True Clothes Moths (Tinea Pellionella Et Al.)

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Material Information

Title:
True Clothes Moths (Tinea Pellionella Et Al.)
Series Title:
Circular / United States Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology ;
Physical Description:
5 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Marlatt, C.L
Publisher:
United States Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:
Edition:
Second ser, rev.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Moths   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by C.L. Marlatt.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029677754
oclc - 631045599
System ID:
AA00020895:00001

Full Text



CIRCULAR NO 36. SECOND SrAlrs Rtvni5 %1
I'lilcitl li),,i,.hrpiim'Ill
M.. 1-.N I OM,, / ). M-I

T it' \ I1
- -. ~ ,-- I l i', .)

*-- 'i ,,/ , ;/,., =. . ,,; .i \ \ ._

.I. C L M l r k",

U S DEPt081.O4v"* ti. I, fis t r Itf--.
T 1- d1-t. l Il % -1.-




kyl,,,ll f.il; ri,-, tihl l, !n l s iiilld r lisiterial l,,1wii., tli tvirll nil tl ih tf

111 t o n I\ 1 1 i, ir i, 1 i,, 1 1 tliiy 1 4t 1in < f1I l ).l rn
i S I' I tt II t Ib i~ t,

toir I -" 1.O Irii 1 i i'' t lt't itp 'tt i ii th t ore 2 i, i litersr f t t inl
Is ,'rli.ii- true ,. i, otih r hoI -iiihold l pI't.
Il , ]ill, ll,,w isli or ;, tt il % *oreI IiiK ths ?Ili tt iie.'< it nl ii i i ,.
;Ii',,, t rr 'ni,- ittIraete to iii it iil lil or i'i .l, ei from infI ItetII
.z;lrrii'ril.I or fortieret- ire tiiiia ii armliiss e otli ;lnl iin Lit t their
ii, illi-]i irt are rtlim-irt Fi iuid li foil t liiat e er i" tike'i in titI
iiii,.r'l statte The li estruetion ocIt, itlitpl hy vliec |>'st n-. r, i it''i,
liniijr., entirely to tihe [,,,r Il.,- or IIrvsI l ni t -' The l1i.,ll,.1 of tite
niinths liy 'ili. iir *. '1 hoiusekeeper. w hile- u.'nmilly ha-efl on tlie i'!.i_
iiifrrni ,,, that tiir\ ;are aettuahly i..-,, .1 in m ii'._ iher oolen-.i is,
ine,('rtiu 1, --. a tiiowt vailu ml,- !i''i '... .1Ii,_' Iiee u'?t e it el -ks ini som nimut'ti
the iiiiltili, iii. .," thie pll eciep. w hi~h i- tlie ole duty m-frt

tl I I T' I
o1"f- othe iotiis all '.. to tlime .- 1 oi mf iuin ti I t i. .,i.('
kim',, i as 'I I1' Iin.i thie old Latin naItil for cloth wornm- tt of .ill soirt-. ;nl
ar chlaracterizedl .*' very narrow '. !iii. ,liA, .1l witih 1..,,_ liiirs. i 1
cinliloni ~"'" i'. fi clotlihet itoiti have en s'setl wen -iwmtt' I vi itl i man from
t~i, ,..irli, times and are, *!.. .,,., .n }h y e ..'...i..I .;'t:1I. I",,- '.* are' all
iiirli.i11\ of I l.I W orld Ii o e !' thein i- -, ii; r.'i- t tI le
I'iit, ,1 -T ,l,-. ThaI t t ,, were wvll knom wni to themi am nc'ietls is ."ti nII
t'\ Job's reference to i : i.l that is nioth at en." ad .'i Iias
_ 'Xi,,ii Stc all i eleurate 1. ri li,..] ,.i on ..e thie-imi a" to lead to tiet
'.i- 1V ii iii Ii ,,lm ,i l the -"1"' ;' l i ,i n' \e'r- ,il' intro uit llu-
into the li in i i tr,- is |ioi n hty lPfhmir Ka nl a $weitiih -mi- nti-t,
who took a keen interest in hotse pess. Hi ,, il.. ,'.1 these tii-ils
ti hiL .ihLnln .int li 1 1 I 'l i ,.1. !'.Y i 0.; L -i r i-_ i .' y. i;:. itt
~.1 \ i h .l I,,! h ',,.,, .1- I. d ,l ',, ,,- i l,,I ,,'t,, ; i . .. ', I, 1]!"- ~ i 11'; i ][<
:. llll l l l i i' \ l ,,' I ,' 1 1 ll 11 1 1 l i ] l ',, i l- t i I l ~i ,, i: -_ I, I *\ ,,.' !, i l,,.I l,' -
W\ ,r ... ri llii 1 11,.,' T rl t i, i t l .," ,l l lr, ..*'." It, i ,i ..,l : l'-







2

What lir:-t led to the association of these and other household pests
with man is an interesting problem. In the case of the clothes moths,
the larval of all of which can, in case of necessity, still subsist on
almost any dry animal matter, their early association with man was
probably in the r6le of scavengers, and in prehistoric times they
probably fed on waste animal material about human habitations and
on fur garments. TI. fondness they exhibit nowadays for ta.ilor-made
suits and other expensive products of the loomn is simply an illustra-
tion of their ability to keep pace with man in his development in the
matter of clothing from the skin garments of :.iv:tgery to the artistic
products of the modern tailor and dressmaker,
'Tir,. common destructive :pecies of clothes moths occur in this
country. Much confusion, however, exists in all the early writings
on these i,--ct,. all three species leiing inextricably mixed in the
descriptions and accounts of habits. Collections of these moths were
______ submitted I-ome years
ago by Professors
Fernald and Riley to




li. ".T naieloel :A o e d l:a i h lra t$lp d lp pll 'n c p
lf lar-a i" larI \'alsii gharo. of
Mrton Hall, En g-
Slari, the %,,rld's au-
{Ti.e' p l .teei ."-i( o thority on tin miis,
and from tde latter s
S" careful diagniisis it is
a now possible to sepa-
rate and recognize
Fiti. L- T-T i I, toella: Above, adult; at right. larva; at the 1lilTerewl species
ft. lHarEa in case. i -i I. (from ,l

The common injurious clothes moths are the ,a'-.)(king species
(Tiona pellionella L.), the ubrint proie or Southern clothes moth
(TIt ,, aht biselliella Hummel), and the gallery species or tapestry moth
(Trichophaga tapetzella L.).
A few other species, which normally infest animal trsducuts, may
occasionally also injure woolens, but are not of sufficient importance
to be here noted.
THE CASE-MAKING CLOTHES :,'I III.
The, .-,i--,ii l;iiig clothes moth ( 'iiieet pellionella L.) (fig. I I is the
only species which constructs for its protection a true transportable 'ase.
It was characterized by Linnleus, and carefully studied biy Ri,.aumur,
early in the last century. Its more interesting habits have caused it
to be often a subij.c. of inxmtelig.,tiin. andl its life history will serve to
illustrate the habits of all the clothes moths.
The moth expands about half an in, il. or from 10 to 14 min. Its
head and f',r," iin% are -rii1i yellow, with indistinct ftlusCous spits on









the m il l 1 orf 1 int 1 % I.I.- Tin, hini l i,,- V V u I it, ,, i ,t ,ih ;MAi m l
-[ll.\. It is the C r.mtiO I Spue cies i llt te N o thl, I, ill. itll'1- It- kl lUl td
and ,,.,\ dest ructivf Its harva I. .I j tton, w hoo t + i. rpetaS et.' antd- i.
S-\" tii.,llr d destructive ti> furs aid f tetherlu In th N i rtli it ti !lit o it








*t er till -I I vI zi Xilo t I-' l t '''i yr lit~. -i



revrss isef ~itou 1 i'2 it, i'ad r, wiith t~i Ontli ioiili --'
t n al diirn ti t the ' td s i il'i, ,1r ,. IrIt ]I-t i t \' A 't -' ai., olI d t I'
athe u hority of l I,.I of. lI" rto all i v n x n i'oosiii k, i'i it t I.. 'i'l h ait, i
-ilkil u lday it nitier ttr'ius in tin f l' al to tt' iI oifit'r It l tit
.',, illi how+'v+r. it .+tiijM'iir~s t'ritni .J:inniiry ts> ()+t'itx+'r. ;irn+l hi~i two+ iir




oleven t tmr 'me- or if lliif iii.ilA I t nlly.
t lh r l hrva is 1 I l l whil Icil t ill;r, w itli t11' h l- aind 1 ih d+l i'lr




parto th e next r-, otr ( liAihIt [ riWoW ; xii| a i it i c hrt'I ii', af irii, ito
m ova ble Ias or i l thi, I ontr +'ti f o t'+whi i it, 'I I,-'* task. itI




oit be necess ry fr i tt i il-u l l,,. i positii n, thi' I ntiut i tI ir t -, ._ ii int
i1-re tliru t lut o i to l hi ;ix s' hlil ii i, lh tht or il i to At wihli w i'- l it
crawls, ,dr.i.i''. iii itin tu :w lftr it. tn ,i.' su itn t.h' m ritn~ ti t t Vitii theI<




,.ri'i li ,,I t4'1 l riurl it ilicltH ecotsin- I 'li- li-. u t. tifi t-lo ,iti-i l1
tie t ase foth i l r I, i-ti l k i.' lto I '* ;i tIn d tli- i' p ;i( I-tii l.l n's l il
. er r ut', i i -ii,; i waiy. Wu ilhout l'il it_ it ii 4 n' th' ml -v; ritik ds i slitr











nwh 'do ivnv- Ann Ow (nI 2 -, I nrm t- jip .1, 1ii K' II lthi
Oli ilf f i doiwn o1 1 genera h ion o i sert s ; ti It ,I -,' ,, ..i -if !It ii ii'lll-
rial A -i ilI i i- l to lF tie ? naket otl'l I e tt ilt A ind l lirv1
reveiei itself wit ouh t , .iis the t f r ii ath d iiril's a'tlir'.iioi -tl.lit t 'A i-
and ,id i l,,i-All ill t- e oth'Ir I, 1,I Ii., cusc i 1 n,,_ictit', hy siirccrs ivc
additions to either end. Extriorly tlt' cusr tillHearrI to a ;tnittcd
onis -ilk V'y 'lr i,-]~l~ l ,' 1 in lit e l~irv~i frin+li titni' to timt ti> i+ i~l''i







ohlors tle ciase nl. rdeil i. i t to S' llxiit ;7 tr inik d tt paItt. it li theI
,\i rit i il i r desires, till t, 'n i. n illu tri te, i ite-.".' the i c lr
me~thod of ill iklil_, thie enIl ,i_. ... ,'s ;in~l ;idditl+ion?< I sc- rihrd,.
O n r..i, li INi fu ll _i ) j., !, t)lf l: rv:' I I h I it Iui.I' 1,y silken I Ti.... .i..s
to tlhe *-.lrli,.'lnt or otlherl uitert~ ial lilt~ill which it tins t+'liec ft'+',lii o+r
+Omlretilmes rarrh',s it l..1,._ dlistlin'er. |It +oi1i intnnrflc+ tuiliniierl'S of theml
were noticed to have scahed ;t 1'i-foo .111.n ,, the cor ice r f the reilii, It ,ll,.t ... it? tr ..... ..,,,. ,tiotis to
IlIt ilt-,iii- within lkc l~lrv~il lii,,il, ,'l l'l"_T',- three weeks liite+r, the 1i -, Iis hti ,_ I" [*' inly wo+rked,
p:i'tl[3 ,,ill ,,f t~ie hiirval cas.e to i,. 'i'; ,re Ilie r+sc+ipe otf the' lnth. I i.,
l.iit0.r Ii i- .111 iri, ._'il1 ,i" lli.-lii liinil c' tl nh o++ rI111 i ,I'i'i '. It h ais ;+ dlist in ct
.iti r-Ion I,, li;lit. arid tusually +conicea:ls ii-. lproipl'',' lin .Vlieints or
i r,.\i,',. \ ,,,\!r 'ne e it is fri-!.l, ir,.1 from iit? i-cs l+S '. pllace. TI+,lic m ths
:li'' c',,illli.l'.illi\, 1\ shotrt-lived, nost '..i,_ ,' '.' tlic dciiositio+n their
,',',- f,,r .1 nlew generation of d|estructtive+ Jarv;c. Th+ - ;rc Iti/in t+'.
liint c'.i-ily \isiltle to tile inakedl eye, :llnd atrc co tninimily pl~hlccd dlirect';
,,n ilic' ini.i,.rial which is to furnish the larva, witli i"....i Inl '-otii cai?;c?
llie' lil.i\ t'e ,l,.]i,-il,.,l in thie crevices ..i trunlk? o+r l oxes, t|,+l~ie sIwl
Ii itclifd l.ir'va' ii,'iil ; tllii ..i'li tliese crevices.









In i,,rking in feathers this insect occasionally causes ;I felling very
similar to that produced by the black carpet beetle, A .llge ias piceus 01.
The protection afforded by the seclusion of this insect in houses does
not prevent its having insect in'iiit-i and at least tw', hylnmenipterous
parasites have been reared in this country from its larvil ac.. These
are Hyperacmus tinea, Riley M.lS.. and Apanteles wurpdfp.t Say, liolh
reared from specimens collected in Mi, ig;ii.

THE WEBBINi;. OR SOUTHERN CLOTHES 1'inl'l.

The %tvb1ling. or Southern clothes moth (Tiniu,',i 5i, illi'ilit Hum-
mel) (fig. 2) is the more abundant and injurious sper-ie- in tlhe latitude
of Wa.-liingtin and southward. It occurs also fartli.-r nirthi. tli ugh
in somewhat less numbers than the preceding specie. 11 lirts-ents two
annual broods even in the Northern States, the first aippiiaring; in June


"w


". 'f -t^*


Fl(. 2-'-Tineoa biselliella: Moth, larva, co(oon,
and empty 0 pupa skin. iEnlarged (from Ril y%.


from eg- dht,,i-it'il in iMay. anl
the second inr, .\u.>it a;idI Sep-
tember. It is al, Iu I tli- i.e of
pellionella. Hlic threuinL are,
however, unifliiiily pialt ocher-
ous, without iiirkinI. r spits.
Its larva feeds in ,I large variety
of animal sul,-'.1, ,.--\iiulens,
.ir,i ft.,tlt-i'-, tur- .i.lm in Eng-
land it has even ,teii observed
to feed on colm,,I- iII tl- corners
of rooms, and in i inftinit-ment has


been successfully reared on rlIii rather daint v food u-lt:ince. The
report that it feeds on dried plants in herbaria is ratl-ir ,pIe'n to ques-
tion, as its other recorded food materials are all of aiini]il origin .
Frequti.tly this species is a very troublesome pest ini f-u .1m-;. partic-
ularly in collections of the l:irgieri moths. Prof. F. NI. W\\',iter. of
this Bureau, once had some of his large moths badly ridll', ,l hiy its larva',
and Hagen also record it as f',.,-diii_, on insect cnlIe, tions. Doctor
Riley reared it in co ]tdiiiifiii with the .An\oumois 'grain mnith (Silo-
triv'I/ cerealella) Irr in grain, it .ci,, :11p) ii 'lLt that ii- I:11%v: I lhai sub-
sisted on d(lead specimens of the gr:iiI moth. It is \tery likely to attack
large Lepidoptera on the -i; ',.iiin board, and has, in t.,.. I len carried
tlirnulh several generations on dried specimens of niths.
Its -1-iiv-r:l animal-hi.,ling, habit is further indicate liy t1ie interest-
ing case reported by D)r. J. C. Merrill. U. S. A.. who :.1lnittel .1 s-am-
ple can of beef meal which had been rn-jectild as "" .'vill\." The
,.ii..Ige proved to be due to the larva' of l'I'Miola bi..elli'4i.. .nuIl goes
to substantiate the theory already advanced that clillw- nitths %% \re
scavi.n.ers in their earliest association with man.









Tlir~ Tin t Ilti ohc ntu t rsln pn is rm r
pr,,,,'r [.1 1 , ,eh y, pMo th whel ever it ,it+. \\ I.-ii f., it i! huilds ;t
,,,,'ini ... ni -ilk internmixed with b~its ,,n w ,ol, re tm somew hat the,






1 tI II I
1, lt .i llionell..- hut l o|re ti J .I ,I i 111 .1 1\ 1 i in this it ptl I' r
.',,- it- 1 tr e. t hsormatio t o th i tnt -,li ;inl Iin' ninth m ,,, i.-;i,.'
,l.,r.l\ .-; I~ t- | ,|> shell pl"l" 1 ,,_ t ut of" tin' f+lfi+lH r w ith tle |l !l,,._.





tITII. T I' l' l- I M 14 t

d 'I.l .i| ilry ic th ( Ir/,, . is : ll I.) ( ) i ir < if

cIIi. I t'l, i'I h ;111(. r It i l l n .,' tin iitl r thi ti tt ,r t- o
.I,,' i,'-. I 11 .- ,i r1ni 1 th ie c-f t h' r it n i tir i i rxl>;ti : i n o, f '. ii, I- I ;t- l *ii
iii,,r,' .-.I~lnkii ill coloratiun. I t,,





tlj:,i-I ill- lite, t h w isli third Ii ht 1-1- 1 i, f. '-
tli,. fr,-f" i -i Ihkiik, l ithl th- ex- n.i "i'i "' .' "t / ti -e ""









i, ill-- ml -ki, and i s VN -. I-' i a iln -
i.,iiir. t, .-, Ichirds o fet i*r iti i,, in h itr,. L -t
tii, i, ir ],.-. obscured on tein tiel- e






'ih *itl i t '-I, ; the hind Ii in -
pil,' 1. i\tt. j i '\
'l'lFi l i,, aOrel/lklly utTmt+atarkitl niir ii[. *, nnii.- 'tait..i, unen ,i \, it hi EIr
(iii.ir-,.r ;i1d hleavier cloths thiiiii t elc t nr -.-t (,i,,i, Ii





-- uin h.i lr ti,, .ies a tl y is nnore .i]l t < ur il c+in i,. a' n hnre tl ukitth', 1aI

tI ll,'I rl 'ir- l an in tn ii i nt| tlin w i .(lc n fabrici- ar. It als i n n f lt-
i |,. fur- .Llnd skillS, andl i?< at (*(inlni()i ,ourcr( ,,' d1 ...... to tli+1 w,\oolen!







i olI-I,-l ni: of .1 1I rr.', -. iin- rather m or likely to occur in 111 ,._'.
,in :iiide, 1 Mnrs thain in l 'li ,_ houses. It- tirvan ii t nr dir t ,tly into hth
nnii l,'rn.il \ lich it infesats, constrtle'ii[_' tburrow:'. or .+ ..' i,. -, wltiich it lines'
i ,,r,. ,r I .:- ,. ,i| 'l,., ly w itl wilk. t ithin these g:ilt ies it iI Irotected
,I 11,i ed ,li1rliiI its larvIl life, ;und later lii. i_ 1" its t, ,11-!,' ,-
li,,|i xitl,,,it other prottection than that ," ..*,dcd hy tlie ,I.l+cry The
,L.ini ,.i'r' i- ,due ais IllIn Ch orl morel't to its *i.Ul -'.'.,.' _" tlnin~ to the aietiis!
.IIn,,tliii ,1 itie m material N InsuIe-,d for I.Iod
I lui, ,>1 ilie pari-sites reared from p h oi.,+,llii ( t m fflfs rit rp, lh/s S ,1 )
Ii.i l- I- l... >n reared ii,.,,, this- spe ies ;>t St. I+onis, Mo .


"1"t,, r.. ,- no ,. i-;. me(!t|hod| ./i lr vel+!'V~l; ( Ie 1....._'. done+, }y tclotthe+s
nri ,,}.-. i1n. to mallilta:in~ tilte |l/i, _r', ..:' woolents or other m atlerialls
,,,li,.l, tl,,.\ are ',ik, '., to :ittsirk de1 mandl/ s constant vi_'ilance, withl lr,-
,' l ]it ,:l,,'-ction and tre;tnent. i I +n i +fier l, t} ,v are~t hik. '. to ,'',, t
iiijurini-ly only artielhes wliieh are p~ut .', .' atnd' .,' unidistuir|+ed t.,i
:,,ii, litl,' timie. Articles in d .,'. o r weekly use. ;ind ,l' *.tt eilts lr..
tlilirtlty% ,r',d alld aw\ei~t. or used as '' ;n,, rooms+ are not ,i|' to lie
,.ri,,i-|\ .it,, t, ,I (' .r'l,. f- unde|tr thies e onditio+ns a rc rarely attacked,
f'xe',pt ,,i|,tilies? around thie borders. wlliere ithe insec.tts aire inot soi lmuch'









disturbed by walking and :.-%'pling. Agitalliion. suc'hi as I eating, shak-
ing, or 1rii.1iiit. and exposure to air and .aunliglt. arr,( olt remedies
and still .inion, the best at command. Various rcliIlenti., such as
tobacco, camphor, naphthaline cones or balls, and cedar chips or sprigs,
have a certain value if the ,.tirinent. are not already sti( k-l with eggs
or larva'e. The odors of these repellents are so li ,g'erIl li to the
parent moths that they are not likely to come to deposi.,l their eggs as
Ing as the odor is strong. As the odor weakens the protect iin decreases,
and if the eggs or larva are already present, these odlors have no effect
on their development ; while if the moths are inclo-el with tlhe stored
material to be protected by these repellents, so thiit they can not
escape, they will of necessity deposit their egg:, and the destructive
work of the larvae will be little, if at all, ri, strict 01l. Alter woolens have
been given a vigorous and thorough treatment and aire, i andl exposed
to -iinliglit. however, it is of some advantage in p.ckin, then away to
inclose with them any of the repellents mentioned. 'edlar cliests and
wardrobes are of value in proportion to the freedom ,it the material
from infestation when stored away; 'ut, as the od',ir o tlie o(,od is
largely lost with a',e. in the course of a few years the prtitecution greatly
decreases. Furs and such garments may also be teored in boxes or
trunks which have been lined with heavy tar Ipiper ust--l in luillings.
New pi.il,,rin:. should be given to such receptacles every year or two.
Similarly, the tarred paper moth lb.'- obtainable at lry-ponodts [houses
are of some value ; always, however, the materials siiuhl lirnt lie sub-
jected to the treatment outlined above.
To protect ',.irp. -. ,l.htles. and cloth-covered furniture, furs, etc.,
these should be thoroughly beaten, shaken, lbru:-lhedl. amnd exposed as
long as practicable to the sunlight in early spring. either in April. May.
or June, dt4iliditin- on the Lititilut. The brushing of ,1arnimnts is
a very important consideration, to remove the eg,_s or young l;irv':
which might escape notice. Such material can then lie hung aw:ay
in clothes closets which have been thoroughly clp.ine,l. and, if neces-
-.,iv, sprayed with benzine about the cracks of lh, Hlo ir and the
baseboards. If no other protection be given, the garni nts should Ibe
examined at least once a month during summer, brusli'ii. anil, if neces-
sary, exposed to the sunlight.
It would be more ci',,venient. however, so to inclose or wrap up such
material as to prevent the access of the moths to it. after it has once
been thoroughly treated and aired. This can be easily affected in the
case of cl,,tliin_, and furs by \wrapping tightly in stout p.iper or inclos-
ing in well-made bags of cotton or linen cloth or strong paper. I)ot tor
Howard has adopted a plan which is inexpensive, and which he has
found eminently satisfactory. For a small sum he secures a num-
ber of the l.,igi pasteboard li,xes. such as tailors use, and in these
packs away all winter ciillin,. gumming a strip of vrnipping paper









around the ,d.l so as t,, va[ up thv !hos romplrtfly midl l'av n,>
cracks. These i oxes it, h Ir-' will Ist 1i ny ea rs- I ith thli i 'I..I.
preliminary treatment it will nIt "ic i If- I t, u tinh tar-i Ij,.I .* ,l
|Ij.I|,r sacks sild as noth proteitrshirr- \xl)~ may hi ot ctiaiiahic on
atCunt of the odor.
In the ase of cloth-oII,,erei fuIrnitur' a dt itht lin t ,1 _. -
H}li,'li are stored or t,.ii lllnused forl roiisidhralil, I-frhds in summer. i}
ill probably be necessryI to spry thmIfI tlixx ,ir ttIi< (i\iiu<'', vi. in
.\liil. Jii,.. and .\,id_' st, Iitli lihi/ iim r ,.,ii tlima tI I t t lhmii
fr'lil m oths. Il'i1te suhst, L cei cal i* ,II i .l rru it i ithi ,,'
smaBll -lr.1ilg device, \ 11'd ill n t h r.!ii thw e atcrial, lint : tttioi
must bte exercised oil I'll CIIIJ t of th ir Wii 111,1 i i ,..i .M A\i tlitvr liiir -ii
it mr l,' 'ti' ll s ich airticlh s i ti |.I,' t ini .., I, fiitl a Iililuht
solutionl of corrosive suliiiate in Iih.<,h l, iiid ji t -i n ii -.. I1t n wt
to leave a white stain.
"',,. methodu of protection adopth'd I h one of thie dtImli. !hrriiri ,if
\W .t-hli .ii ,,. whio also htas a ,_. I ii'i sim- ;nd ,X(H1ri< '< in V t,.li,,-t
r,,-iy 1iur-. etc. is prac tically the ftzrso ;lrm+idy oitlinhil. iFur x whin
received are tirst 1most 'I. '.i:iijlt n d ii ..'...i-l lititii witl .riu jl
-ti, k<;. to ,-Il,,l1"l:,' aill loosened h~iir ;inal thr' larivac or mo.tths. Tihvy ain-
then 'olIt over caret fuIlly w ith i steei l >ttimh .int I ; k ,l ;iw4y in ii, i
oxe lined withli heavy ta;r i..i.i pap r. or in closets siilarly linitd
with this p.ip, i. An examination i t madni xvry tI w x tI Inr wI k'k,
:and if necessary aIt iI\ time. any -,'Tn* Pt 'I ',' it ik rA"i alt-
.,111I com bed. I),iiiI. m any years of Ixc inI,, in this 1ii, , i ichi
is ,"I ',i i.all favoraw le to moth ,l.., i.'(>. this tiIr, liant tans prx'vinteid
any serious iIIjiuI from mioths.
+ (OI D SlTOI; \il-:
'1'1h best methiod of pirotectiom :-id the ,'inu ntw ,+,.rinioly adhiiti d
ly dealers inll carpets, furs etc. t is col -. In all a! t I n-
ai\ i,,n canl1 avail liiin-,i of tlis i i ans i -, It m pat'.i '" st I' -nin-
p:tni<'-. .inl -,,f-tv x will ie guaranteed.
Tilt' Iii,,-t i() lC+i ] ,oo c l *t- ''. of cold to ~ t Ix sfd as a 1,',>tt'tion+
fr 'iii i lIl '- inothis atdI allied insl cts destrlctivx to o en anil fursiIi
AI.,I Il'rlI .l.iiii, I de IItermined hy the cartf- l mxiriim nts rarriit I t tit
a-it -l ii -li. e of I Doctor roward iy IrI A'.hI rt I I IHIad .. 1, r otf
.t i.ir ,. -t,.r.-i. waret ioust TI 'ii' i n W -1 '1...t n. 1i. (.. TIt..vf rxpIri-
nn1i a- IiF, -trated that a Iiin r IPre n maintain i t I4i 1. ipnd rs
hith- i.irx.il r tlil'er -.lt"- otf these insects torlant anl is ...t.,, 111
.iTcu ix,.. "1"i. lirp however. are alite to stand a st. i tt-Tiperatture
a;,- 1,'x .m- 1" + without i['p ,1, i :i y ,- \1" '+, -, ": ,'b. ill r -sults. Ih rtor
lHtail':- ,'\l, riiir,,. t- have extended over two years, and h |is latfi results
as n,'pn1rt,.. l' Doctor lHowardi are- *, i. int ;, -IT I, i hm e .x
strate' I Ih1.t I tile ia temperature k, ip uniformly at F *... i not dI s ..




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

8 3 1262 09216 4671

the larva, of Thin#olh biselliella or of the black carpet beetle (Aflugenus
picets), "an alternation of a low t(enlulrat;lure %ith a comparatively
,i.l i one invariably results in the death d* the larva, uf these two insects.
For .*\:iinpl, if larva of either which have been kept at a temperature
of I ', F. are remove( to a tliniper;itur. ,d 40 to 50-' F.. they will
become slightly active and, when returned to the lower temperature
and kept there for a little tinri. will not revive upon a retrans-fer to the
warimer temperature."
It is r,.,'niriui.1i,.l therefore, that '4(inlae companies '.uhbmit goods
to two to three ,il.in. of temperature as noted Ibefore placing them
permanently in an apartment kept at a temperature of fronmi 4(0 to 42' F.
The maintenance of a temperature lower than the las-t indicated is need-
less and a wasteful expense. Where the cost of cold storage is not an
item to be seriously considered, the adoption of this method for pro-
tection of goods dilriniwg the hot months is It niin-ly reuuinnmended.

Approved
JA.MES \WILSON,
SeCr((ary of Agriculfitre.

WASItNGTO'N, I). C., I)ecember :.'uo, lni7.