The Indian-meal moth and "weevil-cut" peanuts


Material Information

The Indian-meal moth and "weevil-cut" peanuts
Physical Description:
Popenoe, C. H ( Charles Holcomb ), 1884-1933
Govt. Print. Off. ( Washington )
Publication Date:

Record Information

Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 29685047
oclc - 27979913
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Full Text

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ul. -. r

REAU OF F ''L.Y CIRCULi.\; i o. II'.
L 0. HOWAEPRD, I u A id Chi of Burau.






.A 1'- ; T


L, 0. HOWARD. Entomologist anl (hi/'f of Bureau.
(C. L. MARLATT, En omologit i and 1Ac ing Clh ief int Ab' nc of Chief.
R. S. ('LIn TON, EJIceltirc ISMt1fI.
\Y. F. TASTET. Chief CriCk.

F. If. CHITTENDEN, ill Ch(largfe of IrI'ck croip ald xlorcd product inseCt inre.sti-
A. D. h1'OPKINS., in( harc m ( of forcHt inwt inr Ni'tiffitions.
W. I). HIUNTEIR. ill (cb liqc of sOUthlcren field crop ii.cct in rcstigations.
F. M. \Vi.:'.ii: iin charfq!r of crc ral and forayc insect infreirlations.
A. L. QUA1NTANCEi:, inll ctarft/c of dccidlolmHS frati inwNcct in trc.tiqations.
E. F. PHI LLI's. in (chair!<. Of bVe culturc.
D). M. ROGERS, in char'tic of pree'rcting sprclad of months, ficlid work.
ROI.LA I. C('U lRIE. ill (ChfuI/'i of (dlitoriIl work.
MAB L COL(' CORI)D. ill (hl /i'/ of li,-I ,I

F. I. ('IIITTENDEN, illn charge.

M. M. ItiisH, FmEI) A. JOHiNSTON, I t.IIto0oloytical axistantis.
I. J. CONDITr. collaborator in California.
P. 1T. COI.E, collabora(itor in tidclttal('r Virginia.
W. N. OID, collaborator in Oregon.
MARION T. VAN HORN, preparator.

CIRCULAR NO,. 142. I 1rl -ipt1 b 4 1 1* rl '

United( States Department of Agriculture,
L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief ot Bureau.

IBY C. 1I, P'oPiEN4W,
J:4t11 t4f4101 fi'441 I ssis fldI. Truck1, fm/ Pini 1hu I ,. i' l t /144c4 1 14 ff 4;if 4 .,

I til ai few years ;i_'. th peanllut liztl been 'onIiLIei'ed ais drlino,
illilullie fromli insect iljulliV, the pilit bvI;.- affetl'cted lv few linsect.-.
and the "" nuts lbeii,..' protected i) ,vheir thick shells iu'aiui-t ios.t
of tihe siial ili-,ec't etieliies 4, .-ot, 1'4 [ l produl't-. There :ar. ii iLs
true. tiite or tw() plwc'i- o)f tiwtdle, wh\tich IY lea )li' tllir lln)llriv
jaiws 'I aiit.'l to cut readily th ')1 1i the \\4 44li 6 w dlt., 141it ti(l' injil'r
I I'ilii i ;lV ()f lite c hodliitl tnwell ill'iiliteil iilw d .
Since tLhe 'Itive ti of the il d ii'lii ':id tllit;i.hlwr or -" I llil |)cl<' "
collditions lia; (h!a v ie : to ;i a -rco t de r" The iilachille rv i- hI\
nO nllaill> ]perfect wi> \fl, avand tilt' t'ltciKy of lhe )ilcr'l'itor" t il') cd
the ]pea niii s toot quicklv thron(, ill i c the I cli iiine rci '!il, iII I l1i'-'c Pc(r-
41r'l0 .l'"11 (d" l)lokci -lul!l-, andI atlord' S cat.ty t'ltr:l'1t to 1 cvcnl\ l of tlhe
coliillto ,-l red-P 'odll't pou ... It i{- '-t1iliat cil llialt loetw,,eli oind
;i;1 per centl (4 of tlic lilitl. are Injiuri< il l i l t- li inn '. (*uil-('([lifiit V
('011 t I1u1 1( )1 111 A'I I I I I I v t"tI 4 V"I4I I II I 11l1' Ir 11 1 1I4 IX t'i L IJ I iII
tleco'1 ,iL,'_" "" cco)i tnl.. nltnl 'i ii alt vtl vi\+, ^l~' fi I x:~ ](coIInillm" ill'<"-.tcd, i11
i1 s]hioi'i I ille a t1'* i",e ll r II loeI d.I
+\ ollnl 'rl +(ollrcs1 (dl iiiilii'v* i(, tlli >li('!l., f tlic i^ 'atiut-, ;i f l'ord ilii
111i rc_" l iiti'-'ci>. i> llie prir,' (t ice oll tpiliii7' llie -.lm'k ,' iitl.t liiijti ill
.I A t t lli' 'ltilt. 1 1''4 .l4 il4 1 1. l !i | 1 tr I 14 t-l l > of A1'1i4 Il 4 III I I I f. t i n lilII

I >. 4444 4 144wirl w > 1; 1 4 14iirl n nii. |141 tlt' t4 |4 ;i (44.4 ,4t Xl'lr..4 4444irll l'rn, No fo
S' li "lfl'd l. i llll t Ir l M lrlH ll, \ : ltllfl fl'l in \,! | 1 ( S llh IIt It f t' ,{/:> i'ill If ]lr 11h -l 1<>1 4t 4 14,4 44c l 4" | ';I [IIK< :I - i4. 44 t .\ 4 1 i l. 1 1i( ,' 4 nuil Mil !i.44i' -
iix'n1 tl I as > hi'lrl ti) iintilrrlik t l. l I i' nj',ri / 0 vtlil<' tt1 lli.4 4 I1 11I t i le4 1 I l4I' ;> l('I I.I 1 ;t I I .l I 444' ii I g IhII,

I T d lt' CI*Ill 1 ," !tl-'*" ill ir 1 Is i l t "- lha l 1 I ^ t i'i 1 t 1 l< t 1 *, t |ii
I4 i dl4'l[ w44 i- I n4 4 |is r I. iir. 1s I 4' f.444 r il, 1 t .4li44tc, O IKt
|ir4, liiinrll! il4t4l.4' 44 t ilt, 414 1 ;l4: nl4)ll l t.. iltll. t 4 l.i n 4 > I1 4, .l l i. 44 4i t 1t 'iil<
wal'r" V\ ir inII %wliti't ;t |?i"' q li lliniir illl ls lita l 11 \\n' iixt> t ,~ M /L, 1^4 lM*'ih \\.i^ l-- t .l } 1h
M r. 1 '. A. f ltll l llli| !> ,M r l4 4 1 444 li4 4. Il' t4444l r44 IS lI 4l4'l4inr [lit|ir ltry tml d, ,
Ila nliy illk' ri mil'{'lll r is tarill i.' ii il In ri'il lt -t 1 n l' fll r [iri+nii t ,:riiw i 1. 1(. 4'in I :\


the slor,.,, warehouses. This makes it necessary for ti'( workminen
to (limbl) upon thle stacks of sacked peanuts, thus bre., iLu many
more. alui increasing the percentage of infestation.
The insect chiefly concerned in the injury to stored peanuts is the
larva of a small d(hsky motlh, commonly called the Indiain-meal moth
(P{lwf; ;i. / ,/,m(-f114 IJlbn.). a conummon and well-knownii pest, habit-
uially r iir,, ig all places where food,4util's anid cereal- may be
stored, and feeding, as its name would indicate, upon meal., flour,
a grain. It also attacks dried fruits, nuts, chocolate, and seeds.
Like other related species, it prefers darkness or -( i.lki kia ..
:,thi, ,.2-1i at times seen abundantly iM well-lighted storerooms.,
I. adult or moth. slihownv in lthe accomlpaning illustration
(1ig. 1, a). is about one-hialf to three-foirths of an inch in expanse
of win!g-. The outer two-
^.l ~ thirds of the frei.,Ihg is of a
__^ ^ ., ~reddish brown color with a
..' :. coppery lster, whiile the in-
.3 ': .*... d- ner third is whitish giay, giv-
ilg the insect, while re sting,
the appearance of bei iig
.rr., t',. ( cloaked. The hind il\ ,'. are
V, dusky gray. The larva,
shown at c,(, and e. in the
FI;. I. -The Indian-iieal Inoth (Plodlia inter- I
punciella: a, -aMoth : b,, crysalis; c, eater- figure. is dirty whitish, vary-
pillar: d, head: c*. first abdominal sgiigent ing at times from ,It'.l li-t to
of elnerpillar, more enlarged (Prom Chit a decided ])ink cast. It is
about one-half of an inch in
l,.,_th when mature. The lpupa, shown at /, is about tlh-'(- i.,ldlis of
an inch in lengthli and light brown in color. It is inclosedl in a
cylintirical silken cocoon or web, which may be mixed with frass.
The eggs Iare small a(d white, and are deposited upon the food sub-
stance selected, either singly or in groups of three to a dozen.
IThle mnioths usually make their appearance in numbers. in Vir,,inia.
by al)oult the middle of June, and may be seen flying in the darker
portions of the storage houses or resting uipon the sacks of peanuts.
In addition to the Indian-meal moth, several other insvcs aire frequently found to
ijiri pealnuts in stor1g o. Th's'e, in the order of their importance, are as follows : The
riist- !A1 lomr beethe ('T'rihilim mi t raIe Fab.). the saw-toothed grain lbpetic (ilraittu
,s? 111010(.Ni,,i L, I h oe (ad lle (ITt'ntbroidt's imauOritaiiicas ,L.), the I iIothi (I''phestia
e(utclla Wxik.). and the M d(literrinan ea tour moth (Ephel ti lkuifhir'lhi ZIell.). The
u1.i o former spec((is 1ro clpaitle of cultiltn, through Ihe shells of peanuts, hlit rarely
oe0('' in S1li nllllOl Ir ;1s t14o ie injutirious to them. They are amenable to the remedies
metiu oned Iu I hllis pliblicaition.

In ilhI M l1'0 ho l s tl he l tirs! (_-' ;t l;iid in M a;Mr', "tod Ap|)ril hv
the rmoths justl issuing from ilif ual l-ytvi k\i Ilk. hinn. It, % r,'
(colI alltr' tivelv m-airl c ;atl itt l" al,/ ', iv IW/ I aicr. : 1-1 W "I'A
suvcessV e it| n o;tl, ions a e Iit'imW i l allo ld i" &i illp ty lpiii 11" \t
very Wbundant. ivachini lu -i 111, x11111111 in A> zlic l rf pan l (4 All-
*;n1 f Ii! ln'it rtooms' reproi-I i tm nion 11 Y1. III, molil ii d A m Lr il'lo i

Tile ~ ~ a A '* u in miol 1m .,0 ri't A o lr )(> j, K1q11. ;in, p l Ii" t;roIn m
ait o I -S !,jiW tA'nO M ll 01' I .t f>l! ih' n I. 1 : l V;i' a >(;>'t' ml;t\ n 1 -- IW >-i~ -
AS&it''e t to i t( bol 1 ; iy^. \I;('VHIL :' Is<' dny * acu >tlricrtg ,t, toli-
lionl>. i)nl i 1 lltiin t in",' tin' IIl:nr p ', ;V>! i' W i ti tonp kcr 'l to m A mlln'l
Mt' ini ;Is thle w",. ;it l s|p)ii n gii ;i ,l|l;ti i to .I- w v o A i th(lt'f;l, W li 1,'ii.
niit'td witih foodl 1 iricrib ,- awl l ,'Xm rcilr ill. I M W -ii tlm- VAd itijii' lo'
lmtlilleriil liver whliiii th ilnycraiV I. L W lt' A ,l li!!`" li vc ,i,' 'i i;ia .cd I or
so li, til ntl ,i entire i/ll la-s i !i li l i i;i; 44 \of Jlil'i,-" tiixcd 'villl
ipowthrl d f1'o Iiiil<>itri;tl nmit t i>, \\ m fu'li f'lly nillt!"m tOne la m,11 '
cra\w l;il about. '("( 1'.." i |ll<'(' tpace Or pu at; i(ion nd spiniiiing l;air, '<. (tl;il -
tiies (dl web ;io iy t hv they lin;!'y making, in (*r;>''lo, in1 ltw floo inq
bel t't'lw e (w,, o" in A mher dark lphumc. Q.y i lndrinlt >iill ,i m, .io o -l iII
which tlhe iirv'\';r ti ln nfiol' li to thle j)i|);] >l nin(_ In !til/clll imiion Itlo
lirva rtniiiini, lli ,.i,.honl tlil, \ iir 'hi m iter in A n cu, .min. in ;a -lait of
( Itt 'sctlice. ])ll);i i yin <';Irly ll t(h ol/o i,.. s irilig.
TIhe lm( ) l -I i.,. su lly nll s bI'r ii i' ) 10 l [ i;ivs l)(d'orc tihe i.-nw;wiv(>
of tlh lll rr it u t *, l ;i,..2 lilt, Ill' 'y l(., m in c g-l od col lditinli,^ Of
teim|)(tm > Kni. roli I to 5t w\ek,- ;>wd ;l' onling opqmm"6iniily h'o, Wroni
4 to 7 T brood 1 or 'll1'raitiouii 1 (if la'rv i11 orit vc r. K.-^ dwl, i j'i !'i
ih fils ilbl (d' of d('|)i( int i from l ', 0'>1 'A lot *rtiMI ( f" it a1 41 11 -ccli tli;t
ihe caail tiy'il for injuiir is ,olliiilo 'tic.l

NATl't AL. I. I F'M il: S.

This iiieet li;is ;i lllllllt)!'' of li;umn" ;d l iK ,n it( ouit o t eroni iinim'mil
,'ili"d t\o i v n.lll\ en lolptit (l s |); n;l l el -. 0 inim"/i. t' ,,r,,,n< 1. tin,.
Iailnd l l rt' thi imuilli|licpliont ii of ithis aiwl oA wicr Aimil r |I>-,"S

HEM1M :1)I.\I. MIA\ HE".
All'_"i :1t first ,-iA 'l!t tlii i '' i c '111> 1!>Clof pm' t-mit ;a i)" old l('in t> II,,
pack rI%, its on" roll is lv n ll!ni. i ', iAm Int ili"lK A) WiK A-m|)| 'd.
A t h';I tt W Ito circtiv' lintqhmlolk of ( contiirol aire ;ip|)li';d>Ir. ni il .
1 i"m l ;itid n .ti*li .
mh < I i ii < t o <-onf f.--'\'li t! ;l iiiitl T ', li O a t,. \ l ol > ipm' i 11
it, i)| icd it iol to e(l inre Im illdi,_.-. h"li:i lurii,,' t o1P ptse I ( o ytmir~ !>4 11
'1 t T li (l s' ri(>l il( li t1' s1lnyrs iiud nlll .< I ].<>, 1 i l f<,') r\ *,< ;llrr l.>"7 r.i) I r'n (I 'n i '."r
ofltilt 11 lnl. l n<|n li l Kf Hurh'!lltit'f.

INDIAN-MEAL MO!l \7'I '" \V VI II, H1 T'" 1A1 P \ N iA -


used very sucttessfuIIllY. both i tihe' control of the Indian-meal moth
and in that of the related .M1,.iterranean flour moth. Both Prof.
G. A. ID)eaii. of the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, and the
author have used this method in the control of thle flour moth, and it
was tused( quite successfully by the latter in a peanut mill in Vir1ini;.
It is, of course, only applicable to mills heated by steam. In the
proper application of thils method the mill should be thoroughly
piped and furnished with suitable radiators. Suflieient radiator sur-
face should be supplied to obtain a temperature of 120 to 125 F.
A few courses of 1l-inchli pipe placed along the side walls should
easily bring about the desired(l results. If a warm day in the summer
is selected and the steamn is employed at a pressure of 75 to 100
pounds, only a small amount of radiator surface is needed. To
pj)ermit tile most effective penetration of the heat, the bags of nuts
should be piled only a few feet 'i,,-,. as experience has shown that
sonie time is required for the peanuts within the piles to be raised to
a uniform high temperature. The buildiii-g should be closed tightly
and the temperature raised to 120 F.. rel-maiiiig at this point for at
least (6 hours. A longer time is advisable, as the penetration is
thereby increased. Bags of shelled stock are witli difficulty heated to
thle center without a l'ig exposure, and altli,,hl, the larva' work
nea r lie outside of the bags they mnay crawl to tlie center to escape
tlie great heat, which tends to make them much more active.
Tlie temperature should not be raised above 125 F. in thlie case of
peanuts, .s experiments have shown that a sliglht degree of blanchinim-.
or slipping of the "skin," takes place in shelled Spanish nuts exposed
to such a heat. Virginia peanuts, hei ni, much less oily. are not
affected, while no injury whatever takes place in thle case of unshelled
nuts. (Gerlm iai: tion is likewise unaffected, peanuts exposed 6 hours
to a temipl)eratulere of 110 I I-ii,,.,tliii better and more quickly than
those unheated. A temperature of 1160 is fatal to insect life in a
short time. larvaa, ume. and adults of the Indian-mnieal mioth dyiiig
in less than one-half hour, when exposed.
Filtqfa(, -In mills andl storehlouses where thlie heat method is
inap)plicatble, it imay be necessary to fumigate with hydilroeyanic-acid
g Oas. tiew.< (,ni, (.I' ohe ci'1 tmdi/ o)(c oiso ot' ,s v al rc of f 'tl; i.s (*lx ice
/, I,( Vl ;/.\ .rf a nd, where careless or ignore ant help is em-
ployed, somle danger miglit, accrue through improper or careless
handling. Before the gas is applied thle building. sh]Iould be 1i,_litly
losed: a fl(W\a'ds jals 'ontaining" t(l i requisite amount ,of diluted
-iilihtrih a;cid sliouiild be p)lacedl therein. an( tilte paper ,., contain-
ing lie ,'auid of iotassiiul dropped into these jars. thuis liberatiu2
tl l.iS in the room. This gas is used extelsivellv as a remedy for
ohurI-mill and households insects, and where inMtelligently handled

I)NIAN-Ml.EAI. M Tll AND "MAM I I. IS," I '1 :\N L'S.

.'_,'i^ e excellent Fullt Full diectlio)s f'o' it-, use arc, iv ii1 ('ir-
cM iAr 112 of this ileaul.'
('arbou hisulphid is also appiS a, a finnii iir'nith1, And
A ti O altl .:+ its greal inflamnmabili a i the IposibiAl.iI ii ii
explo)sii whenvii ignitcd are i a m au r. t miH W -d it tls e.

MEANS OF IilEA1 1:.\T1)N B), Tilt t A(.\ K1M*:[;.

Inl uoier to icrae- ifh, lialilitv )of paniit to inset li ii vli theiI
factory should I kipt an fi -. as,- po-. ilt fro ;i a cci nultioln o'f
lltilla t ilol' iu' th -ie ti'i'10 -a i(i. iliiT A ml. dl (or, of iijl '
peainuts co iitinl into tlhi uinl'; ol d I)vu l'd t b ih ,; X (l iht'i )r cnliX i 'i t.
IThle flctoricta-' ,l-iiijo ld he s() coitru td(I a- Ilo frlllis!) a- few' hidiing
places for the larmvs and "imi) as t,0-0lt. .A iiiiii ull orc1, ,01
(oincti e, struck l'i with ico'cl rete 1(l1r ilia t "nilh w it)h )ti Mi i tiiti io .
kept allnost itirel' v r frX i o(li e pi c'- iis:.
Th'( writer hli. kT)il lai' iiutlil r.s (' lo he larv;)e liil)erniiiilii.'-, l4t-
tiAvwn I(l talo laye' o (if ia (d ul )ie ilo (iaihi l vis anil )arently ti ilt.
ain with ease ordia >1 i-li,. rli.' ev i s to tIU I diinini h i. l 'ir nuIiinilie...
All a.'itelni and el iini os lii e enoii g h*'i li t( l old a iimnall quaniiIy of
dist n y 1 )i(ove i)rm,(ling e l)lavccs for tlhe larms.
Ca re in nw in, i to u id mi of oili', f t ill ii,. i ti ii f('ailr,' fron
larl it' will a!',1o I f (oi- valul iin )l irol lil t inh ianj r iv dlue to insn i -.
An ordlinoarv fi'ril' (orcn' i a at it, asily and 'axl\ fi'iii ailed alt 1a cot-
not to ex;v(ed ,1. witlh cilher hIt vI I ro nc v -lic-acid u,'a o .irl)- o ln iul|liid.
Even 1 tih rou ,' li i',ia'ii' o i' the car MIt'r'c relo'din-n' will be, of
villi ill dest1 ro in ll anyi insects 1,;, '' ill with tli ( le p eviou ship-

The stors'ic' roo"ins sl oiuld et, lilii a li aiiry. ail tc lia i n)eni t-
A iholl(d 1 t he piled so hi'h thllit it is necessary to cliiii about o til the
i-- in olriler to liaci th, ilop of the pil. Wietle (so)mte de-gri'de of
iinaunitY may be rea* hvi b the h I-' A"w of peanuts in ainvc l~ilk.
still tie iti crie ed to li nt of' l re(, fl,.-i ''X roi tihiL li n c t iii ano it lluin
bala)ilole the i' -1AtiM' of h(e ulak storage.
T''lH st'"i of, pea' an t, ill e'ievatoir J ill ioXlin" several thoXl tind
llsl iel" s etli does O o ti w et with this (o)je it io a, in si!eli e;.-e t(he
Ion s are tramilipledl but little. awl th(e injury by insects i> liniti'e al-
lost entirely t(o th op () layer, aely exiendinv itiore thalt a1 foot or
two) !elow thle surface.
iinl' -latlioin of In'iil"uts by tlie Idianiii-imeal nimoth fr luniitly take-
place in th(e storage' shtled or ,aris of th(i faii'lre r i')row,. wherlic
I e'F'lm larll 11'2, BIirtlt i' l t)f I iii v. I 'lnh'd( Slinit I),(*imrtllltiicu tIl' Aarin'ii Hnrc.
2 Cari> (lio Ii~i ltl n. lu ;l" .i-t < I n(t < di t *lrlivrr 1'or in' tlll


\6 DIAN -MEALt. MOTH AD WEEVIj '3 1262 09216 5686

,lih in, ;;re lield in reserve -and only sold as needed. Where the nuts
arc held ovr 'the summnner. the moths are allowed to breed freely, with
the rei;lt that many nuts that would otherwise escape infestation
arlic11 r'ui'ed. Storage in dark. dusty lofts or sheds also allows greater
iiKe!-e of the insects by providing a suitable brecdiiiL place. Nuts
which have been held for several years by ,_1ci- frequently show
.'._ n,,umier-s of infested kernels'. It is urged in this connection that
iinles, in exceptionally good condition with i'r,.:i 'd to broken shells.
no nuts should be hlield in the granary of the farmer later than the
1st 0of .uei. ;t which time the injury by the first generation or
" brood i just beginning. When held later, without proper fumi-
gatioii a)d attention, the multiplication of the pest is unchecked, with
the re-iilt that the grade of the nuts is materially reduced.
Wf primary importance is the proper selection and operation of
the peanut picker or thrasher. There are several types of this ma-
chine on the market, which with careful use may be depended upon
to break a minimum ainmount of the shells. The almost universal
cause( of -itl(. injury is the practice of crowdiiig the machines in
order to thiras-h li lai (I quanitity of nuts in a short space of time.
This practice is reprehensible, as it is responsible for the 1:,i ige amount
of broken peanlt shells found in machine-picked nuts. While more
i,,' .,ble to the thrasher, its expediency seems doubtful, as the griad.
of the nuts is thereby red iii-. and the opportunity for infestation
increased, thus rediii ,ig the price obtained for the product. The pea-
nut packer will readily pay a higher price for an article in which he
can )be assured of a maximum number of fancy nuts. It is therefore
: i_,.'- 1,e that proper attention be paid to the operation of the Iirker.
and that care be taken that the machine is not crowded. This will
result in micih less 1)reakage and so diminiish the infestation that
there will be little need of further precaution in the matter of .trige.