The root-knot disease of the peach, orange, and other plants in Florida, due to the work of anguillula

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Title:
The root-knot disease of the peach, orange, and other plants in Florida, due to the work of anguillula
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Creator:
Neal, James Clinton, 1843-1895
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Division of Entomology ( Washington, D.C )
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oclc - 22586384
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... :.. :: i,.:.. : :i. :. :::.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
N;. : ISION OP ENTOMOLOGY.


BULLETIN No. 20.


THE


tOT-KNOT DISEASE


Ah:,,..:" OF THE I I
I R IO

S14ORA.NGE, ANOTHER PLANTS,


~1
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p

INTO


U.



FLORI



THE WORK (


X ~~p11 OI50R TWE DIRECTION OP THR t lGIST,
'hF:.^,'" '~ k./it. -I
BY
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;.J.CQ.flAL, Pa. D., M.



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WASHINGTON.
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@OVIEKU .NT PAINTING OFFICE.
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U.S. I FlI'.\RT.I XT O ()F AG(;RICULTUIIRE.
DIVISION OF I1, NT )MI (1, 0 GY.
BUI.i.I LiN N\ 20.


THE



ROO0T-KNOT I)IS AS1.

OF-7 T E


PEACH,


ORANGE, AY OTA'1 P.'L .:;S


IN


FLOOR 1 I DA,


DUE TO THE WORIK OF A\NG(UILLUI.\.




t1-l-'l \':i I U INDKR I l iIRlF i["1 >0 OF TIll FNI>M >IN,'IT,
V
J. C. NEAL, 1)., M. D.




WAS \ I N (;T 0 N:
GOVERNMENT PRINTiING OFFICE.


1889.


23 19.5-I'llll. ". 211-- I


















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013












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LEITTI'I'R OF TRUANSMITTAL



U. S. I)'LAlKI MENi (OF AGll ,I 1 '.:,
DIVISION ()F ENT().M(.I,;Y,
il",,ltii,',It ,l/ y 11), IS-!).
Stl : I have tile hoionor to transmit ioi publication I l1lletin No. -'11 u('
thiis Di\ i.iW., IIvin, Ii report It studies and '\|iriiiriits inilue UhMllI tlhe
Aiig;iiillti:. which is tl` c(uisoe "I the root-knot disease' of t1he Pe'ci and
Oraugi. in Fhoridli. 1>. J.1C. Nt',l, Ph. D)., .M. D., of Lake (:ity, Fla.
lIcsprtl' iill;,
C. V. lIlLEY,
1 ,11 I, 'l f ir, '.t.
Hou. J. M. VI -;Ii.
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INTI'I DIIT'T(tiY NOTE.

FIm several years past complainlt has been miade to the I)i ision of I:.
tOllnology ( ,,,lir'er tii tie ,1 II.,L, do1 e 1. v rio 's Spc'ies (f, A Inll.i
Ini.. which ;illh'l the roots ,,r (II 'i*'II plants iln Illi. iiii sectitio s of
the country, andi I have tri, i,.ittly been iii -'L. as LEntomol)tgist, to il-
'estig;at. i I't, mIatter. I have always tbeen puzzled to know what reply
to ilmake in such I.i.e.. as 11no) AIericatli ill c.tit .iiuir has tundertakeil a
a s sthin.it ic study of these N emiatodes, and they do not, in a .,I 'l ';,i, .11
4,*ii..i'. strictly I elmiin to the Division work. I have contnteld himself'
tlnrefier \\ with ir,.iin-iii thle various facts of iiii;i to !ii; il mi plants
that have come to lle inll tilhe past twenty years, and some inicroscopllic
notess illn re'hruir. to the Slp cilmlns. ()I, species (se-msl to 'il clnsilld-
erable d:,aiii.ie to certain plants in greenhoIIuse in the North whiile
.111,lher is equally destructive c to the roots of trees and plants in t he
StilI I. particularly in lI'l'ridi(:. Towards the close of tlIe ';ir 1 7 tlie
V1IInI laiiiint iI" the I liiiii.L.- done by tIhe Florida root inhall biting t -,p.riv-
were so numnerolus li.it, at the request of the ( Comnissioner i' .\A 'ricul-
lii r, I decided to codmnet some investigations as a part of thie I)ivi-Sion
work. Tile demands upon tlihe resources of the Division ali-ii'.; from
its more legitimate iri e-ti.a;; iii s have been such that but little time
andi small 1funid, could be spent in this d(irectionll. ID)r. J. (C'. N1 11, then
cif Archer, l.i'., but now lE:u ,Tl i,;ctcl it and IMotanist of the Florida A--
ricultural l:xpi iimnio t Station at IL l (Cii' a dili-, lt obset 'ver, and
.iss,,vi.ted with me in previous inie-lit .itiiiil, both utndelr tihe I. S. En-
I'inhlo)gic..l (',ilill-qTii andl under this Di,. i,,n, was cofnoissiioned ftor
li\', moiniths and iiistricted to make as careful studies al1 i atnd eAxmperiiiments
j ie 1iii niuing this pest as it would 1e lossihle to make dii,, thle short
time ,f his einp i,,\ i'lliit. Ilis work was done between February 1 and
September 1, 1 a<' li, and while I do not claim for Dr. Nc.i 1. any more
than lihe would ii i',,.It 1-<.l.iim. "1i i.'il or technical kniollldi e in this
branch (f Zih.y his work is not witlihot scientitic interest. The in-
vest i'.i t inr have 1 'c',.i. li"i 'i*\' r'I i'rli a practical stanil-point, antd tile
resIlT, more than i u-ti I\ the -lii I expedIwt iture. The Bulletit makes
no pretense to le a -'citili iii treatise on thie life history of these %\IiIll,-.
hut is in tile main am .il,. i to ascertainl a suitable( remedy. '[I'l ,. 11*ii,.l
literature on the -iibi, (r! has not l.irn at Dr. Neal's '.,imii, in,. antd ii,








time is so fully occupied otherwise that I can do little or itoithing at
present in the way of identification of species or of c-iiiigii iiii Dr. NeaPl,
results with those of Euiropelm inve.sti. ,ri, whi.Ii, as a matter of fact,
are of little practical importance. The study of the full life history of
any one of the species is attended with much difliciIlty, and will re-
quire much time in field and laboratory ; while thie technical and clas-
sfic;mtory treatment of the subject should be umiilrt.ikcii by some com-
petent h,'lmiitilohi. ist.
C. V. I.






















LETTER OF S()M1TTAL.



A izcIE I, Fl.A., lKcc'mhe r 2, 1^S.
SoI: I hive the hoe nor to submit t(hlei'll,',i._ reii l rt "I pon the lot-
knot (liease and its a ,i Ie .\ ii..iltuhl.
Thl..r in\ ,,ti.'.il ii il-. (mn*(Hd l(c un]cr your dirvcti-tin. 1W-...I]i in IN lK-
rln r I .'.'. a Illd IIhave I'e< r IonlIIt il- to I is date.
W\Vleih not conclusive in aill K.i -l., tlhey arc at least contiilnitiois
to the history of this miniiiri',,qii pIest, that imay vciitiinally lead to its
sillijcrlion or to the liiiti',.itioii o)[ its riva ges.
Il rii,,MilUsii,. allow me to ,\'[ii-v to 3o my thaliinks t)r youra aid nl
gntid rnv' dlniing the lpnr '.rabtioH or thou re[>trt.
lM'-',,lr, tlly sFV UmittMY d.
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TI II cOl-K \~'r.

111* i%' "I 10N.
I)111 II I I II I%
.%n sib 110rnla l and in ,,r.=,,l.,v.ir ,, *- i h" l i* ll tin* snhrorl ical| Jlayi'' *i ro ts
.1111] ...iiliiri r.ii,..iii stem s, ,hrIi tr tcriid II l w Iil ilify, t1e I-I /stilf i
anl illvas4itoll or tlin' Iissues '.\ a Isl>> 4Hllde worimii. (Note. I.)

IIsF I ) P'I R .

Siiil' the earliest settlement o t he iSonth Atlantic ;aill] (Gill' States
I> % while people thi dis Ia ed condit ion t i lie roIt )111 I oi tit' ;tld pI ; illl
hl i lieirn I-rt',.nli/ri, ( Nole 2.)
A \ r' s1i.' 11i itli|leetin ha1s iH hown the I l* A (l i\ii,. elo il. *_..i i ints of
Iriiotl liut thlie (tllo lois hiiAs illy llie i it rilni l) t i W hlck il h lie skil of4
s llome impliortlnt I'ri t ili.,'ing. iiL -I ',lif'iit, or (0' leiss "Rnltiva.l ihmu, i';t li SoI11e Potent exterior iiiilli,,ii ,.
I have v:irefiillI exliined all sourcess of iiifrniat ion at my coilinanil,
a;ld c1a1 call lo I nlonltioli -t tithe root-kilot in ally .i-r'ieiltirl rail pper or
book prior to tle \e ii 1.',7.
That \v;ii lio. P. .1. i erekrnans estaiblishedl a nursery at AI._<'u- l.,.
.i.. nlind SOlI f',inil this diseIase prevalent in llaiVny vaNieities of trces
aind il.ilts. andll in 1-4l Pirof. ( V. Hilh y lilia_ at Aii:,_ii .i was shliun
the Iilli-t f tihe disease l', \1 r. IIerIk imais.
| In 1.il Mr. (iillli r (riit lri ilk. li Niis ry, l',\ noted the disease
inl his Ii,,. ,i ;'r i],. and 1 ,pea ll 'litr1l especially in (lainim tii(llr:i[inleI lcail-
lionls.
In 171i I tmlinl the root-lknot plrevalent over Flirirla. aiind hariied frot
Iold residents that as far ihack las li-". it had ee(In known, anlid fromil tillni
iiliiemnorial hald been 41.,.il.I i as la io to .'..i ,ii.i. and grnv A liont I -74 this ,liq,.iM.AM however, -pil'.i ii' ito prolnliniiicee, o\ ill._ to
theio Iiilli\ ofiiiinil,'rit(. tlihe developieint ,it' early-markct _'.iid.i- anll
thi sntlileni I ;' "- for ,rc'li. i i of 1 ll..Iaici,. i- .. 'and l iit -.
Sinee tI.ir t Iile' tlhe .i.i 'ii; ii r. l papers ia vo' contained n lllierols refF
erenees to this disease. My owM n attentionll was called to tllis p)est by
repe:itciil falilures to i'ow certain plants inll a rich. i 1 inII, spot on iny
liarin.
Tli'his til me to) in ile ; allnd -.ilii,' a specimen i tihe knott y
roots to the Agrientinral l eparte n W't at. W\..iiil otii_ 1i ured the inf -t
ilation tliat a ,iii.r'>pih worni was the e'll se II t Ie thtronble, lit that
littl' wa;s knl own !I thl' N,,rii i,-iil fii iilv to lichl it II i I I II .. .









Beyond doubt, the disease is peculiar to the Souith Atlantic and Gulf
coast within a limit of 150 miles from tide water. (Note 3.)
MI r. P. J. Berekmans remarks on this score-and I know no better au-
thority-" that it is indigenous to a large portion of the South seems un-
deniable, as I have seen it in places in (;uorgia and Alabama where
neither trees nor plants had ever been introduced from other sect ios.v."
Mr. ()nderdonk also states a similar opinion. Olihei coii r.sponilents
at Mobile, Ala, and in 'T'.as confirm these statements.

PLA NI S INVADED.
I.--lnciltivattd : | b. Badly at1'-reted:
a. S1 i.hitly affected : Portiulaea oleracea (Punr.ian ).
(C'ipsella Imrsa-pastoris (Shep- Sesiiviumi pent andriuin (Snund
herd's Purse). Pmrsla(ne).
Rubus villosis et trivialis i Verbetsina Mi'g, slpeki.i i el NIIi-
(Iiaii I I.' rry and Dewberriy). ata.
Eiipatoriain Inl iculacenin (So0th- Artei isia candala ( hr, iira',t i.
ern Dog Fennul). ChienIiodoiinm 1,iitr ln ,411aI-nlria
Quamoclit vulgaris (Cypress" Oak).
I''. ~Ainam'antus spinosus {nC (i ieI
l'ecd).

Thile above list, no (loubt, will in time, and with a careful in vestige
tion, be greatly extended; most of' these are the commonest of weeds in
old fields and badly cultivated grounds, and the ('lenopolioiilm alone
would be an ample shelter and breeding-place for the Aniiglilluiihi, inde-
pendent of other wild or cultivated plants.
The Eupatorium and Chenopodium a;mc perennials, spread rapidly,
and have great \ itaility, and for years it has been noted that where these
weeds abound the root-knot exists in the greatest de-rev.
Thie Sesuvium and Portulaca, both with fleshy roots, are very com-
mon, and are an easy 1pirey to the worms, but my experience indicates
the Amarantus spinosus as the most dreaded and destructive agent
in the spread of the root-knot, its roots leing ippmrmintly the favorite
of the Anguillula.
In Georgia, my correspondents deem the Verbesina and Artemisia
the weeds most diseased, but in Tex\as, Missis.nippi, and Alabama, the
list is about thIe same as I have given for Florida. (Note 4.)
It will be seen that it will be impossible to determine certainly the
original food-plant of this pest, as it seems to attack the roots of so
many; and the inference that any tender -rm,\ 1h not imllpregpnated with
a decided toxic principle n1a.1 be invaded is a doubtliil 'conclusion to
miy mind.










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1w. (. ;v IIii..r- 111 e c .1-1. 1
I I r ni I I tI i cil ti ( tIIII).
I 'l'i- m stm mi ( I'ea).
Arachli h\ |i"" i (l'raut).
-olichos ,,it' i i- 1 (4 % I 1 111 01 I' ).
I'll 1 ri~lnil '. IIil,. i~ ( Itlf *li).
I'll lir li]. l,, iI., IIIItIIS ( 't 11 HIIII
( 1;,.,,).
All of tih ti ('11- irl i
( iLm i ii I al, etc.).
All of the O ntms ('Trnillii- f lbI
I)").
A ll (f the 4"1.i1'1.4 C illu nin111 (Cu.-
erit Bi r).
].q ",ill't lii iilii Cailllt'litln lli JTi-
matl).
It, 1.1 k nl..iri-. varieties (l, t).
it. Orniamtiilin.
a..?'litlhill' alt tctl[w
} lihi-r'l-. t4)riicn?* *tl co(lerilntn'tl.l
M r", 'lii~ I .lilhi li lliiiii,Vnil ill .i llt- ties (h ,, .i, ', ,.
M ik.1ini:i SCa l *li ( |Ptrimr lI').
Pharbitis illnipni'e.i f't ill. Sip.
( Vniy i "il-( a;,l',i).
NIla Inq, sp.
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[l, nii.-ili...nilii i lha<* lloitlis8


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\'rnians i iir. ( n(imr ihm at).

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(M ,, 1 I .,. "t

M io st i. s) ( rr ).
,Jl~iin lli OillK're'i, ( 11''alinin?.
~ilryil oliv~irfortiliia ( l'fil'tl).
b, I tSl! "i.tll'rctvd.
ti'riliin ifl l(i(*stic, ( I "l'tii).
Ih'rinus ; ,1,irn si ii ';'> (.p nn).
lPr'iltili \ iil,'hniatl ( I'mrholt).
FiCns tcaricai (/,,;).
Jhlihans i, 2;i, (E Kiif~h~ 11'Hhiutt).
ill ,. Vatr. S(p. (lIin/lows).
rf. Orlialnpntal.
Slirirra ..,rliil',,l: i.vair, ppl. (;Spirhm}a .
Pl-ilnlin naina el 1llanrfoilaa (/:7ftr-

ISlnldlleia. var. sp.
Gardenlia il.,'inl.i (' "t" J/rsa-
mine).


This long list embraces the greater part of our most valuablhhe food-
pilut;s. I'lilt. 1111c 1i1 ild manlly Wi the choicest iIwr I. l and it lill just i-
IhIs the iiniir nI OWn made as to tilte history and inwlls to prevent the
ptr'ead II thie disease inidUted by the .\ i'inlihilha.
I think it useless to endeavor to acomitt for thle apparent v.i. ries ol
the .\An..gii illn,i. Fi. or ilnstaince, to ascertain why the roots of the Pra"ius
Vnil:,l iis are so Ii.ill\ : fi'r,..l.1 while PrIv I us certain are iti hiirt ; or why
the Tli'LiilIiIiii.I, are sulseptible anti the l'i bblliler' are nolt. It is
reasolibly- sure hait rapidly -r,"vii ."l'i tlislnle riot. are boetevr slb-
ict ll' iivasiolI, \|. i.ii'ii. .inil, decay thlIt those 'il, shlow growth all(









denser structure, and the self-evident c rNoll .Iry is that inethids and fer-
tilizers promoting a rapid sucuiihniit growth should be avoided in all
locations infected with the root-knot.

EFFECTS OF THE INVASION OF THE ANGUILLULA.

I have found mature worms, males and non pregnant females, in root-
lets but a few days necessity of invasion from without the root. See Experiment No. 22,
These Anguilliila. were small en(iiiugh to enter tlwu "stoniala'of epi.
dermal tissues, active and strong enough to even penetrate cell-walls, or
to separate cells in loosely connected tissues. Once within, they could
easily pass through the Cicnchyiinatous system of the Parenchyma to
Aiyv portion of the root, and I think it not unreasonable to infer that in
this manner they obtain entrance in young rootlets.
Their presence causes a rapid proliferation of cells, resulting in a soft,
Uniuu.it1urial, irregular growth of the root, with low vitality, and a varied
effect upon the plant or tree.
The Chenopodium, Einpatoriiin, Artemini.,ia, Ainarantu,. Oossypiimin,
Solanum, and Petunia have the enlargements usually on the sides of
the main stemin, near the surface. The" tap-root," d1,sceedinIg deeply is
rarely affected, and the plants seem slightly affected till the sub-corti-
cal layer is filled with worms in all stages of growth. This cheeks
growth, either by their absorption of the nutrition gatheriled ly the root-
lets, or obstruction of the Cieiuihyiatoius ducts, the food supply is cut
ail' before decay is visible, the leaves wither, the stems shrivel, the plant
(lies. (Plate VIII, la,4 b.)
The roots of the Okra, Radish, Turnip, ('abbage, Cucumber, Melon,
Cow-pea, Peanut, Tomato, and Ezg Plant enlarge eunormiously, soon be-
coming little else than masses of lecaying tissues. The plant stops
growth, the fruit either becomes distorted or drops prematurely, the
leaves change color and fall oil, and the plants d(lie so rapidly as to justify
the usual expression "struck 1,y lightning," applied to the fields of
Melons, Cuicuumbers, Tomatoes, and Cow-peas so often badly affected
by the root-knot. (Plates 1, H, III, IV, and VIII.)
In nurseries of young fruit-trees the greatest mischief occurs. Tle
soil is usually carefully prepared by heavy fertilizing and culture, and
the seeds of the Peach, Orange, and Englishi W.alnutr are sown for
stocks. When the tender shoots first appear many wither and die at
once, others grow vigorously till the end of the first season, when they
are usually budded with known and valuable varieties of fruit. The
next spring these buds put out tardily and make a weak growth, the
leaves become spotted or yellow, then drop, the bud (lies, feeble strag-
glii. shoots sprout around the stem, which maintain a sickly vitality
till the lir-r drought, when the tree (lies, :ind an examination dis-
closes the cause in the knotty, de,.iviunu' roots, without rootlets or
Ii liill.a.









W\itlit oflder I vws- takmnini "" AI Plty locations andsl"i Sinl'"cOWN 10)1
the pitL I.1111 Iarlies. I'l,. Pte li al i 1 -, oftoln fi,, oirL,' ,-I i one l*
tW1o v'.I i aid litIr I' iii tIa I Is \ )proli t I l lip( i t Ii i l tI l, I t htiI
t Ii"- tr(U takes on aniS i i ,.iil.ir I'" I I I of i tu tedhi lil s anII d Ismall hl vsA t' .
'iir tli1 ,)l thesI e iicihlI j die I iack .- lii.illy to tit bodity ,I tlie trl't. I1f
th soil is ,1 mvm. the trnt will put out t'ebl .|imiii- ofttii tifr several tl

\\V lii t ,e I| ',.i n. I : i li-li \V iWi0 ill, a ditl W illow, 1ii1rtlt'; l Iiacl ii.ill t.i1
tiil. il \ a .l or SO amil dlit' with t11 o(ca1,0sioni io 1a A en el-iii hilit.
I ll II.LII i'l. -e Ii'-I,,,i.ll ill old lii'. l-, l 'i ll' tret :1114i 1 hd|laitl
iI.LiIV geiiiiiii.itf, or l'ni!l iii h riarll I li iii otli t l till theiy aLe ijl iil
and d,.wi Iol red
Ill .111 I,1 these Ises tlhe ellet to dhleri-'lt' tli' si{IlS and leaves o'
I'. 41I and lloistlure ; tliti klnot'4 i," tilt hlia iwlc's io Iot.
Tivi aniiual de,.Nii i ,lo1 11'I f liusl try stock is v.i,,ii isii ,sit'tcially thli
V.P i'Ih, l"ii, W illow, 1|>.li i,,' ]l i >ll, i.i. C',i 11-. t4C.
In the k l-,.l c.h take fI''iii natIur, attachitd to i his report, lare shlio it
Illit'.il spICcimtliIS as far Its possible.
Tlie (.ii'-la Fig, Mill .rr y, and )l .i111 ir r e al'e proln to ciri'ularh knliob Iike
knoil. onl the Sides i, tlhe 1.I..' L4,i t-I nli iid l occiasioial t'nlai i ",'iii't
at the junction Inmall roots. (I'lates IV anld VII.)
T'li, h 'f. 'lil. W .] ] ii \V liiit. d i Spira l 'a ,im i ,t 'llrla i.L-'-. i lv -
ing the whlIoht iot -,.iiiliil. (Plaite V.)
1Flitn- W ilhi", Okrai lr, .. ciuil.i ,,', Aunl th' .iy is nsui ll \ isilhe iirsIl
ati lih extrenie tip ,lt g iowlli frtoin tlilt ceit il sttmli. (laltes VI IiialI
II.)
Ti:1;l[ I OiRY Lo 'i'I'Eli BY TIllS DISEASE.

M'irly inl the .H'iiiiiiII- "I my studies Wi thle A .iLiiUillli. I :lditssed
letter' oill' iIliiiiii \ to most of the h,,idiui 11111 Ai \ iin n ;iil d hliort iWUiitnrik1ts
ill the I t iled S kiit -, especially tliose in tile sout ieri sect ion, .,I, ilI-, an i
lxl iIlation ofI diseased ti 1e- and iimrlc-i ig saniples of tIe root -kIot
1or II I Il II:i ri -kol I.
The t'plih.. I received are conlclusive that the disease is i uikniowi hIe-
Smidn ally point in the interior I'i inilr- Qu1omi the otast.
It does not exist except in locations-li iiii, exti'eite 1.1, aliil thlli,
llnorlthern bouldarv is lot I.l fi 'l'in the -lanuar, isotlhe rii, ,.' ; isslio1
in the No. 2., Isotlihermal Lines (it' the 'lt .'. Si:i:. l S. i jit', 1IIS.l
LI tters li' ui the Pe lich ,li-iii'i- of Mi'il_.til. 1M.n l.i,. aliid Netw
.t 'rs.v complain .I the .. Y .lIh ," but in '\ .-li-.il',i do liol t I '"it n111111
i11g the diseased roots indicative ,li the A i..lillila.
It is not Ifu-ili i at 1),iii-,ii 'l'vx. (M till'SOI) i y. oI l .|ii'>L tih coast iI
that STat, andi lim onlyv in sandly, wet lofatioli. (Onderdonk.)
'li'e siual dir' air t' Now Ml.\ir,. ('.illln, 111.1. aind i'-ii- \est it lith
Missis-ippi l I'vrL, with the suliiier srt'elied soil i thltese sections, forils
.iI'i.ir tily a barrier to the ;,,ri" i anlld spread ,I tlie disease, but ,'iI iill'







14

c4ist wV.irdl it is progressively worse, till it reaches a climax in Flurida,
which seems to possess the Ire Iii.isilt soil, humidity, and w;irinth lor the
l1roper environment fil' the Anguillula, and counseijuently its complete
development for mischief in gardens and grove.s.
Add to this the cultivation of special food plants extremely suscept
iblie to invasion by the worm. and there can be no wond ler at its prodig.
ions increase.
'rE3iMPEiRATUTIE.

The question of temperature is no doubt one of great importance in
determining the boundaries of this disease, perhaps more so than food-
plants or soils.
The soil that is annually frozen from 6 to 10 inches is nearly disin-
fected from the worms, especially those existing in a frtce stLtC in the
soil, or inhabiting the s,it roots of annual plants, aind this may explain
why southern 11 ihigann, northeastern Ohio, and New Jeisey, with as
sandy a soil as Fli ida or south Georgia, still escape the plague in the
Peach orchards.
The Chenopodium, Artemisia, etc., abound in these States, and no
doubt are the habitat of Anguilluhe, but the continued cold leduees
their number to the minimum each year, and the librou..s rooted trees
are unharmed.
Again, in some cold localities the trees kept in hot-houses are ar-
fected; those without in open ground escape.
Places favored with hot, dry summers and cold, wet winters will not
likely ever .suitei from the ravages of the root knot.
My exl)periments are conclusive that below 501- in fluid, and above
that, dry, the worms are inactive, paralyzed by cold, and slriveled iby
dryness and heat, and the inference is plain that )parties wishing bv.,t
results must either choose unsusceptible storks. for gi .lting fir bidding
trees liable to infections by the Aiiguilliila, remove to favored loca-
tions, or find some means of destroying., the worms.
The arid regions of the West fill one indication, the others are still
sub judicc, but in a fair way for determination.

SOILS.

It can not be qI.cstionmed but that a light, sandy soil oll'eis least re
sistance to the progress of the Aiign illinlai .lhkr its liberation from tide
utayinig roots either encysted or free.
Experiments with air-dry soil show that water penetrates sanl in halt'
the time that it will penetrate clay, and over liig, areas of cultivated
land thle proportion would still be greater in favor of thle s:imd.
Loose soils, mixed with dei,i. ing vegetation and humtius, offer still
better facilities for inrri:ation, and this explains the fact that locations
highly fertilized with composts, stable n,:1 linuie, or leaf-nimild show tile
root-knot quicker iu plants than compact or virgin soils, and the worst









re-nults an .e livili, ill gardenl P! "l 'd i" lI, ,. ,IIi t\ iid, t'illy i.h vili., AI.
antd I horii i ly pIvI I rizied areas.
Miisl lire is an essential to ie i in.,iu grow\ h ,i (ln .\1h ,.h2 iiin i.
Ihlli lh it % illiNI.laiI. aill lenuOi'luii allillu t tI ll\ ii,.
Tlhe 4\ '.l, .1. .h i -,1, pIir'llnll I'lt6 l. h'. e(.ome il ," r lt. ll ill oithilIe, Ina,
ture WOIr1s 'i1 ille1i .iiInl remainil iI.iiniiiuQ1 with ssjpemneild toalii but
rY81luii at-tion with the application of -Niitliiiii., moi'tI',re. (Note 5.)
A fiaiilot' Z,nil, with compact clay near the -'ii l.. ii-nin, iii uncedd
dallupl ess. prctselts thel th t ty lpical eiuvilr uilicnt i,, th r Al..ii.illll ,
anl thIis, .al.a'. also is v''_.iruh, in this section as the ib st ;i l'.ilt .i h .nn-.
li a.itiIl1 I'M t ;a g.liliil or .L I',,- .
AIliolh \ i'\ I', l voralilbl location tor these W wurtlis is the I,,," l)aihk
(i Ia lake or river, wi ere tliert'I is i mass n I' w*t, I dIa> in,I \II vegetation.
I.\A PEII \1t\'TS.

.A series Oi x i [)ri.iin Iit>, iilerlI the directioi (of thie iiiniiui',lui.t ot|
the I'niiltd Srat l. .\Agricultural D)epart ,iilW. was I'6.iii in February,
i.s,s1 to detl'lliiile tlhe 11ni.iitioll andl life, history of thle Aigrliill'l,. as
well as to iiivliviail, thel uhlrt of various inisecticidcs. '1 I.,il tlicsu are
not onllipl'tc and conclusive, is i,'i'i to tlte vxtreiulll dilli'iiulty 4f t;iic-
ilig :lin inldividulal wormn by reason of its sizt and its surroiiinli i:-.
A jii.iiitity 1 bo)th ordinary sandy soil aintl clay was heated several
lioi's to a teliperature nif li, F.
A lillnber it' 6inih artlin polts vwere also .'llijlcivil to tlhe s.Iaile
heat. 'Tht earth and the pots were tested tlfor Ii\ iing Aiitiilluila andil
fonid sterile.
I I ) -' 'iII ,'iil. i pots with I1, 1u1tiic foot ofat' i'rh ill n vr lh pot.
-1) 5.iiianwa No. 1, 1, 1-i 1. .'1rile i 1.i;. i t't nl iA ti Itacu ',')Iil.
\i i A a N u. 1A, i I], \l .11 111 ., ,r i li I I -.- I I l) o ti t
(1) As No) .1. -iii clay 3.lihsil tioi inifttd l4 wation;l .
;.', As No. 1, u-ini- iiit'ctt td i tl'fii<* Ioil t-)1 iiilt'tl'l d nocatioi-1
In each pot were p.lant'i four seeds ii' the Cow-pea ( )oI ichios), sealed
because of its ease in ., iniiiiiitinig and r.iai .iioloo iIloiy to the An-
.iuillulai.
All .iUI upll) within the week and grew fairly well; at thit i'd of clchU
week one lplait was removed anid the roots examiilned.
Lu No.s. I and 2 no knots were visible at anly >ti;r, of -io ll'' li aid the
last plant grew to maturity.
I Nois. 3 and 4 thile plailints were but .hlilhily .ihfl,. aild at tlihe end
of the foilr hI week each Iii.iiiilin; iilant had mnathd a lair growth, de-
spite the terminal roots weri li<',riniir_ e.al,ar-,,d.
In No. 5 half' thile plants iliril before the a|pearan(e' ,, the third I.l'f.
amd the reiiihilr i1:made a sickly, afi,.hbi ,wiwtl '1'li roots werIe badly
kinotted, decay in every case appu.,L iian at the terrininal ,irnls of thIe root
lets, which turned brown andul dropped il at the slightest touch.
I repeatled this series in place oW the cox.jiva. Tinl' results were si6nilair-tlie trees in N'>-. 1









and 2 growing \ iol,'i-.1 with fully developed roots aMnd leaves; in
Ni. 3, at the elid of four imioiths the trees were living, but fieubly, and
tine roots showed signs ,ii decay.
Il No. 4 the trees ihad grown somewhat better anld had a brighter
iilhr. but the roots were knotty.
No. 5 showed poorly, leaves smaller, roots quite knotty, and one tree
dead.
Tnlv same results followed using the \V.pilig Willow as dtih test
plant.
TIn inferences are: That the A igillinl;t is destimy,.d by a heat of
2120; that healthy trees set in iin llr.tvtI soil sootli are il .ii\led by tihe
free Auguiiillula in the soil; that soil taken i l'i mr the depth ,'r2 or more
feet below the surface is comparatively free from the worms, and that
(lay subsoil is less infected than the sand.
Another series of experiments testing the cllct of various elheinnncal-,
fertilizers, and insecticides was iritHd. using four sterilized poi.s in each
test, the pots each containing 11 cubic foot of infected maidy soil, ;Ilid
the chemIical, at the rate of -o-- of the weight ,t' the mi1l (24 gr.i iis), thor-
or..lily mixed or dissolved. In each pot was planted a -eedling peach
and four cow-poas.
No. 6. Tobacco ,li'I[
7. 1I,,i.i dust with ":1 -i liii, sulphate potaAh.
8. T,".1 i, I dust with .'I ..t.i' -,iil'1,hl polash.
9. -,lI..i *, ditst with 24 i-. i'j, suli)hitc jio .t;th.
10. Tobacco dust with i 24 'i.'l iiu," riailt potiash.
11. Tobacco dust within 21 i.il. i;, ... |i. piljiii soda.
1*2. Tobacco dust witli 241 '.ii sulphlatc iron.
13. Tobacco dust with 24 -1 .i1 11, caustic lime.
1.1. T,,I,., i l dust with 21 grails ululedclctd aaLc.
15. Tobacco dust with '21 grais sulphur.
16. I.i-illhii lih carbon.
17. Sutlphate potash.
lP. Muriate potaslh.
19. Unlcached ashes.
20. Caustic lime.
These experiments were also repeated inii the nursery and open field
on small peach trees, ti. i ig l I;12 grains to each tree, equivalent to i, o
part by weight of the soil. (Note 6.)
In the pots the results in Nos. 6, 7,10, 13, and 14 were \veiy encour-
;i-ing ; the peas grew to maturity, with good color and veiy few en-
largedl roots. Nos. 8, 9, 11, and 15 lmade a \N iy poor growth, and died
soon after the third leaf. No. 12 died immediately ;ifitr sproutinig, as
did No. 16. N,.s. 17, 1 and 19 gi.,. nearly as well ats Nos. 6 and 7;
No. 20 made a tine growth, with very few k.-nl.mrgcil roots. The peach
trees died soon iu Nos. 8, 9, 11, 1 2', 15, and 16, made a fair gliowtlh in Nos.
6, 7,10, 13, and 11, were killed at once in .No. 16, and grew thlie best in
Nos. 17, 18, 19, and 21. '
In the field Nos. 11, 16, and'8 :il;it.rndil to atonce kill the I trees. Nos.









19 alnd I had nl 4.1 1.,r 1 \ 'V idcle NO,,6. 1;. I', t a|CI I n11 lkd, a blttier
;ioi\ !lI than No",. 17- 2" 15tott knot "aJ prtsnt (HI all but Nos. I
1 1, and "-211'.
On Will 1u-,, in,',-. ,[,['li,'il4 ;(t lthe raw L4 27 p undsol W the tree, No s.
11 1~i 1 17, 1 ^. In.. andl 11 q iN c 4-m" l ire lt," r-V i Ill, G aid 17, ( l~ i
G., ii ald I'.1 l'ln ,, llmi. ires seemellld it 11r wte :* Vi_,,i .,i-' ,,i" tlh ol
lheialthy -... ;Iand Nos. i and 211. erA'h -'7 onnil's t> the t(re, ,well Mii\ed
with the. l. I .1, v ",il, ap; ea|f rs ti; lw .1 inciir A p|r\ve liv fi tthe kall(."
as .il\ lliii' I lha\ I, Iried.
Itried tilt ltisullhiidll l' ( rh0it n will t. a1y i.v ilb. o tilitr tlihi n ( hIt dealithi
)I't liv I I vvr", million lI I I t ) ,i I Ir i 0i 1 ll'h. Iid I rosei'l riiiilsi viol to salin u at iofI
Ill tim he 1.i s soil ])rodu)iuinnil a .1u 1iiar 1 ir'il I. ;iitl in ()Ie of* I n'he e Is
1i h, lahotur in v)% vd I did l not w r'il tAI lIth v\ ptAinAit, (Not' 7.)
1A In a11Tr Of 111 he I 1..ll,11 id !li, i l l.I t'iit riliers n rv fI' ii'd ; those' Noil.
1.linii ; iIlllll'm ia *. 1, 1, alnld li-A produltwe d a r li[ d i,,' th, soflt
a(d Ie asulv aittackild by thin .\ ,iilliil.,.
Itn a lIli. ne r my Il.,',., Ih;W vilN lerlilizcd itlh ; Irh c a Q w- il l" Ilia h
r',1,,l,,miild. thy rIlots ,'t the IM lplnt 11 'eii1 lil.ases ol'1k1n tty roots, t(nh
worst eascas it' thli disease, I ever sawV, anid pe'li'h -trees ..,ia''-i iin that
firll artii unied.
I have ) iiiimil IItl iii: II' value when applied told beti if,-, fruit trees,
it' liallk ;ifll'erl.,d. as any insecticide 'apaldh of .il11,ii Illiou by tihe roots
invariably has killed the trees \lihen used to tlue amount of ',,, thie
wVi.hit it' the -illir" .-,il. 1 fioot in ilpili and the area of the t'irnlt
lileid lhv the roots. Alkaline ni\lii, '. '2'11 to I' pounds to each ti. r. or
cHutstic lini*, ILiinitc. nmuriate and sniplmte potash or w(oodI ashes, used
'.veral m.,l-, in shae'essiOI, liav colle near est a cur1e, dh,-til\ in t no
d.)iilmr mimaim fri. worII ,s, awl iiilii' i'. at v11 Ii.o.i l oli l *J owtli of i'' .
miore dlillit it ill' 1,iiiri ,tiiiii. anid possiblVly vlin i-' thIe .sap in so1me
% ay Obnloxiots. kNill 1'.0
rlie addition of tobacco dust in l.iiL' quantities supplies nit i .ii,'-.
anid makes a \ r viv'.rii n "i< lh of nioOtS and i bs. It also semns to
have cmisidelra hle preventive ell'.. I ti the o\lIirms. Experiifiil is C'i.-
i,,WI'VId 1i o1ne of our market .irdehners has con vined lii that tie'
mixture il' tobacco dust and muriate i'l' ptash in old Ii, 11.i in Ln ii,
illeilSUre t prevents the ".i'.i- (I of the' .\ niiiltla in L I .. 1'.1l, il-, and
I':- l.iiit. and lihl has adptled this as a standard ftriilihcr lur 14ll his
products. I have seen lihis use of ihi-. andt al" uenrln pl e antd ti sis-
taiu his viOws. Kaiuite is no doubt liit as W ','1. Iut ftiltther experi-
imntitiin. is inecessary.
AInatlieii series 4' exleiriments was nat ie iiiin plants to determine
the time and d1ti., ,t' i in i, ,n
No,. "21. SIrih.,,c.lI pots with i cihi I ,.-i of sterileh soil. in which fo ur
cow-pts wera planted at \v.i'rios I1,1,1li,. owie-lhiaf inlch, three Ibnrtihs
ilin indl 1 il.h. wiere 'covereil 1 ineli witlih in1feel 1 eat rIll and kept w\a-
tered. Ti'e results showed inOI. 'iii of t hlie 1<,ts in about the same ra-
1. '1 1---, 1111. 2)









tio as the distance from the sun I'icv,. Reversing the process, |Iiting the
inRfected soil below, showed the roots :; t,1-v I'd soonest in the peas planted
deepest, inldicating but little action in tihe worms outside of that pro-
duced by the percolation o" water.
No. 22. Another series of Iot.-, were watered with muddy water from
infected earth, and though the pots contained sterilized soil the roots
of the peas were badly aflifected. Microscol)pic inv\'ts! igIatilii of' the pcr-
colate showed both free and nii.\ st,.d Anguillule. (Not< 9.)
Ni. ''. Pots with sterile soil Iiid one Iransplanted infected peach
seedling in each, and four cow-peas.
The trees soon di, d, and vi rr' .lrthl ;l i .-a ;id the peas showed tht.
infection, those nearest the dead peach roots the most markedly.
In a spot of new and non-infected ground several trees, 1'each and Fg,
were planted. The central tree was knotty-rooted and died in a iLJ
months; the next year the roots of the nearest trees, 15 feet away, became
knotty nearest the dead tree, and now, after the lapse of tour years,
the disease extends to the tips of the roots of all the Fig inld Pch trees
in a circle 120 feet distant each A .i v from the original ini'eted tree.
In another c.ia', in a nursery on high pine land, clay subsoil and fi ee
fromn di.-t'.i,'. a number of peach i,,,lts, 1,.tlly I> unttd, were brought
from a distance and heeled in for a week. Tlhe disease spread in all di
rections from this nucleus.
Again, in another peach nursery was a spot ,t' low, dijmp, black soil.
There was no root-knot the Iii.-s year it was 1)lanted in peaches; tilhe
seedlings grew well. Tli'- second ? ca.i. a few trees were found in this
spot with enlarged roots and destroyed. 'Tlie third year, hardly a tree
escaped, the disease extcndinig ahlig tlie thickly set rows of seedlings
upward and in all directions on to the higher lahindl front the hollow spot
liist infected.
Iu another case, clean fibrous-rooted trees were heeled in a d;ay or so
and planted in nini inlfect'd ground. Thi next yv'ai" proved thile most of
them diseased.
These cases prove conclusively that in areas not infected tlhe disease
can be easily introduced (1) by piantiing infected trees; (2) by the use
of conmposts of mnuck a id weeds t''uit infected soils; (3) bythe ldistribii
tive action of water and air, the water ';arim ing particles of soil and
worms downward from an i infected elevation, or by dry soil, frag.
inments of dry roots, desiccated free or e(i'cy'ted worms carried in the air
during sand stm na.-. whiirhvinls, or the heavy currents of air precedling
storms that often blow 1i.iv 1c acres of plowed land and overwhelm ad-
jacent fields with the soil thus bone on the wind; (4) soil containing
these worms I have no doubt has been carried on the feet of men and
animals and deposited in healthy liclhis, filming the nucleus of a de-
structive agency, months Ltte V'\\; I'd made visible by its effects.
Instances are not wvantin- that can not be explained except by some
such tlhory of 'oiltagion and iiai1iiiLr of tri'avl.










1; 1 VDM I En> 1;.

I. l)i. \. \(Gl.

.lai,. L.ii]',h.11 a1id orchatrds are badly hloated oit soills pirtly s;ilii
rated wvith I wateIr, cilite'r it tihe mh .IHA l of iivtrs or lah'-s o on ili ItN,
posits til \ I.I I'l., 1'ih aiii liS 1oth low I nld daitii.
TlihO reasOns for tlis choicee ar gelerally the sup-. lerior quality ,,i tlii
lald antid the raplidity I .1,i,"'th inidiied h lib t ni oistIure, bilt ii lith
territory irilct'lI l\I ti' .A iigu'illtl;a tle heat I ill rich soil idse precisely
tli' looseiess iiIl tissue so favoraltl h t.h tin' spread of t Oint \Norlis.
A ,lr\ .,,il, witli solid I o..t growtllh, is on Oe tin itlrary iiIfaor;lrh;
litnce ill inlliy locations Iriiii ".i haIs enitirely ,ll,. li tlv' uliiatl i urof
tlio l.iid, so80 that aiHes ari ini w-d n i,, \i"" lhe re they" would 11o ltiore.
I:xl".riliil'iit< lq l'n \,i- w',,1111111 this P-ilh miid t ingcost tin' u lity of"
1 hliill;hi dli .iii.i'. ofl wet loeaiti w o, i t ll tte r 'ett, th v -ihi llu e or Sir 't
pllaces lot 1ii-0 ;l and ,a.I ldri' .
In this ionniection it mnay be rimarkti its one of the not xpew'ted
results of th1 New Anriciilture" in 11 iiil:iiiii, a li riiaiieii tly dA;iii
.soil l* means li of water pipes lulow tih l.ii., that when it is ini v1"glic
we will liavT not only ait great iniclrease of crops but a greater iiit-rcse
i l' root-knot"i i ll ie l i.f ,. tIl,- .llket the ilc-uetiilu (i' A.\iuilliulw will have uponl tho humliian tiltoinoy
remlaiins to be seen; as, so A as It kniiow, no record octnnrs of cxperiienI'ts
hlia\ iig eetii tried to asevrtai.ii (Note 10.)

2. FI .-.T.

I ll manlly ]lt''- north I 2'.1 there is cold 'wiii-uh acli year to ;at
tilines 'ier/' thclie surface ; conidlerahle depth. Where this occns, by
pil ill;, tilthe soil at the l'eginiiiingi of winter and at t|nIes dill i.; that
seasoll, it is reasonable to suppose wi ti destruetioii .fl tiet free A gii i!-
luila. will eiisue.
3. FMiri

liht. value ,i,' heat in the destruction of the ..ii- of tihe root-kniot
has been ofl i demonstrated in Florida:, usually uniwittiingly, and the
lesson tAliujIht has beie in a lieasilre lost.
In 'l.;iiling old lirll., 1, imlyl i ili I .l w \ith thle '" i,- as shown by tihc
crops i'f cotton or ',:1-. it is custoinary to burn 1i lieapls ;ad t mpis;
it, then, i.p-,tl.-,s anld itig have been plantlted on this llburned land tint
tlesilt hIast beeu I're,,Iluu fr1om root-kLiot fiil a series' ,t years'.
Suchl trees make a viirui gi'ro tl anilld bear l1. 'lii1i' ii i' ,llt.
trees, not oni burned guriid. wither liand lii.
It would seem practicable in this wooded section to eaWily build small
comllipact lin. .i|, of -l ihip-. O' .l. pillne 1, ii, even dry i eeds vand g-i.i,.
0V'rl the irV e.Ot f St .i 2 i'rr i'nli ti. ti1 'i-li tree-stake prior to I'li, t.i









ing, blurn i ln- heal) to ashes, excavate the soil as far aIs hialet-d, :iinll re.
new the fire till the subsoil is i';iclit-d and the depth ir i at Ivit a. foot
or soil in all is thoroughly sterilized by heat.
Ii many cases, where w0t,1 is lplenlty, dead stl.indinlg tiile2r to lie
reilloved7, aind stuinips to be burned, the plan would succeedi to stake
out the ficld and build a log.heap at each stake; but if not onilvenieint,
the annual growth ol' vweeds and -iasse., well dried, will Iuriinish fuel
enough.
4. S'rErniiL: SOiLS. (Note 11.)

Among the early settlers of Florida the practice prevailed, when
planting trees, of digging out the soil to the depth of 2 or imore feet
and filling in around the tree with l;in or yellow subsoil obtailicd I'roi,
virgin land and 3 or more feet below the surface. This plan succeede,
in that it surrounded the tree with sterile soil till it ruledd iirin roots
and a hardened epid(.li inii.
My investigations show that in infected soils the deep roots are liLit.
slightly itf-ctc'd in comparison with those near the surface, and tl:hat
the greatest destruction prevails in young trees, nursery stock, :and
plants having surface roots.
If a tree acquires age and the roots reach deep subsoil, tihe Angiiil-
lulbe do little damage. HIence the utility of using clay or subsoil, derived
from viti i, ore.st, around newly-set trees.
This old plan deserves attention and can be recomiienided; but oiince
the war, in their haste to promote the growth of groves i and gardens-,
the later horticulturists reverse this method, imbed the oung tree in
sult'act' soil, and use nitrogenous f'i-tilizers to encourage rapid develop-
menit, this certainly causes increase of the root-knot.

5. DISISE (
Keeping land clean, free from all growth for two or m6re years, has
proved of great btinelit if done before trees arc planted. I Ieliv-ve the
worms require living tissues to develop in, and depiivecd of this they
would die, probably within the limit I have given.
In many places where the soil has not been cultivated for a long
series of years, and the Broom Sedge Grass has exterminimted :all other
weeds, I have failed to find any traces of the Angiiiilul.i, and 1 regard
this as coii liri.tory proof that disuse of land pr ieventtis the root-knot.

6. DISTsi OF EASILY INFEILED CUlil'S.

In most of our Southern States, where the Clovers and Buckwheat
will not prosper, it has been the almost universal custom to substitute
the Cow-pea as a soil-rentovator. Drilled or broadcast it is the great
crop foi "laying by" corn, and as a second or third crop after rice,
o:its, or market g.irden. Very few .roves. or orchards but have annu-
ally from one to three crops ol pea-vines plowed in for uertilizing.









,.\k ,L il, ti I. !I s I 'l I i i." I IlI,' r le;U, in :: oII the tim ber, it is il ,I,,. I .1 1
UIIs Iii new ltIIII. Ie its Ir I i-s Io I, IInsiti .v to (I Iii ; t 1 1 .s of' t 1
.\ ,ii 1ililIl I. a; d t I 'W hI ave i root so h;dly iniseted I1 i h tlh lie.. ,0, i-InI. iandl
this comlllllon cistimil r" plalllln' flla K Mq pn is "me tioled M Yl In ho
colildellnedl, a. itf oilliiilel, in time .I ,111 and gardens in these
.-.1ind1 soils will be f'ailulres.
'T'lhe l. l ih .. s ri'i il (.htprlll <('ll\,,t; D c-illo ii llll iilI, (0 ', .'.- 11
\W.(Il), and i I ie1 iadsmZi I I iIira ( eII IaIiI I ( '1o eI), w ill prove e liii I sIl-
st itlites lti tl h ( r -owIo pe s ii r .' I ;aid ld rt ili i1z r I I h pea Ie W k\ (' it ait a i y \ orn fo .n ,lii and oreli;r'd. anid :it l011tiiin- tlite
ISv l.ie ,r 4Utltitiiie t .,f so -i l 'I I' 11 ; :lk hli ne lI liih er on liesoil. Tl'
1tCnoH iielil habit of il.mln1niii- m rke .'t L: I- li inll orlehiArds sliould e i dis-
vollll. ll'ul.
It is ,.'.-\ to soe thlil rcisoll and the ,l.uii,.r fromn theI use of aniilno-
nici a 'l I lili./r.' so ulressaril to indul e rtt pid .ji ,,i 111 of t .t ilil1.. ;ind
h,' ,l*iri.nl lti, Ah i.luilliuld fromK the roots oi' the M.loins, (un'cilners,
'I,., to tine trees. Mol.1l instainces oit' this sort cain li seenl over the
Souii, and should serve is u'.iiniiiq' tO oullr horticultuirists in tlhe luire.
I believe that in badly inife't4ed grounds sonne relief conldl We nit i
l11 v illing tile 'Dow-p i. .... 1l, when in lh.i i. v.iltin,;g off ih( sli ns lor
I;i;';gi ; then to plow and cal'rliilly rake up the roots iA lilies l r lIuirin-
i,.1 when dry ,i.n,,ii. This method or destroyin. : tihe iiitt'elted roots o
()l1r:. Ni1,I.,-1 etc., aind the roots o' the 'K liiiiii.uliii. etc.. wor ud tno
di llit lit i' or ,'r.tI vallite in small air,.-I, a d even in larger fields, b>y
thle aid illi i liirlvel inaelhiiltry for illi, in'" thle roots.
It needs o1nl% the eintion that Jil.iiiinl ,I trees fromr il,1iei loeal-
ities should be avoided; even tlio'se iot liable to tIlie disease lhemrselyves
in:ly carry soil ci'o t.i) ini .\uil Aulirlrr a ii m L,,' thie roots.
I hai.iv nIoted tlhat t leahli and Fig obt;ainied i ron Nor';hern nur-
series seen extremielv easy to take thie li .. far mnore ,o-I than theli
native stocks. I only menirtion thlie fiet. but have not asert linendi tiie
reason.
7. INS. :<' l N I:' II- S ] .
I have i',i,,nt,,I Itl oir, the small lha.kisli lirowvn ant thlt iinhiabits rot-
ten wvod1 Ind i- lT iin.i'" roots-\,'ii (Coiiilo)l in thtis section--the i..
Plpsis Xyl,,ni.
T'his, when the roots of thie )kra, I''.i, etc., !iL.iii to decay, burrows
into tihe tissues awl dlr.i 2, out thle i ,'i ,.i iil A i iiilTiil.,' for destruction.
I was in//.hedl at ini-t to itl thie deadly roots li thIe (l *l.. .Ml.I'. Ieaeli,
lld i I'1,ive from r.,-'l or |I,,':'*_ .il \ i, ,., tl oii,,il in I.n ti llly irl,,l ii]:
1eiil.ireaiiietit I li, itni1 plenty of A .\ :n illI la.
(Iht Imr .itIl i ,. xr I-II.1 ex-1inIititiI show ed ti is ant in the aet of de
voIt i I I t tle lil._r., ,l ,ii m lantl its service to the orchr rdist is be-
.oiind value in this i's[ii'l.
ti:isiiincli as a dry "6i1 is l.LvOr.Nlll to ant ll., it will be readlily seen
how dr:iti.iL', is useful in .ilii the piii.i" .itI il, ,if this tiny ,i..lr,0,'i.









Upon cri ihiniig a mature, pregnant worm various torius of miicrococci
are visible by the microscope 8as existing within the A-nguilliii, evi-
(dently not hrtl' il, and when seen exterior to the worm seem not preju-.
dicial to its life ; but more study is needed on this point.

8. USE OF VERMICIDE FERTILIZERS.
Experiments looking to the adoption of some mixtures capable of de-
'i Nii\ iii tie worms while in the root tissues have not proved a success.
Thi. use of smaller quantities per acre than one-tenth of 1 per cent. of
the surface soil for 1 foot in depth and 10 feet radius to each tree-
about a ton to the acre-produced no perceptible effect on the disease,
and a greater amount injured the trees.
Tihe use of bisulphide carbon, kerosene emiulsion, and various arsen-
ical solutions destroyed so great a percentage of the trees that on that
account, and thle expense of application, it was abandoned.
Alkaline mixtures have done better, and will bear repetition, espe-
cially the sulphites and mnuriates.
For nursery stock, it no doubt will pay to thoroughly incorporate
some of these chemicals with the soil some weeks before ilauting seeds,
cions, or young trees, using it at the rate of at least one-tenth of 1 per
cent. of the surface soil cultivated.
Alkaline fertilizers, as hard-wood ashes, muriate and sulphate of pot-
aslh, kainite, or ash element produce a hard grim tl i but little, if any,
affected by the root-knot. Usually the fertilizer is .applied in too small
a quantity. Not less than 3,000 pounds to the acre should be used to
l)roduce the required effect, one-half in Decenliber. the remainder in
May.
A fertilizer containing a small percLunt;ig- of carbolic aid(, carbolates
thymol-cresol, or an easily decomposed sulphite would no doubt be valu-
able in this infected section.

9. NON-INFECTED STOCKS
After all, I believe the use of trees that are not uusreptiblle to the
roit-k it, for stocks on which to graft or bud the suscepl)tible varieties
is the proper solution of the root-knot problem. The matter of location,
soil, fertilizer, and prevention then need not worry the tending or-
chardist. Findl the disease-proof tree and the tlihig is done, and most
of my experiments have been directed to secure in some measure this
result.
It is, perhaps, too soon to .N-, that complete success has been realized,
but the gain is perceptible.
For the Or'iuiv I can recI'omterndl the li;irly bitter-sweet or sour
species as nearly disease-proof and a vigorous grower.
The Citrus trifoliate and the Japanese Unshiiiu." or .it;tiima, both
seem resistant, but the time of trial has been too short. This last is a
slow grower, with dense roots. and promises to be tlhe best 1,1 ;1ny of the








C'ltr sl' i nii ItiL[V l t i,.u ili]i.. 'r,.'l,,ii, Iinri (li-,, 11 .. ;nid vi_,i Iiw omtl
2*11


niit1id it.
(;r.llve-, I il th V i1'. 1 .1 1l :' 1 a %1 ",.tl as those ,, the 1%1stiv\Ilis _,Ionp11 are
si ilijei' to Ithe [1ii 1I l, ii, if ,i'.vti on their own ii,, -. lhut l I ai .td into
stocks ,"i the ( Kordiflta or Vilii],.i races have made supri l.iilli,'
Ire' II, tile disease.
I have liild no stock iwi Fi,. o(r M ullber ry that has Istood ti 1 test.
l'r the Peach '. nl either te I ai Iiiiiie t 'eilli,-. the \\ ild ((s' 'liin,,
tilt, .:niilldli.n. or the reewrntly in(trod
  • SliiI;.l, or )I'~ii. arnt. valinlahle. Three yi ,ars' test ofi tilt Mal iri;ln; pro me
    tIa ilt fir tl. It tim at Ir..t. tlhe roots resisted tihe A ,..,iiTll.i ;aidl w\ere
    f'i'n' 'ri in knots. When the peMach d1icd tilhe Myr-lol;an wi.s intf cteil
    sli l lh, and even tlhe native IduIis suflrretId witli t Ie dliseas'. It is too
    soonll to givt. anl iiliiiiiiliil approval ii this as a stoIk, but s( fur it is
    thIle very l -t, gi on irin l 1iii ,.it iii,, and very raipidlly, ,iT..i.ir, trer
    thatM is i.il orer-Ioof ts well as fire ftroti tihe .\ij_,'illirl ,%
    Sniir' .sIc llnI'. iI our AI. Iit'ie'a lii 1u1 aIre de(Istined to replace tinE t
    Peach as a At lwk. unless the Japallse variety ie.s pIrove srI'lrior.
    I have hiiiiil ir'tiiithini, f value l," tlt I 'te N.li-li \alnut as a stock, nor
    for tile ,We'pinr Willow.
    I have ,iinlivilel thie pirobable line if action to nitl1 ite o prevent thet
    dIisease i :. I I.nl i ii.- Ili h uIse of alkaline fIrtiliixers, the exposure t, o ro v st,
    the ,.atllir., iin, of diseased roots to imi 11. the removal of certain v' ',,
    and tire disuse ,,f land .?iul cow lpeas.

    EXTENT rl- I*i STI r"I I \: El Il.IS 01O TIlE DISEASE.

    \W within tile dii-nirt i ritel, el by tile .\AI illlla it would ie well Ii'.li
    anll iilo.rsrili, llty to gi\, even an approxinmiate idea 'i tie losses sius-
    tained eachl year ll' the farmer, thie gardener, and tihe horticulturist
    ir,,i1 the r'.i ;Irr, of this worm.
    All over tilhe southern section ift' the I, iitll S ioies lihnndreds of market
    ,d"en s have been planted at an in wiuu-i outlayv it t irme, and money,only
    to have thie Il-l,.s 'l' \ ,,,l;Ilhls !,liv ilrl,. frori this mysterious troilile, as
    ilf srO'lieI ln 1ir, 1or In 'r. 'li'ih .l-u4I 1 ,'f trees have Ibeen planted omlv
    to dwindle away and die; anid. as thle dif.*ert has been "iu.,1Q, ascr iled
    to the fertilI,'.r or the climate, thle inljury has been enorm-ous, while the
    real cause has not been suspi,.trl. .1.m1. as far as I know, no .ilini t 1nii.l,
    to ascertain a remedy. Tlhe Oi. ng' is -liQ1t1ly aftIcted now, hut inl tie
    fiturei when the soil will he lili.1 with cysts and w',i ii-,. Or.i -.- trees
    will be as niiiicertaini. I I'er, as thie I',.r.lI or In,. at thie lIl't"vn+ time.
    l'iii, til,' best testrionyi I can get, in the eati\ .* 1- ,it the white im-
    nliikr.itiii. except ill diamp Ii,'.i in1.. p11.i1 il-. ,: ,.' without auy disease,
    save the I otir." NYro', in mnany ,1 i<,-. tlie trees that ,1, well are the
    ,\'I,,ptiii. and in these locations it is i.ll. w.rste of time, labor, t ir-. and
    Ferllil/,,is to attempt thle cnltunre ot ain ,iw 1 id.
    In such iife,.tI -p,,[- the usual i',io,.a1.1 is to .Aii'il some costly








    amimoniacal manure to the land, cultivate ,.,rly ve'getatlphe; bet ween the
    trees; then, ifrtvr that crop is rein',v'd, sow the land in cr',v-pe;is. The
    result is bhewildrihig. Next year the unfortunate planter is di kcouraged
    to find many of the trees dying back, the vegetable crop with knotty
    roots and irregular fruit.
    Another heavy fertilizing, another crop of peas, and that spot is dons
    for. The disgusted farmer tries another vocation, and gives over tlie
    place to weeds and desolation.
    With young, rlosvly-.s:,Il rows of trees the disease causes greatest. dain.
    age, spreading rapidly from tree to tree.
    In market gardens, especially the Tomato, Cucuimblen'r, Melon, and
    Squash, the Anguillula often either destroys the plilnrs before fruiit ing
    or reduces the size of the fruit till it fails to p;>y expenses.
    A number of disastrous failures with g.irdlens, that have come to my
    notice, no doubt resulted from this cause.
    LIFE IIISTORY OF TIHE ANGIUILLULA.
    The study of this microscopic wormi has been exce editily difficult,
    and1(1 many points in its history are not yet fully ascertained.
    The limit of its existence, periods of growth, sexual climracteristics,
    generation, variation of I'orin, uand the ipr.cise action oc.casioning ti,'
    abnormal growth in roots, are all undetermined questions which will
    take a long em.itiintied series of observations to solve. (Note 12.)
    As first nb1set icd. a mass of cells .:plicais within the iuterine cormiiii.
    cells averaging- o inch in diameter, ;iirntignd in bands from j,,,,
    to ,, .., inch in width, reaching across to the walls of the uiterus.
    (Plate XX, A, B.) These bands appear at the smaller end ,f the uterus,
    beginning from *..,"_" to ,-oA4 iincli from the free extremities, extend
    ing downward ,,,,, to ,, inch. Lower down, these cells show aten-
    dency to *,igigtit' into irt-it..l;i masses (Plate XX, B, C), then into
    ovate forms, eventually brcciinin ovals ,.I,;..,, ,y i 2..., inch.
    At first these cysts have no epidermis, but a thin in.iling appears
    and thickens as they approach the noiimal size of .':,,,, inch in lengtli
    and ,.,',.... inch in width. (Plate XX, 1), 2.)
    During the life of the female the cysts form rapidly, until the % hole
    uterus becomes enormously enlarged, and contains .. sls in every stMage,
    from the primary ;Igglimiir;t tio ii of cells to free Anguilluhe. (Pl'i te's
    XIX and XVIII.)
    Tlche decay of the euvironming root exposes the pegfin;tnt litimale to
    .limiges in weather, and with a slight increase in beat the contraction
    of the exterior expels the contents of the uterus and disperses them.
    Thi., in most cases appe;ihars to be through the upper w.-meviit, IIthough
    often it occurs thr iii ilh the lis-uI e in the head. (Plate XIX.)
    The cyvst at first is a solid mass ofgrininl;ir cells. (Plates IX, 1, and
    X, 1.) It divides centrally at the shorter axis (Plates IX, 2, 3; X, 2,
    21;, 4); eacli half repeats this process till four or five ,, it-ii ts are visible.
    A longitudinaml fissure then nlppi(s, ctiisiig right segimeunts (Plates.









    IX, &, 7; an1 X, I.',. I#;, I -; the walls or tin' "V11lll41( ai mO a I mhr lh't
    eialch ti,. the central ln'i .. .. -ii (I'lI i' IX, '. I'' 15, 16, 17, IS w hIh
    extlllds t the 111 l iii ol the iA \ I in o-dlg' 'T l i And, il up n l l msiatiho
    alit that enId mI otiol 1,i... in,.. il I the A ii,; nilllI i aw akes to lif ,and ;ie-
    lion. (Plates IX, 17, IS; aid XI, 1.)
    'l'hi, :.m i(h within the 'v -I conti nmmes till the l orm attains a IT.-r:ti
    !' ...... inch om' ni,.1. and a central dil etpr ,d ,I ,, ,i inch ; the 0 st'
    I'lIIluIIt 's. the N olrn is f'ret ( I'l.iArt Xl, 2-'. ;. 7), l ica\i Tith' e'ilpty shell
    11ir lnkel and torn. ('l.ii. X I, 1, Ia.)
    I'p to this point I Iha\e failed to disctminiiiiate the sexps. Iolh ;plt'aT
    1hiltiit at tonte '11d1, which is m rkeil wih licit, a i' ... 1J. inclt .'
    invh ill n -ll,. ll,.i with a circulalh r Iin.._, lilo ( ernintl ioii ( P'latt X I I,
    or, in, 6In, 7n. aInd XIII, lW, 2On .A") vxh.iidlin,.. into a tortntoiis I"i c in hi..h IhII ll"

    iocli ill diameteltr and .\ ,r i i inch it] then til
    remainder of tlih worm bhecomnes in iass 0of ..ll. ol' \arion .sizs to within
    I. Inch n'h or . inch -tf the extrenity or tail.
    1'i1.1 1,.ll, at times appa.ir with a; sinuous chaniinl Ia'hr tWri"i ,ithe'
    end 11 .,iir ,XII, 4), 1or with breaks in their continuity(I'l Illr XI 1,2, .. r
    .i ..inulai mnasses illterspersed (Plates X11. 1i, 7, and XIV, 1,2), o' as
    liii cells irir, 'ilill _,iii '.iiL'', (Plate X III, 1, 2, .) ()''sinii;ially tlihe
    whole interior appears as a solid mass of cells. (Plahe X 11, ;.)
    I have not discovered tle method of iii,.*..iri:I ili.-: lint at an early
    p.i iI rapid hi.iii_.- in shape lb.ruin in thle f(inia1e. (I'l.A iis XVI, 2 to4
    15; XVII, 1 to); XIV; XV; and XI I5,;, 7, S. The enlan;iretmnlt is
    preceded I\ the fiii,,rm.tnri in both upiper and lower thirds of t:e tliiiv
    of dark masses of cells that event1il.ll unite ('lates XIV, 3, A, IB; 4,
    5. .A. B, ( '. and G; X V, 2'. 3). then I'\ tlihe time the worin rachtes flie
    :i..e represented in PI'l.ir. XVI, 11, 12; Plate XVI, ., 1,hve', ,li' Al.i, dI
    into a icornate ovarium or uteras, which at full tern attains the length
    oI' ....i. inlh inll lllla y i il-. and (coltains one h]n 4ndl'red amId Wil i (i' otn'
    IIIuIIIlnr'ed and sixty ftll vi.,,l \1t, .
    Th'1le shi.in'e" and sizsa these iimii.iit 'etalus vary gr'atly, ,idi 1
    Ii.li'eve are (hIe r,-ilr of tie environment. In -,1 tissues iof the (mi
    liia. Ri.ili'h. and tHile like rapidly. ',- ii-., plants they attain I ra nsvrse
    diameter IfII inlA and a l1i;.Iglli of i in, h. Tlil t;iil is Ird 'eil
    to a short spine (Plates XIV, 3 ; and XV, 2, 8), which disappears l.tir
    on, ;as llt' wormi .dil l e"1'l.-. the transverse diameter iNf 1,:, imi.
    (Plate XVII, :, 4.)
    Thi, thickness ,of the exterior '%.11l varies fo= ,t "40 iit at the
    inch at tie \'el, ',.and'h at, ,. l e
    lower part of tlte body to ... i... at to e v cii v. and is x. rn .1ii -l\
    h',nghi and resistant. Incolorit ,il'pni yellowisii hyl trausmniltedlii ihl.
    bIlt a lmilli.int wlit, 1i\ ,ilh,, i.l li t.ht. \'hl n fWllly i1,1.1, ,l, i. \it ,
    p.iartl transparent, -1ii> g i,.i tlhe coils of the uterus witt its %.I, Thle
    exterior is ir.3, Atii.ir or ,., i iiL'.ilr,,. ,,l,.'i illy near tlhe l'd; (P1 io s
    XIV, .i. and X I ainl with an apparently radiate .,11 r.,i,.ril, l 1 ofells
    I' iIIn e nter near thwe tail, or ] 'i Ti] ll331 lnir,' 2 i l3' 't' i ii. nll {em of
    thit appuuadli .,. (Pil Ii' XXI.)









    The head varies from a form like Plates XVII, 3,4,7, 9, and XVI, 9,
    12,13, 14, to that shown by Plt.ies XVI, 10, 11, 15; XVII,- 2,5,8, and
    XV 11I, the neck from a mere contraction of tlie body, Plates XVII 6,
    and XVI, 15, to a long tube, as in Plates XVI, 14, and XVII, 9.
    The body varies from almost a globe (Plate XVI, 9,13) to an oval
    (Plate XVI, 141; XVII, 9), or nearly a cylinder. (Plate XVI, 15.)
    The wormnis found in woody tissue are usually of the forms of Plates
    XVI, 10, 11, and XVII, 5, 8; in soft tissues like Plates XVI, 14, amnd
    XVI I, 7, 9,1 but I am unal)le to understand the reason of this variation.
    In roots, as a rule, the bodies radiate from the central axis of the
    rootwith the 1 heads" to the axis.
    When once enlargement of the body begins, the worm becomes a fix-
    ture, and remains incapable of progression in any direction; the en-
    largement is gradual and the cells of the root tissues become smnalhlr
    by the pressure, ftn'ninigr a rigid wall on every side of the worm.
    How loii.l the worm exists is an unsolved problem which I hope to
    solve inll time.
    Apart from vegetable tissues, I have noted signs of lifet in tlie An-
    guillula ;il'tari being kept air-dry six months, but have no record of any
    reliable experiments with the worms in the roots ; but the vitality is
    very great.
    When motion is first perceived in the cyst, the worm is an average
    of ', inch in length al nd T- extreme thickness; soon after it be-
    comnes free it enlarges and lengthens till it casts its skin, which it does
    as shown in Plate XI, 5, leaving the old skin shrunken as at 6, same
    plate; a fragmentary cast is seen on Plate XII, 1, but I hliave not de-
    termined the number of times in its life, it sheds the skin, as it is rare
    to find a perfect cast for measurement.
    Among thlie thousands of Ai\guiliilin1 I have examined,thereareagreat
    manty variations ani(ld arraniige iiiuitso.'cells that are not easily explainable.
    Plates XV, XIII, and XII, 5, 8, 7, 6, exemplify some ol' the most mai ked.
    Plate XIII, 2, 3, is very sing-il r; a cyst-like form, with segments.
    Also at 3, a peculiar arrangement of cells, Ia i ge and small; in fact, I
    have never found two wormnis exactly similar in the grouping of cells;
    the resemblance is general, but with wide variation of details. Tlhe ex-
    amples given in the plates justify this conclusion, sketched as they were
    from living specimens.
    The arrangement of the cysts in the uterus is generally as shown by
    Plates XVIII, XIX, and XX, though that ufteii becomes clianged, as
    indicated in Plate XXI. (Note 1.;.)
    In mature and appl)l)arently ;i.Lid wiiriii, I have found as many as a
    dozen free worms within tihe utcru., having attained motion and liber-
    ation Il'-1e.
    In plates showing., the Il-1:11Ii-,. in vegetable t i .-iies. '"A" rele'rs to I lie
    enlargements and nests of A.L .'laliill.;e, B to spots of decay.














    NOTi 1. l >il ii.. lt i. lto l o(" htli iirAtlol oil llhr tlhir' I h1ilif lpit ..... ]I (I. iHi-<
    tillis or W l l~l~l ,,i,;l, t~l +l *u n iit. ]I/1 it ln.y Ixh m^~l I :o .I *i. ', i 'im .ll~ *Iil Aiinuill
    lull, if in >*, 1 m Iia r lhin* A. lri'tvi'i~lih ontit, h tlni( ilM thr ,pim' tli.^|i ,,if' iun1 11nli w tllll n l itl ,
    I liuwtii i .i1.1 ii' A. Ir 'i' r i.
    \I ,,I a .-- I I uitlrtiitt iuillio rol II.t Il ft t' it
    Sill3 L'ttt" 'rccx ~I tunoi u~wi -m'ttr 4 t h ru Own wi ho I WIu d.1 rx Iit
    |'l-)III tll "I' 1ii'1 li 1 1itli'titH ill r '-I
    Nlill :1 -l~ i'ttl') t*very inixri~tlitit tii1wnI K;Vi
    tin' dlatii.
    NoitT 4.-- <*w . IBwLkliolti. Oili't,'lolk, Milltl. fiil Stlu'lh' ;n 1 <*li'ilil <.
    M iiT r.- I ki'pt, I~ii1i (lt'vrlih *l4 ( ll tllr llt filit<'>lt'i ilit \a x il<'tlt gi it t Ill il \ l'< i ll hllllil,
    ltid w ii'i u t '. ih, *,l irui,, ,1 atul tlix ;..I,.1 ",s xx 1ti t ilhii llihu thu \ \ t' itd I ltti t nd ir
    r.N~tu111 1 :t u,

    r N' Iiinitl IIInitit l .
    NOTa K 7. --' hI i I'Iii' rw<*i rlhl t if;> at trait' I I fI ItitiIi Il tIily il 2 l '. '
    N, iii-. 1i11i il Io r li ii|tiil li nv+iirtliioii ; thi 1t tlt< tri~i|M-rliir ol1 71 tlh<- I,1

    N( IilI I, ii .. Iis.
    N'OTR 7.--"1 h, iltillntity m prw''liil Io l< .iatn te ;u-lllii< 1r

    NiTr .-l, I lit i o it iof lnime ii<41 x:1 0 <21, pil ;tct't.
    NUT T.: 9.- \V'.it, i i il po h lihe pi ts lir tliltfd tltrou li.h Ihti soil diii U1l at I lli
    lit<., il thlit hott ll ofit Illt pout. Thii wai Q ilh rhox d io ittW l witlh :ui.' iUliI r T M < li ;ii>l.r vB', it i, ol-jttiv' o i llP. l inili
    NtTIt1 II --u-i. ilhu's liil t! tI I t i I I I) v. ,I I ,i, Ittilih to ti..'\ .\ ..-. I i a' .its
    III. lr i i I I ii f.I I ct:lt l t i ci1111.I I. nI ttIr:t l 'i .)
    ,. ri ll.--A eOIIn lilttic 10 9" I aI'f.; whx l I 1 it Wxi S Ihe
    rnhl mlideo l ti te old I hitch, ir f-r hIack a 1-4.. Tin, rua.'i-o th'y gaiv wa:' I"lt
    I i 1 li 0ov\1'i cl y u;iIt I1. % I I ;UII ."
    N ITI' 1-2.- I couhll ,h1\ i,],r. ioi. thii' rr a' ii d"li ilc ir loltiuusit lhy ti.' i"w of iulsi
    1il0.1 1, as Il i' ( 'i'"k p. I i i.ii ili I ni p tli 'lanth s ,nI eI utiIiitIoI tLihi kioia, liiikia) ;I cIir Ifuil '1,. 1 1!li, Ilrin Il i to
    sc -, cacti litli. All iil i, \'l. :. 'I tt\l tiv a -iii illuiiiI :1iihsl.
    ',i l.- Il ,l. i] i Nw su riir x' ilh x sIt lua tiioit of iiuh .s ttl 1.I i' -s oti
    lh,. l esli l and -, ill'. pIt'siig t1u' holly itt iiii.1 wxithu ;a x'ulY !i i lh'', ts lh n tmu s-\uilrIl
    aaaIsxhwn uiu t'latt' XIX.


    N(~l I "



































    L

















    X I'LA NATIONS TO I'LATI'S.


    IPLA I. I.

    Ro fiO.* .l (.' i N I' i l. cir,* 11. 1 l..ri, ir iilt vaiLmd Iv A.[iuil'iH : A, V il'r 1 11' a lt
    ilTl,] rLB t ; It P.t I l t f II .i I ii,. r.ll )



    PLAIV 11. i
    R,,,,tr ,,' )k* i,. showingg eih t rg Min ts cans11 (, l.1 \lAiltnlylg I,+: A, "1 i n' 1111 f- "w +Nu|l
    nm.hr-. Il *'(Mit++ "-" ,l,' .,> (n i._. i,,.,11.)
    PLAI I. III.


    Roiiit. >f Il,tilih, .di lir. ic '. IIl.ir, l. ii 11^ cHU( t'l l)y Anguiillula: A, **,r 11 2 ii rrt,'l atnd
    li.-t-: Ilt, mpl.4 of ii ;\i i i ri._i,.,l )

    PLATE IV.

    R-,,ir. ,,I t;r:, ', I'. k, Ik l m.,tlr_-], -.,1'1 ill mr..'...,, iitx eanB>( by \,._, :iln%,- I: A ,
    enlllirg.iin nlt.4 and Inets; B, -p,,- of I, ,,. I irig, I )

    PLAI 1. V.

    Ki,' it" "I ,.; h. fh,,wiiiL" enlargemvn<'i catims l liy \, .ii t,,' i (Original.)

    PL.A I1. VI.

    RIot't. of \Vf,'iiii Will"ow, Ahox ilu e nlmrgenWtts caiwsd 1iy A .1,ill,'. a-. ii l iir.il
    1ize. (Orig'icil.)

    PI \ 1 1 VII.

    RMom of 11g, ,iiA\ inig enlargements eau-id '!I Ar,,.uillIula-natunral size. ,'ri-
    inal.)
    PI.ATI: VIII.

    I, -,rction 1r root of Okra, w.1n i_' eulargimenta caused by Anguillnla; '2. Peach,
    A:lillt .; (-r.'. 4.ii l, -.il.i.ri .1 ',ir times: 4, W i r ] 'A ii, sae- natural Biz :
    A. 'tihlirg.'liiiitt anld nitt', : B. '-iit-4 offdecay. I OriL.:ir i )I

    PL ATI I X.

    Rcprodiic r eysts which form in th, ntecrua of the female A.\i illil.i: 1, lirt
    stage, iduln msof graiinl.ir i, 11Q4 2, 1,'-_n" rifntirl or division into two parts; 4,
    '2i. -,. ,7a, 6, sc,'irriiit.itioin into rfiir parts; 7, ,ni.l-''liir il '-- r',- ii'|, .irr,. .whieh
    cam. lc egtuenlratiiin into eplit parts; .9, 1'. 11, 12.I, 14,15, I,. 17, 1, walls of eg-
    zueouta aliarl'iring each .itlde of the central lhuriini'nliitd li-inrn' which extends to the
    margin ol thoecyst in ,i,, dlire't irn. until upon sparation at that eud motion lih,.ins-
    greatly enlarged. (nrig.inal )










    PLATE X.

    Reproductive cysts (continued): 1, la, ilirbt stage 2, 3,4.126, bisegmentation or di-
    vision into two parts; 5, 6,7,8,9, scgiiintatinii into lbur parts; 10, 11, 12,13,14,15,
    16,17, 18, segiiieiitalioii into eight parts-greatly enlarged. (Original.)

    PLATE XI.

    Developed or free Anguillula, within the reprodliitivw cy.sts: 1, free Anguillila
    within cyst not yet broken; 2,3,7, cyst broken; 4, 4a. empty shell of cyst from which
    Anguillulaw have eTierkd ; 5, young worm casting skin; ;, empty skin cast by young
    worm-greatly -nlarg.d. (Original.)

    PLATE XII

    Growth of Anjguilluh,: 1,cast skin of young worni; '2, 3, 4.5,6,7,8, worms showing
    bluntness at one ri.id, with li.iiiir having a circular, hinge like termination at A, and
    granular masses of cells within -greatly enlarged. (Original,.

    PLATE XIII.

    Growth of AuguillulsB (continued): 1,2,3, wormns showing masses of fine cells irregu-
    larly arranged withliin, and tiinire at blunt end witlhi ircular, hinge-like termination
    at A-greatly eillatrged. (Original.)

    PLATE XIV.

    Growth of Anguillulm and changes within the fi,,iale: 1, 2. teniale worms showing
    _'ramnilar masses within; 3,4,5,6, ebliug,.v in shape in the iemale, preceded by for-
    mation in upper and lower thirds of body of dark masses of cellh, A, B, C, which
    eventually nuile-gre:itly enlarged. (Origiial )

    PLATE XV.

    (Changes within female Angiiillul:i- (continued): 1. 2. 3, enlargements in shape of
    the female, with formation of masses of cells at A-gr-atly enlarged. (Original.)

    PLATE XVI.

    C'hang,-s in form of female Anguillulh: 1-15,outliiwe.s showing changes in form,
    from hlavinug the reproductive cyst until the female i, liersell filled with cysts, also
    ih.'.in g changes in the form of the head and dikal-pearance of tihe tail-greatly en-
    larged. (Original.)

    PLATE XVII.

    Chliiig. in f"rim of female Aiigiiilliil v (continued ,i: 1-9, outli hues of changes in form
    of body and head, with the disappearance of the I:al-greaily eLlarged. (Original.)

    PLATE XVIII.

    Gravid female Aiiu,1llila. showing contracted htjd and neck as in some females,
    and the arrangement of cysts in the uterus-greatly enlarged. (Original.)

    PLATE XIX.

    Arrangement of cysts in uterus of female Auguilliula aud expulsion of young worms
    through fissure in the hbiad-greatly enlarged. (Original.)








    ;31

    P1.\ i I. \X\

    Arr'. ,iinritnL ,,f eysta in nIirisi of ful -h A .\] iili l I A It tiIMIed)V A V,y t t ar-
    ranIg'd in haiaul' raching r to the w1alla ,I tac utern ; I4 1, tI.o. %% i i,, ofI r.11
    int, ii r-.giii r iima S within thti uteruII C-D, .i, r'g,-.L. i, 1f c4'll, r ii i..1 i t wo
    mu m in t il ii triis; I)- -'. cy tI that k hav attained the normal siz i arid Ac with il t|ilt cptii vp he'rm 1-- r-,', rl .irg,. (Vri ;ilila r)

    PLATE \ X I

    A c'l iit- lt- arraiii,'u-.InIii I vrt within the uterus of tho femalIO AI. ,'i, 11 i which
    oftln I' ururi- r.'atlv u ,lirrgil. %I)[i iiii.iI )

































    L









    PLATE L.















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    .4


    4~



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    Bulloy,, ?i J. ,U J..I E, (, C'. ; .,.,


































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    PLATE II.


    -4


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    71


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    OKRA


    I

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    PLATE III,


    rn-II


    B


    RACIS3H







    t i i.. I1* ** L **. r ^g i fl i~
    PLATE IV.








    >., -l,


    GRAPE.
    Vts V,r,.fefa Biack Hamburg.




    r .......... .I







    PLATE V.


    Pt


    Ns


    -I


    P E ACH


    Buillr ."1. 0 . of E,' .i L,. ,.I A;- 'II



















    I





    lulletin 20. D.,.r.. of E, .m D..| *.,.... ,


    PLATE VI


    : ~'-


    1


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    WEEPING WILLOW
    Natural size


    \

















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    PLATt VII


    b. *. 20 0 ( :.













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    * -- -


    PEACH Section X 4


    uRAPE Section X 4


    ENDINGG ',A'LOW
    Natural sie


    8-1--, .- L-L' , L I. ., ... Ag tu -u, .


    PLATE VIll


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    > I Al IX


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    I*.41 ;


    CYSTS OF ANGUILLULA.


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    PLArE K.


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    16 17 .

    CYSTS OF ANGUILLULA.


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    DEVELOPMENT 0F ANGUILLULA.







    Ru11v1 L ..' I L .


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    DEVELOPMENT OF ANGUILLULA


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    PLATE XII






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    LL:.!*-' .2 V iiin& Olip A Xg~ 'ti.
    PILA I I XIII

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    3



    DEVELOPMENT OF ANGUILLULA.








    LE ,. ATE XIV. .
    PLATE XIV,


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    GROWTH AND CHANGES IN THE FEMALE ANGUILLULA


    'V


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    CHANGES IN THE FEMALE ANGUILLULA.














































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    H ,,. .-', L' i. t i .,' ., L ,' A f l ,

    PLATE '





















    4


    CHANGES IN FORM OF THE FEMALE ArNGUILLULA.








































    'I




    ktj .i 20 [' f A I I

    FpL A r i 11


    THE FEMALE ANiGUILLULA.


    CHANGES IN FORM OF







    i
    if







    B. n ,.. o* f E A- I I Ag t


    PLATE XVHII


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    4. 4-


    GRAVID FEMALE ANGUILLULA, SHOWING CYSTS IN UTERO.


    1
    *f 1


































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    Bu '-i n 0 O E. ... U A70 )uJi

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    FEMALE ANGUILLULA, SHOWING EXPULSION OF YOUNG.


    ''
    4/,




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    5:,




    : iu'lhtma mu. S~d St '. *. g.g 0 Ilsa.
    PLAVt XX







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    ARRANGEMENT OF CYSTS IN FEMALE ANGUILLULA IN UTERO.







    r SI u I.n l U .... ."no L .. .A. .. .


    PLArTE XXI.


    t.,






    ....
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    -x


    ARRANGEMENT OF CYSTS 'N FEMALE ANGUILLULA IN UTERO.


    '. -- -r-^ *




    UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

    3 1262 09216 6130





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