Flour paste as a control for red spiders and as a spreader for contact insecticides

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Flour paste as a control for red spiders and as a spreader for contact insecticides
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Parker, William Bell
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Government Printing Office ( Washington )
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L'. S. I)tI\RIK1.P .\( IICUTIAl,'Rt:
BUREAU OF ENT iNIMu .1;Y CIi'ULT'.A.I No. I166.
L U h1I AK.\IX IAn.I jBB t wl ( kuld 4a BB lu-1.




FLOUR iASTE AS \ C'NTl)OL FOR1 RI-:l S IDEIIS

AS ~A SR.I.:t )i (I.T.T

AS A SlRK.K1'II n XJTt I.\~I S1XTI(rI)F<.


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ItUREAU OF r\TT()iOL',;Y.


L. 0. HOWARD, Enl/ioif l,,h.i% and I'lif of Bureau.
C. L. MARLATT. ,lo,,iitoiiijiI and Acting I'li, f in Absence itif .'1 f.
R. S. ('i IIiN. Executire Assistant.
W. F. 'TASI. LT. ('hi" f Clerk.

F.H. CHITTENDEN, in .eairgf of truck crop afind stored product insect i,,, ,liqfintion.
A. D. HOPKINS, iln ,lii !i of forest insect investigations.
W. D. HUNTER, in charge of southern field ,'.r,, insect it,, li'ifli, viii.
F. M. WEBSTER, in lvt iiit' of (I.l, iil and forage insect investigation, .
A. L. QUAINTA.N(. in t I.mige of deciduous fruit insect investigation...
E. F. PHILLIPS, in charge of bee culture.
D. M. R1OI.EtS. in nr'!/( of preventing spread of moths. pf ItI work.
ROLLA P. CU-RRII. in charge of editorial i,',..
MABEL Coi COR)D. in charge of library.

TRUCK CROP AND STORED I'ROi'1l T INSECT IN\ %.SrI(,ATIONS.
F. I1. CTITTEN.\EN. iln lulrji,.

C. 1H. POPENOE. WILLIAM B. PARKER, H. 0. M.ARS.H. M. M. HIGH, 'Rr.D A. JOHN-
STON, JOHN E. GRAF, C. F. STAHL, D. E. FIN K. into(iiioiniitVIl am.-i.-oxiitl.
A. B. DUCKETT, scientific assistant.
I. J. CONDIT, collaborator in ('0ltiiri,,,.
W. N. ORD, collaborator in Oregon.
THOMAS H. JONES, c',llailiirnltr in P,rlito Iir'o.
MARION T. VAN HORN. PAULINE M. JOHNSON, ANITA M. BALLINGER. jii'reipiarators.
II


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CIRCLILitI No. 1ltj)


United States Depcirtinent of A.\gricultture,

IIUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY.
L. 0. HOWARD, I ., i Chic, ( :>( B. reau.


FLOUIII PASTE AS A CONTROL FOIl I1ED SPI>E|SRN AN)
AS A SlClE.tll:Ill FOI1 (ONTAC'T INSI .UTIICIDES.


It W ..1 AM 'I. r .!K:,
]i ... ,, .t, ,f i.,1 1 m lv l ti l.

1iI sn I IS rl I X I;I: I M I N'I .

lunriii.; sonue l)ra;i ill-. VxiM1riicltlv for the cowt ru, l Idf tlh redl sj'nlcr
I i/'tran.,. I/',Us h1ni bti t i 1:tn l rv.) on o n Im I 1 12 1tia jli lit W i z
I I I


I-'i,. i.--IUme-slpbur mixture and flour pasi'te btt hnlf sliowin. apr"tHtl ifft ,t
ll.>ur paste; lime 'ulpIlur nixture( stra1imht rihI t IIhalf. showm 11 bf w i ffirt Lick of flour paste. I r, .'

'leIit'rivi v,1 in ,l liiiii,. an cil',l,.i spreader for the liie--i11,1lii
-iiliit:iiii. ii, to the f:iri that soap forms a )revipitate with thle cal-
ciim pildy-1llphiil. While t1-tiiCz the followiii&- coiiitia,,"n l,,,-


lI- n 1 1,it i , : l1:






I LU'l PIAST'rE AS A CONTROl. FOR RED SPIDERS.


.r- ,t -ilpliur i "1:, p)Oind'I water 11)0 g;lllon.,. ,lti lour paste (as a
"t i'ktr") 4 gal Ino--a formula advi-.,ed fur red spiders inll Bulletin
N.,. 1.,4 I 1 Mr. W. II. Volck (if the California Experiment Station,
it w";a- ol-(.'r\eI' tll tht t i mixture spread ver thle leaves very readily.
'll. f(l1itr pastese wa, evidlently the .spreader and wa, accordingly
ixed il with thie limie-siullpihlUir solution,. The rebuilt was a smooth
nixtiire which .spread over tlie foliage very reaililv and gave unusual
r1-1lt:- a.- tin a'aiclhnicide. The proper proportion-, were found to be
4 ;,illiin- of pla-te I 4 pounds of flour) to 100 l ;illons of spray. 'Fable
I ir'iphlirailly repre-.ents the relative etflectivenes.- of the lime-sulphur
-,pra.y. w\ ith and witltout thle flour pate. for the red spider on hops.
Tl\RI I I.--kritt r, rf#.ctircnr ,s tf liintr-.sulplhur spria irith and fril t flour
peia lr. 11ql i h % r IL .re i1 "ii lr opi i. / hh in tn 'Nv tit i lo it, I'lll a II p(if C'liffuornia,
in 1:11 !.

Number Number Percent
F"rmnula lo miles or mites of miles
pre.ent killed killed.

L ,nie--iuphmr, .', B ut m;', 1-T71 flour pa.u le. 4-]Iri.... 69liM 92 99.0
L inie--ullhur. I .' Ihauni 1 -7" ....... .... .. . .0. .. ... . 135 37.5

Fromn the foregoing table it i1 very evident that the use of flour
):i-.te greatly increasee; tlhe effiiencyv of the linie-sulphuir spray and
that without the pal.te tile spray was vety' ineffective. These results
were -lb.,tantiated )y other experiment-, and, by a check experiment
with tlie fHour pa.ste. 4-100. i-et\ without the liime-sulphur, it was
found thatt the increased efficiency wa, mainly due to the spreading
effect oif the paste.
Hlavinr proved a most efficient, cheap, and convenient spreader for
tle liine--Illphir solutions, some experiment- were conducted with
flIur paste in combination with nicotine .mlphate upon the hop aphis
'/,o,.i, i,,i tontl,; Schrank). (See Table II.)
T.\n[t F II.- 'nll. hllilaird bIit sinjiiii inl irilh citotbiatlivg,? o#f flrawi p .a-te and
,i tilioi '.iil'lh l'/ in liffi 'ry 'lf 1I0ro' irliovii.% ffla, ini lh oil p / i/ lh/i.<. sfar arnmeinto
I Illh I, 'of V'iliffoi it/. 1912.

Number .%pI es Cost per
Formiala of aph i~e. 100
present gallons.

Prr ctnw. Cents.
Nii p .1;il- i ra l rh 1 11Mi Hour pa41,-. 4-I1 f.'7 100 0.71
Ni. ij i V-jl|.i ti,. 1 2 1 ; I hi ,ir p .ile Ilk ) .hll 100 .GO
Nit nin ,' *i lih.lh I i iiini loI r p.-, l Iii . I 6.t 99 .50
Ni iilire ''ipla ,i m i S IMP loour ri1IM, 1 III. itl go .50

From the preceding table it is very evident that flour paste, 4-100.
is a very effect ive spreader for nicotine sulphate.
The effiieney of flour paste as a spreader was very evident to the
writer, but it was deemed advisable thoroughly to illustrate this point.









T WO lr>|i1 i.1ivi \%\rv-. 'i ,IC.II l d _. \ -II.I\, ,1. , ,.' w iilh lillme-sulphur
.sn 'in h l .iil I: ll. o, luern %%illi !Ill\ ,"-iillTiln ii .l lld I ,ll *i p .i-hl 4- I11 .
T h li t u nlimi. --i1i,1c.1 I II lilt-. \ -i ly i l i i- li-.
I ire 1 'll 1, 4ll li.ill f Ii ir Ii.'_-II i I| i I i iI i l, In -,i i u r A;i l
til' flour ill-lm Ii t iilllill.pl i i. %dl'l'. i il- l halilf 14111tl lte










JIm 27v-? I I'~ I 1 Ir II, -1 1 .-IIq-
l i i li i -- ii l p hi i rl - l ': i i l i l "1 -l, ,11n ,i 1 .l l ., i w { i i t i p r o u c" lhy l h im e -

hiill lii iiii\l lin i- I -I I, i r i.i II IliI Ii i 6)I)II I' rIIi '
o f li l li I ;Il If f I li il lii-lr il '
IDIri'in I I r i- -l | iivtiiVII N 'A\|><.i'iI I.Il- I I I li icotiii ne sI1l 1)hu t V :1il
illr [>i t' I tII ti., liu .i I I- I \\I ,, I,-,.r\ thii ni ll I I f ti1h
.-l1inllh, r .';i[liilh'- I,.iI 1 '1 '-Jiiifr >I,-in ., il ,iii,, IlI,' lr \vc IF` rrom i Ili I d i iI
it w n. ia-.llii ,i I1 Itll ..i -l ri',,i-lqr llll, Ill I f -aistc \\ w o ild ) I e rt111 I iv (
nli iin* -t lh il ii rv ,i' llr i tI( l iltlIt .- ;'iIl i 1ni1L. 1I i It.e il\ll l\ ,,'_
txpit,,l'inlt, il1- \ t'l'' I'lil liil' .l il io n ll r I ilv 'I.,I )I ,l Ih '.

"r'.%iti.t. II / ,f 1 1 ili i i All Fi l I ill 1111rl, ,f ifiir, ft.,r to 1,0 li, ''w i ref]
iili r ,,. I",' /i 111 / ,n ,,,iii ,,'iir t,. I 'ill,. ., ** ,< ,#i/i'11i t lfllJ.


Iinr I Iia



J,Inp 27 1117s W 17.
Jill I1 ,h, 1 'l2.1
%i t i[Jr. ,hi. i I2 ) 0 117. 8
I 477 l(19 17 l
.% e lii ,I, !2 .' 17. a
tr.rnii, i.ii i. r I7lu9 . -. h.e.. e.. ......... .
\ o .r I., I .I. .......
Jill ll Ii lH our pii..i,. Ini I,., Nt'i ... ,'* *i
.\U II l .l I,) ... ',W ', *"
Tihl ,'ii l . . 1, 712 .. 1..-. .
T w irll mi- . . . .. ...


T le-i t, ii'ri'i il'l l|ill \ % l llIII i.i"1c. S-100 ;illl 10-1.11, ism
eIff'eivc, I ,vv .'iialn-t T, i ,',,ii/, I/,,.. I, 1 ,,,,,,IIt/.If. The paste has no effect
ipoll Ihih .. -. lio\\ ,\.. ;il in l rllil'- tile mite- ; econd
iapplir'.li<>n 7 10 -l1i: ..i la fill- Iir-i i- ir,,',.siarV to (catohl tile min tes
tliilt il kT. froill In1c CL.. ', '
A few liriliiiiiiirV I' elr, iii, ll ,,",,- ,',,i'l-iitled w ith tiis m material
iiponl 7', ft ,ii/t ,,n i ff, o,,1I,.i,;,1.// l{ilh \ v li I l, It :! ;iitl~i,.kini,._ pelrs, w ith
\vrl\ fi1<'oiil-;i~iin~r l'r-nit-. ;iirl nl i- \r'r\ |~ii<>l)hillt that flo111 palste.
,-i w\ill .i c i,.,,Ix | r,-ill- \lit\ ;Ip ilvi.l I ,,r aily of tlhe si all leaf-
feediing in\Itv-.
The lhi- of .1ilit. Plil-'. 1liir l .i-lr. lIi. wasti 1 applied c 'Ir tIIe hop
ii ll. e in'n ilt-, .l .'r .plli, '- l A\ill, ;i 97 per tl icent r.lli,"ii, y.
'IThese w,11 i l 'llo i li i' ..ill-. Iuil l.i .1 ,\pleri enlt n its pr,n,%rl that.

I 11 I i hille tI wea. l 1.rr :11h \ Ini il. -1 .'1.% ill hl 1 \ hvatther 7 Il.% 1wltwc ln
'i |'i~i r tl l inli-.


I I (I ,l l I'%,",11 \1 \ % I \ i' IH I -I: lIED -I' 1,1 ;-.






1 LOUR P.\'I'E AS A CONTROL FOR RED SPIDERS.


although the solution was et'ci- ive against some very delicate species
and the yoiiger -tage, of the hop aphis. it was not effective against
the stouter aphides.
When the paste was dry the mites and more delicate aphides
treated were found firmly pasted onto the leaves. Later the paste
film was observed to crack and partially scale off. leaving the leaf
free to perform its natural functions.
The neutrality of this -pray was proved by the fact that when
appliedd upon the foliage and blossoms of the hop in proportions as
high as 12 pounds to 100 gallons no injurious effect resulted.
When sprayed onto the burrs and delicate hop cones it did not pre-
vent pollination or injure the appearance of the scales.
Flour paste has proved effective when applied for red spiders upon
the follow ing plants:
Beans. P'1 iJIlki n.
i I'l'r-niilei ilini (may spot leaves if Pear.
li--nl too near I'.l' iiiiih-" time). Prune.
Hops. Roses in field.
Cucumber. greenhouse .hiid ti.u '. ioets, field and greenhouse.
The flour paste was not satisfactory when uii..ed for thle red spider
on greenhouse roses (did not spread well), greenihou-e carnations, or
field sweet peas.
PREPARATION OF PASTE.

To prepare the flour ia-4te. mix a cheap grade of wheat flour with
cold water. making a thin batter, without lumps; or wash the flour
through a wire screen with a stream of cold water. Dilute until there
is 1 pound of flour in each gallon of mixture. Cook until a paste is
fornied. stirring constantly to prevent caking or burning. Add suffi-
cient water to make up for evaporation.
Flour paste may also be prepared by .-tirring boiling water into
a moderat,'vly thin batter until there is 1 pound of flour in each
galloii of mixture and allowing it to stand until the starch is all
broken down.
If the paste is not sufficiently cooked, the reuiltirig spray will not
be effective, and if overcooked the paste will harden when thor-
oughly cool, and will not mix with water very readily. Usually,
however, the paste is used as it is prepared, and overcooking is not
a disadvantage.
When mixed in the -pray tank flour paste has a tendency to settle,
and in order to do satisfactory work agitation is necessary. This
is but a slight disadvantage, and is necessary with most materials.
Flour paste appears to be a very effective spreader for limne-sul-
phur and ni'otinie--iilphate sprays. Cheap flour can be purchased







fur les than half the tcost of hliihc-il soip. It i:- ;dw;: obhtait
iili,. and ha ;,112 1 o odorh it i- Iess II, ,-ie t oil ;,,],l li'-l,.,,il soapis. Wlhn'n tiifcd ;ilhme iltt l r:Ite ,,f ._,.,llht.1 (^
1i,,,iinl- lliir) t< I,"1 '.a.llii,. ,,f watvr it i", II. lir' ,.'~.lili ~.(' vcr~il
hItl'l f,.,. ,li.." inite's a d SOIle .i\ delicate alhnIs. Thl 1 i.... I I i























Foi. 2.-hindtu making flour I iste. SIcraumnto V ii. 'iil., 1l-12. [Oi : Inal.T

of its use as a :I if'!:,.'r1 for liiiL'.-ijli -11 i l.iv.,s for scale insects ami
fl nin.i and as a "sticker for arsenicals has not yet IwIn w orke l it.
but from observations ,litrilrfl the pl1t( four iiontlis it i> Ieli'cvedl that
it iii:iv have some i alue ;ili,' these lines.
A I' ,'roved:
,JAMES Wnl -,,x.
S 'cJctI ,/." .' 1 .. a* tifi'.
YASIIIN (;TON, I ). (U'., X\ovt ,u r c 1:'12.



II r i'N \1. I OPIE9 ofthb publatKo:nlI
11'. it iv i,. ].rwTitr,*t from the SI'Eii(NTE?[i -
ENT %I i '% I. t GoVe lhl':t I nl'li'
OIfc'. I li'1."r|,i D). C.,at C,' ;alt per copy


FT Ot r %'- i, AS A I .I I\ 1 'OHR ED I S t'ItI'l-:I.




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

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