Buffalo tree-hopper (Ceresa bubalus Fab.)

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Title:
Buffalo tree-hopper (Ceresa bubalus Fab.)
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Book
Creator:
Marlatt, C. L
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s.n. ( Washington )
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oclc - 28172631
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:. ieARn NO. 23, SECOND SiRIEr.


UnihNd Stats D)epa;rtmvunt of A;
DIVISION 01F ENTOMOLOG'i.


i -- tL I'H LIHIt FAL l THIC]EE-110 'I i
** ...i, rr.w' '~' i u Jith. F )j
iKA I RAL. A 1CA I A.A N TI'l
,.i,: i| ., "%7 I I i little rass-green iisect is ; r111"

:: the common la uenitigi vegetation. 11,11i ,ftel"'rt'; t t t,.
alonus on account of its triangular shape, quicnik, uctivu flight, and cil1-
giderable vaulting powers. It receives its peculiar popular nI:in:e fro m
a supposed similarity in slihap to the mali, I uffalo or lii.oii. Tli thira.,
o r prcuotum, is greatly enlarged anteriorly, projecting laterallyv in hi,
trWg hornme, and is distinctly trinnguhlr, as shown in the illiuslruitn,
S(fig. 1, a). It is this peculiar shape rather than any knowledge of il*
habits that has given it its popular ittrest. lDuring the lu-t ten 'r


Fi'. I.- i-T Ar.ii, r RKRit-HiolrKIp : FI'PnflIa., l I ll ri riP. i ,,i t I '. 1 :, ii[i 'ia ie ii. I. ii.v i tt11r
(f. r1. t.rmtial tma ll -tiL tri a l. ltnit'i l4 .- rllh..r illu-tra tr )
twelve years, howevtevr, it lim: becoine important on other andl tri0 tly
economic grountip. In the 3lississippi Valley. 1uspeci.allV froin the Mi,-
souri northward, well up int (.'iriaIt. it ha:s been Ihle clause of very
great damage in orcharils. particularly t, young trees anil nursery stock.
not. however, confining itsUelf to frit tr,-es, but atarking alst all .,ort-
of shade trees. The injury is ilue solely nto thu cutting tip of ti' lii l-
by the female with her sawlike ovipositor (fig. 1. i. !/) in the dep)-iti-
of her eggs. in which particular the injury is not unlike that (cit-e'l \.'
the periodical cicada, and fTretuently is zrar'ely less in :;i.,riil; 1-1
account. of the great numbers in which thi insect

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a badly infested orchard in the latter part of August, or in September,
the buffalo tree-hopper will indicate its presence by flying away with a
distincLt-bWfltngJoise from the trees approached and, as it is a very shy
insect,AiWtoJq difficulty in coming close enough to see it at work
shnd .bhservd iterfethods. Once well engaged in oviposition, however,
"it b'eomes for tlhe',iie being fearless, and may be closely watched,
even under a hand'.I6-ns,
:'Fhere the tree-horber is abundant the smaller limbs of trees are often
completely scarijed overtheir upper and lateral surfaces, so that the trees
become dwarfed or bahr-bound, make a sickly growth, and are rendered
moe liable to the attacks of wood-boring insects. This latter source of
injlury'was first prominently brought to our notice in a communication
from M'r'.. A. PetLigrew, superintendent of Lincoln Park, Chicago, who
described the attacks of a borer in the smaller branches of the cotton-
wood, )'opaln.s .mniilifrra, which caused the limbs to break off and fall
to the ground in great numbers. Examination of the twigs submitted
by him showed at once that they had been oviposited in very abun-
iantly by the buffalo tree-hopper a year or two before, and that the old
scars from the egg-punctures of this insect had furnished favorable con-
ditions for the attacks of a wood-boring beetle, Oberea schaumii Lec.
This beetle had deposited its eggs in the diseased spots left by the
Ceresa, aud the larvav of the beetle had burrowed up and down the twigs,
weakening them and causing them to break off and fall as described.
Healthy twigs would be distasteful or unsatisfactory to this insect, but
the diseased condition, and particularly the dead spots left by the Ceresa,
furnish the very conditions most favorable for this wood-borer, as simi-
lar injuries do for many other wood-boring insects.
HABITS AND LIFE HISTORY.
SThe habits and life-history of the buffalo tree-hopper are as follows:
The adult insect chooses as a nidus for its eggs the twigs, preferably
those of two or three years' growth, of various trees, particularly the
apple, willow, cottonwood, maple, etc., confines itself in general to the
upper surface of the twigs, and works more abundantly on the south
side of tihe tree than on the north, although in this respect the prevail-
ing winds and other conditions influence the insect. The eggs are
deposited quite as readily in the new growth of old trees, as in young
trees, but the damage is much more noticeable in the latter case. The
eggs are placed in small compound groups of from 6 to 12 eggs each,
arranged in two nearly parallel or slightly curved slits extending in the
direction of the twig about three-sixteenths of an inch in length, and
separated by one-eighth inch or less of bark (fig. 2, b).
In dlepositing the eggs the bark is cut by the ovipositor in such a
way thit the mnarirow bark intervening between the two incisions is
cut entirely loose. This has a very important bearing on the subse-
quent condition of the wounds made by the insect in oviposition. The
object is doubtless to cause a deadening of the wood between the two
rows of egi.., to prevent their being crushed and choked out by the sub-
sequent rapid growth of tihe twig, and it is due to this peculiarity that
the injury later :lssumnes so serious a nature. A single incision made
by tihe insec-t to contain its egs would heal over and cause little after-
daniage, hut with the c'omuinlation of two incisions and the killing of
the intervening bark, causing it to adhere to the wood, a large scar is







produced, whirl1, with ,.a lh .,slll,.-qi|>i'lit y ,;r' grt tli, ,iillar,w," .. iIl
'" lt]tinately ,itsn..liSa.i ;I. v.il f'i iiir tit- ilrnli Irk if O w nit'r I ..i kn,
Oui t. A\fttr ZL f'Wv %'I;r1.- li ''I u ii lii' Li%', I.'- n ltli kly U irk .l (pii 1,
:hie insecL beco'r vrry ll'lv :iih'1 r01, l1_i. .ar': ,.i.ily I -k'ii tiul 1. tii,
*wind, ins d re vni-ry lilli,' tI .ittt k I.y 'il.l... l-Iiiiing ii-i.i ts (ig. 2. .
Ti le adul ls lirst ilpp imr : tini t tll- nliL i J,' nf .nlyf i1,1 ,.lirinl., i ,-t
numerous during An, .l .,1 1 indl Svptir il ,r. 'l'li'y ,..in (vipi..iti,,li :lInil
the middle (if \Au.l .t, itor 'ii''i ':.i'lier. :iiil riiiiintit' limn m )rk until tHl y
ar killed liy tlit fri'ists f umilv y ilit.r. .-,iii, tiziii,.- ,rkiin :i1. lte' ;, ill'.
end of (Octoler. Tlih nieil,,r of '.,-m dp'ii -itu, liv .1 sii l, fuii.ilI
*xceeds IM.), and pos.ilily 21,11. T'ih 11' rniii:ri 1Ft li.Mii2'"Il 'et 'll -
want, in Lhe twig2s uil illi ft l |inlvii,_' ,spring, liailiii i .ilM.iy i)r .arlI
In .June. T i egg is :ioltll oiii'-,.ixtri'illi tif .i ll iilt li 0.'l i. i1-'l1 I%
curved, tapering tuilwr ti l -i' outtr i'nl tiil I11ra' riiiilti, :it lli' iiiui'r
one. It is w ithlittt ii,:,rkil, s.(i|' .1 il i IIirl N.
whitish chlor, :ut'! cyliilrir.iAl <.xcclit .
aB more or II'P.M :aL'tilit L lb 1 y I .- ii1' i's-
wure of the wn od Intl t(l .dj:i<'iit v1it .-. .
The ePggS of tlit hutff;io trti-hi>]iiir i"
*are subject toth tl iticks (if at IN:l i :'. / h
two minLitV g )i~iic" lil 1,l'14-11 ^till v43f.'
do much to ket'p tith in-'r i'l inl hock. In general c'liaracte'ristics til- l.irv,, .. r
.and nymph? resemble the l dults. ,liri A. ;i
| are wingless ;and .m-,red -Amhul tilt- ,h A
center dlorsiallv with izie,''i,, u [>'rk ,l
or barbed projections.
FOOD PLANTS. .
The larvw nnd pupa. ai- well :- Ihe 5.,
adults, feed on iall sort.- 'if s v'i'-tilnit
vegetation, such asi we''l- : ,'inil ;rdii -
vegetables.,l an1r: ;i r" :ilp'tl1'ly ni pt I|r- 4
ticularly fond of tli' ;ippl'. iiitirli pri.-
ferring the mnrte s culhnt .an'nuiAi
plants. Mr. .J. (G. Jack reports that li .. i ., r,. iI, Fi..ji tLi ,.,
found the adults feeding on the young r" ,ii ..'.* r I, m.. i.nrk r-...'.
r- it ?L -i m .l t onr ll ,' ka{rk Tr.-% .P"r,.vil
uit h r iu i" n~ rI -'itl il l ,I. wtit'' I% 't'W a grll~ [
and tender shoots of the apple. ne;ir the .;r.- ri ,,', ,: tal ,.;.hI .
ground. by which I pnppne hI tnfz.as ., .. r .n... l ,,nri im,.L
the watershoots. for certainly, : tt',r .,i "' I, i c 1 il, T1
very careful and r'' 'It o"L l ..i'rv:llii in ; Il l -rnh r \\lii lr M m : I .wa -
infested as to lie n':irly rtniint',l. I f.'iled t'i tiiull .illy in'lih':ili'i of I.'
feeding of larva or :ilnlts 0on aTpl. T-l ilijtury, it ity r.alte. in tlin-
direction, to fruit .miul ,lm-let tr,',. i... ti r':ti l!y nilt wi rtlli ,'n-i'lhrii,'.

E.MKEi)IF .\NI I'I KVFENTIV\'I:-.
The destruction of tihe inse-rts thlrinimlvpe ij ,iicilltlt a;nd in grinrrril
impracticable, because tilt' lairv; andil :i,]iltz fi',l on .ill ; irts ,I v ,of -
tation anti are very widely dii.trilit cL. T1h .i.Iult.-. .I--), .ir ton ;i. t i iv
and quick of flight to he sti'ets..'tfully roitlici' l Iby r'.int i'c w:'l :, iil
spraying to destroy the early st:igi,' '.; i ti ,,diii.irily 'i' t if tli' icl,.-ii-iii
because it would necessitate extending illi, trealintmit to .,ll -riiin',n l-




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
.. .4'* II tlBBI IIII~ I BI IIIILI IIL BBIBI II HLI 11NIl l~ lB II[
3 1262 09216 4655
ing vegetation, and, as the'adultd are strong flyers, e6jthiC
give no absolute security.,. .'-i "4
The limiting of the amount of foreign vegetation about andi
and nurseries is an excellent precaution, and little dama ..
anticipated where the ground between the trees is kept clean,-
stantly cultivated. The larvw and pupas under these conditioMi.:
starved out. The orchard in which the writer -first studied th14
and which was so thoroughly infested as to be seriously i h,
one which had been neglected for a number of years and ,
weeds and succulent undergrowth, furnishing conditions .* .'.i...
unusual multiplication of the Ceresa had taken place dui. .i'
of years. Surrounding and better kept orchards showed iitlt1i
damage...Al'
Vigorous pruning in the fall or winter should be given,.
have been cut up to any extent, and this with clean cuto4
reduce the insect to small numbers. It is possible that
could be accomplished by planting trap plants between l6..
trees, such as beans or other similar summer crops, whioeb".
sprayed with the stronger mixtures of the kerosene and uosjt.m
when the larve became numerous, or about the first of Jflf
more promising method is the cultural one already described.
C. L. MARL+ ll
First Assistant Entoset...i,
Approved:
JAMES WILSON,
Secretary of Agriculture. '
VASHINGTON, D. C., May 10, 1897.