Insect damage to mine props and methods of preventing the injury

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Title:
Insect damage to mine props and methods of preventing the injury
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Book
Creator:
Snyder, Thomas Elliott, b. 1885
Publisher:
Government Printing Office, ( Washington, D.C )
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 29683293
oclc - 28158888
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AA00020925:00001

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W ~~C S .
44-< -*r./"l ^








CIRCULAR No 56

United States Department of Agriculture,

BUREAU OF EN 'OMOLoj'.Y
L. 0 HOWARD. Inr i d ..;[It n, C'r. I L. ej.J.


INSECT DA.MAGEi: TO" MIINE: PIllP.S A.ND I''IiTOD.L OF
!'1 It EVI E 'i !1 1I'IE IN, J I .I


I:, I'I I' .I ,


.11., 1 1 11 .r, 1 I, I. i a I ml t,. .' tHti 1.





cuii th. "'I) iI11 1ii Pi ~I* I IIt iI-,V JI;-. lov I d -bov~f 111ad!
oen :t I f I- I, riiwIiI txp ,I' I! re ei-( i Iniiiv T -h % h \ a Il -,Li
In re cent IIhlili-h I t- bl',, ll[ ir,, tI v lw

0 l i' It ll f ,r ti, prev.tio, I ll i..... i lv b. n ',, rI T-1 jTh n ii Ie .
neIiIIirl.. in MI .I i vl% I of the -1 :1h tber k nlrl n tion
tO til l, Il'i l ir'.Il,,.,,fisIeIIZ iliIn (,I to -. o f row uci. and
rel ,t, IIuIi II l i l th e present cir 1ular.

INJl-RY TO UNIi.1RI PED. IIlt' N i. AND SPlIT PROPS BEFORE i I m Il1 NT IN
Tile MINE.
-1 1 F NI I N F.





















Both o,,ft :anidl h:ir, l ,od timber. Vili,.h lJias 1ee01 felled for mine
prt,. an tiu unbarked IO I':l have ben cut and l'f li JI.- stacked
in tile o, 'l- or ill the N:Irdl at III, entrance to the mine. are liable to
infestatlio L'ith the u or larvat ,f w od ,,, insts. ThcAe
grni-. which hatch from'e,- -gl)( depIited byv vin ._.1 insects attracted
ily the od oh r of tile fir-0 h .,iit tillill~u r. IM,'i., "4 i,,rL inii ir ;ir. Is.


Dr pI Agr 1Wall. Insect InJurl,.- it Forest I'r.il t% I ir I.'. lllir .L
Agr 1Iil i
42155-Clr. 156*-12


L7._ .i. r




- U.


2 INSECT DAMAGE TO MINE PROPS.

after they h;ive been iran-i)jrted from thw woods and placed in the
mine. The ^ril. of iio.t injurious wo id-boring insects can not be-
come established in tin' ib1er unless thi bark is on. because the bark
serves as a prit,.ive o'verivng, under wlich the egs, can be deposited
and afford'ls proper mi.,ture ,ondition', for the development of the
YoulnIr grubs. maiy of wlhiili feed on the inner bark before entering
the wood. The principal injuries to mine props by wood-boring
insects are those caused ) roindlheaded and flatheaded borers, timber
worms, and ambl)ro-sia beetles.
Injury to tinmbers by roundheadedi and] flatheaded borers and tim-
ber worms con-ists, in hburrows in thle wood made by vruhs. which
hatch from eggs ;laiid under the hark by winged beetle-. These bur-
rows, often of large sicr.. not only ,Iecrease the length of service of
the timbers, buit also their struicturai .-trength. Running both trans-
versely and longitudrinnlly through the wood. these holes, even if the
insects have discontinuiedr their work. afford entrance to moisture and
wood-destroVing" fungi: til 'lecay i- thus enabled more rapidly and
completely to ponet r:i te the heart wood.
Injury by arnhr.i;,a beetles ciis.,,it of pinhole and bluing defects
in the wood. The pinhole defects also contribute to more rapid
decay.
There is, therefore. :a complicated irnterrelation between these wood-
borming insects and wooi l-destroving fungi in the deterioration of mine
timbers.
INJURY TO PROPS .AFTER PI..ACEF.MENT IN THE MINE.

In the Southern Stite, the priuiipa.iI injury to props and other
timbers in slo'ipe or inline ,iiine' i- ca;uis.l Iby sm.all. white, soft-
bodied insect, killiown a w i,,di I',." %white ant-. (ir terinite-. These
destructive in-ect., work in ni:-t or decaying wood. Timbers placed
on the heavily tiinil'Vrei l slope or incline, extending from 1250 to 300
feet from tihe extrior into tlie mine. are attacked 1h termites, as
are those used in headings near the surface of the ground. Indi-
viduals of the win,, vdi f,'tim ,nter the mine an, e:.ta;bli--h colonies at
the base of tlie prop-. The mrnoist condition of the prop at the ba:ise,
where the wood] i- in contact witli the -round and where there is
usually incipient decay. offers especiallyv favorable conditions for
injury by tlhi- class of insects.
The presence of these insects i-, not easily detected. Their work
is hidden bei n:th an outer shell of wood. often very thin, but always
left intact; therefore an ordinary in-pection of the exterior of the
props will not rvr'al the presence of thle in-ect- or their destructive
work. The entire interior nmay he completely honeycombed while
there is nothing on the exterior to indicate the injury. Sometimes
an earthy matter-partially digested wood mixed with earth-is em-
[Cir. 15G]









S ihI o, .\,.i ,vet such iartl f their wurk a- would (otherwise Ibe
X l.-r., I ll, .I 1l-i1. which i 11,%. caretf'.lly a\ 1ill.
It i. %cI ll l olwn ti hat when once tl I -c insect1 Iave .gili.. i anl
t'Illl'liltt' il [Il iiuter Ioil't or dh'ca ed la\ r I < f 'I, .... Ilit..\ cal c n-
liniie tlih ir l.-r-irlitive \work int4 the '-(,ni l hI cartw ... oI this at-
couint it im \%,'\ HIMportant Wo prevent them I,,v, .on! ,,,,.._. estaoli)hed.
PIHI, i:E I InN ,' +ie i\ n in T\ ti' +.+IKt ,, i1OI \''. AND SI',IT I 'UU
141+ KIiti I'I \FMIi NT I N T\ii MN.
lt 'V :in >l\v ;. la il iii 1ttll ,I o f l11:1 lliL._. thn ti l ll 1,,.f,,i,,
plhi 'ei,,'it. t', i.*ll-known i fct s in the lit, hiit'or of thel insects a
l-ir.,.r li r,'rl 'T 1 ,tf in jiirk c:Iln Ill lircv itct l. If a -,lli,,,.il, il\
of p imp- I'e i u11 I". 'iii!,'li a Ihead "of tie li III' wllnl 1ee1led, ail scored
v'ilir i, tiihe \.ird at the ililc Io r iI i A ciietiil r-t iL' I. :i i'rd ios0.
ilrc1--lili' 1i> tlie l.ir-'e t in lt ii 'r If IIiii<-. they 1caII IA p1 i'(i-erly
Iiiillih l Ii |>n,\ent iii -s tA injury and ;a r\l 'rvt k iip IIl) es-tablis-t ied.
ThIn. I,. -Imii1l b e l)arkel, in Iie w I Iot w ithin a w t days after
fri-'N ill- li 'f'>v-. A fte or cnfli in to 'I i ,- thiev Ihiti hl l e trans-
;irt, .l mll i place of storz'._, and piled in loose stacks in such a
i,,ulinTr aI- t' facilitate rapid .Ir' ii'. 1' 'if l ,_'.iiif exIessive
i'M1'ki iL'. Alftrr a resere -ll ily iaes been established it will no
gml vl I' Ti.',--.ry, to cit mine tli bler l]iI i ill tie waIrne1 r I onthsI u
.A hllvi il e iII-c i- which deposit ,.,- in thIe Iark or wooId are ll i ,..
I lit i-iip ,. w hicli these insei ts are ll) II,, vary with the
!',.dlvit ;ini l ll.. I('elies it' insel t. luIt. in general in the r.i north
uf tlie iitlf S lv,, the l i, p ri l of activity i from April to the i0, nl eln
,f ( ),t1ii. In all cases where timherl are to he heft -t..i' ].1. either
*I il ivii,],. ir yard. the bark must he removed bef'r'e the end of
M..i. li It .1v l attack by insects.
Il\ Iiirli L" a;i d -':It -,i>[iiL n, mnilne ti Iw ers, in-e-t iijllr\ f,,l r,, ;lite-
il ill I nut only hIe pre vented, but inj ury I termites after' place-
aelit \will also b' I Il.iyed or under -IomIe co nlitions even 1r.iv, i.ilI
ani the length of life ofIf f the tiiiIlh rs |i',l,'',II ..I.
ln'ere tif,,r the timvier 'should I alwa\ s he wa ;mI.d except in rare ill-
stane T where it is to (e usedI in "\\ 1-i iiL- of a \.T tem porarv chlar-
acter. If u1barked ro unId or -(plit i)rops are to be used in temIpora ry
,,-l kiinL,. where it would not he [I'I .Iticahle to remove the bark, the
trcs should 1 e cut liiiiin, thIe fall and earlv winter. As soon as
Oi in a 1l4i',. mIr', they m ill i y most rapidly, without excessive check-
iio. irf.r.l'ly :ia ft i they have lheni transport. I fr,'iii the woods, be-
cause if the inner bark is dried out before the insects I,,i.ii, to Il1\ in
Ilhe -prit ,. the more destructive insects will inot attack them. Split
prop. sh, iu l be p Ie'-, with iI., bark side up so thIat the inner hark
will dry. T,|,,s or prop- should not e !eft lying on the ,',rnl. Un-
(Cir. 1561


I.N-| I I I,\.\t \,,I TI M IN E I 'l:,l'-..





,iiUNIVERSITY OF FLORID jj
3 1262 09216 6106
4 INSE.CT DAMAGE TO MI...........

ba;rkeld prp.D. e,...ariIllv piop- cut from i i-rit-kllhil. fire-killed, or
oil lr l vad 'Iliidin li tinljber. .-hoilil Ihe thoriiiuily iii.pected before
ti. ;irre piia''d i ht- Itlilt. inim ;i|ll prip,, 1hi-wing s.er'ioil damage by
ilu-'.'t- ii-'ri"i|'l. 'li1. In r-et ,rr of ,, uiia-I,,rinm insects can be de-
t.'it'l Ilv -:\l,- I hli-t-ll I,,iii, i il ii-t i lt i- expelled from their bur-
r,,t Mi dl, l,1 ilj l 'r vi, .- ill [ It I,) lk.

PIlI|\I Ni I.N II1 IN.1 IMY 'It Ii "ii'!BEi, IBY IEI- 11EN .A-'TER I'L.ACEMENT.

A- JI,\- ii-l\' -tuilc'1. thne :e;-i,,igiii tlat pre\]ts it injury before
jit' i, ,..-lit \'ill Ili-JI\ :ttIl 11i1l-.i -,ueI' iiiI iLitiM.-, (Veil prevent injury
t'> ti ll.- 1 iiiil .t 6 I,\ It-i inli ;Ifter jil;>i t'ttivti.-t. -,incf nioi.-,ture or incip-
iilt Ii,;:tY i- i,''.C--',r\" hir ,l1--i Llt i\e -\ tolk. It consLequence, sea-
-,' ,~' l I- itr'''iu.iii 'it-.,il 'l'.r, it ]I- ih lt11ia.i(ilcable to treat tim bers
v itli i i, iiii l' .- .11t i. t\ --.
I-,.liil,,- 1' -iil i li,'.ill\ trl v ti-iang |irp- by Irn-hling the exterior
V' ilt \itlina ,lititi,.il pri -f-'. : 11 c- \\ill Ih' telniip rarily effective in
k, .'jii_'' -- tl It,-'l' l -. it' tli,' w\ ii j, th i -r,,ughlily lone and both ends
ail' :1i-0 lr>.:'ttA ,l. W I'ltr tl.t le t-, l ;itei ; i- ]elI untreated, term ites
v Il [I i phi,.. i '"1| iil,, till?..tl he iiitr til-0] i 1rtiii1. It u ill readily
1:,. -.rib li.iit it' ll I '! ni-oi g itur p. rait.iji-Z [li.: exterior of the prop
;ialrt i t l.I.'.it,' ii, li ii ij l 'i -i i- iitt-iittec i v| u; ti:.edt is effective
in ki,.,ui uirt iti.iJi,-. -heV tdie vinl that -et. ilI tihe ground could
1-,' i [ iif ,i. i, lI iH ,-,n: Iv l .-r. ll t i terillite- ;altack the props.
l',.fi. 1 ii L 111111,: 1 \ Ill, t l u-li ,al ia e-errativ ,. e( j)ecially where
tin. I, .-i ii' i, lil ,- .i--I. it iH ,.--viltial tlht ti l ie ilbt.r be thoroughly
s-.. ~,, ,,.,l. ,,l,,.rrv. i-,- |. ri i ,1, ( tt 0 11 \v, ill 1I(. n .re ir i lei1.
[I ,i'i .ii:il, ii.._' |'r 'I- I teiiihulvt] for IaeritaiiJel t u-vi.ee with creosote
bv -,iii' -ti .,il l|r,,.r-- I L'itl -lr l,.\ tilt! ,ipn i-ta;nihk or by the
('\ lI ,l,-l'-1|11 --111V, I l'Iiv, -- W ill l. ,' (-)li t t i rijiitt- aInd other wood-
li iiil, iti-', -. :i- i iil t'l-erxe tIhet ,,i f ,r ai iititili onUlr' period than
tlnt.\ \'v,. L I. lI t:-1 1 1 ill I la te-l.
1',Ililtii.iti, if t1I. Flirt-t S. rr\ ie u'.li,]l lie -oiistultetl for infor-
Iltd i,,'i titi ,~,~ritii l ,i,.tllu l- ,if hii ttihtiLf r IinilKr.' \\itlI lreserv'atives
and h tIrI l iti\- ott1l.-i('. f vz;iriojit ietliudzs ;anl chliem icals.1'

,f.\_ l:S \'II Wli...
.b'>! I I, !,. q flt ,/ f A. l lt'll ,11 IIIf.
W'.\IIIN .TOiN. I). ('., A/,ril it/. j/ .1.
.<,. i ,pl-,cI. I i iill ii-in D1i7 -.I ie I'oi- .t Frrv .iie. IU S. I Ipi'irtment of Agriculture,
" iJi i'l ,ri Oi,, i i.,U ul M il"e 't'i el ,ii
KLir 15I ]

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