The mango weevil (Cryptorhynchus mangiferæ Fab.)


Material Information

The mango weevil (Cryptorhynchus mangiferæ Fab.)
Physical Description:
Marlatt, C. L
Govt. Print. Off. ( Washington )
Publication Date:

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aleph - 29685162
oclc - 27943380
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Full Text
I F 141. Ju.- l. ;

United States ID)eIpartment of Agric ltu ire,
L. 0. HOW ARDI), *" '
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T li, most serious insect post of tile inanlo ill oriental (coluntries' is tlie
ili:iini',, weevil ( ( 'rili ,t'/i ,n I m H//I/U' i Fab.) (ti._. 1). "'his wx vi!


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Il< I T h i* nu to \i| 'r iti:rfn/nc'n v : :n I : (I. \ ] \V 1 ll I( I I, I ,I, ;'4in 1. fl '
IMIW. M dich (,iil11r,,l. (Owrirn lo)

is 'rela ct I to tlie boll weevil aiId t lie chlestnuIit weevil, :nt1l i lii-. aide fl'rimii
its wvell-n ki w n 1t'est ructive work oil the tlal oes, is ilthici(nt inldiicati()lon
of its lindesirability. It is )probabl):iy of Indiali or at least of oriental
,ii.lina, nid lias already obtained foothold in liost (iof tie important
liil O-rI'owi I" couniriiet,i. beini carried readily with, seed for plalt-
ii.,'. It now inilha:ibits all of the 111i111. o re("ionls h)orl,.riil-. onl thile Indian
(O)cean and adjacent islands, and occurs throughout the lEas.t Indies,
9671,K C ir. 1-l 11


in'lu'liiij the Philippines and other groups of South Pacific islands.
It has gained foothold similarly in South Africa and lkdng.c-cir and
numerous other points. Fortunately this country is so far free from
this pest, and if it can be kept out the mango industry which it is
hoped to develop in Florida and perhaps in the other warmer parts of
this country can be given a very great advantage over other mango-
producinm regions of the world. The insect in its different tt:ir'e is
illustrated, much enlarged, in figures 1 and 2, from phi ,,t graphs by
Mr. J. G. Sanders, formerly of this bureau.
As already indicated, this mango pest belongs to the weevil family.
The e_.._' is deposited in the fleshlv part of the fruit, and the NI,, ig

a b
1 .[(; 2'.-''h, mani o w avil: a, Larva:; ), pupa. Much vnlargid. (O)riginal.)
grub (fig. '2, (l) I)mrrows at once into tlie seed pod and develops in the
seed to a pupai (fig. 2, 1) and finally to the adult, weevil, or beetle
(i _. 1). Th1e green mango soon heals up over the e2_' slit, and there
is very little, if any, exterior indication of infestation. The weevil
or ),eetle is about one-fourth of an inch l It remains in the seed for some tiin,. and may thus be easily dis-
tribhuted with seed for planting or witli tlie ripened fruit.
Protected as it is within the seed pod and, in fact, within the seed
itself within the pod, it is not possible to destroy it by fumigation with
any \ certaintyv. The only means of deteriiniiii._ infestation is in open-
ing tlie seed pod and remoi\ in., the paper-like (o\ criiin. of thle seed
[Cir. 111.]

itself, when normally the 111.14i1,' !IH d(iUel to the Noil t ewrk Ii te l :'i III an W 06 w Ceil Ian it, noitl. Tl refoire a:l]
seeds introduce ed for plant inI.I in this cottntry ill I'e 'in'-where many'e-
are I_, 1> 1 lould !e opened in this a:110uner 1nd iall that inidicaIte int-'t;i-
tion slhioull he burnedl. A\ :1 m1ii ttet'rof further l ect 'it all th' a Ippar
ently sotil Seds hoiild he ei'llliittedl in a ox IlneF a vi* :t'wire screell.
so that anv weevils which Inla v oeCIic ill sqetl which show no vi-lidle,
-i'_'i of if infestation Ill\+ lie rettained and destro\edl. fle dane+la r i-
pirmticularlv alreut whlefl+e. tl is. 1o the Icas, litll'l o stdeeds are h'ilele
imported for plantin- i I. L _i,,)t l in Flroritida where trl'litinV ,, ii i i
trees occ IIr. W here there are no Ill ill._O trec-, or ttrces of frltitint-'+
:th',. the ( i,,,,e] I is )erihl). .I._ l'.' a ii. ai t, no other f iood plant is kinow
for the ll Ii,.-_o weevil. Still. if h r e t nuitili ers tot tohe w weevils s.hiild
be introduced and liberated, they are Ir liv. ed n. iii ieht easilyv he
carried on raiflwaf y trains to .i.-'ioins wherein tihe, v iol. t lind hlodorieul t.
It is. therefore. desirable ien a casel tuo observe aill tl precautions
It lias already been stated that this infalno weevil is the( principal
enemy of ted iih1.t ro practically wherever this fruit is trowvni. In
the Hawaiian Ilands M1r. 1I). L. Van t ine., formtro l 1 entoit lohlwis t lof'
the lhawaii Agricultural Experiment Station, reports that drin tlhe
first year of his exMIIIin'itio a he found o 0 perl cent of thie ,.,iii .. in-
fested and tit ftollowiii.'' year from sO. to 0 per cent, in some intau:ices

as lithil ''. lily fo uur h''.od alit1v vn: ~ i'atoiy h it ia
tas 11ny as four larva. bein d fouit in I s-i..Ile seed. While tile matin'.(
weevil destroys, primarily. the seed of this fruit, it is also believed hY
(rwe,,.r. to hasten the matii'itv of infested fruit and thus increase tile
p l, ,'nttat-"e oft fallen .. s.
Inasmuch as this insect passes its entire development within the(
seed. it is heronrid the reach of insecticides and f,,,ii._''ation. allo the
only remeldv which the bureaul is able to advise to prevent it fronm
1,,',,,coinuI a pest ill the United States is to collect and destroy all of
the fallen or stulpposedly infested 1m, :i-oes.
It is most uil Ivlly important now. however, for Florid: to keep
this weevil out. M.,,'Z ses are now Iprobal1 ,..iv imported into
Florida by various; irowersl, and tlhe r.l- rof slch imlportation should
be thoit "c._ilY understood, and whatever atuth>ority tvhe State maiy have
to prevent or control such im[portations should be p)t.t ill operation.
Approved: WIV1LSON,
S CO fit/ '// ,f l +.]';'ct1 111'l .
WVASHIINGTON, 1). C.. Jl[a/.-< 1n11.
{+C r+ 1.11




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