The Mediterranean fruit-fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann)

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Title:
The Mediterranean fruit-fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann)
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Book
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Quaintance, A. L ( Altus Lacy ), 1870-1958
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Govt. Print. Off. ( Washington )
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Common and scientific names
        Page 2
    History and distribution
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Food plants and destructiveness
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Life history and habits
        Page 13
    Description
        Page 14
    Natural enemies
        Page 15
    Preventive and remedial measures
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Bibliography
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Back Cover
        Page 27
        Page 28
Full Text


















U. S. DEPARTMENT OF .AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF ENTOMniOLY CIRCULAR No. liO.
L 0. H A\% ARD, F.nnolowut and Chif of Bureau




THE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT-FLY.




.\. f Hi. 'r'
A. IL. QV'AINTAN(I'.


lI"


L- : / ^ "










I















BURE.11I OF ENTOMOLOGY.

JT. 0. HOWARD, Iil,,iiin"ljgit and 'hi'f of Bureallu.
C. L. .M.\AI IT. EilIiiitili,/i.,l andl .4rtling ('hie f in Abs6enc 'if Chief.
R. S. CLIFTON, L'E.rccittiri Assistant.
W F. T.STET, 'hit'f 'lik."

F. II. CHITTENDEN, in charge of truck crop and stored ,f',,,l 1i I insect inii r.tligationi.
A. D. ToiIWKIN in charge of forest insect iir',tieltiin.-.
W. D. HUNTER, in ,i.uirqv F. M. WEi.Bi .I., in f Ilti i'" of cereal and f,, ,litu insect in ii ..ti micn l .
A. L. QUAINTANCE, in charge of deciduous fruit insect iir, ,liii.mlim..
E. F. PHILLIPS, in charge of bee culture.
D. M. Rot.iR-.. in (ihari' of pit r< niitii .'prf (il vf, moths, fpilld oirk.
ROLLA P. CURRIE, in charge of -tlil,, ittl ii',, I,.
MABEL COLCORD, in If,t' i'uy of library.

DECIDUOUS FRUIT INSECT INVESTIGAT-ONS.

A. L. QUAINTANCE, in charge.

FRED JIII.N.aJN, S. W. I'ij.I. P. I. JONES, F. E. IPHOOKS. A. G. HAMMAB. E. W.
S. ur. It. L. NOUGAR'ET, R. A. 4_T'iH% \%N. L. L. SCOTT, J. It. GiLLI, A. C'. BAKER,
W. M. DAVIDSON, E. B. lti.KISi IU. W. B. WOOD, E. H. SI1ELLkR, F. L. SIMAN-
TON, entomological assistants.
J. F. Zi Xi I it. W. S. ABBOTT, WV. H. SILL, ( atomolopi al usbi.tnI.nt', employed iF&
enforcement of n,i' cli.itlc act, 1910.
Il















CIRCULAR NO. 160. Iutod Iotolr .,,. I1'.

United States Department of Agriculture,

BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY.

L. 0. HOWARD. Eniomulu.,t and Chief of Bureau.


TH! E MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT-FLY.
I r I IF l t I I, I',l,it, l, I \\'iil rl l .1lln ) lii

]1,. A. L. QIUINrTANCE,
In V'haitituv of li# ciiiitoiit v,, ii. t I Inseit In'ctigationw.

INTRODUCTIOX.

The recent establiMshnent in IHawaii ,if the M.,ililii ranilein fruit-
H (fig. 1) aild the quaranltile restrictions ;i.IilL-t IILiwaiiaIn fruiit
iinpo.ed liv the St;te of C~ilifirzni;i have aroused considerable inter-


.1
j
Fiot. 1.--The Mediterranean fruit IV (f',',-titI capltataf) : a, Adult l .v b head of same
from front; r', ipatulainke hair from face of malte: ,. antnina: e, larva : F, anal g-
meat of sime; g, head of same. a and e, enTlrird ; b, g, /, greatly enlarged; e, it, still
mor tre'i|tl> enlarged. I 'irno I ,ward.t

est in this vervl de.-triictive insect, and there have been freiquent re-
qie-ts for iinf,,rnitiiin ,',,rni'iinig it. To meet thii.- demand for
infornmation the present Imper has been prepared and 1:1r-l corn-
1






2 TIHE MEDITERRANEAN' FRUIT-FLY.

piled from the writings of entomologists in countries where the
insect cxi-t'. particularly the writings of Froggatt, French, and
Fuller in Australia, and Lounsbury and Mally in Cape Colony,
South Africa.
There can be no question that the Mediterranean fruit-fly is a most
serious drawback to the successful cultivation of fruit in the coun-
tries where it is e,'tablislhed. Indeed, tlhe cultivation of fruits is
scarcely possible in the worst infested region;,. Tle fruit-growing
industry of Bermuda was practically destroyed mniiny years igo by
the introduction of the insect into that island. Its introduction into
the United States in all probability would be calamitous to the
orchard interests of our more southern States and of California, in
which r.gion-s it would find conditions very similar to those in coun-
tries where it now exists in most destructive numbers.
This species belongs to a group of insects-tlie family Trypetide
of the oiBlcr Diptera, or flies-for which no very successful means
of control have been found. Despite a large amount of experimenta-
tion in the control of this as well as other related species, including
our own apple mnaggot or railroad worm (P, aloletis pomvnwella
Walsh), little has been developed that is of value in lessening their
injury, except the collection and destruction of fallen infested fruit
and the more recent use in South Africa of a poisoned bait sprayed
over the trees for the destruction of the adult flies.
In view of the very serious character of the pest and the great
difficulty in its control, it is most urgent that all possible pains
should be taken to prevent its introduction into this country. The
ieKru-retic measures taken by the Hawaiian and California authorities
are much to be commended.
I COMMON AND SCIENTIFIC N.AMES.
The name "Mtditcrraiiean fruit-fly" was first given to this insect
by Froggatt, who believed that the insect halind probably been intro-
duced into Australia from the region of the Mediterranean. It hlias,
however, been given numerous other common names.. as t lie peacli fly.
peach n;igt't, etc. The species has been twice redescribed since first
characterized by Wiedmann in 1S24, and the synonymy stands ,is
follows:
1824. T7'la'iti.l capitata WiethiLii1uin. Analecta Enitoniologici;. p. ..
1829. (crititlli citriperda Macleay, Zt'ultitiCL.l .oiiru.il. vul. 4. I,. 475.
1842. C(rtltiti., hibpa( iwa tie Il r.nie, Annales dlo lI So 'it. EFiitoiiilogiquiie ilt,
Franii e. vol. 11, p. 1,.'.
Some authors also consider Ceaiaf'if cttoirc; Guerin as identical
with or a mere v:i rietv of capitata.
The species has been variously referred by authior- to tlhe genera
Tel iiritis. Trypeta, Cerailiti. Pet:ilophira. Ilalteropliora. etc., but
Ceratitis appears to be the latest reference.









iil i- 'in AND ImsTililipqN.

Tl'h" NMl riiri'' .iL I fI'iiil Ill Was ori:i ( illyl- del,'-lI d lI,\ W iede-
lianli under the name m;l ,,,i ,p/, .i/',,I flrom -i" ii,.-I,- said to have
V.,,lii,, Iit'li the '.-il Ilndies.
lit relille in ( '11\ r TI' ri, .\Aiin.iml. I)ilblihedi inl 1817, under tihe
'iitiiit Ires cl" lii il r -" 1 .l.-. onk the authority Cattl,,ii. that Ithe
colonists ,i the I-sle of Franle (l.iilritis) w ere' s'carcely able to
ibl i mii mulid ctl 1it7s 1riii- fit. ft'rfect at iatiity, o(l atccilltit of tlhe
vXireliii. abundance ,,f Ia ,ipii- iniset which deiosiied ._,.- in
ihl ,iiI. 'I iit early irl fri ii ii,,il I I iconsideredl als re1 i .i1> '- to t he
MCdiiti'rriliiial1i fnri1 l.\. A -jn',iiii'ii. piir'-iii.ibl~ this sllame iii-, .,
was snt iVC attireie to .lW1.ihA.y, whoso I..i ,red it, uilt ii w as later.
i\ ilt 'pt-liilir rank I\ tilii -I underI tike naIh e ( d'ruifc f e'u/tutio' i.
A.leihmgli the insect wtas described Iby Wi'\ii.iimtimi. it was ti'st
I roliiglil promlinently into noti We b)y .Mall'r:iy inll I '-". i n tin artile
1iilli-h'dtl in ulw ZI nliv>.,ial Journal (vol. 1. p. 475) entitled Not ice
of (' r'ti.tl.,- ci0trip'rda, an insect very destructive to l'.1ii' ."
IirI ;:iy' iirzlih. accompanied i \ a colored l.ilt e., was based on
it' 11'iliiel <,l:il lii t fi tiii the Azores. .Ilmiijt ~i.i- of ,Il'i :1i 's fronk
the.e i-hilln > were r;iT.iiiii thlie London market in bad condition a ,ll.
ii.s s tat b M ile.iy, of the i i.iIl I ty annually lr,. i \ ill. from .l i.i i
to l(IO.i0itO .l'.:(.: about one-third were thus affected. Not inIfre-
quenllyv whole a:itin,,' were in such a state of decay as not to brillig,
lthe \aliti, if thile freight. This lireal.i:i down of thle fruit ell riiilt.
whiilh ji..ilil1 diiit, in part to other cil- Nt-. was attributed 1bv .\:il1';.y
to the a .lg, of this insect. Ml:,.iey alo made note of its oicur-
reTilre on tihe island of St. M.i.iil, where it wals e-pecially trouble-
m)init, during Ma:ir'li. Ap)il. and M[:iy. In a footnote to his article he
lIhl that the perfect ll was observed by himn1 on a1 heap of i,1;iii-es
in the market pll:L', of Fulinrlicl. island of M.idiril. and also ait St.
.T: Lg,. C';pe. VNerde .-laiiil.. and calls attention to a report that a
Ilii:LLL li iiifi,-i, rii';Ill ,i in thile W\est Indies.
W iel'ih iiiiii (Aii. ere- Piriiip. Z\\ cilli1g. Iii-tktil,. p). p. 9i) in 1lI1)
n.:L'ili di-:riisI the insect uiideir the name T'ri/, i af''fii,. (t imig his
1 :i lieiltr, Il-" ri|1li oii (Analecta l.litiiiuli i '...j p1 ... 'i Nr. 124), iland adds:
"A queer little animal which was placed inll the Rya '.il M ii-.un with
thie name .11su ,1/s :p', ,/,'. with ithlt information that it had been cap-
irI-.d i l):illii f on the IThi.iii O( e.iili.? e" t\ iVl is said to be in the
Royal Mii-trliiii at Cop'pIliai.h'ri.
F. de Irt'ii'. inll thile .\lil;lie, de la ,i) '.t, I"lt(ii Frainct, f ,r 1[,12. rulei-' rilK. the MildlitciriiitiiLii fruit-1\ tinder tlie
name of Crf, /D/;i, fron specimens foliiil in 'riiii'- in tIhe
environ- of MSilag 6. p11i.in. liVe pl>ilt- out -l'ti1pp.-r1l di IirV11ii,'.r> be-
tween his pecile and that of Macleay.


Tiln. M% If.iI 'm itNI .%\' 1I1 1ii 1 'f.Y.






4 THE MEDTTEHRANEAN" FRi'IT-FLYV.

In the Gardeners' Chronicle for September, 1848, West wood, under
the caption "The orange fly," refers to Macleay's article and records
receiving wormy oranges from a Botolph Lane merchant, from which
material he drew up a description of the maggot and pupa. The
specimens were from St. Michael IslanI, and WestwoJd remark,
that the insect is also native of "St. Jago and the Cape Verde
Islands" and adds that he has long possessed specimens of this fly
taken "on the wing in Thames Street."
At the meeting of the Societe Entomologiquie de France, January
26, 1859, Villeneuve exhibited an orange received by him from
Algeria and infested with a dipterous maggot. From this fruit the
adult fly was reared and was recognized by him as Ceratltis hiyfpanica,
as later reported to the society at its session of March 23, 1859.
As stated by Prof. C. Rondani (Bull. Ent. Soc. Ital., p. 29, 1870)
the species is rare in Spain, and he adds that it is found only in
southern Italy.
In 1871, under the title "Dommages causes par la Ceratitis his-
panica," Laboulbene (Annales de la Societ6 Entomologique de France,
p. 439) describes the injuries caused by the fruit-fly to oranges in
Algeria and presents a detailed description of thle species prepared
by J. Bigot. He quotes notes furnished him by Boisduval to the
effect that at Blidah and in all Algeria the orange crop was com-
pletely destroyed by the insect.
In The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine for 1884 (p. 34) Osten-
Sacken lists the Mediterranean fruit-fly under the name of Ceratil.fis
capitata, referring to its occurrence in the Madeira Islands, and adds
that it attacks oranges wherever they grow. He also states that
C. citriperda Macleay and C. hispanica de Breme are mere synonyms,
or species based on individual varieties.
REder, in the Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift for 1885 (p.
132), in an article Ueber die Dipteren Gattung. Ceratitis Macleayv,"
gives the synonymy of Ceratitis capitata, and also its distribution as
follows: Southern Spain, southern Italy. Algeria. Tunis, Madeira,
Mauritius. Indian Ocean, Kongo, Cape Coast, Delagoa Bay.
Penzig, in the Annali de Agricultura for 1887. presents an ex-
tended account of the diseases and insect enemies of thle orange and
treats at length of the dipterous pests of thle fruit, referring to three
species of Ceratitis under the generic name Halterophora. The
species considered, namely, capitata, cattoir'i, and hispanfra, are by
him considered identical. Extended life-history notes, are given and
the orange is stated to be the principal fruit infested, but lemons
and other cultivated citrus fruits are attacked, as well as peaches,
fig-., azaroles, etc. The species is thought to be limited to the country
around the Mediterranean and its injuries in Algeria are noted. In
Sicily oranges were first attacked and later peaches. In Liguria it






I ll MII TEIt I \X A 1hI i T I. V.


ii- ini1.,I as inju riou- to po'achts in 1-2. bit litn1.. if alt all. alt.'k-
i,11 citrus fruit.
A- -ttiled by v irui,. thile Ni.lit' rr.i.ii ., ii ,i 1'iii 1 bc ,i ie cstab-
,li-. .il inI tihe environs Of Parli-. itnfetiiL- .lpi ,i :i; ('oirll noic.
In a ftuull,,r note on thi e -iliji t (Compt. I, .' I. i\, '_',. 1' "") M.
(Giii',rl repoi ts that tie inS c't lihast itt il inci'eU d hi s ri'a .,'\. .
Sandil at that time peacthes wre -seriOii-lv all, I,, iln la Ih,.ocalitivs
HiiMiik1 I'.,ris. \ii ,rliiiL.. to l'r'" Paul MaN'hal. haowevar, t'i 1..-
was not troublesomen tl, ie year followi,_, l',,7), fo r wlii'h rev-om it
i.-thl, 'ugll the insect did not become properly etal i' i-li'd.
IAn iiiiIl Of1 this -1|i.i-~. under the n1ame of til' Btiuiiajdi 1,1 iti
i riuii '.. l B is .,i\> I y Riley an Iloward in Ins,.ie l. if (vl. ,. p. ),
|w .ll appeared in I-'. TViP insect was rearedl at tic in-lclarv in
Walh]iiiijt m from peaches ni'r,,i'il fron ('land W'. MC('alla i, of St.
(horij'.-. Bermuda. In 'tiriher ',,i r'-iiiii, with Ur. M it W:i, learned that peaches had been more or less infr-tcid for ailmout
2'.) yvear and tileir culture had practically to be abainhidomed. It is
Istatedl tlirol <'trt i .'r1 are little attacked on the i-li:, l. l it tliat the iii.i-r-
ts in fe-t ti'iiv S ; .n1:1111 cherry ( E',,,' ,.'' uii /'h1,;;). half of the r, I ,
being, ruined annually. TIi, loquat (Er'bot, j poAuo,, ) and thlie
SM;tlla iidu iinI are ial-,,' 'ljrt to infestation, as well as the bitter Seville
oninge. Mr. M('':ill;in has expressedl the opinion that the insect
Miaiidek its appearance in the island in a car-:, of frtit fi.,ini the
M. diilerrmiii n.i rci',ii. wil, ii1i. while iiil i-',iI for thlie Atincrican ntmar-
ket. %,a-- landell at the island lii i,_h st-res, of 1iad weather.
Ii-- ()r'nimroId, in her pilli,.:it lii ."liijurious [ Fanli :.llI Fruit
lnsert- of Siili Africa," which appeared in I-'. .,i'- anll aceollint
of the injuries done by the friit-fly in C.ilp. Colony. This is ilp-
pt rVnily the lir-l reti-'riil,- to the occuirrence of the pelt in that
rtITioii. :lthrtiiii. as noted by Mailly, it was introduced many vy.inr
liefore ti i- date.
Apparently .Mlr. (C'liiic Fuller wais Sii-i to ri' iirl the ocirreTnlce
in Auisirldli;i of ( 1ratetus < ,utal ,. the record i II rittL it the Jlournlal
of the 1 ;i rl':tu f A(iii4ltiri >'f WVest Aiu-trralia for February. Is't7.
In the M i nm the othle samte journal Mr. FlIler i .,. ii f,,i n1111-
iiOn coii eriiiii_, the life history of the insect ti,'llr t1i wit l a .'1
plate. .\AI about tile sanle time Mr. II. Trvon received lic-peciimenis
froni W,.t A-lt r;iliai. and the year foili i -: it was reared lhv Mr.
('. French front peal-ches ilip',t.'.d into Victoria front \'lii,\. Tlte
lyv was discovered a fwl d.i\- later 1,\- Mi, Wv M. V Fro.att in r..i 'i2'.
jars cuiti iiiiii, friit sullppoSp d to have been ciltc-in 1.I with tlhe Quieens-
land friuii-ly. It is thoilnliit to have made its v'..iv into Aul-itrailia in
raiini-e- from Itaiy. a ,oi-ider:al.c iui.uillty of which at that time
w'as binei imiplrited.






THE MEDITERRANEAN FRITIT-FLY.


Though the fruit-fly was also common at about that period in
South African 4,raiiigcs, the above facts are considered good evidence
by Frggiaft that it was introduced into Autralia from European
cozilitri(-, and hence the popular name Mediterranean fruit-fly," by
which the species was designated by him. Concerning its distribu-
tion in Australia Frogga' t, states:
This fly has iirean1 all thiriigth the citrous orchards of New South Wales, to
a ;gritfr or less extent, but uutil a few years iiv was uiikiuwni ii the southern
parts of this State and the adjoining Slate of Viliri;i. At the present time,
however, it is found in orchards at Albuiry, N. s. WV.. ;aid in quite u number of
Victoria orchards, A he-re it has become more or le-ss estallisbed.
The insect is also present in Queensland, as specimens have been
obtained from Brisbane. In West Australia. in the vicinity of Perth
and all through the citrus orchards, it is regarded as a great pest to
fruit growing, as in the climate of New South Wales-.
Although the species has probably several times been introduced
into Tasmania, it has apparently not yet gained a foothold there.
In New Zealand the fly has also been frequently introduced, and at
one time was established to a certain extent in the vicinity of Napier.
Its future development in the island, however, wa, considered prob-
lematical by some in view of the character of the climate. As pointed
out by Mr. T. W. Kirk, however, there app.ar. to be no reason why
the insect would not be equally at home in New Zealand as in
Australia.
The time of its introduction into South Africa is not definitely
known. It is thcoirht to have been brought in with fruit from
Madeira. Writing in 1904. C. W. M3ally states that it is not difficult
to find men who are familiar with the depredations of this insect in
the coastal belt of the colony 30 years ag,. It is nrw generally
present in the fruit-growing regionn, of Cape (,dony and is recorded
from Natal. According to Mr. C. W. Howard it i, also present in
the Transvaal, and in Uganda, as recorded lby Gowde\: in northern
Eylpt (Cairo), as stated by Froggatt; and at Kafrez-Zaiyat, also
in Egypt, on the authority of Cartwrighlt. Mr. (eo. ('ompere, who
has traveled in many parts of the world in connection with his search
for parasitic and predatory enemies of destructive insects, states that
the Mediterranean fruit-fly is present in Asiatic Turkey, St. Helena
Island, at Valencia (Eastern Spain), and in Bahia and Sao Paulo, in
Eastern Brazil.
This fruit-fly was discovered in Hawaii alout the middle of the
year 1910, and the fact of its establishment in the island of Oahu
was announced to the Board of Comnii-i.iouers of Agriculture and
Forestry by the entmiologit.. Mr. E. M. Ehrlorn. at its meeting on
October 5 of that year. It was -uti'zetge'- bh' Mr. Ehlrhorn. and the
ui,,tre-tion was promptly carried out, that notice be given to the Cali-






I'll-: M lDT'mIl\AN I I:I'1 ll FIA .


fornia S.I1iti Iortic.ihura! C[miniI-io t ,,f the t tahilihijent of tlte
pest in the island. ( eneral ohservatiionsi indicate that lhw iis 'ect
h1:,I len lpresent in the isliiian soe two (' tliree Wt pIi' I io\ toI il ,I
tdiscoeryv. It waN 1ist 1 reared from i. ii ,: 1.- taken in I 1Hoholl. Tle
'i''rrilrii1 BoarId I', AI i ; il -I anI d I 'orv,4ry pi ,Ii) I -,.te -i I r 1:-
lioi (rule 7), which wtas -i,_,i,',1 by the ',''errior Novtent'er 21. 11'li.
prhi'liilullii the -li cii,'l of fIi'ii- -iihj,.-t to inifestation to oilier
islantb ,,f the territory.
T ,lw. P' li f,,riiii I l,,"'ti iiliilral C ,,ii1iri --i,,l> l ip llI ln l i Iic.it'iii of (lie
limu li'lTl[ i in hlawaii of the N[.lil,'llirrilaneal Ii flii ll\ l)ii llptly
ii Olopi,', i'i,'1g ii-p0'0lh, ii (," I'ri, il- ali ,-L'.l.iles reanived aIt Sall
"r:iii,'I-' A. .\ i a r'-iill infested friit Av were frpeli intly t',a,, d. lid
.Tllll, "21, I91l ;1 ii:il,iitili" ori,'r,.l nrii. I aw Nin wn, is-llcd hllirlil.;
4i * tin0 imiportMation of all fI 1 iii '. x',Il.i tlahl"-. hleri'ie -. seed i, pI-,
e'b.. either citltivated in the orchards or ,..i i'den.i or 0 l' ',1'iiliL' Wild
ill tihe llawaiian T-]:i idl-. with the exception tl iat pineI]pph.-.
tina1T.i and all root crops thle ediblde p'.,tions of which ,iniiii
irnot 1 have alway v Iii beneatlih the i( face of thile -oil 1hall 1e ad-
imittliid at tle porti- of the State of ('alil ',i 11ii1.1 after liii,,', bIeen
(1ily ili-j)Icdh,,l: PrOie/c//, TIli:it aniy or all oIf tlieIe exeinl0ted friIitS
(ri v,'',..lill,. if at IanlV t ime here lftr hall l)I foiin d to co1 ntain iI Il
inlpeuf iilin the v_- ',,. 1:lIrvt, or plupa' of the fruit llf I.\ ( ' #,*,), they ,-hall Ihe immettildiately included in the 11-t of ,ii.iralineiIcd
fruilits and vei :.dilr,.-.'" 1
Dnriiu,.' the sinmmner of 1ll lMr. E. K. (Cilies visited Ilhawaii and
spent sone time in a thorough inve-li_.ilion o(f fruit-fly conditions
nnd !iv,' a preliminary ni'pi't f his iii'. ilimi, in tlie iwontihly
billeilii of the St:i:ite Commiision of liorii.-ili Inii. of Califortnia for
Deei.mber, Iil ,i._,- 5-1:'. Tie -iubtanwe of this report later
nlpvarll-'rd in the Pr,.",, ii,_ of tihe Fortieth Fruit Growers' Con-
vention f thile Sit.iP of California. [>:I'- T1 7- In Decelnher. 1911,
('CollmliI->iiicr A. J. ('Colk ,li-..i,.llid to the iland a- aI port inspector
to assist in iIl',, ,liili- enihmarkation of in ifed fruit Mr. 11. A.
Wei iidi,1i. %%I rlinll- in "ii jll nition with Mr. Fli horn. uplerin teIndent
iof eiut,,nili'1'l r, and Mri. W. Mi. Cl, ilT.ir.l, director of the fruiit-flv cI -
t trol. Ti', plan of work adopted by the Hawaiian authorities has
I een in the main1 that )f eradication. TI. li flciihliie of the -itiatiion
i'tre. li ee,er. enormousl by reason f, the irr,',.li.r lnatlll' of the
county 1 and the ]ir]' list of friiii, uponI which the in-ect' may sub-
si. t. Ti'- situation is well poiintekd ouit 1. Carnes in li-s r,1,,it in the
roc,114 i1n1 of the Fortieth Fruit i rei'wr-' Convention of the i.i
of C(ili foriiii. i:.L'e 71. as follows:
I-iIrI t1h 01 a1- t0h0t cl i'ic .>rii1i i 1 lif Itl.O. it .i'.* ir- that thf M.,1iirr-
"niiiean frII lIV h ba e 1 Nilh on t ,ilt1 ai r"i O.i-ui. ; ,I,..1 witi.t tlhic ijtr i if h to i(ll,
i II,,l 'l I. rI ir 1 1n % iir .1 i i i .1 1 l f..r i 1 i. r. ., I
,'HI I l i '. l.i; 1i 2







8 THE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT-FLY.

is lri;lnltel, for at least two yenirs :nuld probably loiiger. It is now firmly estab-
lished in p'ractinally all sei'..tins of this island and it liis nlso beeni taken on the
adjacent island of K;Nmii. known as the (;arden Island. I did not find it on
the Island nif Mtuni, blilt. ovin..i to lm* linliiied lime as-4ginid to uily investign-
tion, to t.ver the etii ir territory was ini,"issiltle: niitre,'e'r. lile realization came
to me Ihat llnir real prohleni w tilh Ihe sl;nd of (-ll. *
The ly hais .pre;id fro'imn lin- lower cilit :h ii a etns iii nd is now infesting the
wild gn-.a;Is ti tlihe s.idi ( of lihe iun nl.ntain. il Ihe g.ilhlne-. 1n tlie plains. and in
the almost 'ie.nlinitill .v inll frniit. inamy otlier wil] friits that art- hbijts grow it
abundainr. also. large I;athe.l of tIne- irikly-*'e'ar i-itl(us are Io Ibe found all
over the in'ii niiilnu s. Ilii other ('ilnatrie- thiis fruit 'nlrries the flies over winter,
aind will 'linlrwilitmlt ly iv 'rr'e a1 lI't fruit illn ilie nisth nd- of niher hosts.
The wivi'rst innfetoed ip riitin of tIhe Island of (I:nhi: is the resident section of
time city nf Illoniiinli. ;in it is f san this li.nsi-'ue cli.t that C'.ilifornia would be
most :illyv r.i liev'iinie iinfi-ioil. ''lzi liir ,'litn- \i>ileil Imy ill tourists
StlI'lm i .IlL' at Ilihnn ilul. :iuti it iv frmni ihis district that they pIrocure the tropical
fruit whirli finds il- wv;iy ti, tihe lilrt The erY hi nirerotl (lci;il'!eteir of tile pest lei] Congre.s ton make an
emergentvy :ip|nri irizilion fto-r an in ve-tigaition of thlie insect in the
United State-. it- territorlit- and posses-ions. and this work will be
promptly taken it) Iby t h' lIBreau of E nt oniology.'
The 1nitli.l ,ed record-, iindic,;te tliit tle Me literra nenn fruiit-fly is
widely v i -tribhtted in tropical anid ,-ultropical paris of thlie world.
It is reai'tnled from tlin-' following 'ountrie-:
Algeria. Asiatic Turkey. tile Azore,.. Brazil (Rio de Janeiro, Sao
Paulo). Btrimnida. C';ipe Verde I.land-. East Indie-. Egypt (Cairo,
Kafrez-Z;i vait). Fr;ince. Madeira Islands. Malta. Mauritius. Natal,
New Soutli Wale,-. New Zealaind. Queensland. St. Helena Island,
Sicily. Spait i M i1l aga. V;>lenclli. Barceloina). Sorith Africa, Tas-
mania. Tra ii-v\i I. gI'ainda. Victoria. ind Wes4t Atiustralia.
Con-idleriir dlie ini-ert in conliection with it- known distribution
and (e-tr ,'ti\iine--. it a:ppear-, fi irly rertaiii that it would not be
able to tinnihtain it<-olf inll region- where thlie temnperat lre during
winter full- niict'i Ielow the freezing point. The failure of the in-
sect to extkiil it- riatire nmnrtliward from tlie Mediterranean region
seems to \vwairri:lint lii- (con'lh|.lion. Tliere i-. however. much territory
in the l'nited Stnitvt- Mlire the pi.-t woild tldoli)tlete. thrive, as in our
more southern State- aindI in i Californiai.
I-lII) ANADNT .\NI DESTRI (TIVENSS.
The i l\ere dl-nli't-i\v ,i.a|'crter of tiht- Mediterran.ean fruit-fly has
been evident -litce the in-ecl fir-t .tite nritiiin'ntl into notice in
1829. It- injuries Ito citrn- fruit-. especi lly li tie oranep'. were early
('iii iipli ine]d of. ait 1 as tlie in,-ect lia,- spread tlie list of fruits attacked

i,-i.i -i H't"1 .Iin : \wrw i:i- |i:i % 'i] In t'l.n,,rl-', :nnit :in ppr-wd liv ithe Pr,.id.'nl which
SI1.11. 0 li, S.' n-i I;11 '.f OW' i rII" 1 i%" .h%,-i:ilti-ll :;innd mniintain qiinni:r:nlinp ;igi' n-I danDna r-
wi-1 ir.inin 1 'il in.,', I 1,, -f i' .i d i il.int ili-.:-.-' The' n'cessarv .I'p ;Ir,''lr'ing T:iki'n for
ill.- i, r url-i of prlnmulini in1 ai qii.nini inp to prevent thi- introduction of thb Mediter-
I ln.in in fina *inl y









hilt, iim iirinillv increami'l. As already i niti.1. its inljuries to 'i.,ir(es
in tit .M1 ,'ili ,r;Iit'ii I,iii i- ,Iii. as well as in thie r :lhirirt Isla ds, the
A.zirl'r i I. llt:l l ia ; 'i'l IlItl -'iv I illt tlh sfice t fiil culltlure of
tlh ,-t cri,'lp-. I liii its iltrolu.t ion into Hil 1iitl A fi i..i it 11.i 1 ,.',iiird
i f(mill,1iii, ni. nd bca me 1a |-~ 1 tir-t-class inpir.,rl.:ii'. antd its lIe-
h1k ii"r -ii', its esaliashnent in IA-irailiii lias I:x.en el lore dis-
iAltr'mu to the 1liii growers. t'riii ii, t iljiuries in ('ape ('olon
M r. C liil-. I1. l.Ci .iin-liln v < n l-liiinril clili liii, i.l, 'ilni.'_ in CllliT>
OilV :
Irmiii the ln il, ll ir. l.iiii-li il. the i*''. h Imag ot (Ilt'% 1itiiA *, iI' l11l)
Miilks ifi Il li it l hil' ':0in. : .. lIjUritilS lnls x't- of thlie pIst siaon. Il' -
I .st Is "l a'1i ; s one whlch uttricts ulch11 attentlilol, i11-nd its ra ivIag(s this yv;ir
liit tiln }grv;i tIir ti n ;ii uni It siurv iv es tle xN Inter1 as a I u l i nrI.. ti- andf l
lbi''iim's moIrelad ntimore mi/11ero11 as t lie Se;i-+i tiit i aalllen. there being al 8ilac(*t-
slhi of larmi eIt 'eDleeIr illrirltt( were nuillh iihoi ,..l,, tilhs ,.i and in ltos;t
l n' rt-4 [' r li, .r-,.i 1 1'rI'',ii,.i i,. In me piN .lieahes a mi a n t.ii nes were ainliio >t aill
[i;iflLt ii.v. IIilliir dfclnlhiotis fl iii1 *-. il,.r*ni mi to ni lhsser extenlt. At tlhe lntal oif
writili. iiit. i-r l s'i.i I.m. a1r not ilWin11 on. aId l ll lerous lieS 1 -y A e founlid ill
mmist oriinil.e ,' in-; only a sill1 jI1'(entaIle ,.I the fruit of the 1oraige however,
is zilliickil in this i, miiii .%. Inl the eastelIrn iarts li, e i olonmy ili. ri;' es of
tit ]-st are niore severe. I Il'-i_- mt1re t1 re Iimore 11 sbjeet to it. aind in soit e
giro.ies most f Ilit- fri ii is saidl to 1 ' soiled. Lilate |I,:I lIh. re I 1( sil to Ihe
11 liiiist unobtainable. .i ill I have Ni i ll" -1-11en nall rly half tie loiiu;lts on a lari'e
trise In full l.mil ri il: infestedl by this Iernilncius i :st at i.r.ih.li .ii,[-a ii I.I uats.
htitlwl'er. do not seem to Ibe .-'liir.ill i attack, and I hilve h'ird of lo ocr.t'InI'i
of this kind in Ilie western fl'li ii--',,wing setIions of the .,,'ia 'Illi destru.-
tij n of ilifesi'll fallen fruit is ir.ii-Plil 1I\ some of thile lost enter risin Ilil
.gro'wers. The IIiliLi of this course is questioned l-y some who lhave ;ido|itedl it.,
but from i].-rsiiml obsetrittlon I ai inllclinedl to believe e that the trouble lies in
lack of tholirnuiii--:-: too .,fli ;ii a tree in some ,I, corner is inot visitled or soIlme
worthless frniui Is allowed to remain on the trees a:f, Ir ti.he r. i"[ ha;a .li'n
gn ib ervt I
In tlht Jourinal of Arriviiliinre, May, 1'47, '[r. C. French, thlien
Governiiiuntl 4iiiii agi-i f Victoria, states:
Thi. ierrilile svn, r .':, of tlhe fruit kw*m is lm',mn" il but too f.liniili.ir" in
'Vivh ri.i. larvae l hi iiil been f, 1iiiil ill 1-I.- li- I o',l'-i 4ihnilii i .il.'i',( ]tln is.
neet marines. mavas, a'. 10iiL1'. lemons, ap I les citrons. 1,. lii 1-. nian1o1;1 s pupl-
kin., banatai, lntomatoes. pineiiples and ersiuinious so thIlt it ll easily be
seen that hlnirily lany fruit can tie siid to bet, exempt from its attacks and of
Ill e fruit : -I, 's eneml i ell s, tlhe fruilt-ly is iiiiil.ii.l-i.ll\ il% I wI worst.
In Bulletini -22 of the New Z,.;il;ial Department of .ArIriiillure
(I19'.1Oi), Mr. T. W. Kirk. w\ritiii- ,f the .lliierranean fruit-l tl
states:
We have now litm, to burn m ,i. .i-n,! l'lII- I f the f. I .'.i l_' I i'lI 1 because 1liI.v
were Iiifit"m'mt wi a N th is 0 ilr,:1idm l 111., -l : I .i' Ill ['ri 1--=l%. nectarines. cherries,
[| irv !l[ lll ,'.-. h:, l n Il.li i ,,'' .lplIi ,'. I| *itn .'ll ']" [. tot matese. l,']l.il .
pei"'r Slimuiil ilil' pest erer become established I1h re it w rill Imeani the rIiu I the
stMone-friit int lilIry r f t Ii' Nortih. It will be seen that practically all varieties
,,f flllni are attacked. 111l the measures taken to keep this i fly out %of New
Zenil:uiml can not be too svere.


T i1l M EII III-.1 1 I\ I %.\ I"11111 I.'I .







10 THE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT-FLY.

Mr. C. W. Mally, entonologist for thn Ea.,tern Province, Cape
of Good Hope, South Africa, in the Agricultural Journal, December,
1904, states:
It is ilil.iili to say from whence the fruit fiy c.,me. It was most likely
brought to the Cape in fruit from Maideir;i. Ilow huig agi 11ni onie can tell!
It is not dilivtiuli to linl men who were f iaiihir withli tlie delpre nations of this
insect in rlie coastal belt of the ('iliiy thirty years a;go. Until recently the
Ihedite'ranliea.i1 regiolis were looked upon as lie original l hotme of this species,
mainly because it had been known to be injuriious iheire for such a long time.
If the presence of natural enemies is a safe guide. Mr. (;ei. Comil'ere's discov-
ery, that this pest is kept under almost conipletv t.oiutrol in Brazil through
thit ;iL'iii' y of natural enemies, would itd i ti tlhat country as the original
home. Be that as it may, we are all well 0w.lt that the fly Ihas become a
constant factor in fruit-growing in Cape Colotny. Ilow to prevent its injuries
is the demand that has necessitated in ve.rtiga liiin with ai view to e&tatblishing
the praai.aIlntv of control measures. The fir-t step i- to determine the
insects.
Mr. Geo. Compere, of the California llorticultural Coini..ission,
writing of fruit-flies in the Proceedings o(if the Thirty-eighth Fruit
Growers' Convention, remarks:
The next species that I wish to call your ;ittelitin tio is (Crrliti. r.apiterta,
Wied.. or, commonly (:called. the Meilite'rriie;an fruit fly. With this species I
have had more experience than within any of tlhe other forms, and I can say that
it is without question the most destructive fruit lisr t (oiln record in the world
to-day. Not that it is any more destructive tio .ity particular variety of fruit
than many of the other species of this gro p of flies. lbunt it is so. from the
extremely wide range of food fruits. While wIist of the species confine them-
selves to one or a few varieties of fruits, this one will attack every kiown fruit
with the exception of the iniirina. pineapple, amil olive. It flourishes in the
bitterest of limes and bitter ,iini]ge the same as it doep in the most delicious
peach, pear, or apple.
Writing of the fruit-fly in Hawaii, Mr. E. K. ('anme., as a result
of a visit to the islands under the auspice. of the California State
Commission of Horticulture, states:
On Oahu the following fruits and vegetalileh hate been attacked: All species
of citrus fruit, peal;hies. fit-. gralpws, rose apple. .t.;ir apple. manngoes, white
lemon guavas. wild ,iia;'as. :1lig.itor pears i liriiked and fallen ). strawberry
gil;,, t.'lpap,;nYa. sapota, Carissa arduina (South Africa;n ii), also string beans and
peppers.
In addition to this list the known host fruits iniilude: Eggplant. coffee, plums,
cherries, persimmons, grenadillas, maupi fruit. apricots. pears, nectarines,
loquats, apples, -had1l,'i k-. mandarins, iimiiiee-al'lle .
So far the banana and pihiei ipple appear to -t-e imiuninle froni attack. but close
inspection should be maintained for future development.
To this list for Hawaii should be added thlie additional fruits more
recently found to be infested, as stated by Mr. W. M. Giffard (Ha-
waiian Forester and Agricuilturist. April. 1912). namely: Kumquat
(Cittis japonica), .l1raii!l, exotica, and E ilcnia sp. Mr. Giffardr
adds:







'rilE MI:TrRR.N'F.m." FI'uIT-Fl.. 1

T Wi*lll il I t,'l I I I !it ,*.'.'Ir It ril'|S, Vl arie'tie tit of lntg Injnllllt,
viilul' e.* s -4' I' Kiwing at lt .111.1.1 ,t'IIneIs alqiat'r to Il 4 a : ilo 1i ht1' Wi irsl lifp i'd
fruit, so fair exanjhed.
li'1N' above records 1i.ii,.iiI,, t(he omnivorous character of (the lpest
nind leave no doubt that when once introduced into a locality where
pi|"Pr temperature conditions exist it will Ite able to maintain l it Ielf
without dil sliill I t lift. r F history ill I.rrnudaa. 1 stat tld by T. I.
Hlarr i-. director ir t1he publicI gaal,. at, in the hI erB' d1 a ( 1 olon d t for
(lit I'_'lli ,f .Aat z-t. I'"'i, may be p1oted in this connelto(m. It ill
It' rit killed that the pest was int reduced into Bermua1da many years
agro:
Tl1h1.ii0 ll 1h, grealt '.%ii.i of frlli rll-1 tries growiln lhe<'t II k ii-.iiit. ill to|
fiiriii-ii i,',:'I'.i Iiii--- iil'li.i for flies llii,,.,l ,lir t \t \i yh l rtar, t. e si l M es1ive
g it n rti iIll litli i ln w ( of I l ,iTl ,.I,.l l hlitil 4f 1'['Vill \w i 'tl mt'll 4hl' 11t 111, Siltrilrilll
I h r y (I.IIi/ it' 1 a', Ih I li) aI s bIeeI thI f IIost potent factor In i,.r'|i. t ,:i r-"' the
[H.I l1 hire are two n il crolps of fruit, onei, ii ti -III i I,: inil ao lliher inll thie
fill. but .i i:,'LI,. n bewtIeenI ea4 h ('; ate til' two ( roi ti[ o *, h .\ l i,
T:i*v 1-,iiti s I. i' 11,, .1tr jt p 1nit "I), il-'nii'it in February aInd M Ir'l.. are
tlseil lIy the fri ": flies of tle yr ear. fIin, til e Ii.i nria l thai h v e liv ed Ii.i Ii. Iiii In
tihe oi111'1iii1 il nrii th_ e two coldest mIonths. a Itil 4(ie ha r4p hat tied fSn.ii I (Ie of nliee Is iit h,.'in t to )ua Ite t 1'>r i-n I, 1 ii l. ire aIll over. In sNtme 1, insta ces
tili. y<.ear. where li r I'rii l hald leen1 pe.ked by birds and hai4 d -hInni, 1 ,I .n11 the
trte,, complete i 1 i:|'; were found within the fri'iti At tilte entd of April and
d iir I.I M:iy. the i,,':t, hi. 'i.rri.', oIra1)es (btth swee t und sour), Ilions a;l limeit1s,
lla rlilds %.'l'rry. :1iid :1 iii'iiins l'i i_; forth anlloth r cro| of 1 ingI ots t liit,
aflrn r 1pii|:1i, in. are Just ill tim e ri thr e -i ...i,,,ill;i i June ;il July. .i...' 111
tho-ee are the mlanig oes. iT'.. swe't piia'l'r.s. cherries :.-ili a voao p.ears.
gllIt :i l i. g.i r -i'ili,'-. cierinoyas. a1111des. whih serve as i r'.p.,;:,lin^ ninL, 1 ii- a until tile liial resting brood goes to
eiirll dt rhiL Ovii'illw'r
W1ileh4 the g',erIla freliii..! habits of the fruit-fly render a comIplete
li.t ,if frill(, ati:tll.edl of secondary importance, yet it is desirable
to know from what friit it has actually been reard. or which ha ve
Ix'een noted as infctdi.
The evidence of infestation in the case of bananas is not as con--
cli,.ive as is dei.- ir:il Ic. especially as to whether the fruit in a ,'r,,
C'oinditiill as gatliered for shipment is infested. As recorded I'v
Frenci. (Journ. A.._r., I'(17,', p. :'W_1) the larva, of this fly were found
in Ibananas imported frin ( iimevn-l.indi. on Al at..-l 14. P1il'. and the
perrfect insect reared. The same author, in his IHand Book ,f the
I)es trctive Insects of Victoria (vol. 4. p. :',). says:
It has been fl',r tHi's will not attack r.' eni friml. This is a mistake, as I have on ,111,.,T occasions
I'l%,%'d I,-s:-s to have beelIl-] inll,.-t.' In gr'ee i b 1ananas 1". It shipme-llnt. as no
lha If- rtie bananas are ever !-I II' i-il fromI QueeIIsland to Mellourne.
On the other haImind, the Hawaiian ,eitt,,l,..i-'t, have not found the
ins.ct a it hkin i"m bananas, and believe tIhat in the _'r1ei i condition n in
wliliI it is Ia l leredI the frI it is not -a1 jeitl to attack. Ripe bananas
are. however,'. unquestionably iia fe!t id.








TIHE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT-FLY.


Both Mr. French and Mr. Kirk record finding hirva of the Med-
iterrai,..an fruit-fly in pineapples.
A list i.i givii ienlow of all fruits recordetl in literature, so far as
M1, l i;mv I,,eil alle to ter'ltiiiiiie. which aire sublject to infestation by
tlie Met]itr'lriiov';ii frulit-fly.

Fi ll.s IN l S-.LI BI V TFI. MNEIIIITIRANI-.AN lF'l'rIT-Fl..1


i | h i' Iirr cal i Ktf i ;1 lcv Iq ).
A.I I 1-'I I W I III':I I.
. lii ,lilJ .'- I ".'i.
-\ in ii'na.

. |I, it. i f ( i hts de)
I IJMin liv llu iviiii (nighplt shale)
A\\ In ;1l11) iiti 1'.
.\7,11'l ]f.
I ;1:i ha I
] I'1 ;I IlaI.
.I' ,;iis i- 1l*i'li.i erl'.
I;',.;lni i ;i | i?'i.>n.ll.
< ',11 ;lliilin li i .\\ ,r'hr o~q I.
v'ii it, I 11 i, m I if[uii : li l.l'Y pi1p;lya.
f i, 'i .,V fi ii 'IiHii.


IKuluillat ( ('i I.I jx ulitii o 1i1).
I" .tnion.
I.inle.
I-UJ iint I lirioi bolf/l jti i j a' a I.
3ml lilllee-laIpl'Ici I IIiniv I,' iniufrrie ia).
M:lnd;I rin.
Mingo.
.M1;illpi fruil.
Mlouinta in !apphle.
J1it' rrvi i .i fv iti'! I llck orlilige).
Ntntarinle.
Nightshadep (.1 lIri/i hi Ili/itliinl).
O/utilin iv lii/'rix (iri,'kly ieiPIr).
Ollllll Viil Iintfl.
Orange.
PI'iliiy i I l.Iiv i.


I I I'b i 1lii,. y- i i ain l e Ii' it, I li a i Paiilp i i ller-i iliel.
( li'vy. Pi'is.iiih tli 'ter i Paloi.flora vcTrrelda).
i'liiiit,-'.t' iik lillrr'y I Cv ,'riil sN i. P issiin frilit.
4 'lhilir..r lil- lhl I i ,o0ll' i ,i l i i ry' 11,uti]1). Poaclh.
I /it. ii,' l avull ,ini'iii, I "tar applee. P'enr.
i' *I,,11N. Pepipier. %,l-ct.
I'll'rii f'nirs. ill kinds. Peplper. Preen.
'ilrii" bit. ifiliits. I'ersinuvinn.
Vill it. f i iiiii ', l K IIIII(IIInItI '. Pinell-p rle.
( 'i,',>;i -|Il l1 I i 'ht'l lviifiili inii.'i n-'ico ). P'l tiI Illiilp.
I '"ifft' ll ''T. Phlim.
I 4LJ'l:lilltl. Pu~illllPlli)uP] .
0:1,,1 iji, li (,Il I Wr's ;iiiulle). Pri< Mly penir I(liplnlina rulpnri.,l.
J'.ut nit wi' I. h iii Si'riihnln cherr.vy). Ptlit lldi)n.
Ii Quince.
e i 11ii11li.. Ro-ep a;il>le i Fulriia jrt iovs).
I<;r'i!, I .'i. Sn, Ihhhilk.
I rl' liifl'ii t. Sui I ;,I.i\ I I il i':i l o d ). S;ipPot.i .
;Iii l ;i ('i'a rivlii'I' i.. ,itl/tin ini v'ni .'iivri.-,'ifr un r'herry s.iil
< ;lijn;i~i i \\ih\ i illlnil I.
Si1111liiill' p tj/ .i tffi'ini' ( K;Nair" plum)i. Stair apple.
1:il li iir lii I i i li Ij i li ih lhifl '1a'fi'ivi i. Si ;i r aililte.
I\vi ii'1I, i .l, i iti ,ffi' I. Sll'iiiiiii <-lier'rv i I.'ug( niif mi'hrlii).
" I\:lim:ini -P+'d?.. T,,llltlto.

i I'h,. iiil ii llii' li-t :irtv r r'rilred ,;.i'll :i-' ilh, ap[pr:ir ill li Iil'lr- il ir,- con,
nlll Mil.. lii-' IIi. r.uru j i- l. iiv,4 l fi-'.in 1 ,iin -,'i'rr..- hli'l flro t Hlawali. South
.Afrini :inl .\ti-lintlln. lhirli' is nome ri- Hil in. I,'ing I) cnolloliihla isms.


,1..







IiIK N I' I t l l l. I: 'L N l.\ I 1 11 I II \.


1.11 I ll- l" i 'li: \ MI' II \JilI".

T hel' liftg h f i-m i a di'r Ilf' i ll lllliI ,1"m Il .l M lli l''. .llir.Hl I'lll tl\ lin.l '

1 1't l l \ r .v : r ,i i fiit l l l "i i iv i -i ,i i .I I \ i l l l li I m lm- u i ii i- I i 1 1i '
ti'il;,l'li 1 iv li 'r ,ii till. Ilthal. I i .iii llv. :i1il l l imi -. I,, l',l l-,,
u'(lvn l t oif l ,i i-t, i I' i" ('. I \'. 1.,1- n'iiil ul l iii ,,lii il f,,i- lilt l .li -i ,'I
r'tr V 'Ir( i-- ,l,,tl',l fr mii mli-i., 11,, h ,,, l l, I r li ii 1\ "" i 1 I l li :i Ip -
p illr ld ill tIi A. % ririilll ril ,ii i ,i l. ( ':'1"ti' Ai ( ,, Ili*,Ii ,. 1).m '.ii lii r,'
] i11) i :

A S. ilh fi'lllill iiI i illl l lllml 1mit l i.',l i .'L. Ii li,, h il' I Il, I l 'if lh fi'llf I 1- I ll l ll t-
Illll},,t,, I jl .11-1 :l Jl llll1. I hII i l ll ir mi ,i .il I. l l.' -' 1 'i I liri-i I| I'-mJ'. I ...* llr '1 ,111





tie liil l~t 11 31 1.11i il f g111e iull *lv i'ld i' .11 'l h mli 111 ii! RmI
et'm i ilLe'. iTi. l liL ill' iii ii III-.
"Th3 i st -- ii'hi" f11. 1li.i'h l l|''lh i u l 1i i -. l it -liii i ..i iull 4 lilh
ifr ,'in hitl ll.h i lll ll lhir im-'m t'm i Ila \mll m' li r-i.lll- ] 1 e l ii, l lm lllt
lillll IIb t imh mllil m llllii mll ll l t Il ii l 1 -1 I 'll lli li '-'f rlliI i ll% I I'll I'i l
i llit s 4khi m .rlliiii 'i 111ni it- ~ i'-l hill ii i 1 ill I t iii i .lilI' I -,.rh r T h I i l I i 111 .1 I
vt'l'y slli lt liint I\ir\ iih I iiilr ib fy- 1i liillIil l lll.l TI.l m. m I i ll- I 1 111
Izi'tIli ll Ii I llhll 'lll r I l lr I'i] il ,le l 1' I llteh l t I,' i l,,I | li'l, il I i' I l. mllm i in-hl l. m i '.l
reliiL h t it'II 111 :1 m 14 li,.i 11,1 i l ,l II l m.i i' i i i l i.' i I Iht 1 i l- i ''h Ii ii i .i ,, I-
ref rni io in im> |in ii- t' li liiii imlint ; i 'lr I II,- i t,,n .ii iir 1 \ .ir ni ilr ir i
thIl l r r 'i l i lim l I, 1' .11 Ih iii. i" i't1 l h l lle i .m .lm l li i I! i 'lllm n ;i i ll I 'lt
tipl 11111110 111,1 1 1. 11 i 17,-'- i% l. -r ,I,.i l .,I h .. \ .il11 i .li i S! IIiiiir 1 1 I li .i ,, ii ll.

l'CiliI I ll ib l l'i'll' i l lmmI I I 'hl' 1i>. 1 h l Il l i il l ii i lilm i li 1 .m le\. 1lli,1n l l I. ,
sloll tl W .rIto -,e Ill l hs i 'ii ll t I ,li ,Il, m l, I I lllr ._ ll .l o i i lll i l ll ll on [] l it,

bl iii ll I b-'1 I mblel I sll Ill imi-4 I li ]i iim m hl i h .|i]' I li i i i. Iill. l ll .ii lir mi i i,'
r'i h'h lilt e'rl l ; lni'll T ,11 1 ll, I i'' I-. %%h'I 1,- i f Illi, 113 1-il1-i. 1, 1, il,) il'll
rikiiitle. .\ Ill ,ll I _. I fI ,l.-lm b li ll I I I1'l. -1I1 h t-.ll I 4 1 liti ii ii i ll 1 1 *t- ll I'lil
Itlley Il1-1l- ll li II1t '111 ,ii h lh l illtl ll' i illl iIlll. kilid I ,llm 11Ie lll. I ,'1"1i. l l ii I -'il1
ill w hic'hli p 11t ii"ll.,- 1 N nllhirl'r. i '\, ilv ll. 111111.11 1-l,11l- pi' Ir |' ,i|>ll. ,i i-.
or) illP v l. 'Ill l It I ll I It l ii.'-. m li '\% T Il l;m lI I''-- Z1 I I I I I frill I I i'I it I% t ...m ,,il
1 'rii.ll .i f",;'.s. 'il-. if Il hr\ t li ii, ll h I li rlli 'i i i im i Ii i ll .I. i i l m t lil
T his. i i a ll itill; l:;I ll |p oint. fl" Ili.ll.'y frlil l 'r' 1"- l. ,, :i I,,,Irl'-- \ i..'.
hit~h li' 1^ l I liri l i,,_--'.s Iin;I.y Ilr l ihil l l lh "l, lilil lhil, ii i- l~il i ,i i \ ',,,liinr-
ailll it rI Inl' ln jirtll i it 11i m i lli i-" I i lli in m ll 1 i 'l, I -,t.r i i- I.. . I -.,i ,I,'
il8 1'l 1Il ilW i. I f I liw II I Il l b mI I llI I I ; I II l,,i I h % ir ,!,-, m ih il | I I I. lip-
nellhir fr ir i l t i rl Ies le mm Ihlin l l m ,ii lill hii l- 11111 I,1 mm hl ii' i., ilh mm i lil i
la st rM ailr'f li iIl 1 Ill- ll t lllsl- \t l m L ul'mh i ,l -l '1i| Imm 13 h mIl ,--', i t 'i
till," ('tv T''Ir i "f w\hl ,-li %.', .1- I:ll ]l I l.irk 1"" I 1 ,!,i ,. \.il il li i l v. \' 1 i
foil d lip 1 1 I llr I ll Ih I'I l li r I1. h1.l i\ '-" i 1, 1 Ii| l [I. ,I \o, I. .[ 1,,.1'il I l ,' ,,1'11 H i I
T hle aipples n -r'r -iill hlai dl a ll lit' 1-1"41:iI Iil'.4 il. ii i in lir .-'- [I. -*In 'hlIl
reu i lit .i% \, l' ii,'l ', iil I I-II I r I',,llil \ ... .. ,ii-i ,l .I r ,, I'r ,iilr I,, ilir l i in :
h a ving l i'll llir 'Tl 'll ivlirll i i i ,,l i I .. 'r ,l ,. \\ III-, l,, i. ,-, or f

ilt Inlri, i irr 11. '"',l "o =a nill l" I '"a l Iii i 'il 4 -11 lu Iit ,, 11 ,,f Iilr, i'l il l
In api'i[>it'o Ihi .y Im .lk ir i li'i-hl f,,r Ih lhr -.1ii .rr. lip. iiill, ,. ihil l\ 1 Iil- i i,,,i~ liiir
ro u nldi l tIhe Jill. Illi 11'.11 ILI" .111-1 1.1 ll r l lin r h ,1", I i ll.111. i ii [ I,, \llt%[ i ll 1
d iff erent tr i ii h't it III-, fl',Illl Ih l i- I' ilit In r I |,, li ,,h i lii l'lh _"' I1, l -11l1,1 t lr 'lln '
it) pier l'tr; t, l ,l-" l'nil lihl, i rliil r WV hn'ti I' r11 1'1',I,,.I. \1i*lh li -i,1:ill 1 "r-;lyr,-
a foirtn i t ght lhln- r iil kll i t h. lirh,. t'l-iiil, x hi, li i.,- ,1- .1 r lh4 f.,Ih1 ,i
se -erp il days iirorii' il. ,Ihw l ,Ii1,I Ih,' -1,,11 ,l -W .1 ,,ii ; -,,11: do,',l.,'r Ih I I I ,,oll
inMio dq ueiidiug ion tht' imlill' ,r" Il-d U P ,,il Ilb'rr. ihli I.-m i I ,"ii .n. ip Ii ,.iri 1.
nilq| r tili.-in i fir li l\1. ol-'l. 1-- 1, 1 Ml1' 4 1 1141 w l 'i i iili '- ,11 Ih,' -..,....i \\'n Illl
the Tr-llisforninllioil li> adulllt i. is ,,iiltl,] lt, Oil' llv ILi-hl' Ilhl',,ll h [Ihl ll ir ll 4r ille1







THE MEDIrERRANELAN FRUIT-FLY.


puparium and works its way up tlihrough 1he soil. On Ire,'iii.ig the surface tlhe
wi,-". -.\,;iinl to full size, and in a short iiii,. the fly is ready tu search fur
fiod. They are fi'J oft" the exiiling juice of iiinj,,'il fruit After waiting they
lay 4,gv.- and die, thus 1m: ridii thle end of o0r, ',.iit1rui,, ;Ianl lime W "liiiiiiiig of
the next. Th'l'i eg- are not all oihsited it once. Jusi how long the im-
pregnii;ated female lives and continues to lMy egg. iiiid'r :natural conditions is
not kinjin, but it is several weeks at least.
The number of bromis in a year depends o>n temiielni tiire. In midsummer, with al.liii(nl|it food. they develop more rapidly,
one geiie'ratiouii being complete in about rdwynt 3y*iLlht ,l.iys. Very ripe fruit
seems to hasten their de'elupin'iii During- the winter. :it iGralham:iiiwii [C('lpe
Colony, S. Africa], they require two mnonlis ulr iii re to ciplete their trans-
formations. The Ipulnrium sti.-g of the undwiiiter brood, recordled below,
required thirty-five days in the re;iring-li,'x ii the ittice a't the ordinary sea-
sonal temperature. The broods overlap to .-tih a great extent that it is im-
possible to keep them separate in the rield.
With the ;ippritiach of winter, the females ;ire able tu survive st-veral months
under natural conditions if no suitable fruiit i a:nailble fir egg (lelsit pioi.
The late peaches furnish the last grand feaist. ab>ui the first of April. The
adults of this gvner'itioun einer.',-i et.ly in May anid can siir'i e till tihe citrus
fruits are .-iillihieiitly ripe to serve as food fur the larvae.
In this article Mr. Mally adds that the adults are keen feeders,
taking readily to the juice exuding from tlie injured ,,r decaying
fruit, and some individuals have been found to feed on the hIoney-
dew from certain scale insects. It is tie conenls of opinion thliat
the insect is carried from one locality to another by means of infested
fruit. When once introduced in a locality, however, there will be a
natural spread or dissemination of the species, though the rate of
dissemination has not been ascertained. This will doubtless vary
with the climate in question, particularly with the strength and
direction of the winds. Migirations will be -timilated by an insuf-
ficiency of food supply.
DESCRIPTI )N.

The following description of the adult is quoted from Farmers'
Bulletin 24, Department of Agriculture of New South VWales, by
W. WT. Froggatt:
Size 4 to 5 mm., about the size of an average house-fly, but inkking somewhat
smaller when deadi, because ilie body shrinks up benethli thi thoira.x. General
colar, ochreous yellow, lighter on the sides of thorax :iil b.i-al jointss of the
antenna. The eye. of the usual reddish plu-iile tihit. vwitii a l.tiikish blotch
in the center of the forehead, from whirli spring two stout black bristles, a fine
frigo, of similar liriktles round the hind n:irin of the henilad. with sounie coarser
ones (ci' :r iiz round in front of the bheaid be:weieti thlie eyes Thie ihli.keneil basal
joints of the antenuwe pale yiIh\wm, the terminal se-nilents bla.ik ti, the tips. The
dorsal surface of the thorax convex, ni-ai.eild, anld broadly r, 'inlhd with the
scutellum, the iruiiiil color creamy white to yell,,w. marbled with shiny black
blotches fri.iiiiL atni iri,'ulnar mosaic pattern. lthe lighter piioins clothed with
very fine white bristles. These li-'ht-coloredJ bristles imore lightly scattered
over the dark areas, and the whole be:L,'iu'-' 1.'1r.' stoUt belac; bristles thickest
on the black surface.


SS,: .. J







Ti NI fIT TTl'111.%' \'" l I it IT-FLY,.


Siii Iii1l.% -r it, ilt, til Ie' 4 f i h tifis iII t' I I l i1 blaek til+'at a 'r 1 lr i'vwii i' If hliey
i I .i.. *|i.. I i i.: lt t' i>r kiitW li4 huit lI IliI I r I:t I lie wil0: f11rriw aI regularIi
rouillll -,i -ill f.i ,
'Thli. i,.-- .ire hrmd, .'ii..l..ii'i, w'ith tli'" (>x r<'t > bll e lt iliiehetrhiw l with fM'hre-
1.111 ,,r |ir,,\ i-li yelhnv with thl rst It the 1 hail i:4. c riotsly -1airk11 with
l:,-ik f,,riiiii 1l' il trk luiies tof tilt r Idl.t lii h t+ I itre', with i darrk I lhirts I i I.I-
li. rr.ii i.i'!l thisi Is ai itroir Irre-ularl l trt Ii i r"t' ti1lir.1"i-. Iinl, i 11; litly
lllri.l wilhi hilt, k. lihtitclhi'tl tit tlilt l'xtrelllty~; liiiitrlinil"+llhir Mlhill III hll'hi iilm 1 linic lt+IlS Illi r, I I ot lit 1[ 1: lttrI ct w itlh t hI e o1 tal ii i: r I I I 1II)
hhll hliil in\.i. <|8l thei 0.\i iiiil i lu tiltv nln~itiin s'l+isn .t+ II#1wccn tlit,+ Itlitindr la
iiii i rl" -Iw ,'l 'r: black b1 anl rii llnli IIi "illtl witl i It 1ir, t t1 ii': I e se I I-ii l.
'li, d .1:1 il;t. i ,l(n> I lo \ itht'lld on le tIin lr 1l"r1f. c-t w ith li iiN.- i-11 tlr> hirlt I'. .irI hlias two rl thier ;r1i l tka i;' erse Iil t'rlI wl I i Im mi t ids O1 t li hi. ll,
hl~ll'f r lhi' 1iily. '1'h'li nmale ,liii,.i. r'i., i hi ft+iM i inle In IN*+IKl Pirl~l'it rd w ith
T i iir ar hi' ill Oil ; i i t I l- stiiirlliI oi ut in fl'i il t lie hliead i ii a line wtil i
liet i1-m1 lil.il-"ll ,f .1 i yhe t'v thtn +\trel it's te f whilt'li illaiiilils are prlutdluetl
li s.i 1-- a[il l.I .1 t li\i hi res. lilack, I likely iDl 'itr; il, l \trl tlsIniil I ittl.
I" i. lii i i r I a a t iI IS tit 1t ill h l rl, t1relt t't l iili ii. l t t i l I '1 1 a L lI' I i It )r
friii l I'- I1' I ret with Ita w ings Il i',.. ii d" : I II I i I n Ile 'Iides ,,I thie l-INiy.
I lt, i-rlr l'ii. l it has a shol'rt flig ht- I eldr o ni iI in'" it frw e I liin a few yat ri d atit
tilt IIlm 'r. :i 1.l ii: l'-ill returns I t e lttil int' s tI" I.( ., iiq' l.1

N ATI VI\I. FKNM IEt".

('o ,.itIhrrililfh Bttentio hlisAs l~een gi\,. i to tIhe iim ,-li,_.ilion of lwssi-
ile in.i-t-'( ,,ilwn ies of f iruit Hlii -. t1ii,_'i to ( idate io i ,l, ','li\ ittiitral
cheek 'll itil'i- to have I)t'n f,,iiil ()hsWrvitio lia n 1, Mr. (l*., i'.,,
CPOlpit',. in Tir.i/il, led hini I(t helie v tliit tilis in' t cot :1l1,1i-r with
s-t''rail ,ili.r sl)pecies o(f fruit-fliie w;as there kept in check h)b a
.stiiphyliliii beetle pr ii,. i p)on tile 1n:l -,a l -i; alnt that it \"A- 1lso)
held in cli.l-k by two -p id' l t. Ifchn iuon wai.s). ll'oti thle l'ira-
Sitir' ;1111 prlidatory enemiesin' w'ee iIii ir, li, i1nto1 West A.lstralia.
Mr. ('Compere conlludes his repoli 11 pon thie iitriodiction work w\itli
tilt' stittinelit that with the estailishmient of these enemiei in the
Stiite tlite pe'-t will be reduced to harmless nlitUbeitrfs.
"The importance of Mr. ('ii 'r's aniouneiienlIlt led thlte ( 'Caipe
(iovernmeni t Wil nd the Nat1l (;,1i\irrilii to lI I-p;lichI th Ieir eIltoiolitIo-
gi.mt AMr. l.iunAbury and Mr. Fuller) to Brazil in ewr'chli of tilese
enelilit-,. ;- -et fwiili in the Agricul lurial Journal of thie ('Cape oif (od
Hlope fur .I;liuar,. '.Pi.',. In the Oct)ober nullmber of thle samie iW'irii;il
1 I.'-, Mi'. Lo lnsburv presents Ils hi- ilrt upon tle trip) to Brazil,
thlt of iMr. Fuller hat\ in, beei clirie'r ,'l. ii in thle aiital A. ricii-
t riial .oniirniil. Miay v 2,. 1'.1(-.
Mri. T.iiii-lury reports the MiihTrranliean fruit -ly as a Vr 'v severe
pe.t ini tlhe States if SIo P.ln,. Riof de ,Janeiro, :iiLi prolaal)y else-
wheire ill Brzil where lpeacheis are '.r, nit. No trace of the staplihy-
liniId it et le oiil, I be fIndilI and it w\ta- pres1imued to be wII tiln eney V f
Journ. Agr. Ioivpt. WI. Au'trilla. Autust, rt.






16 THE MEDITETRRANEAN.' FRIUIT- FLY.

fruit-flies only under certain conditions. A small parasitic wasp
(Opiellus trim aulaetus Spin.) was reared from a related fruit-fly,
Anastrepha fivlhr, ,i, and maggot. infesi ing .,niall fruits showed a
higher percentage of parasitism. Another small wasp was observed
crawling over peaches and in one instance alppalrently ovipositing in
the fruit and was suspected of being parasitic on fruit-flies. At-
tempts were proposed to determine if the Op()lills p)arasite would
also attack the Medliterranean fruit-fly, though apparently without
much ihope. as Mr. Lounsbury concludes:
Whilst there still appieiar tliee lIs.sibi cities tljit fruit flH parasites exist in
Brazil that might prove of some value ag.iinst Smouth African fruit flies, I no
mii-'er have any hope whatever that 1lii-l' para1-ii- iii I.v caluillv of holding
our fruit flies in such close .iilj,'-iin tlita artificial men sures to sive orchard
fruits will become materially less necessary than tlhey ;ire :it present.
Mr. W. W. Froggatt, under the auspice, if tlhe Governments of
New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, and Queen.sland, spent
a year (July, 1l07, to July, 1908) in an investigation of entomolog-
ical questions in foi-iLn voiintrie-. and during Ilis., trip around the
world particular attention was paid by himn to thle subject of insect
control by parasitic and predatory in.ect-., especially with reference
to enemies of fruit flies (Report on Pa;ir.itic and Injurious Insects,
Department of Agriviulture, New South Wale-. 1909i). N, reference
is made in this report to the discovery of natural enemies of fruit-
flies, and that no lhope is felt in such work i- 1I,,iwn by the following
statement (p. G;.) :
I consider, as do nearly all leading entomologist. wiho have given the matter
of fruit flies any attention, that it is very iml'iqlb;ihlp th t a ly internal para-
site will ever make any impression on this pe'st in the n-;i-e of commercial
fruit, such as oranges. i e t.let. etc. In all c:i-,- Ili-re parniites h:ive been
bred it has been from small, wild, or hard-fl-eshed fruits, and though parasites
may be quite numerous ;iniong some of ilie \\ill frulii-. t Il iwy ;:1 1imit able to
injure the larvae in large fiuiii.
In Mexico an ichneumonid parasite infests the Morelos orange
worm (Tfypeta ludens Loew), namely, ('Crauqi-ft i, mldibunda Say,
thl-o_,h, as stated byv Mr. Isaacs, not over from 10 to 1'5 per cent are
parasitized. Prof. A. Berlese records HIt r,,, ro< ,ar brusilibnis
Ashm. MS. from the Mediterranean fruit-fly, and its use has been
advocated by Von Ihering against Tri/,/ ti 1,i1d.n.

PREVENTIVE AND REMEDIAL .ME.AS-RES.
The governments of certain countries have put in force regulations
for the enforced control of -fruit-flies, and in each instance (lie prin-
ciple followed has been the inspection of orchards and cleaning up
and destruction of all fallen fruits. This ;ecims to be the plan
principally recommended and relied upon for the control of this in-







rill.i li1ii ri.iItlu \' I. it II i r y. 17

sect, altholih as later meltfitned o1her 11 eIhods Itave Ih)unu t ried with
Imore't or1 1'S8 -,lql'i'--.
In Mexico a g'rit| of iimoney was obtained fur lch.:iiiii,- up ,r.iiL',
orc,'l.rd1 inif'sted I itii tIl., so-called (ir..iig. wormI (I'', ,,a b lm)
,iiml t le fidllimillg rules wee issued lby the(i Comision de Parasi-
tolo"11 A.\ri,-ola in whose i,.ii1,,L the work was pl.icld.
Ill t.;iilli-' each liy Nall iii n n'1.. le-MonS, a111 1 oranges wli\Ih I iay1 have
fillliei frli'll ilIt trees, ai riln l i i' thllll II i a1 leitIl Iurdlr of lthe orcl id.
2 I l i'-tri-i I'il l 'it) 0 l'ec lilk bl li.tI at Ie'llt o I' n \v 1 .k.
(:1) it i-. jlrift'rrnhlhl to iki,-Iir.. the fruit by uri1iliK1 hlilt It n y bI e I i lt .....i 1
of lIy lIarnili, Maill wlihtnl blurie It slould be covered wilh t le\%sl .,-1i :- eL i-
Di'et'l's l ili'll .'' hi llies) of SI l.
(4) If tl r atiuie worii xlistx s ill tlihe guaiva, il,,- fruit shliould lso Ih at i,,.ir,, ..I
Il the illyi' nl11amner.
Q1Ui'ainiliit niCeasures II ; iiii; t 1 r:iii friilii M \i.'o hlave been in
forc for sole years in ( C.il firnlia.
In Berimiuda an iact i:iie iwto force in lP1i7 to improve fruit-
growing conditionss oni the ishiand i\ the suppre-.,ioli of the Mlliit.r-
raneli inii fruitil-i1, and thle work of ,'ri, i,-:l I,,ia was phwld in the hands
of tlihe lo:ir I of agririliture. (oncerlriiiL, thlie scolle and character of
the work iindri'lkrten. Mr. Hlarris states:
Tbie' ;:lqiIer:il IpiIki hais b1 ,1n 1o vollt'. !iII d1 stroy all the lltui re tI f 'l Ili- oif .ill
kinds kiiwu to be 1pnii li irvi' tiihr o tiht the Icol tlilry id in sulicht cisIs, witie
trees I.:1 1 riil. l._r lmllaibers aal f'iIanil fruit are too Il llet ollS, almut !I( I.1" ta l
hal % liebeli rInrci l back to k 'it,' t telt ir t rIIIIii iih fruit Iliairi,. the lieXt fruit-
lug seais'l i by dhiiin this it is ia- Ia, to collect all lilth fruil lroliltucd 1). ohi
trees Il-A l were left liiiii'ri'ii lm st season.
The fruiils were ,'lll,.r,.l In sacks, weighted by 1 -,illina: a 1i:, stone b-fofre
tCloiatil' Iial big, and thrown into tlhe sea. hi aI f,'\ Instances it 1a',',al iore
colianc it'llil to buIn or boll thile friiIs.
Thie i%,'rk was beguin l3as oI ias 1 ,I --Silh'l .ifaIr the "Act" ca-Ie Into ii Il't.
Teti set'. tof tools were ,Iiiri.,qd. and ali iii.l ltl..lr was 1il"l,,iila .lI folr t(*ici of
Ithe r e aifie. ild tie in-lt| ir-, were -iii'li-ial with ;il borers ias i1,a ,.-ilO
denis lillNed.
No regi ilations appear to be inll force iin Mctdii err-anen countries
for tile control if this or other fruit-flies, though a large reward is
offered ]I the Italian Government for a remedy for the lnetllY re-
hlated species, the olive t lv (ZJaws ulh, Rossi ) No reference has
been noted lbeairinii7 on lehi-l.iitii ;ilhnig, this line in Aili-Ilralia or in
Cape Colonyihi.
The r'g'ilaIiiian proniuid.iited lI thle Iawatiiian authorities to 1re-
vent the distribution of the insect from Oahu to other islands and
the quaiirniintine e-iabli'-lied by Californita .,z,'jlir-i Ilawaiian fruit have
alr'adv been noled.
In regions where the pest is well estalli-hcd.. as in Ail-ir'alia :and
South Africa. much attention has been given to ,hfvvi-i, live
remedies other than the collel,,ion and des-truction of f:lhl.i1 frit.
A plan recommended by Lounsbury in 1Y',e was the ,'uria.rj 4f







THE MEDITERR.ANEAN' FRTIT-FLV.


trees with lettingg., and in the case of -imall to medium-sized trees
the method was tloiughlit to be practical. Full directions were given
for the ciploh iiicnt of netting, and it was stated :
The measure will uiinldilitedly be of great %alue to parties growing choice
varieties in and about our %illages where, li,.iiiuse of laxity ou the part of
iLtighbli'rs. the destruction of all maggot-inf-.,ted fruit o1 one's pIlace is ui-
availiig as a preventive from further attack.
Thi-. plan, apparently, has not been followed to any great extent.
Professor Antonio Berle.e. of Florence. Italy, began in 1903 tests
of a poisoned bait against the olive fly ( Dw i,.s olc', ). The poisoned
liquid was sprayed over the trees to debttroy the adults which feed
freely on available fruit juices and other ,weeti..,h suibtances. This
work. commenced in 190:, was continued during 1905 and 190G. The
material used consisted of honey 31 per cent. molasses 65 per cent,
glycerine 2 per cent, and arsenite of potash 2 peer cent. Prof. Berlese
states:
I have carried on rti- above experiments on 1I.001) trees in three different
localities, and have obtained absolute results, i i'ing Mi,.eeeded in keeping
sound, until they were ripe, all the olives on tbe tree, wvhih had eeni treated.
This I did. although in the miTiii'iitiling IplJlautathii- all thlie olie O were n;.;ggot-
eaten and destroyed as early as StiteliJublr'. Silir ii lie mixture is very soluble.
the autuninal rains, which fall generally a little Ibefrire tile gathering of the
fruit, are sufficient to wash off the iimiiiviel iilbpiai'.e. which was sprayed on
to the olives. When, however, copious rains do not <-. iUr. it is necess.siry, before
s udiug the olives to the press, to wash them in vialer iii order to prevent any
risk of ]iisi.,uiLj'.
In the Agricultural Journal, Cape of Good Ilope, for December,
1904, Mr. C. WV. Mally reports upon experiment,. made quite inde-
pendently of those of Prof. Berle-e. in the destruction of the Mediter-
ranean fruit-flies by a poi.oned-bait spray. iu-i'ed with good results
in his rearing cages. The bait consisted of a solution of 5 gallons of
treacle (molasses), 1 pound of arsenate ,4f lead. and 25 gallons of
water. This poisoned bait was further tried out 1 MaIllyI and others
during several -iiccelding .-ea-on,. and in 190!9 was put to practical
field tests. Concerning the experiment Mr. Mally states:
Results.-While the bait was expected to nm;ike a aood sh,,ving in regard to
the late varieties of fruit, its prompt -lt..r it .ilii.th ,t ciiiiii te'ly stopping the
ilei- 'itiiii of eg-s in the fruit .ilreidy ripenili, (.inie is ;i ai--reeilde surprise.
The late niturtiiit- portion of the fruit on the troe--. extent of 50 per cent of the fruit in the propler sta:oe of rilpenesz for the flies
when the baiting l..';i,. came to maturity pranlira;illy frev from miia.,ots-less
than 1 per cent being infested. The fruit on aill the late varieties of treateil
trees ripened perfectly, and was sold on the m: tket and gu: r:ttintel free from
iia'.,t-t. No 1 ,mill:Ait1-s of infestation wern, rec-eived at :my time. On the
control trees the situation was just the reverl.- alniost every rikle fruit being
infested by maggots 'nii;i u-i from in-\vly hatched t, fully Idei-llled. Pulimria
were present under some of the decaying peaches. amul there \vere niumnerous flies
flitting about the trees.







TI l. M. III I 11I;I: \' EAN FR I I F'LY.


Ti -"I',, ,.1 ,.\|ilti:,ftii NWIUHll |t> |H* i nta tIn' bail, t, tl bei \g tli,, i1' l I ~i, l,|h |", 'i -. |uslh, ch('., iinmlt t |ti Ui irr|lnirl.| wnsl i r.,ii vil'l~h l
t piet ] r':.(l.',illf .-11 of i. l ,-pr H during i- 1 -l y l.. il I I iI I, i I klI y,
c ,ii.! t,.t un It to their ,I,-i nwtlecn.l t shcuhl hce "t:citd heren (ltit, c' ni c h h
th llh,' ci,, Iln ut "el,,i, d'ish l e IicIhdil1ty ili. l fetcllcg otni h u niIt, hthn l istI
li,,:ln,, t tilkfc ,i' ,l i |In i v er shlort tlin, ,ihld oiclcAVhte'I tllcirl clst rtl oniIc hi
nileHtit "'t |lioiir I;,ll |lirliig tih -i1ni I., lilt;*1, -td il iriih't i~y s eiciliicl n,,rh atlol in ciige'S1, [IFO |ii sic',k t, thin of 1tl1> ilcii <'cg Th'le ';1IIH
fnh i. 1 i ,liil 1 1i t11 1 Ifod I'- r.-i ilij1 4 thl 'y cec ricc fl l-- l-ilt' lt .l I1ii,
fill. lI :ii hlh llllsc t feld I' I :1 iliijilH e f i lIC i |)lf tItr s I re -\il, I. ti ly
ii.il :ir l 'e :I l i, *i.. I give' nlcih (i tnie i,,i lhncm tI Iic liha' tli
If iey 1f the lli hs tit 1 1. I-.l fr I r II II;S .f ilrfrtj O l :'i], II hde 11,
11ul 1r1', I II' rI iiinl Ih, i, wvty I o lil' ;th l e rc lmri ll c y l i iI I1c '1 fIu ld th )',iil :L ii1 'oc on nrrim, l lll .It I w:ilho1 1t ,.t I. .. ~;i L Igs. 1 I,? f I l:v I Ill t
t*lllir.r liltl I l .. ilrchlltnril3l c1<> uno tr(rnvrl cc' Cr uc 'i'wv of *|tcl'l'e rih cr c.I IlhIny
lii ir I ie sc qulckly lth t tlcc-frc- is ioithl in tg l', frI cuc Ilc i I F. I Ii- Ils( lIull
lil iiii|"i,(,,rti t IM'rtlliiig cil hcc cii ( 'sticcu of cc oliit ci ccal liccni c-ccltcic frcin c -i. -,I: -
cerih. i'l- for It Indic ties tlhit thie inc'rigrn'x.ci e fruit grocwcer will ic-a p hIce f(cll
be ,ill of his c"rem' i Ir i.,.: IllsW trns-. evx n tlioclnh lhi ceelglclcor',s orlnirl ir
th- n.itive huh witr by is frill ,f Ili,'s.
In these tests in 1'.ii tnhe formula itusd was -ii. r r3 poimnlsi, ar-eliate
of I.eaIl 1 ,11i1i1L-. water t gill,1i,. Rains interfere much with i the
I.IM' (I1 the spray and applicationIs m1st 1e relpeaed to m intiiin it
on tIle trees. A total of 14 a1 ilie'at io-s was tiadIe fI iii JanIIIrV 15
to March "_'I. the expense for niaterial IeiI. Ilu c1t I cents i I tree.
The I)i,-IliecIl-bI it iii. liI( of ruiil rilliI[, this- and oIII their fruit-flies
wimlilI appear entirely feasile, especially in more or less arid I, I.i,,,n-.
wlihre the -IIri\: would not Ie washed ,il bv rains. ( ) thle other
hand. thie ;ipl[;li,.,ti',e, of the spray to fruit just as it is approaihii,,r
fiiatirirly might prove ,1,Ijtional)le. The eoisoned-liait icitliod is
alre.adlv 1 einir tested in the I'nited States for tihe control of wite a;pplle
nmg,.g.i'I. T'ie results of this work, )so far as the writer is aware, have
not I.,n indicated.
('Co,-idthr1Il,,i, interest was aroused in til so-called par ilin remedy.
fir-t developed in West Australia, which consists in trap pin,_l the
ndniht flies with kerosene oil. The oil is said to he partiNulIrly at-
tracti\e to lite-, and thle vessels c,>ni IiTit.. l-ero-enie are placed in the
fWrk of the tree and attract them the their death in conm-idec aile num-
be-. It hals been I'',ind. however, that a large proportion of thlie
in-ect- thus trppedM are mnales,. and practical tests of the method 1\t
Loun.ii ry showed that little., if any. pnrctetion to the fruit re-ulted.








20 THE MEIITERHANEAN FRU'IT-FLV.

I'[IBI.[(tIg.\lPH Y.

'i17. LATREILLE, M.-Les 'lI'lihrites. Ies colons de Y'Isle-de-France ne peiivent prr.Ilue pas. d'apirrs des olser-
vations que m'a communiques M. Cattoir. oliTi nir d,'- 'ilrnns saints pt en
parfaite nmaturit(, a raison de i'extrem murniiil cit, di'un dyptere du meme
sousgenre qui y depose ses oeufs."
1824 (1%'%2;). WIEDEMANN, C. I{.-Analecta entoiiilu,iriva. Kili;, 1p. 55, no. 124.
Trypeta capitata, original description.
1829. MIACLEAY, W. S.-Notice of Cr('aili"ti t rilripcrdi. :inu insect very destructive
to (nrlinuei. Description and colored plate. Character and amount or injury to oranges.
1's.O0. WIEDEMANN, C. R.-A.\us-i-ei rlropi ischite A\neitliir-li.^, e I eterlein. Zweiter
Theil, p. 4l!);.
Trypr't,? capitata, description and brief note
1','( HENEKEN, (.-Entoniological notices. Brief notice.
1835. MACQUART, J.--IiHir i, nturelle des in,.-te's. I iipri'res. Tine 2. p. 45i4.
'P. itiluph,r r capitata, brief description
1S42. BPtMEi:. F. DE.-Note suir le genre Cer';itis ilk e .Mv lf.ai. Ent. de France, vol. 11, pp. 183-190. jil. 7. tifs. 1-..
Description as (C'eratitis hispanicoa.
ls4:-i. MIACQUART. J.-I >iJlil'"s ex\itiiinls nouvenux on 1 ell penniiiiius. {3rd suiiili-
vision.
Note.
I'v:l. .Ml.NFn F ILK. (GUtiRIN.-C'ratitis capitata. ht Soc. Cuvierienna, pp. 111'4-19l.
Notes.
1848. WESTWVOOD. .J. 1).-The orange fly. Account of Ceratitis capitata and character of injury.
1851). %y,,r.t \ I',j .-Note sur nla Ccratitib hlijaiif ii 1 iiitut dlauns ls oranges.
Observations on rearing insect from orange.
18(2. LOEW, H.I-D)ie europischen Itilirelieget. \Vteti., p. 123, li. 2ij, fig. 1.
Brief note with synonyms of Ceratitis (apitrlti,.
]',1;4. SCHINER. II- Ii, Fliegen, Fauna; Austriaca, vol. 2. Wieu, (Gerold, pp. 173-
174.
Description and synonymic notes.
IP,74. ItONDANI, C.-Ortalidinm italicme, .ille.t:e. distincite et in ordinem dis-
positw. Description of Petalophora hispanica.
1871. T..Atot uir'xn. A.-Note sur les donmages t pa Isi.. |>ar la Creratitis liijianica
aux fruits des riinvIers d(ins nos pI isesiiis d'Alheria. Eit. Fran,,e (5), vol. 1, pp. 439-443.
Destructive to oranges.
1882. ALFONSO, Fr BONAFEDE G.-Suilla inniitiin il delle ipi. e i danni dell'
laltcropIhora capitata in Paleriio. p. 13.
1882. MIINA-PALUMBO, F.-Iat mosea ,lelh, aranev. T1i,. 1it'hehi .Alneila. Palermo.
1883. BRAUER, F.-Die Zweifliigler des Kaiserlithe i Museums zu Wiein Ill.
vol. 47, p. 89.
Partial bibliography.







iil-. \ii iII I 1:1 \I AN 1 1:1 11 I FLI .


Is"-,. ( I*S V..S , ( it. IS. t uf+ li'hptir ttrruigii s+i, MaieIra l1'~Iad.
f lh l M,, M .II- Iol. I21 /,o "II J-l1, 29 + I`
l.l'ted for Made|ra.
I'*.', l~qir.r \ .... ('rn+,itilH/ f++itfnilllii+ B,'rl. LEm .t yZrK't 'lhr,, +,,l. *J r.+ KI^.

] 's7 l'l "s/i, iPit .,hI id, t Ht!ii rll ",j-'i i im i + iilh+ | i ll i < A tIl. A\ l %.1
.miiistero 11. 7.
l.%.'.i. I Iii 1ii i.I. i.gs I \.-+ iJuriou l';iL ii Fniiil Ai t o r lli A-rII,
1 I' |. i 1 l ri 1r ."r2 +
l;Mi. 1:i i V1 V ind Io" atw, I.. ixvA Tb: 1f 4IH-It ini IIttmmILo lis. I if-.
i,,' i \ l lll. l, |:1. >'i i*. -. tlj?1.
lI,','ired frwnQi |>'a<'li<>n rf,, l P+t+ l'+d frt+iu llirrnnna.
1s'ih>. 1ItII 'i i \ V.. ilnl l l, 'A, 1.~+ i .. n \,il ~t +fl+tiri iii tiul ,+ (+'rntt~iii r++I+++Iln .
<.: l ii- Lif(>. v+ol. ;:S. *, 1.1 ,,. n+l" |r. +ii| .SI S1
l+,;iii. ltnii \. +' V+.. +Itd HOWAKIIl. I+. (i** Then Itv+rilld~ l><-:nl~ ilniilft mulil or~ill\+
rii-, Ins.+ life, vole ;:i. NoU\ mlller. I'|.. 12,, t21.
I.xtract froSm crr.p poMiicce
lk m ., Ili ),Mi ,, (r -
I r ief account
1.s .+. I i 4. 1 V. Il. ... h t e < i iA t AIIII. I ei't I W lt. Agr., N i.

Iiijurles to peatiche Ini B'rlitu d1 dtfi"'o'td.
l'.i2. *I'l' i, i i RRO% N + l,1 i I" i riiH';ili Nnt.. 1 1l tl, 1i o 12. M ay. l I IT.' 17.-1.
N-ites and rcimdbh.,
I :I. I;i I r V., ,ilel I.ow Ai+ 1. <.--Th ll>;li fr1iti il l Mh tln. 11 .l
l, -l' vol. r1 Apl[t, p. M.I
I:\traet froni r ri'imtertta Maclay.
1I '. N P i WI I 1'. M. < l i4 of thI il( > tir.Iil ,N 1'in 'rnt flirom iiol1ih 1irn
.\-i:i. T17.1 ,_il, 1 I.\A
] 1',,hllhi l') L .1147.
l.ife history, descrlptbon, aind rmindtdts
10iT c -''iii H I'i -i:.-'I'i fruit Ily lo M~iii l. 11r" lli, ilf. lls.'+ll tli.
Iife history and remedilvs.
10 7,y". T"' HN.I. II 1 1, WlJ, Alft \ It IIt .il l I', liltll < .Iril n. W .lll. A CT IV+
Aliil r l iisi, Vliv. h, i>. 11 al+
Nlte and h.iIh...ri .,
I 7 1.o0 \-1:1 tY. N' 1' +I'r etioitlilgS of lh' Niiit : il itt' iliz f tHe
.\--,x'ilalion o`f lEr'~loiKiiK' Eltionnli~ioi' lA n i;i I> il.1 11". p. '*W.



I l t A gr, 1m i 7. l i W 1*tS

1i ngeL(r of ii. i .ii+ a l t ll ol,.
110 -it. l.i.%. .\ \l .... I) 1 1W l l 1; 11it 1rr 1i0:t1i1 fr il i\ iTIml [|\ 1 I ul. -I> lpl. ASr. T li- lt 1 1i >|. i !; 11 1.
Manner of attack of fruit and remedies given.
1." l'l FiKO<.I. \I I'+ l\'. \\'.- Notch onl t'i tili li, i_.-j,,i 'r w-ith l tic +rriiitl+ons ,,r lnew

-!,,'i- 1,1 :?.
PrI f actt an3 i-.riim
ftrlef wccouint and .1. -cripri-1mi







22 THE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT-FLY.

I'. Prelitiiinuiry relp'Irt of the Stale Boaurd of IHort culture. (':iliforniai. 1.97-98.
S;niiitr' l oq1-l1. ). 6;' 1 fig.
1899. KIRK, T. W.-Fruit flies. 2::2-2-:4. figs. 7.
1899. KIRK, T. W.-Fruit flies. deners niii Fruit Growers, no. 35, pp. 3, figs. 8.
ish!li. LOUNsBURY, C. P.-Report of liv Govt. 1-1m. for 1.99, (God Hope, pp. :,-:'.;
Insect stated to be less prevalent some years than others.
11'P!1. BERLESE, A.-I.a mosca della arance. pp. 1-7.
1900. Le Ceratitis ,.,jpilihli aux environs de Patris. ann. 10, p. 369.
P.ti0. HERRERA, A. L.-Classification y biologia del gusaii,. Miuvri;, e Industrias, No. 7-9, pp. 5"7r'-F7.
Notes.
3900. BERLESE, A.-Insetti nocivi agli alberi da frutto ed ill a vite. P'ortici, )p.
62, fig. 22.
1900. LEONARDI, G.-Gli insetti Inocivi I Napioll), p. 2'A. figs. 14;-15.il.
Biological notes and remedies.
1900. GIARD, A.-Sur 1'existence de Ceratitis capitalal ;aux envir,,us dle Paris.
Notes on outbreak of insect at Courbevole, near Paris.
1900. BORG, J.-Orange culture and diseases. no. 9, p. 136.
1901. Rii.t,\. C.-Insetti nocivi all olivo ed agli ;glriuni. 1'ortici. Stali. vesti-
viano, p. 35, figa. 19-30.
1901. FROI.I..%T. W. W.-l,'.it''Ii;jl work and notes for 1910. N. S. Wales, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 794-.I15 I Stvi;li r'ite. p. 121.
Note.
1903. CRAW, A.-Fruit flies and their exclusion. July 18, I). 4.
1903. BUCHANAN, G.-Flruit fly. pp. 109-110.
1904. M\LIV. C. W.-The fruit fly. no. 6, pp. ;47--i;'2. 1 p1., 6 figs.
Life history, food plants, food habits, parasites, remedies, etc.
1904. Co.irwm:. (G.-T'i introduction of the fruit Il I iri.-Isiie. <.Jouiru. Dept.
Agr. W. Australia, vol. I',. no. 2, pp. iio-72.
1904. CAITH HI(,II r. W.-Notes on two insects. School Agr., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 17-1II.
1904. MALLY, C. W., and LOUNSBURY, C. P.-Report of the Government entomol-
ogist for the half year endling June 30, 19114. Dept..\gr.. Rept. Govt. Ent., 19(1, p. 31.
1!904. JOHNSON, C. W.--A re'i.-ed list of the Diptera of Bermuda. vol. 11, p. 79.
1905. LOUNSBTURY, C. P.-N;tural enemies of the fruit fly. Good Hope, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. ,%4-S7
1905. HAMEL, A.-T'rhe biology of Ceratitis capitata. 6 ser., no. 8, pp. 352-354.
Biological notes.











I'144.
]I ll'l lNiIriilIlIv.
I'ni.'." .I. I+ l l <* -- <', I 'Il ni il llll'ilil ItI 1 '.1il.l.ihnl St(K'+ K ilt., Vol. "-i" 11. -.-.
IM.. I, .I \-I. II it (.] :ili l 11 11 iilioh i f lit fr it i' A\gi .l.',T i <'ip
i ;.. II..I,,-, vol. .' i.. pp. i ::l o p 7ll p.
liSect not1 I.',ilv affCIeted by natural Ienemies In Jtra tl.
lm.'i1 I lI I l >.. A.i--A jirObsilhy II,' live 1 iiHim of' dcitny'itig tI'i'milin' *:tpitfiua
lint Ilh'l ,Iii lIt- c+r~i'sf. I;',.Il i. viii. ': li . +2, j[>. ;lSlbt>- ss).
Sii-,.', =1 using hone1 mnolasse, glyce*rine. nod an arm-zidcal.
Results of tests against olive lly.
\.'.,. I ) I .. V Ii,-+A s n II i l .; dI>s I' 1It. I I .- S* 11 1ii di lI It i :i ,ti I I I'ilill>, Sr''"r .
taria da A.:1i illiili p. 4, fI t "
l o','. Ili.I l'\.i A.-- ',*,iililiH '.i,, a llhologi if, ratiif 4 *p/i'b.ii < llol. da
A grIc. do I:-i.n l, li de S. P aulo ( i1 ), vol. I ,',7
Biological notes.
1;INi .l I .I I, J M -- A 1 i1 Al.,,_iir ,'1 Nortlh t\ll Iii I'i.I, i'.I W\ 1hlihilhn1,
,N ll li dlh mll i Ill h ltIItll I. tlI
Not known In United States but lisiteId ih'cauc of oznuIc ilnportanct-.
!iN Ilixii i A. A-) biclio dth frut- hs 1 +t't |ilrslttsl. I'-.f.il.ih dde S Paulo (7 i p. 21:p .
I!Mi;. Ili.iPl. A.-'I, friil aud its iPara6ie. < m Aol.\ Ar. iq .i,. I;\ulo)
7 sIr ino. 7,. ip. 2-'".' 14.
Parasites not very effective In controlling fruit ri, In 1Bahia.
1'nfi;. (;i~lnn. A.--Thle *-1,r,.:'l, ,, the irlini lly iu tlin nisighborhlood of Pairis.

Damage In the neighborhood of paris described.
lMiT7. (it INN. (.- Tie fruit m.i fI il\ Ipets. trailiah ol. ill 11o. 11. pp. 7il1 -T.11. h-" 6.
Hablts and remedies.
!H17. L.oti nsa1ltiRY, ('. P.-Th'I- I'1 li fly. no. 2. p'.'. 1%I 1 ;7.
Ui1i7. KIRK. T. W.-Austrilianu fruit fly. 1-11 VfI-2il0. 3 n-'-
1107. Ii'i N II (C.- 1'.i M i lll11.il111, fruit I1,'. <1 I< i. 1 '+. \icoi ii. M ay.
pI :;i ;l I'7. p 1. Ii.'- fi.
1il7. 1ii. % F.V--The iTIsect 4 ...- of ti i trIes. < l'I.,- A, et. t Vit, vdol. I..
1n0. 49, r11 6`1i). 1^1,l
11ili-luu,-nI and economic notes.
1W17. i.oLm NSm Rz. '. P.-I' .I.,,I I if the P -i ern niit l ,I I.... i..\14 for l 'i7.
< Reiit. I<,im. 1.:i i ;i'l ( lll41. q;IiK\KV. WV B.--N.rl:ii fruit fly li ... i ; not i ii +r l r\ ix eriiivnt.
Methods of control.
191iS NI\ i .N. L. J.--The fruit fly ,Ir. v i-'I. tf:ilia. vol. 17. 1no. 1. pp. 5Wl-.'il, i t Ii:-
A chalcld iparaite discussed.
190S.04 M.I.I Y. tC. \V.---PNir'tlin r'iii,1. versus poisoned bait for the, fruit ll.
<.\Ar. Joirn. ':ipet ;.. Tll.l'pe. vol. :;.2 no. 5, pp. GIVI G;14.
Eitnslv., experiments for control.








24 THE MEIDITERRANEAN FP.UIT-FLY.

1'.li,. 1WECHEB, Tii.-Dii|>i.-ru ilhr kanarisehen Inselin und ler Iusel Madeira.
<.Mitlh. Zool. aMus. Berliiin. vol. 4, p. 1:;i.
1908. FIOGGATW, W. W.-Australian Insects. Sydney. p. :"14).
I .,. KRIK, T. W.-Dept. of -\:r. New Zeal;and. Ann. Rept., 191s. 11. 14N.
I','m. (URNEy1, WM. B.-4;,,sfiurd nrari .i fruit tfly .ii killinging iiiml-h -'iintrid ecx-
,i.riiiii'nt. 1!14-' HOWARD, C. W.-Report of the EnlIoiiioloiis. Ann. Rept., 19,'',. p. 194.
Brief note.
]llI!! BEZZI, M.-Tlhe species ebt'iiiiii to ilie genera Ceratitis, Anastrepha and
Dacus. vol. 3, pp. 2761, 277.
Ihl]nloraT~pllT.
Pl119. FROIGATT, W. W.-Notes on fruit flies. (Cuba); English Ed. (1909), pt. 2. pp. 120, 121.
19)09. KIRK, T. W.-Fruit flies. pp. 7-17, figs. 3.
1!X)9. ILOUNSBURY, C. P.-Report of the Government riit'in'mligikt for 1V)09.
Pi'ndi-inv remedy-arsenate lead 2 pounds, sugar 25 pounds, water 40
gallons.
1]';i1. FROGGATT, W. W.-Fruit flies. 24. pp. 37-44, fig. 18. pl. 2.
General account, habits, distribution, etc.
]109). FROJGGATT, W. W.-The Mediterranean fruit fly. Rept. ou Parasitic and Injurious insects I7-1I,, pp. 100-105 (also
p1). 52), pis. 5, S.
General account, habits, distribution, etc.
1!909. MALLY, C. W.-Fruit fly remedy. no. 34. 1P."0l. pp. 2I-';:. 1 fig., 1 l1.
Report on spraying with poisoned bait.
1909. itnV i1. C.-Fruit flies. toria, pt. 4, pp. 29-36.
1909. THEOBALD, F. V.-M>ldinerr;iueai Fruit Fly. 1910. (;H\H\M. W. M.-On West Africa Try'rletil.;e no. 3, p. 162.
1910. Destructive insects and pests order. < Bd. A.r and Fisheries (London I.
Intel. Div., Ann. Rept. Pnr,. 1909-191(1. p1). 27.
u'.lu'. GOWDEY, C. C.-Report of the Government Euitonologist for 1909-191.0.
< Rel)ort Govt. .mit. Uganda, pp. 5, 6.
Injury to coffee noted.
19104). FROG;ATT, W'. W.-Notes on fruil flies with dleSiripltion of new species.
1910. (U'I NEY, W. B.-Fruit fl1e- and othlier insects niltai'kiin- cultivated anil
wild fruits in New ,niih Wales. no. 5. ppl. 423-426, 1 riL-.
1910. lE:IIIioR, E. M.-I-,'prit of the Superintendent of Entomology. waiian Forester and Agriculturist, vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 336-338.
Occurrence in Hawaii announced.
1910. 'lATi'iii. Dr. (;.-Mosca Della Arance ('crtiili i.v 'oilitii). Lab. di Zool. general Agr. della R. Scuola Superiore l'.tgr. in 1'orlici.
ilol S. In ri-'
Biologic notes.








Til : M I.I I FI IzI: NI %N I I I I F-I'L J .-'

11H <>|. I-:III(IIliII N, t': .M I'l ,,,url ,,f tlhe tii~i l(ldt~ t i~f l:iiil.,ii,,lI.,-\ furl
l'941 I.,I,, I'.th ie I;" .r IilI Cinnr. \Kw l ii| i F rwtry. 11.,4 111 liq.


Rule for prevention of distriLutio ln gHien.
1910. ('I)MI'till. (.. Fruit fil-. .;,ili Fruit rluW1rs' 4'Ti'ti l l, ,f Cu l., I',l .
I'll. I ; I '.i
Hlablt4, distribulion, etc.
1911. 1:I 11ihI 1:N. I' M .*** lU elKHrl walian lid. .\'r nud l.oretry, ISIptlt. ily. I:nt. for Itiit. W'ilod I> D)i'e n tTer, P'Ill. I'll. 1I 14:, pil. 2.s. -.
Notes on occurr-eun In lltwall anild rul,.s for prevent on of dittribution.
1011. tlk MINIR. O. -A fruit ir iiwtc'iir. < itl Stuh '...ii liort. 'i'ir t.
IpI. ::'2 ls

D[n'.ir of Introduction Into Callfornia is 1911. C.%K t-. I: K.-- li ,-ii .,ii ms o- 1Ll: Ig lh I "It ISdilerraniet11 fru il "I
( IllIt#l tlin ItaI I hi li,- I aw;iiIuiI Ishlml.. < Mo. all. t'.il S ItI.
I iii I lort., I *tt'c idx r, l .1 l (1 II. I.;
l l,,irr of Ii 'i i-I-..'ni iii- I i n IHIawail.
1912. ('.,RNES, I:. K.-- 'i ., ii 1~'port o If lthe .i i't ii.i I'liii -'l.\\.i ('on-
veltion.
1112. \VI.ImNI \'Il. I. A.- 'I'li' flintr iI nieil:ict ittinl pireventive etOit iirrs. Bill. C;11. Ml.tl, I'.Ililil II.,r' April, l l'.-' pp. 1.d 1r9.
Reporl of observations In Ilawaii.
1912. (i.;IrF\i. \\'. M.-Report I n fruit II .I it rol. I' I :i w iii.n II 're-str tnll
Agr., voI. ;i. IIo. I. |i| '^" "'l
nlport on control work In Hlawaii and list of fruits from which Insect has
been reared.
1912. I;ii %. \W. M.V I',ii i1 control. no. 4, pp. ll 11S 4
Report on eradication and control work unde-r way in hlawaii.

A p proved:
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WVAsiiiN;in1N. I). C., J/iOt 11, 1912.







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