The Mexican cotton-boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boh.)

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Material Information

Title:
The Mexican cotton-boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boh.)
Series Title:
Circular / United States Dept. of Agriculture. Division of Entomology ;
Physical Description:
8 p. : ill., map. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Howard, L. O ( Leland Ossian ), 1857-1950
Publisher:
United States, Department of Agriculture, Division of Entomology
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Boll weevil   ( lcsh )
Insect pests   ( lcsh )
Cotton -- Diseases and pests   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
"Revision of No. 6."
General Note:
"Washington, D.C., February 12, 1896"--P. 8.
Statement of Responsibility:
L.O. Howard.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029679827
oclc - 644294303
System ID:
AA00020905:00001

Full Text

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^*'^ / .




CIBCULAX Nt, 14 6E1..kNL- iii 'li .1 ,

SInited States D)cpirt mcii t I r cI It LI rc,
DIVISION OF F.NTOMOLOG


TI : MI: XI: i t1 IIl'N-t11 N .i. Ei EV IL.
i i n t IA,. ,.*i i..1" ,1'n f Btoll.)
.".t'illi. nrl TI[E t ]li'l'1 \1;,
('ircular No. 1; .;).' piil)li-'lil. ii A. i ii. I .'l.11',. a d (.o l .ii Il a ilrief
relport ai' tle 06b.11'1rvlitiiIIS iii.til, upt 1) I Ii:it time, snnil tlih cotli (' l ioii
busdis il on th s h t l r-aI\'iti iii., i'-1L'i flil tg the MN .Il'X ;lii ott I) I oill W ee vil,
an insert (1f (C'trial .I
Anicerieiin iril iiin j. .
whbicb, ( -lll'hlr I.'l, 1' F. j .."
attracte-d <.allsidrll'i i. I
hie utteifliiit ill the -.-/ .
Cottonl fields lit' SOutl 11(A E ^r' |i-'
Texas. Ti(- imnvrsti. ^ r T / {^ ^ ^
gatioin waiscontiuitiid i itil_ ,.,. f-
doring the suimlirlll. ..
full,an tl fd ir li-\,iiitirr ,,. .
of 1895, especially by .
Mr. Sllharz. ho\vl, -
visitedil Te.-i;iin Maiy .
aind .tig ititl agtia '* '*
from (it'h)ibr to )e De a
cemlber, aiiind 1y Mr. -- ~
Tol'II' sIlli lln, w ii t'u. 1.-AI lhiwtA0 U iaIt q adult whtip; wa. sia |ra-a
statiomed ill I ihe 'ta It vtlrgi
during thle greater plit ,t, the summer. ll Thei writer went to r"\..- inll
D)ecemibte -, ill iil iiimipat y with MI. Secliwalrz s.i.iliilly gitdied tih!
e lniilitibi of ilt' hii-s :. lit that S nl and t,1.i .4! with iiiily l1 iiiiiilllit
cotton griow'ers. Tli'h ulie.t ft' their pre-ent circular is to la;y l in! I. i t
toll planters thie re-uli- of this mipplu nii til ini\rv i.iv.itiii. In order
to niakte it 'o iiipli t- in it-clf?. such '..ilts i- ,.lli. iifli', l are i l..,ith'1 i'ailu
(-'im.llhr Ni). ii.
;ENI-IA.I. %P'l'Al %N( E V NI. M' i.1lIII) (OF WO()RK.
"'hi. ii.sect is a-i -in.ill. liP- ili we, rvii. ti' th lie ih i ,iil L'''ipi".aln
.illearalvle shiowni iit ii t 1, i. land mi ;isil ilng a litrl, Ih.-h h .tli a iii lil-
ter of atil inlih ili hIniltli. It is fIiid ii llil cotton li.hl]- thiriiii, tliit
t lie seA.Soni, |n1n11tullnlii and l.ihi e its I'g, in the sqli ltres ai id iolls.
Tile larv. of tlihr shailt.. .aind aip.aI.iivrn.e ;liiwni at C. I, I and IlleSr-
I









iii- ;I lilthi iyc-r tliree eighths of' ai inch in length whlien full grown,
li',, withill tle IItI(s :uil li ills IId feed upon their i terior substance.
'lhi, squa'ires :attatvked usiully drop, but must of tlih- damaged bolls
remniii uipoill thie liant inid .et-oime iunt. ,n d ur dwarfed, except, late
ill ht' sil ISeaii, whliel thiev eirlier dry (or rot.

IDI iS IBTi 'ION.


T'lis i.u- L t tlirIoin ghli its rvnages caused tile
viltiii, ;lo:iioii .iMouiilova', Mexico, a1botut 182i'.


.nba l(dolmeit. of cotton
Two) or three years ago


Fit, '2 -N i:l -Ih,," iu; i-im 1ill' 1 of llh Me, \ie .111 i *:y!,n 1 tll w re il.


cotton was agaiiil plinited in that vicinity. lint thile weevil immediately
Sreailpeared ;miil (destroyed tlie crop. At Matnon(r;s tlie weevil was
noticed eilht or ten years ;ago. About 1893 it crossed the river at
IBroiwnsiville,aid in 1894 was noticed in tlie country around San Diego,
Alice, ;ind Beeville. At thle close of thlie seisoii of 184 the insect occu-
pied a territory extendling to the north ;a little beyond Beeville, a few
miles to the (a-.t of that point, and southwest to the neighborhood ot
R,;ilitos., mil the National Mexican Railway. The greatest damage
setIems to have leeun done along the lower Nueces River. I)uring 189.5,
am, pliati.iiirly in thle latter part nf tlie season, it extended its range
to ;i c,,sideratble extent. Toward the east it was found iu moderate








abiilLIdak'nc' at1ol:i tilt, \.,ll 1 HI tae tilil:olr'ti l i'iJ n af V i ltoria,
Tl' ii'ii Au.AIIii, aill Cuero. Ni'tli of itS old 1.1 II it exteI lI d toI 1 KCinedy
'lorev S Ih. IIIv m.IiI \ poi ts III the I ouI ry i i ., I.twIen tI II latter
phice anid C'iiero. A .i. gl firhl wa liiiiil neI ar Sail Antollwhichlul
conitaineil,\ %teevilHs hin gi, ini l..n-.~,and inI the sam e way ;q i .'i linsh 'lA
wai- found far to tI e east at \\ liii1.11 iII whic h the w1h eet\ ill had
appeared late in the seaoIn. TIe xa4It lhi .il In, \\ Ihee14 tli iilnsrt was
1,111 l ,lirin4-" II'',-" alre ildlicaft'ed l li till ;,',') iii inll,_, M Aii.
N A I I 1 \ 1 IIt 1 1 i I; \ 1 I TI I I I'.

Tiii insect pa-sesv- tile winter i,, thie evill state. It cil;I I)n. oiii n, )n
thil oltti iliti l t u i,,t i late iUn I)etemeirl, ;aniil. in 1.1. t, t II,, a. ;iany
portion ofth, h' itist is green. It is futbnd mlost alnuldluntly in tlie i.,n ly
winter liilhdhl between the iln-
voliirre iLn t Ilie hlx1. and lster it
Ireqiueiontly works its w.iy down
into tlhe dry aind open Il,11-. a/
All tilitspl ciii",ns l;,ind lby Mr. -.
sih wa'rz. in sueli situations in V00
thli late 'in." oft I".95 were ,' -c -
dead; bill Mr. '1ow ii.i|iui 4 nd 1"S4E_ "
a ilfw 11 1ig in March. ThI "v j ''
dry hIoll is plr. ',,l\1 not a Ii, .' /- ,,
queintly I 1v .i.ce -, iil l iIii ii.itin,
place. .luI(g, S. 1;. lI;, ,le1. (3111
S li i'lps bi ir lin ne vr i- \ ritii ,,_ J^ j H V ^ V ^ T ^

.tatls lhat thlie weevil at lihat -
tilni was heili. lllniiil cvarly Iv
every day in the dry IIl-: but ,
tlhi.s .tateiieint lacks the.i '.1i
Iliica tin c \ Iliich it ii -'lit other- a ,' , ,
~ ~ I', f) li. .- %. 1i 1. it. 1 11hnl ars i m **11.: .
W I'4e h -l~l h:lt-1 d ;1 I.-. ll,,~ ll,, ,,,n l ,,. ,,: Ii -,l r., ,> l ,rva in rilii.* r.i' ',| .. .... ,. II
%vti se l i inv il lit; rii. i ihe lin i It .1! 1 .1 .... ., -. .

tlie hict that uo heavy M'l't-! had probably occurred up to that tine at
Sharpstiirg.
W ith tiht 'ultinu,,of the pilIkit or with thin* i/ii,. or ill\ ii., "I tWe
bol]s as a. ilu ciilt t tr It-l. the h il1il|t w\ '-. Ii, la %p h tlie plant a2nid seuk
.WheltvIr u-Ider i e iIii'l.i ait tle sirnMace ",' the v giimin. W ".r anI v, o u wee'd aimI
tr.shi ;it lih margin(iti ( it tihe filik. lIIre thie reImnain it iil thle waiil
dayivs ot .-plring;. when they ily to the ii-t ibuds on such v 11111unteer pla ts
is Imay ,',mie iip, in the neighborhood. They teI edon these and lay thichr
epgg.s lo li t early -ii. im iv a4 d m i.. or Pierliaps two, g MeratiNTIs areF
1l.velopedl in such '1ilnt ii.,,-, the lumber hlei'lii" upon the hl.ir.aeter
iff tlhe se:IiII and thle date of cotton pltim.. I; l-i-tinime the planted
littolli hais gr'naiii hi.i tllllil to I)rin)ulte sIqlalres the weevils have
hieco IIie IllI e liiir11liMii. andi those which ilave developed In11 tlihe l el-
eration (lit vliillnt.er cotton attack thle planted cotton, amd tlir,,i..i
tleir pln li t iv'.cs. either for ti,.liii-L or a.. I.i\ in,... eause a w h Inlesale
sheddinlIg It, the yulng .slliialves. Itseeis to Ile ani almost inv ;rial1e
ruhl 1 iat ;a silqrine inl whici a weevil hais laid an i, i p, "o I Iii h ll- li n, ,il
as a reI'sult Il the work of the larva; ill the ,Jil1,. a ',n li,. g ,i' iil lii,.
lari'Va reachesI Ifull gi, 1 li. tranIsfi)rIns to |il,'.,. andl issues eviiII.illy as
at bl etle. tlie tiine io ciipild in this i,11ii, .iji-i ',,liiiiiii, f6iir weeks.
later. aIs tlie bolls io'rin. the weevils attack tiliri .il I i. nd la. their






4 *1
egg. in them, and the larvaw develop ill the interior just. a.s with tlhe
squares. The bolls, however, do not drop. Figs. :, a, and :1, b, show
the larvae in the squares, aid fig. 3, (', shows mi young boll rut open and
tlie pulpa in its customary position.
There is a constant succession of generations troin early spring until
frost, the weevils becoming constantly more numerous and the larvae
and puplv as well. A siiingle female will occitpy herself with egg-laying
I'MI a t'coii.-ideiralile number of day.,, so that tlchere arises by July al inex-
tricable confusion of giiieratiomis, and the insect may lie found in thie
field in all stages at the same time. Thlie bolls, as we have just stated,
do not drop as (do the squares, but gradually become discolored, usually
onil one side only, and by the time the larva becomes full-grown generally
(crack open at the tip. While in a silqa i one usually timnds but a sin-
gle larva, in a full-grown boll as many as twelve have been found. IiI
any case, how-
ever, the hatch.
.ig of a single :
lhrva in a boll
s i results ins the ( le-x
a e strtctioie of the
:yboll to spch aln
jt ta extent that its
1t iber is useless.
Where no seri.
ous frost occurs
tiii Depember,
p ofk the insects all,
we" rdiaeal y all,
FIG. 4-Mature boll cut open at left, showing full.gr,, no lar% i -r'II at I, I in trit
right not cut aud showing feeding puinctures and i. ,I s it, are- aFi5 d hitter bi ber.
iiat i g quarters,
although larval have been found on into, .1 amuaiy at Sliarlisbiirg. Wh'len-
ever a heavy frost comes in this month Ih, m-r hebi e, the ohbervations of
last fall show that those insects which haye not reached the beetle
stage are nearly all killed. From tills fiict it fidlliaws that the insect
will probably not prove as injuiious iii other portions of the cotton belt
as it is in southern Texas.
Itwas found during the latter part of 1895 that the weevil was present
in a number of localities in which it wag not k iioMwn
by the p)lanters themselves to occur. It is illihior.
taut that every planter who lives in or mear the
region which we have mapped out should ibe able
to discover the weevil as soon as it imikts its
al)l)earance in his lieliI. Where a field ik at all
badly infested the absence of bloom ik an ildica-
tion of the presence of the insect. In the early .
part of the season the weevils attack the s' uares
first, and these wilt and drop off. A tiId nlay lie
in full blossom, and as soon as the iin'vet sh'preads(
well through it hardly a blossom will be s5eii.
This dropping alhe, however, is not a suitlicietit.
indication of the wiei il's presence. Squares are Flr.5.-5late Fall boll Phbw.
shed from other causes, but if a siitIicie t 11moberi i,. .1w h,.meiv ifi. lie.
of fallen squares are cut oi eii the va.;u.c will be ween bull jii involuert.
apparent. crh characteristic larva of the weevil will lIe ,luite readily
n,,.,:-i,ial/aii on comparison with the igu res which we iublkiih herewith.








As ..iitud alo L'. the bolls do 11 llt[ 'I I,,. jiiinurei made tl tiIe
w<*\'lll, I Icesliig. |lOWevel al-eo o aipml.ltir 'll csl Ila i a bollt IS .dil ,i t .i I haii 1 i., to ii,. .,h tll tilp the lLar a ,ik thll
3111 l)l i'ii lI 1411eiM W li ll I I I't lltih ol ll 'lll ilng it olp til Late 1 l1 ti 1 1i asol
thll, 'e 1 -, tlr. -i.e%'t -es will be ftlou i, ,l r 1 r.1 the ino' hnre a;id the 1 ll.
no shiiwl li II. *', or in their absence the I.'rliii-, i. II.rks ianl lhe \,.1
low, !.4111ii.Iii i.\1irenieiit which i.llh i ti n i \ ii l,<., at the lla,1 e 1,,
tIl bl oll are' Iv M lhlniie t idicril nni s.

OPIILUAR N \\ I'..

Ill south Tc\I'.,. -III'IIn S.l ll-li ..-|n.l'lkll Ilu, l1h tIlc insec t is ;Z,.1. I
Olly k in W "w, .,- th,, lrnc l,. 1 lh .1i I Il~i \ 1% 1 .,, %,i, I,,,' I ,l, I' to tll(, 'SlUlt
or lcaik 9l thi iii-i l;VIlil-hi I' I .in L pl )lanters '.ai., i.uilky ret'erred tIo
thte itns.ct .t11 lii.t. as .I hi. sli:c li-.hi,,rmI a trllll w\h\ eh lir lli iny +1 ;ii'M
Ihas b liii .ipplnie to any insect w which ';iltlis5 (tii its ul11 etI I's lihe
alIedding ll (ll- squares M 11 thee r',tti It' th IboHllS. As thier, ;In s:er
eril ] Iti v iii -,I s that are com11 monll ly called sharljshslistrs. aUK% an hin1,1.
tlhongh inln inums. ale ly -no i) Ilidans to be compared w ith this il-cut, it
become.ts lml.s.-a.i y to dlscnir, i, in every \\waIy the ue iof tHlie word slhirp-
slooter s i;iliilieil t ttlhis .,\ i. LI, I- waste attemil)ted il (ite li 1i editi io
olf th tii ul.' la \ illii. .t i,.ii], one i, tlie commonilest ,i the insects ordili
ilirll l nIiittl shiii ] h,,,iiiitrv'. .ulli= g attentionI to ie raI dicil ,lith,.i i ii.,r-.
whilh ex'M.t lIelhwe.l it .iandi he weevil tinder consideralio. I1"1,. adolt
tioill oftlii tl eri" .Mexicaln i tton l,,ll bid ..\ iF" lil the Iew pest- is reiconi-
mended. ThIe t ruin sharlishooter is now nuch lies's g,.cn1.hil. :i]iii.,lw to
tlit'he wev\il I hllin i t was at fir't. I'laltiters .i.llil' nhow l'i"r to it ias
thet boll wvet'il, or the Mexican ",I .\ il. oir the Mex\iean boll weevil.

I.A I..SSITES ANt N I I lN H I. 1ENIlIIS.

It i. s.tf tit s.iy that little assistance +ill be derived t'i .i thie work
olf Iill'nral I'lt'llies and parasites ii, upo, this instjset. ( i thle fiorllner 1oit4'
ol any itilIIort.ilce lii'v hIeel foilid. several ( i al eites, Ihow ver, have
been tfuiipl ati iltack it, and in olet o hlias restitl Iid 'iiin their work. T"hl.\ ha1\e oilv lieen alulndant, how+
ever, late ini Iir *-lt i, ili. ;il'ltr thle weevil hias col pl t'ed its l.il I iL. forl
tilte vi'ar :iind l a tini when a minili umi t ,t' .,l can lie .'II miniljli'li,.1
by tle i ic, i ti'inli it' tile l, iv;:i. Thie itaiijority 1 tihe weev ils in a gi .,ii
tit-il Ifiil to hiile itr'i;it li'r c'>'.lik I i'iiL, Iil, 1 li,'1 Iy oC ld weitlie"r ol' Solle
tlither taims, soi ii it the work o1 liarites ati this tintw does iot conmit.
('ail'ul is.liiiilt.. s, however, show tliat tlill 15 to 20 per cent i,' the
weevil hi;i*, in l'illii squares inll N, veinher tt lIeev ilhle and Kelijtfly
were dIehstrye il y li mirasites. Theie is a bare Ioxsibilily tliat in tihe'
original hnli 'oe oll- il" weevil (south li r\ixiCO anlid st"ne 'ienitral Alnn'riiiIli
States. aq \w\ll a; certain id tIe West I nies) mtore imicic iit'n pa a.mti's
could i,,iiid. but this llpossiblility is ,l;ini ly ',ilttiiiitly -iii.,' toI
walramn the ep linse of a search expeditioi.

R E; 11 E;1'IES.

In .onislidri,'ii tlih matter ,li ,.mniII.- we must start will thle state-
menit that cxpexnei, has shown that none 4,' the iii,.i.nl aipldictionss
it insecticides ill IW it the ..li;hll.-( valnie ;,.iit,- this l.. irrie.. There
ate r[ea.Mi.'[s. liow'vrei. which cotton l,.irers 1miay .l,,iop .iitl \h1iiri. if
carried out Lniierelly at the lighlit Iin. 1l postpone thie alpiearance of








the insect in i iijuriu.is numbers for one or two generations, even if they
will not prevent an undue multiplication of the species. These measures
are directed againstt. tlhe over-wintered weevils and the larva- of the first
generation, since where the insect has once become numerous nothing
can be done to save the crop froin practical destruction.
We have noticed that the \ecvils first appear in spring among
clusters of younmig squares on the most advanced cotton plants. This
slug gests the possibility of' trapping these earliest beetles by means of
a very few cotton plants especially grown fr this purpose. These
plants must be gi own at convenient points, muit be protected from
frost, and forced by watering, so that they will branch out and acquire
buds even in advance of t lie volunteer cotton. The weevils which issue
from li(eriiatiiig quarters on the first warm days will be attracted to
these pilanits at once, and canll be easily collected atid killed(, if the plants
are examined daily until the cotton in the fields has become of some
size. It is not likely that this plan will appeal to the average cotton
planter, but we are convinced that much good .an be done by its gen-
eral adoption.
The fact that the spring generation develops only upon volunteer
cotton has suggested thle possibility that the insect will not spread
lbw.omid the region where volunteer cotton will grow in spring, but
untbrtunately this possibility is by no means absoluitel\ to be relied
upon. Nevertheless, the destruction of such volunteer plants as come
up in cori fields ;>md in abandoned fields which, tihe previous year,
were planted to cotton, can not be too strongly recommended, for it is
a matter of observation that the shade aifloidcd by thlie corn or the rank-
growing weeds which come up in abandoned fields is especially favor-
able to the development of the weevils.
While the plants are young, and where labor is ;is cheap as it is in
south Texas, a great deal of good can be acconlomilished by picking and
burning the fallen squares, and if this is done promptly .1 large number
of the insects will be destroyed. It should be done at. least twice, at
intervals of three weeks, during the period while thIe plants are small.
As soon as the plants begin to lwa:inch out, however, this method becomes
iimlracticable, onil account of the difficulty of finding the squares on the
ground.
Thi idea of picking the affected bolls during thlie cotton picking was
suggested in the tir-t edition of the circular. It was thought that the
aflected bolls could be so readily recognized lhat. m1ny thou.sainls of
the insects could be destroyed by the cotton l pickers by picking these
affected bolls and c.i iryi ng themn a\ ;y in a separate receptacle to be
burned. The amount of extra labor involved ill this operation, how-
ever, would be very considerable, and the atiteetcd bolls in many
instances are not to be recognized at a glance.
]Th'hes. measures, aside from the last one,'togct her with i early planting
and clean cultivation, comprise all that can be done to save the crli p of
l.in. It is obvious, however, that no general adoption of these simple
measures will be bimouight about this year, and that. the probabilities
arc strong that the insect will be quite as injurious as in 1895, if not
more so. A good first crop will probably be seuredl it tlhe climatic
conditions are fIivoiablc. but the top crop is sure to be (lestroe.ed by tihe
weevils. This dc.triuitimii, judging from the experience of the past two
v;i.-, will probably take place in September in most of' I tlie localities
where the weevils were present in 18%I5, aid at this time the prospective
loss of the top crop will at once become evident from the a;tbsence of
bloom.






- 7


'l The pro.-il-'t ,,1" anv hIrtlivi l, i,pi, .inli Oi l 'otton I,,in,,. thu i ,!
.so ,exttvn ,'f" sm dl.al .1 r.iiu; t.rtti,,i i obtained as to what i |I,,i li,.,i,-.
ifte iT.11 t !i In lst I|i i,'t iir ] i id ,i nf ir il ino tEie number 1r tg i iti ci
irailII se. t''l li ig .;1p l1 il.'li,\ Iv 1 11 ii nn 111 it ot I,,) I)I. 1'1umuio*r 1' I .-1 alilc t hat
i I s i t iii 4 ipp1 ioiit i l i-i uinni : I I i li iii I I I c p ailt ;T I 1 I I' lia d i t
i e i ti I'Itl tIn 1 I il :'l 'ii i Ini, I i i IIf the p l llts i il t lii e iii
bl 'rl i emis .vidi.at gifnil tin," :otti cll \ i i to bhile ,..nitI,,red will be i ri. h i, i ll. l


i0 1 .'it iii In IIany l,, S. ili, I. ,InIiiaI the I st sIum Ii this I ould
ie hut Ie il d poe I d o- i ult u;lil\ll.. as eI vrly d i l tvn l ,' -inn I- I I
(lelobrr, andt, '*t,\,..il l.ir ,, gt,,,.. ,I| c'ottt ll ill N.urrcs',' ;ill Ihiv~tl

iiii e .is i \ denied 1 i t i tIlil:.l hilu oI lhi. le I I e a I e I ) ill ta! l turally te id*lHt'I< toI ,ii ,Id.iin i i ; 'i l. iiivtI,"
tli ]' l.it, irI l I -d th i ,i I i n. l it l the 1 in Sct .li l t I 'I i 1 1 i,- \' i lhi). 1 It i
line mt'lIto Ill ])IVaI (',,llllf fitir exsnii|l>, stems ti IH :n,,iii 1 thn'

1 .' 1)riit i % of, the k II : IIl tl i l e i ill c i I, I by 1r1 It rIf i I I I I e 1 \li t I ell
be nt Vntgil IIblt'iMied to jlut down Iiheir 5lantu < iliin; cs ai Vha i.
ithese i.i oflaiit ki.' ti tIhei',lnl ,,ii ioitoni. I. thii. whc y the l~ls t^ti inu
imimy lield.- \, ill dnil, lsh be I,.ri I-mi.nling; 1i itil Ilwwrd th 1'1d -dI
DI 'friill ltt'r,
('t i lhd an.vhiiL t I ii nulik iu'la' n, il 'Iin vc' l ,n' iithler 1,\ l i i -il.ntii ori
Itltrne i.e. it i- inll tis ;ill dearnuction lIr t liet ttoe tlhat oir l st lpr d f
iel ae t i t i't ii a''reson| o tlook iud il tnii. eo l eetisi twah ftli' 1 r .11 .L..1 i
lion Siihiit I' h e llic hi t lli I tot al the l)l1li l i lln -'\ i4. 1i i l hil should
111 I i'1 h tired in thiis a i%. All the in.eI t.I w' icht a t il tI l rvaIl alni
]i'I .,l .c t Io I ill I; 1, d1e.- ,\(I etl wheIIII tp I otto In i i lII d I It Ihose
\%hli,.h1 ;1 y he in the l,-,tll, \,, N, rill, hy lli.-lri. -,'.il alive. If, there
ti're, ai cirtai, i 1ii uber a li' thI e i lantig t le hpl .at .,Wneli a in ,\i t Iat II.
these ipl.>nts will attract the reun. i, i,,,_ l,, ..lh.> whvlh will settle IlI kii
tl eC i. N-o tliLatI t or 1CV Ib i dtI' l li I ,i a1. 1.. I ii. 1 tl n i dbl.y ind a1l,.l i \ ;i d.i.
If tiiI li] ttl e ;iire all 'u1t IIIdown Md iid urnii. tiln b'etls will sprad fai'
and wide: lilt if a i i'w arC e ]u i .Iti ,itnilin_'ue i this wa" the weevils will

\W here tlh re is il h' vili' ,- a e ertaill al li i t lot co ltto still Ih be ;iils h-
,-red I;l'Qel I liv eatl-y part tIl',()cober1 it may I e aI ;1]i ; t 4o l) "stI)iOe
tl i. is 4 ltin ., ldi> h'd In ;1 n in of ti iplnrts t W e I have tIn I II that tIIhe
weevil iitiiinu,- to I 'ii l ed and 1m11vay lhe al,,lt1 ile the bolls in ;1 il .1 ..1-
u) tI tli e time i l' the llt.-il b 'o t The ,.uu ielitii a d bur'ciii't' will then
a olgintl]i.- 1 I a eolnsidleansblie alilouillt ile' c\, i even illf done u i,.L Ng n\ 'ra.,
Iber. ;altloll., ()etober woun l be t ia better.
F'roint the-. preiselt ,uttlsol,. i' -iii'l I,', tIe bc t hope wh-i Ih the cotton i
pilliltel. in I lih alhe ttv il e;iioltn %will ieve ul the :ll r wllt l cIf in tiill,, i
ing this l.iit (d.sucit t l method in tole .ttll of I. anId theIll mo e 'liO-
oug lil, and nd nifillm iily (ami. in I II I. the earlier) thiis is done in ;n\ L'iM I oII
tlo.ali[y i1l, -i re'ater will be.the ele rnee okI',. a -,lood tl .i, tle I,'ll i -, \\ii
Year. I'llftortlinnit-ly, it'ter talkiin'. %ith Il;lim Y cotton to l:llph tri Z its 1i1"
'egin,i w o are by IO )lea s .in ilti tle .)1i l \\ ll be ,Ir .11 general.
I-ollhmed, f'ill the reasons .ll..-lggv.tt,, above; mid as the l li-prt ,t tIese
plmiilters thelinslves. as %%ell ;i-, till- owlers of cotton plalltatiolls ill
dljoiniilil r l'egios,, a as yet u iiit W'e-l .tl, will ih.r,,p1iil almost ,.iritr, 1\ ol the
aet-mral ado|ltion oi'f this plan or some better one whieh may 1 ,t l>e ,li-
Cove'lred, it ler il.nes necessary to look t;,\ i trd the l t niifirt'fii.it lif
remedial work by" ,.i.-l.itinm.
It will be -greailt ti tlihe iitre'v.t ol' ll growers of cotton in thIe pi.ohr Ii.
ditri.t lyiniig to tie nl rthlea-t-t o tin,' t egion at prest'lt infested to i1r1'g'
thlie l:iasUage of an eact dtiiiing th le .e ,si ii ,t IS9ii.;-!i7 which m ill lriiii.-
about thlie enforcement of reuinei .iil work in .''97. T'iins ac;t limuhl pr(o.




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

8
3 1262 09216 4556
vide for the appointment of commissioners in each county upon the
application of a certain number ot the citizens of that county. These
commissioners should be enipowered to enforce remedial work, to levy
penalties, or to have the work done by their own agents, the cost to be
assessed upon the property, It will be well to let this law have a wide
bearing aiil not to cnnifine its .iipplication to this particular insect, but
cover all iiijuriuis insects, in case of future emergencies of a similar
nature. Such a law should be passed in every State in the Union.
Though it might remain inoplerltive fuir years, its application would be
available in case of any sudden emergency, such as thle introduction
from a foreign count y of a new in 1jurious insect, or the sudden multi-
plication and spread of any one of our native species.

SUMMARY OF REM-DIES.

(1) Tnippinig over-wintered beetles by means of a few early planted
cotton plants.
(2) Destruction of volunteer plants in corn fields or abandoned fields.
(3) Picking fallen squares as fast as practicable, from tlhe time the
squares are formed on the plant.
(4) Cutting and burning the cotton stalks as early in the tall as prac-
ticable, and, if p',ssible, plowing the cotton fields at the same time.
(5) Tra.ipping the last weevils in the field by means of a;i few plants
left standing.
"Ileie call be no doubt that tiws insect is the most serious enemy to
the cotton plant with which cotton gnmers in this country have had
to contend, and every e(lloUit should be made to prevent its further
spread. The writer believe, that this can be accomplished, if, by con-
certed action of the planters, the i-eommiiiendationsjust made are carried
out throughout the infested region.
L. 0. HOWARD,
Entomologist.
Approved:
(CHAS. W. D)AINEY, Jr.,
Assistant Secretary.

WIXSH NI ,"'N. 1). 1C., Frhui-ry 12, 1,96.