii-l'ilill, to it.
BuLt whlen it coliit's i)i til' treatment of dlciduous (ic'. nicch that I
have said will not appl lv, andi eich tree needst separate o' t.'ilr.t ninim
nud is atlectee tli.ilerentilv 1,\ ill;i,.nt washes.








PROSPEIIIITY V:i. INSECT PESTS.,
In passing t'rom place to place siu more particularly in visiting the dif'rrenrt parts of Los Angeles County,
I have been struck with the wonderful activity everywhere manifest iu
real estate. Land is "booming" in all parts of the country, but no-
where has it reached such proliortions, it seems to me, as right here in
this part of' California. There does not, at first, seem to be much con-
nection between the real estate boom and the scale-insects of the
OrInge. But I am quite sure that the rapidity with which your orange :
orchards have been and are being converted( into town blocks and
town lots has a marked influence on the silrea;Ld and increase of these
scale insects; for no sooner does the owner of a grove subdivide and
sell it than the different new owners allow it to run to grass," so to
speak, and for miles around all your thriving and growing centers of
population may be found neglected orchards upon which the insects
are reveling and muiltiliying and scattering into those which are more
carefully cultivated. To this cause is, in my judgment, due very much
of the rapid reintef.tinug of these cultivated orchards, so that your insect
troubles are, in a measure, connected with your impl recedented growth
and prosperity.
NOT AN UNMIXED EVIL,.
Finally, let me say, before taking nmy seat, that your scale insects are
not an unmixed evil. With your lovely climate, rich and varied soil,
and the many other ailvalltages which your beautiful country possesses
for the cultivation of the orange and most other fruits, the business
would soon come to be overdone and rendered unprofitable, could every
one, before planting his trees, feel sure of an abundant and fair crop
without having to contend with (1 difficulties. Under these circumstances,
it seemsto me that even the dreaded scale-insects, by driving thethrift-
less to the wall and giving the careful and intelligent man who persists
in destroying and defeating them better prices for his product, may,
afterall, prove a blessing in disguise. One thing i., sure, it is pure folly
to talk of giving up the battle and abandonii.g thie field to these, your
tiny foes. There is no insect that is invulnerable, or that we may not
overcome, if we but attack it at the right time, in the right place, and
with proper means and ability. You will, ere long, feel yourselves mas-
ters of the situation, and if what I have said will aid in ever so little
togiveyou the victory I shall feel abundantly rewarded. I havealready
occupied more of your time than I intemilel to, aInd though much is left
unsaid, even about this single insect. I mini.t close in order to leave time
for discussion. In doing so, permit me to congratulate you as a Board
for the good work already done, and to prophesy that in future years
when the fair and unrivaled fruit of thi. coast shall have multiplied be-
yond the most sangiguine vision of any of us. and have found its way in
one form or another to consumers in all pai ts of the world, the people
of California will gratefully remember the work you instigated and the
battles you fought. Ladies and gentlemen. I thank you.
















NOTES ON ICERYA-ITS PROBABLE ORIGIN THE ISLANDS OF BOUR-
BON AND MAURITIUS


1" V Il ti v il /'.i.,,, I.'' .. . . , 1. II...7.



1 hv'e lUSt read with a gro,.it deal ,iI interest the letter of W. M. Mas-
kcll t, State Inspector Il.t,, il your issue of the 7thi instant. This letter
really brings ii[iiiitp.itan important qiii'l'ii,,so far a our WVhiteor Fluted
Scale i.s lileriic Il anll article ill Illm fIort .',llliii .. repo rt, as Unitied
St.iltt.s I':1 lt lo Pit I.I, (W which i have senllt youl advanced [i. lli l'.
1 have, without ipi(tlioii, assumed that I,.- ii,, purcihasi M.ilkl was a
goold spu0ti.es and distinct t'loil I. sacchari Si i,,rrt, because M.o.k.ll,
in his second article on the Ifiirive, .'peir. u Tr. -',i. No.*,w Zealand Inst.
for 1,I,3, pag. 140), ;iflt 1 a examiniation 41' specimens il, I sacchitri.
sent liii by Signiort, .st.s that he liitnls the -, Maim itiain species un-
doubtedly and markedly distialct." TlI. hI trer to Mr. Klee lii iu.- ii1.
however, tlihe whole question of tlhe accuracy ,if his determination. lie
admits that lie has never seen Sigiioiic t sacchari alive. The only
(liffereinces which he made in IA-. li.tween 1. sacchari iinl I. purchlasi
are as tfollow.s : ". sacchari does not seem to lorii an ovisac with iimi-
tudinal grt,)ve., nor hairy, show the great nt-t it' f black hairs allnd the curious pin'i llci ;
glassy tubcus sl|riuliiuig from 1.li"i- brown coroneted Ii, which are
marked Ileature.. f I. pa r,1 ,,i. Thie number of circular 'piint-i t r ori-
fices .ire 1u,.lih smaller inll the Mauritiau insects."
Ni'Iw Si.-Iif It knew only two 't. II-. thle Ill rI g own fiii.II and the
I newly hlaihed 1.i1' .1. wl1l,[1 M .i) k l ;g.1%. careful d41 ''il Iiii, ,,t the
egg. thv inhig,; l~irv\,, the second -tt.i.r. and the lull : rowi, fi.iitli. but
lihal nit ,'eil the mude l.irv'i. rioi,',ii. or adult. It is lI, this reason that
I have given a very lull characterization lif the species in the article
already alhidlcil to.
8i4 n orCt's di st'cril tilni. so I.,r as it *i., ., applies 1lli 'ii,.l %ily well to I.
purchsnvi in soime of its tfniii. Ill, ni.il had not li ,,.,1ii the cottoiy
or lintcd-e.gg 'o)veIrinf,. at least he mIakes no I'llit'lifiit to it. His iI. i'm,.
while s.ihou IlI a short truncated 111.--I. does not indicate the lutI iit.
be.auise the t.w lines uiion it are evidently it.iiri.il,, v the artist i.i
.27








the long, fine, glissy hairs. M.tskell, tfollo wing Signoret's description,
rightly says that sacchari does not seem to forn an ovisac with longi-
tudinal grooves." But Signoret himself says that sacchari, in the
island of Bourbon, "is confounded with Lecniumint giasteralpha, under
the name of louse-with-the-white- pocket." V Whether Signoret assumed
such confounding by the islanders because of erroneous supposition
that this sacchari had no ovisac, or whether the islanders designate both
the Lecanium and the I'cr ya under the characteristic vernacular, is not
plain from the language, and is immaterial. On the principle of unity
of habit in the same genus, I feel morally sure that Signoret's Icerya
must produce her eggs in such an ovisac, and the Bourbonese are doubt-
less well aware of the fact, otherwise they would not so indicate it or
confound it with Lecanium. We are justified in assuming that the
female which my friend Signoret described and figured had only just
begun forming its sac, and that its flutings had become effaced and the
secretion unnatural in appearance. Maskell's second reason, viz, that
sacchari "does not show the great tufts of black hairs and the project-
ing glassy tubes," will also lose force from the facts that Signoret par-
ticularly describes these glassy tubes as long tilaments, waxy, very
fine, delicate, transparent," and that these tufts of black hairs are ex-
tremely variable in quantity, sometimes making the insect look quite
dark and bringing out in strong relief the few smooth, orange-red or
brick-red elevations, and particularly the series of about twenty-two
around the border; at other times being so scarce that the insect has
an almost uniform reddish-brown appearance.
It would appear, therefore, that, notwithstanding the differences in
Signoret's and Maskell's characterizations, there is room yet for grave
doubt as to the specific difference in the two insects, especially as upon
restudying Signoret's description it accords iu every other particular
with I. purchase.
You will pardon me, Iknow, for going into these technical details, be.
cause it is evident that the solution of thliese questions has a very im-
portant bearing. My own impression now is that future investigation
will prove that the two insects are identical. The truth will in time be
ascertained by getting all the different stages of sacchliari from the Isl-
and of Bourbon or from Mauritius, and coilmparing them more carefully
withpurchasi, the different stages of which I have fully detailed in my
report.
Let me say in this connection that there is a great variability in pur-
chasi as to the amount of matter secreted on thie ,cale itself, which may
very easily mislead, especially in dried specinmens. In theorangegruves
of Southern California the general colimritional aspect of the insect is,
in all its stages, reddish-brown, the surf.ice exudation being rarely ex-
cessive and never obliterating the reddish-brown color. This exudation
is, in fact, more noticeable upon the male lai %a, which, together with
his narrower, more elongate form, renders him easily distinguishable








From tli ft.e iale. In the more northern parts ,' the si r, l,,io,.' r. I
rt fund tli[at tli gIiir.il colorational aspect wa.s q iIitv ltl,.itiiit ,I ii ,to
tho greater exc s.s of the ,III l"i I \1i.1.il.tilii. which l ii iiil ly covers the
body in little gltil:mr masses and gi\' it a whitish .,il, even :u-,ri-l,
aspect, and which iilftni rises .ilii the middle iille 'the bl,, idito a tililI
ridge. This forim 'rwsepi iiil'I more nIearly w ith what Sj.:iin.i has ilI
scribed, :Ll it fiilIMs that this wl\y -,iI la,. \ii',1.1 ii.ii becomes denser
uand still illort. noticeable 1', contraction in the dried or cabinet Speci
uiens tor whenrver the insect has .imihl kii..
This qtii.stion oi t'll- \n mvilny Il" the species lbear directly onl its
origimil son'r ; t'Or if we have but one species ,', the -I 1111",. or even ift'
thliere lie two). and purchsi is fotnnid to occitr oi tlhe -i.i cane in tihe
islands of I'ourlbim and M.iiiriti -,- then the pi,'-imirllii',ri ill hie that it
originally ctme I'roi these islands. In my address at l\,i.iil,. 1
called attention tohe fact that this Fluted Scale seems to have become
uott:ilbly ilijuriois almost simultaneously inll An-,lldi, Somith A, 1,... aind
California., and l(i, the assumption that it inir.'tH tle -11- ir canem on the
islands Ilent iownd, it is much more easy to understand its introduction
to thlie otthe rouii tries. Si1.12 is,'u] 'l fiiii t hose isl itnds in to many
parts of thlie w rld. T'Fli u'.ir, as it leaves thliose i-l. l. is\ .r\ .,,.ir-,.
and all thie mollasses or sirup is not extracted, ccnt,.i on.Il- not i<,in,:
in use. For thi- Iu 'ri f ir dr.,iiinii'. the .i:.in *makers are' in thle habit
of putting a p itre c fcane in every li,,'..]ir.i-l. inil. in additi,,.i thie top
is someti nws covered with pieces m', cane. Iln Ioint of '.,it. I aml inll
formed that a,, insect, known in the trade as the .iju.ir i'm,,,'. is It iililf.
fr'equeit ocermi-renee in such I.-1-,,. and Professor Wiley, "It the Depart-
menlt oft Agricult iili, Up)O 1,'iii-" shown splci enens t' J 'i', fii.,1 ,-,,,
(and he is quite f1 1iinilhii with the so- I.ll-.'l sil._m.r-l.ouse). 1il'iinii',l lme
that he thinks tlemi identical.
On this hypthlhe.is the initial -ir,.a idi point is In i ',,iiii',, the I':mcii,-
islands, ainid tihe insect probably made its way lit.I to ('.ili Town :;mil
thence to Aistrali.i, NeVW Ze'.uliil, and California. Tl ii does not pre-
clude the possibility of its importation u11pon other l,. itlt-. but I think
it highly probable tiat the ,q.rIt' method fit dit i'iliiitin of an insect
which is so tough as to bear hInl: survival without food was )upon si.i'-r.
cane in sigiarl" hoheads. or 1,., as it could be much more ,:il'ily carried
in this waiy thlai iiinpin living, plants. T!im determination ifthe,,igi;iii.1
source of the pi'nt is of vital concern in a: study 4i'r ts l.ir.miitlu, as
such would be more apt to be fiuni, in its native country than in any
countries of its iltroulmtiom.
I have bcri quite anxious to serth, illinitely this 'ii. wtinm of its origi-
nal hebo ,unmli have lately liid some correspondence with parties in Aus-
tralia, New Zealanud, and Africa. The tolloIinvi,- extracts Iromin such
correspoindence will prove of interest to the p'ilih. of ('.alili inni. Mr.
Kirk's statement will add weight to tile hvpoth,,i. that I have vir, rr.i'l.
while Baron von Muelleris statement also S.tri..mtlh-rm it. It may per-






30

Laps be impossible at this late day to definitely settle the question of this
original source, especially as there may have been not one but several in-
troductions (imleed we have evidence that such was the case) into all
three of thle countries in which it now occurs; but we can much easier
understand its travels if it started as a sugar-cane insect. I haveitali-
cized those parts of the following letters which particularly bear on the
subJtect of this communication.
Trie sketch of the D)ipteron, which 3Mr. Crawford found attacking
Icerya, shows ai great likeness in thle bodily to some hymuenopterous En-
cyrtids ; buit tlie wings imlirate its D)ipterouts character and that it be.
longs to thle l)olilholiodidl: It near Iiaphorus. So far as their larval
habits are known, these flies are predaceous and live in the larva state
inl the gro'ind. Peithips IMr. Crawford has used the term "parasitic"
syLnontmicallY withI predaceous," but I will not further anticipate what
Miss Ormierod linti report.3

EXTRACTS I.FROM CORRESPONDENCE.

[Tle. following; are the extracts from the correspondence to which ref-
erence is made above.-EIDITORS PRESS.1

Lcittr.friim J:ulaund Trinit,, ql ('aju Tuin', to P'rr.'ifsr fhilty.

A- re-gards the evidi',i-, ; to lilt- Aii.-traid i hahii tit- originally of this insect, I re-
grrt that I h1\3 tni iliiig thi aIl to wlh.1t Ih s l, .11. .l-ratly ,lpi pliell to you.
I F
,I iceL the comiruiz,,i'mi.l' r,:.,irt iii 14"77. the oranigtI imnlua,try of the western dis-
triit ts iha sutl'ered umi,-r .,i:vrrly. -car',. very iN'i,.rri :and esceedim'gly dear fruitbe-
inig n\ only olt.taina.ili where it u-[l to le atliud.iut, good, anid che.'p. Where,
hb .-ve-. r, thli kerl,.ii anld :ilk.iliii' .,W liitiiii,. have 1 lii.cI 4 iist;iitlly ipI liei l by indi-
xiduail pirolriituirs. lihre ail Own-. llet r.-ultt :t I nt iifiriirnied by Mr. MacOwan, di-
rector f tlie lptiiauncaIl gauitdt ii ,i lIa ltce-n very .veIi,)I ra_.inUg. Inl the eastern districts
the elle.tst of the icei%;t's attack,1 ii lndt .-fiu to havie been nuparly o scerinti, bat
whether thi, I, tiel Ie o a' lebi nuitalle climate miidl other conditions, or to more vigi.
laurce .naid e\ertinu on the Lpart i rtcillivUtIr,, I r;niiiut, at iriesenti deterniiue.

Since thi wJas written I have reitivdil t"o slicivtiens ofthe insect itself through
the courtesy of Miss (It'ieloil. The-," uIpecinieu.: are so iniiit'h lit i ljateld that it isal-
must inl)possIlll to accurately place thb.ntm. The eulaigedl li-nire set by Mr. Craw-
foird was vtry uisleadihng, the c.\uatlint nl' the win. l btuIv1 wrolug atnd also the an-
tenLl.'. It li.I n to iu .s.nd LrtIss vitun in the mii'lg, antil IIo otI i of reewblauce to the
actual aiLtein ., while the t,,o h.a..al c.lls oI tlh, wiun_'- art l.ickiig. It i ztitelikely
that thI Lii 11 Lit.l'igS to ; iiinw g un ,. Tlit Npl-imv.l t ls were m-nt to Dr. S. W\. W illis-
toiu, ho r,.inrts thiat liv coii.,idvis ilivmii (I.- iiiid-, but that further thai that lie could
Viiltiile no i ilhitiiil ;.' Il-e C.-n1 locate i ht'-loi ill nT g<'ills with e.rtallYV.
Ili r,.fiTreit e to naiiNral t i.n'iies lit'theI Icr a, it is if iittr.-st to note that a little
ala. h i -lii I,',J/.llt ia,. Ir',, of whith Mi-' Ormenitid hI.a- .eut ina, a tignre, has bteu lbutud
to do 'good work iid to' di.tlo the ]i,'t iu Anietw.ih.t, whilc iews cones fi uom Cali-
forita that ('hiloorCo u0/I.l d thrin .;g such excellent work that thlie trees in some local-
itie. aire be'nii entirely freed through itis iistriim.utality and t Lhe lady-birds are act-
ually 1.iniugsold to orauge-gru'rics at so unIch per ounce-. C. V. R.









I' Ili Ii.L ji .iII to NaItal within tho l .it ,w 1 anl I : I, r I I ,iv d eI l ci-
iii ii .t l" lh .ii i, lil on the riIiiH nI black W ill, r*''t'i ,. "1 "I 1 i,,Iriil tlhire oilO l tilt ,r in,. .
.N1 pnllli." .Acitionx in lI,' lii tter' liia l Mi rike'ii inii* tinh' lhrgi'lativ ait x ne lvI in
i, 1 T tlirm i* t the attti pteiit d Iflliti n n I ti l 1, [ l*.' .,I Tri i -I,, III I
V Ii I ('r i uu'lt i 11" Tow i in:,, of'i; 1I. l Iop ibr ary h, I -1'1.

mI I I..i I ,, I L 1 .f.. t, r j I

I.iil y":mr I entirely lobt i, coloy of Ic.ry ,. ', to tlhe attack. ot a i! A rough
l'.i>iii: ii -':Lii tII ilihed ,i i iti of-hcl'aani I f I f -r ii lnow ,,,,ti, aPbout tI o
lPli lin.i .imid -h,,,nlI ba ,,Ill,,. ,I if ,, Cil- i d an t rlti'rm'u th< inis;rt,~ frinli (ill+ 1 .l i l.- I
1iii .i lhiI I senit Miss E. Otlrln rolsi iliii mt tthi 'il lihr n t x ilonthi hIa k, lhut,
il -.iitr.,t liiv I e not hid tine to hear -i hat 'lie i iki,, nfi' Thi'' i tit l .., il i tI I eI
I knoW "r I.ITy read ,,. oft true Dipt.'ron l'ii a (a i cci il pa tf, t I l'ra1' r -N Zraw1
1iril, 1i r .y' Ir-r.;,l i iI ,,n I Adel il', 4 o1 tlt A1iiitr l lia, l'lYri Irt I 1 -I7.

I.tIIIr ., ,, I; ii, r.o fn n.'.'"' , (t i ta 4 1liTu, t r'. .,, / I' ,

f I h,,, to infoirn yon thlst thl II rIe 'i 'rlhai /r a 1.... ,. ,'..i.. I ics)
ill h ,I n ii n. I,'i i- I i on .lacia ii,'/,.,,,, mil loiue, rt ir t 'otlIln n \ i ii i i lhaa
iN Ait, i.li'kl here (io i'ir aa I cain learn or lhil ot ccasi(i to oP/ 1) l ,* ii, I at-I
l.itk.I, e it r ii ii hln I wil, owev r IiI;ikr i fturtlh r ii I ai wcil in this
e iily aiiv i In Nw II iili \Vales, -',i Ii AustralI a. New Zei laiil, and loe 1 yo( I know Ithe

I'vl .illyi Ih. I,' r\, i develops more reaI dily in a moister clinic than that Victoria,
iil 2 h% tl sp u.irnes Inore in iich evonis in Cal iiifri t ll(han lihere.
7/i' iBtroiltion ho, ili wed tr mulire insert i nto ijod r "','.. 6i P OA \ii* a ia iO E toi
in 111 11i O, il .ii/I, t a,. i ,i,,., the [ariou s viipeti of A acians arCr j" o cu il rIli iht r',..i, SIc r
ihlt L ., ,; Lrill think to introdw l them b% lici vi plan cs. ,il. io IIr, it Intd not harte hi In
thi ..Ii iii ht.'.#'o!ii. which xuius the host .r" I r!/a, bhf'auii thni t f in ien is a u tire ....' *,i .
elif iin 'lh (i it t"I' O usltriaia, aaud ai, pt i vOUrhre 'I. ... ; ,/ r in h dortiulti r (. it at L i arm lta
ce Iillll 2 g ,,n ii Ii;, h, ,.ii i '-'. i ut .i. .r (i raLied tiroin ised., hi 1 i brhiaineld from North
Ain tirU illi. Ic -,miii', hlI I, ir..r. mnorll 1lt.. I;. thi at vh en Acariias are *.1,\,n r .MLr, ili. r.
Lo,'y w eirl fiiir,l--. irtifularly in hlumiid clime s-a favorable n.|,,r ,iii 2 for the
vcrr ai to .irread. A s1imilr cirtunistance occurred i% L 1- I and iIanother in sonei
i'irts tm' Hr.ir, il, where an iI'I 1.., II.I v insect in t I.. 1ecanoe .i_.-r .1 iI., when EIca-
lytpiu. on which that insect i I r ill,. seized, became reared.t W hi ii, r the 1cerya
walu originally an inhaitant l,, Vi,.T I or merely iii ni r. I .1 I h \1 endeavor to
ncraiiih ; hI t nlieh a huli., i of i,'jiirv is surrounded with mliit, lliy now after half
a reititry'zr e,.istence of the colony, ]".rti,-il arlv as the l'.rT :I drew no attention here,
lby an2 i, mx'Im lively irii.iri..u- i ll.,ra on .iii cultivated il.mlii.. ih,,i. h ii it ni.i\ have
caiKnl nl''2n2 ,,plants niinoror transient ii iri. [ Ferlinandvon Mi. Hi i., Mr.,ll n'irl,..
Aii~lralia. March -I. 1--7

l.rtt'erfrom L. .11. I,,l i' 'l, ;/IU/,.,ni .\u. Ztaland. 1o I',i, q, ,r iiy.

On ret~aaramiil from ai protracted tour ,'l forest iam.i,,, tiii in the ,..iI|| I iiil yotr
fttr .r -m-,l I)leceninbr ;i iii., i, i"I.. M\v friend Baron von Mu '1, r 3s mistaken in
saaiiipm.i ns ilm.it I have written i,., ,nil', on the I/trya putrchnmi. In a report iii Frruit
IUlihi.I priimT, two y,.ir- r .,. I ,lt, i attention, to the i" .l ilih. ,1i.1: to treat at
i~rtalrr hn,_'lhi at an ir1 date; burnt miy [itr .. as I'.r.-a conservator have preyeuted
thc inmleni-n l 'rmilliii 1, i'aT_ carried out.
Tie i,,., t i a entire ,,* the I ,ii .i other I'. ;r i..'mI.. from wchnce it I,,. p,,,.,r.,I.mf
prohaliii i tnilhi ,r,1r11. trn's, to Australia, y.ew /. ,,ia.it and ., /." ..r, tii. .I,. Maskell .*t.m ..


* Alw ys from seed.









I hflirt., that it is a native /C Australia, and was inlro.'uiel frout thit country on mimosa
plants; but this is an error, and Acacias arr rard'y or n-er' introduced aa living plants,
owing to their being so readily propagated from seed.
The Icerya is abundant in the northern and middle parts of the Auckland district,
and usually pIrefers citraceous fruits; it is, however, found iu large quantities upon
some of the wattles, evincing a decided preference for the silver wattle (Acacia deal-
bata). It is, however, occasionally found on 'urze, inutnuka (Leplutioprumatm scopuriumna),
peach i td appiv, but on these fruits only in small quantities, and not, so far as I am
aware, doing serious damaiiige ; in fact it is only found upon these plants when grow-
ing in tihe illighlborluodil of infested Citrads. It is occasionally found on a few native
tree. but it is not causing any great injury.
It is also found in Napier and other part, of Hawhe's bay, on the eastern coast of
North Island, and in Nelson, and the northwestern corner of the South Islands. It
is also said to be found in Canterbury, but I have no duet t e-idence of its occurrence
in that district.
It is not found either in Taranaki or W-Illmgton, in the North Island, except Nel-
son and possibly Canterbury.
There can be no question that it is a serious foe to citraceoiu fruits and to wattles.
In the viciijily of Auckland, and in rminy other parts of that district, it is abundant.
I have seen trees greatly injured by its rax.gu.., but c:ilnt !ay that I have seen any
killed. At present orange culture has not attained Lirgi dilneisions here, lint there
can be no question that Icerya is the worst foe our orange-growers will have to en-
counter.
I have not seen an Acacia killed by this pest, although the under surfaces of branches
are frequently covered. In a few established orange grnmunds the yield of fruit is ma-
terially diminished 1,, the r.a ag.s of this insect.
No official documents have been published respecting the Icerya except the Fruit
Blhghts report alre.adly mentioned, of which a copy of a Queensland reprint is inclosed
herewith. The forest department has purchased Mr. lMakell's account of Scale In-
sects and is about to publish the same with colored plates. A copy shall be forwarded
as soon as it leaves the press. [L. M. Kirk, General Crowu', Land Office, Forest and
Agricultural Branch, Wellington, New Zealand, March 23, l_-17.

From an article by E. J. Dunn, in Melboui,,ne Irn, Auiigust 18-6.

I desire to call attention to a species of Coccus known as DIortheaia. This destrue-
tive pest was first observed on the island of iojirbo,. Th'nce it .spr tad to Mauritius, about
25 years since. In Mauritius it destroyed the orange and lemon ,Ir'e, mauny of the orna-
mental shrubs and Acacias, and wrecked most of the beai', ifl plaiiintaions and shrubberies.
At Port Louis it still exists in luat/,ome masses on the hn,,nlome Talipotl palms.
About 12 years ago it was noticed for the first time in the Botanical Gardens, Cape
Town, and most probably arrived there from Mauritius with plants sent to the Bo-
tanical Gardens. During the first summer it spread about three miles Into the sub-
urbs along the railway. Its fearfully destructive character now became evident, for
tlie orange trees, the Australian wattles, the pittosph oirns, and the blackwoods be-
came loaded with this disguist ing parasite, and the trce,, slow ly but surely succumbed
to its attacks. * *
All trees of theorange kind, such as lemon, citron, shaddock. &c proved especially
suitable food for the Dortlic.-ia, and once a tree becanime infe.-stcd no amount of syring-
ing or washing prevented its destruction. The disastrous results of its arrival at the
Cape are all too evident.
Formerly in Cape Town itself, and throughout the suburb., the orange tree lent a
charm to the gardens that no other tree could give. a'.d in the Western Province
irang-e-growing fi, 'nel a most important source of wvealthli, ntany farmers netting sev-
eral himundireds a year from theirorange groves. Some Of these groves, planted by the









* | lii ielule i 1Iii.i lii'r (l wir olij. ti, of" gr. t bIl Wtt1Iy. Tho e If th I', P. ill FrI h II, I. tl a1 \ .1 riIi.ik,.ri
V ltllry I 'S I. l- I I% llllliiil-
To-li.y tlii 1 i ii hiiln;. ,1..llll. except forn A,.a.' ,h'.i, "m[lirllii- [] lth I'r.i.'r.iriT Lroil'%4
1it1il thI.M v;i Illi1 -10 a in tho coi` utri0' weatl h IIi l I i|.| 1. [
N ti > rhA 1OlwrrI h, i. : it is .111 ,1i I \ .ihii .-i, .i n 1. i' i.1, I d ltru tio in it
I wake, ii1l will l onti-lo tof do il a lni, b ai ; I, mh r4 wii r- acl
4 1)l1-1:ItI L. 1:-)- : "




.11



























I







4





I,















THE USE OF GASES AGAINST SCALE-INSECTS


[ Reprinted fr,-im I imlhl It No. k i.ul i Il ii, \r, I. %1- t ,,.. 1. -1 .1 P- l',;. i tr.It ,,I
I '., l I I ,I : ]


Some time ago tine Agriciilt iir.l I departmentt was rvi i IIf, til v M .es rs.
Ak. B. anid A. 6. CIii iiiii mii, Mr.L. Tiii ".. and Mr. .J. C. N- wto I., prom-
inient oraigeL'-growers of Los A..ngeles 'cui i0ii to conduct experinellts
with the view of detrtmiil in;g the *1*'-.iry of certain i...s as ii.rtir.i,1,.o
within special references to the White S.i.lh. I, rip purchasi. 'T'le t'lle i-
itig is a summary ol' rcSitlts. of which a Iull report will be plzblibhcd
hereafter
'Thie use of gases for this purpose has been liii o.iite-rilil.ite i. and
various aipplhiices have been siU; cetc(d 'irI the ready .illlC 1t 1i1 n1 'f ;Iny'
eflicicious gas. The ease with % Iiihi gil- penetrates to all parts (if the
tree iiaturally suggests its use as preferable to w.i.,It.. which at best
leave niany parts. of' the tIIhi.dg ;tiiil i11fti'ril branches iiiitiillt.'il. even
when spr.a yed with the greatest care. In order that the ,.'. ii.uv be au
efficient insecticiilLe it must be so ploi-niii'u- that even when applied in
small (quanitities it proluce's lfit:il results; lu' in the i'.l lii .11 iii the
air coniniiied in the tent ,ovtrin, tlihe tree dilutes the -.-> to a great ex-
tent. Again, thle gi.- nmst be c;ipialle of 1i, ilig _',i.rirt 11, i1iiirkly in
sufficient v'iiinc. The icrrdl below shows that I1 1v one i' tlh ml-vs
eniploYed fil tilled these cond(litions to a .i.tI.,,';iItn extent. Prelimi-
nary experiments with somIe others ,Ii.iving shown their iilit iii'- flir t li.e
purpose, eitit-r on account of expense or because it' injury to the fidi-
age, or imperfect action on the ii'cIts, their study was not pursui-d
further.
APPLIIANCE'S F* Il APPI i \'iIN.
Tih tent foir voveriuii the tree is mide o0 heavy lbedil t irk n,. tII-'
oughly oiled with linwiv.l oil. Th ii- cloth serves t lie purpose .It, as it
is very closely woven1., is pliible and e.isily folded.
The Support of the tent, dthvised by 31 r. 'lTt ii., is a very inpginiouisly
contrived seaftluhling mounted on wlwcls, which serve to move it lroi1m
one tree toanother. Its dimensions are 26; fe.t hih. wit iI a base 211 bv :,I)
feet. Its upper part is 211iby 1'2, aniil carries ulitI tinhe top a rlh'r made
of galvd.nixed iron i[6 imrlies in diameter and 12 feet lonug,1 upon which








the tent is rolled when taken f,-om the tree. Side guy-ropes are at-
tached to the bottom of the tent and run through pulleys at the upper
corners of the scaffold. They are used to open the tent when it is to
be dropped over the tree, and to fold it up when it is removed. The
lightness of the apparatus allows of its being easily removed by two
men, who operate the whole. If necessary, two or more tents can be
handled by the same scaffolding, one tent being left over the tree while
the scaffolding is moved to the next.
In adjusting the tent, the bottom is placed on the ground about 3
feet from the tree and covered with earth. This brings the gas to bear
upon the base of the tree and the surrounding soil.
The Generator in which the gases were produced consists of a heavy
sheet-iron cylinder, 11 inches in diameter and 13 inches high. The
bottom rests on a plank, and to the top is fitted a movable cover sus-
pended in a frame by a bench-screw. Into the cover are fitted two
pieces of gas-pipe, one for the exit of the gas toward the tent and the
other, connected with a pump, carries the gas which returns from the
tent. Two small reservoirs are also inserted in the cover; in these are
contained the solutions which are to flow into the generator for the
production of the gas.
In order to establish circulation and to force the gas into the tent, a
pump is used which also serves to exhaust the gas from the upper part
of the tent and to force it again through the generator. It is proposed
to replace the pump by a small fan-blower, which is much more expe-
ditious than the common pump which was used.
THE GASES EXPERIMENTED WITH.

Among the gases used were chlorine, sulphureted hydrogen, am-
monia, carbon bisulphide, carbon monoxide, carbonic acid, hydrocyanic
acid, and carbolic acid vaporized by heat.
Chlorine.-Some preliminary experiments were made in small vessels
into which this gas had been introduced. Some infested branches were
allowed to remain in them for times varying from five to thirty-five
minutes without any noticeable effect being produced on the insect.
Atmospheres more strongly saturated with the gas proved fatal to the
insect in a short time. In other treatments extending over eighteen
hours, with less saturated atmospheres, only a small percentage of the
insects was killed. No decided effects were noticeable on the foliage
unless the gas was very concentrated.
Carbon Bisulph ide.-A lime tree, 12 feet in diameter of top, was treated
with the vapor of 2. pounds of sulphide of carbon four forty-five min-
utes. At the end of this time the insects were lively, and during the
treatmenthad crawled up and collected around a rope surrounding the
tree at the point where the gas was being injected from the hose. It
proved that the gas thus used injures neither the insects nor the foliage.








It is 1111011on record, hliiiweer, that ill cses where the vapor has not ben
thorou glly difl'nL.sI, but was ;:llo, il to II( w ilodwn, liirll aln 1op1 l vessel
placed in the top *>l' the tent, serious iniiniy was done to the tiii.ig, at
points where the undlul.it.d vapor Ii,,w, LI dim ii.
,%uljphiire'd lIydrign.--.'\,V i'L'l treatments with this g.i- were tAi'l,
on a11 sminall se ale, t hlie a ppll ;iti lit'.i 11.-tg Ill mii i\ v to thirty ii \ min utes.
Thile eelets prodn I ctd either with d il I or coniIcentrated g,I, were simi-
I ir to those produced hi lIlori Iii, except thaIt even thI concentrated
sulphuretetd lvydrogetn did not izii. iiiii.,lv affect the I',,1i:igr. An ex-
perimeniit in which a wlioli tree was treated il the tent fio i l I\v. ti \
minutes witli quite fomlu.ntirateil sil phureted lid iii' in g,il. ,.l omtd
S clearly that the 'flect.L was tfa'r fromi lw.ii z s.i-fIl It,,'y ; thie insects for
the momwenit were stiupufi'ed, but in the course of ai hour and a half the
majority of tliemi were ak-;tit oviiig about.
Ammon ii.-Tho vatpor from one pound and a half of ti rnii. ammonia
water was applied to an l -1'oot lii1. tree for iJl minutes. The iriills
were disastrous to the foliage ; the leaves were all .m,.illh and in a Icw
days all droppedl f'romi the I i'c, and eveu the newer growth t' wood was
injured. The inisetits. however, were not lirn-t-litili\ li.rinil.
Carbon Moizii.l.-Vcry stro la hopes have beeu iit'rtiiit'l I1w anv
for the successful applir.itiizi of this gas. Its ;|t .iart'iit cheapness and
easy l)rodluction, when thie necessary plant is once vc'tr,1l, would rec-
omuiend it. UfifortlIiliatrly our experiments show" that it is not Sti
cieutly effective to warrant its use. The ga.s was lit.tiieini 1 1y olt- iii
air through asmall ft'irilii'o lilhLi with red-hot (,liTico;i. care l1eilzg taken
to cool aud to measure the g.is .hci'' ir ;iilyi ii; it. No appreciable ci
feet was noticeable after 40 minutes. Int a d ili r'iIte ex'pliilili t, inll
which thle charcoal was more stti',.zly igTiitcd and continuously intro.
duced into the barrel fr 30 minui. tes. only sli ghtly better results were
obtained.
Oxalic Acidl.-It was tliougiht that the production of carbon monoxide
by decompositioii of oxalic acid liby heat miiglit be siihl.,tituittl for tile
previous itetlil of teuirrtatilag this g.s. Oic.-1ii.1irter oif a Ipound of ox-
alic acid was ignited,i and the gpises- applieil in a manner similar to that
of the preceding experiment. Neitlhir the insects nor the ,il;agi.; were
harmed in the least. This expuriient Ilhas incidentally shown that tilhe
vapor of formic amil oxalic acids, also produced duiL-ril thile lieatinli 4.1'
the latter, is likewise ineffective.
Carbolic Acid.-It had been sitggeste,1 that carbolic a-id vaplori eil
by heat would prove fatal to the insect. A dose of li:il' a IIumiIl of
liquid acid was volatilized in thlie filrul;it'e, and the vapor blown in the
vessel containing the infecteil lbrai.tucl. At the end ol' -'It minutes all the
old insects were still alive, and some ot the yOutllng iiuIeS, just iizoi<1-l.
were moving about. An hour later the ft li:ie app.iartl as if scalded.
Hlydroucyuic Acid--It was only with lild rot'3 ;:ihi or prussic acid 'gi.( n
crated by the action ol'sulphiii ie acid on potassium vyalli. iil) that ,uifi-








ciently fataleffects were secured to warrant a more thorough determina-
tion of the time of exposure and quantities of material which would
produce the best results. Numerous experiments were carried on for
this purpose, and it was shown that even small amounts were effective.
It was also shown that even in these small quantitiess an injurious effect
upon the foliage was produced. In the begiiin ing of the experiments,
"mining cyanide" of potassium was used. It is a very impure material
and contains along with the cyanide a considerable amount of carbonate
of potassium. For this reason many of the first treatments were prac.
tically ineffective.
Later treatments with pure cyanide were more successful in destroy.
ing the insects, but the foliage was proportionally injured. Treatments
varying in dose from 4 to 12 ounces of cyanide, and in time from 15 to
60 minutes, showed that the effect produced on the foliage by longer
treatment was not proportionally greater than that produced by short
treatment. Neither was the effect of longer treatments proportionally
more fatal to the insects. It was thus clearly sho wn that the gas mixt-
utire should be of considerable strength in harder to insure rapid action.
The effect of the gas was so disastrous to the foil image that it became
necessary to find some means of remedying this trouble. This was
sought in applying a second gas, which might preserve the foliage.
Sulphureted hydrogen was therefore injected into the tent, together
with the cyanide gas, both from the same generator; a portion of the
sulphureted hydrogen being introduced before the cyanide was gen-
erated. It was found that the insects appeared stupefied when the tent
was raised, but large numbers revived in a few hours. The effect of
the cyanide seemed therefoibre to have been decreased by the sulphu-
reted hydrogen. The foliage was not preserved, although not so badly
affected as bytreatments with cyanide alone.
Carbonic acid gas was next tried. Trees were treated with larger
doses of cyanide than heretofore used, and the carbonic acid from 1.
pounds of carbonate of soda was at the same time introduced with these
doses. The insects were killed and the foliage of a 12-foot tree re-
mained unharmed, while that of a 14-foot tree with the same amount of
carbonic acid was slightly injured. Thus it was shown that it would
require 11 pounds of bicarbonate of soda, to preserve tree tops 12 feet
in diameter, and that with this protection the deadly cyanide could be
successfully used.
The regulation of the doses for the different sized trees so as to pro-
duce uniform treatments is calculated on the basis of the results of the
experiments which determined the amount of each constituent for a 12-
foot tree. The following table indicates the amounts for trees of difer-
ent dimensions of top, based upon the rates of cubical contents:









1.t, ,s@ BI^ i~rn i

*si/. .. lui. " *'* i m , F l i oziii .irr
1" ..


/'-* I^Nr C /0*l4 FN la, I
S7 7 1 4
1. .i 11 3
; + t .1 3. '2
I t 44 3. I
o' t. liI 4.53









Th bcabo at o'10d is pt1,. ri~ v al)( B,3IsIr~ltl' t
Sm r S II t 1 1 4 2'
13 2..4 soli 13. 5









evani1 m1 x1 vi I; %v( I1(1 I IIt VS I 'VI IItII w. I t ,'
:!>.2 292 !- 20.7
I,. 47 5 3. 1 5*t. 2
S7.1 575 4 213 1 I1
I 07.7 5 t5 S 3. t
I*' 70 9 S 3 4. I
." .5 6. .3 49.2


In order to apply tli. doliti easily th1y are prepared so that the re-
quired iamon ts o1 t'ic'li iii rrilieiit ca be directly i .:t.~i.,iil. 1'1 ur.:inx,
ide solution is Ie p ari n I by lidi>,ilvir, say,10 l pounds wt" the solid salt in
about 2m gtollhims of v' ater, warned nearly to the l,,nliii isiitll, .ltiriige
at iii tervadlis, conlini. a;in, then diluting to u2l -ill, This solution
will COilt.iiii iLIout oi h i lnce ot Cyil ell uf potassini to '2 lliib ounces
of the liquid.
Tie bicarbofate of soda is pulverized liintly and measured ,IT in a
vessel niiuark.d, so as to dc.igmttt. potndls and tr.u'[11,n.1 ,l" a pound of
title solid yt.itri.l. It i-e then plAcl in thie generator, and thr dose its
cyanide iiiiril with it, ;i.., if necessary, a little water added to make
it into atlin bplse. alM'tor addliig themeasex redt dose irsullphuric acid,
the pUii pr is wankt., size Ily at lir doe .t, abe o u teepidly r the g has
passed into tli. tit. Ti. time tor each treatment must be miusrtiiiin'd
by fut11t'te exp,'ri iuiliit: liltfCe- minutes seemed to be quite .tifln,.iit
when thet cwitnilo .IleI u was I i,-,l, Ilt it 1;.iv b6e 1i.. ir0ill, to extend tin.-
treatment to thirty uini-iutes when thie toIU..,r is protected by the car-
bounie aid s gas.
It is ;ill\'istil,, itl~.t the treatments should filhnw ,iili\-iati,, iiii t:I r
abotl four il'., si that all weeds and places where the insect in-iv inuinl
lodgment woulhl Ie de.trai*.l. T'he insect will tl,,. be ',nn, or very ui.,r.
the tree ; t he lit tin g of t he tent to the ground is thus also much easier.
The eggs of tlie ii.c .t remained ;.p'plarrntly iiiiiniii red wherever pro-
tected by the woolly c',vering. A second t'e,,itiinit. to destroy tUlil as
may afterward haitch, will, therefore, be necessary.
It must not be :milerstood that these experiments dctiut e ly settle the
mode of operation and the size of tlir doses to be used. They are merely
suggestive of a general plin wiicli can be so pirl.ited in the t'utii re that
thle application of this remedy to other kinds of trees and ianseit- inust
be attended with good results. It simply remiiini tor the inigeniohms cul-
tivaitor to devise the nece.ssary applia.fces fi)r its use. on a small scale,
on all sorts of fr'iit trees, shrub,, and plants.






40)

It must not be forgotten that extreme care in the handling both of
this ilt.adly gas and of the cyaniile itself is necessary. To inhale the
one or to taste or touch a wound rith the other may lead to serious con-
sequences.
F. W. MORSE.
BERKELEVY, June 12.














V





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