The aphides affecting the apple

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The aphides affecting the apple
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Quaintance, A. L ( Altus Lacy ), 1870-1958
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Government Printing Office ( Washington, D.C )
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Full Text

JA-ST4TEtPLAN T BOARD
K '~,r 'QgI, vic(r.-




CIRCULAR No. 81. I-mud t Mtrf' !, 1 T.

United States Department of Agriculture,
BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY,
L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.


THE APHIDES AFFECTING THE APPLE.
By A. L. QUAINTANCE,
In Charge of Deciduous- IFr'it I ct Inre.sidy,'tioI.v .
INTRODUCTION.
Four species of aphides, or "plant-lice," commonly infest the apple
in the United States, namely, the woolly apple aphis (Sch/izoneara lami
gera Hausm.), the European grain aphis (Siphocoryneavene Fab.), the
apple aphis (Apihis mali Fab.), and the rosy apple aphis (Aphis mall-
folir Fitch). The first mentioned-the woolly apple aphis-infests
the roots of the apple, producing a knotted, distorted growth, and
also the limbs and branches, where the colonies are quite conspicuous
from the white, flocculent material which the insects secrete. This
species has been treated in Circular No. 20, second series, of this
office, to which the reader is referred. The other species above men-
tioned infest the more tender growing shoots and leaves of the apple,
and are especially injurious when occurring on young orchard or nur-
sery trees, which are more commonly infested than older trees, making
comparatively little annual growth. Water sprouts also are frequently
infested, and the shoots of top-worked trees are especially subject to
attack.
The presence of these insects is indicated by the curled and distorted
condition of the more terminal leaves, and if a plant showing these
symptoms be closely examined, small oval or pear-shaped soft-bodied
aphides, greenish or pink in color according to species, will be found
on the under surface of the leaves, along the tender stem or elsewhere,
often practically covering these parts (see figure 1).
Each aphis is provided with a small beak, which is pushed down
into the tissues of the leaf or stem and by means of which the sap
is sucked up for food. When the insects are abundant, the drain
upon the plant is very great, interfering with its proper growth and
development, and in extreme cases causing the death of the infested
parts.
The leaves and shoots of plants infested by these insects are fre-
quently seen to be co red with a black substance, as if dusted with
'$5 18031-No. 81-07


PV A






soot. This is due to a black fungus-which grows on the "honey
dew" excreted by the aphides. This may be produced in such quan-
tities as to coat the leaves, and is attractive to various species of ants
and wasps frequently to be seen attending the aphides or frequenting
plants infested by them. The black fungus noted is not in itself
especially injurious, but it usually indicates the presence of aphides,
which may be
sthe cause of ma-
terial injury.

APHIDES IN
GENERAL.
S\The insects of
t/' i (the family Aphi-
didie, or "plant-
[ lice ," are espe-
cially remarkable
on account of
-: ] ~their mode of de-
> velopment. This
-will vary con-
/ siderably accord-
Sing to the species,
but at some time
-^ in the life of a
Olt species true sexes
,.,,, ,,,- 7are produced,
. . . .... usually in the
^fall, the sexual
y( female depositing
eggs after the
S\- usual manner of
,, K Iinsects. Eggs
J deposited in the
autumn pass the
winter in this
condition, and
FroIG. I.-Terminal shoot of apple infested with the apple aphis (Aphis mnali), their hatching in
showing condition of leaves. (Original.) 0
the spring is more
or less coincident with the revival of growth of vegetation. From
the winter eggs ;s produced a generation of females, usually wingless,
which reproduce agaminically-that is, without the intervention of
males, many species, as those under consideration, giving birth to
living young. The adult aphides of this first generation are termnied
"stem-mothers." The offspring of the stem-mothers (second gener-
[Cir.811


1W- f ,


--A .






3

ation) may be winged or wingless, or both forms may occur; they
reproduce agamically, some species being oviparous and depositing
pseudoova, or eggs which do not require fertilization for develop-
ment; While others are viviparous and bring forth young zl'ivV, t1,
pseudoova developing within the body of the parent. There may be
a succession of generations produced agamically, witli most species
this mode of reproduction continuing until the approach of autumn,
when the true sexes appear and deposit eggs; or a species mnay be
more or less biennial, some individuals producing true sexes only every
second year. With still other species, the true sexes of which are at
present unknown, agamic reproduction possibly continues for a series
of years. The same species of aphide may present several forms, as
wingless agamic females, winged agamic females, and the true sexual
forms; in the last the male may be winged and the female wing-
less, or both sexes may be wingless. The 'different generations of a
given species may vary more or less, and in some instances this is the
case to such an extent that they appear to belong to distinct species.
Aphides are enabled to increase with great rapidity by reason of the
short time required by their young to reach maturity. Their powers
of multiplication are so great that if unchecked the product of a
single insect during one season would run up into the billions. Very
fortunately, however, there are many drawbacks to their increase,
among which are certain weather conditions, parasitic and predaceous
insects, and fungous diseases. When one or more of these agencies
are in abeyance, aphides may become very numerous and destructive
locally or over a considerable range of territory.

THE EUROPEAN GRAIN APHIS.
(S;phJocoriIne ar'ena Fab.)
The European grain aphis (fig. 2) is the common greenish apple aphis
of the United States, and is the species erroneously considered by Fitch
as identical with the European Aphis mali Fab., by which name until
recently it has been very generally known in our literature. Two
species, however, have been confused under this name, the present
and the following, which fact was recognized by Mr. Th. Pergande,
and also by Dr. J. B. Smith. Prof. E. D. Sanderson in 1902 described
this insect as new under the name of Aphis fitchi, but Pergande has sub-
sequently shown that the insect is identical with the European grain
aphis (Aphis avenue Fab.), and considers that the species really belongs
to the genus Siphocoryne of Passerini. This species is recorded from
various widely separated localities, and is probably very generally
distributed throughout the United States. Twenty-two plants upon
which it has been observed are recorded, comprising eight trees, four
weeds or herbs, and ten grains and grasses. Of orchard fruits, apple,
pear, quince, and plum are food-plants; and of grains, rye, oats, and
[Cir.81]








wheat are infested, the last, according to Prof. F. M. Webster, often
being quite seriously injured by the aphides in the fall, the young
plants being attacked at or just below the ground.


FIG. 2.-The European grain aphis (Siphocoryne are'ox), a common aphis on apple: a, migratory
female; b, sexual female; c, antenna of migratory female; d, side view of end of body of winged
male: e, under side of end of body of male; f, under side of end of body of sexual female. All
greatly enlarged (from Pergande).

NATURAL HISTORY AND HABITS.

This species has been well treated by Sanderson and Pergande, and
has been found to present a very interesting life history. The shiny,
jet-black winter eggs are deposited by the females in the fall around the
buds of the more terminal shoots, at crotches of limbs, and in cracks
[Cir. 81]







and under scales of the bark. The eggs are quite small, but may be
readily detected with the unaided eye. These hatch in spring, ahout
the time the young leaves of the apple are pushing out, and the small,
greenish ''lice," often occurring in large numbers, at once attack .
these parts. These insects, when fully grown, are the stem-mothers,
and soon begin the production of living young, most of which develop
into the winged agamic form which migrates to other trees and to other
localities, where new colonies are started, the progeny of the third
generation also being winged and wingless. In all, some five genera-
tions of aphides develop on the apple, but by early July in the lati-
tude of Washington the trees are free from them, and
the aphides have become established on grains and .
grasses or other host plants. Upon the approach of
fall, apple trees are again infested by the return mi-
grants from the grasses and grains, the true females
are soon produced, and the winged males come from the
grasses upon which they have developed. Winter eggs
are deposited during September, October, and early
November in the manner indicated. i

THE APPLE APHIS.
(Aphis mali Fab.) 'i

In general appearance the apple aphis (fig. 4), or apple
leaf-aphis, is much like the preceding, with which it has
been confused. The body is pear-shaped, instead of oval 11
as in S. avenue, the colors of both being yellowish green, 1
greenish, or darker, varying considerably in detailed
markings and in the several generations.
Aphis mali Fab. (pomi De Geer) is of European
origin, and has only recently made its appearance in
this country, Mr. Pergande having first seen specimens
collected in the United States in 1897. However, at t
FIG. 3.-Eggs of the.
the present time it is widely distributed, having been apple aphis (Aphis
recorded from New Jersey, Delaware, New York, Con- 'ali) on twig.
v 7 '(Originah)
necticut, Colorado, Michigan, Alabama, and Georgia.
The records of this Bureau show it to occur in Kentucky, Louisiana,
Oregon, Pennsylvania, Nebraska, and Arkansas. In this country the
insect appears to infest apple (fig. 1) principally, if not, entirely,
though in Europe it infests in addition the wild crab (Pyru. malus),
pear, and white thorn (Cratagts oyacantha).
NATURAL HISTORY AND HABITS.
The apple aphis has been studied by Dr. J. B. Smith and Prof. E. D.
Sanderson. WVinter eggs (fig. 3) are deposited by the sexual females
[Cir.81]





6

in the fall, oviposition beginning somewhat earlier than but overlap-
ping with that of the preceding species; they are placed in similar
situations, and are not distinguishable from those of Siphocoryne






Sa










bC

FIG. 4.-Apple aphis (Aphis mali).: a, winged agamic form; b, pupa; c, wingless agamic form; d,
recently born aphis. All greatly enlarged (original).

avenue. They hatch perhaps somewhat later in the spring, and after
the foliage is further advanced and, like the species next considered,
the aphides developing from them cause a greater curling of the
leaves. The apple leaf-
.....- ..*....... , 1aphis infests the apple
^ throughout the year and
for this reason is capable of
more injury than the other
species herein treated.
Upon the hatching of the
winter eggs in spring a
succession of agamic gen-
S y erations is produced, the
Sa earlier ones, except the
first, with numerous winged
FIG. 5.-Apple aphis (Aphis mali): The true sexual forms: individuals which migrate
a, male; b, female. Greatly enlarged (original). to other trees and estab-
lish new colonies. In New Jersey, as found by Doctor Smith, there
may be during the season seven agamic generations followed by the
development of the sexual wingless males and females (fig. 5) in the
fall.


[Cir.811







THIE ROSY APPLE APHIS.
( Aphi mIfliloliWr Fitch.)
The rosy apple aphis (fig. 6), regarded by Pergandc as Ap/,, ,ma/;.-
folib Fitch, and determined by Sanderson as Ap/l,' .s,,* Kaltenbach,
is readily distinguished from the preceding by its larger size, rounder
body, and usually rosy color, which, however, may vary from salmon
to tan or even to slaty gray or black, the body being covered with a
whitish pulverulence. This species is very generally distributed in
the United States, occurring in such widely separated States as Illi-
nois, Connecticut, New Jersey, Virginia, Washington, California,
South Carolina, and West Virginia; it occurs also in Canada. The
species is common on apple, but has been taken by Sanderson on pear.


















FIG. 6.-Rosy apple aphis (Aphis malifolix): a, winged agamic form; b, pupa: c, wingless agamic
form: d. recently born aphis. All greatly enlarged (original).
In Europe the food plants of Aphi.! solhG, in addition to apple, are
Craatsegus oxyacantha, Sorb ., a ,ciqparat, S. dolne.,t;c:(, and S. tori iintlis.
LIFE HISTORY.
The life history of this species is but imperfectly known. Winter
eggs are deposited in the autumn by sexual females, and more often
on the trunk and larger limbs than with the other species mentioned.
They hatch in spring as the apple leaves are pushing out, and the young
aphides infest the young leaves and later the tender shoots and foliage,
the latter thus becoming usually badly curled. Three generations from
the egg are said to occur on the apple in the spring, many individuals
of the second and third generations developing wings and migrating
to other trees and to other host plants. After the third generation
the apple is deserted by the insects until fall, when the return migrants
appear and give rise to the true sexual forms, the females depositing
eggs as described.
[Cir. 11








NATURAL ENEMIES OF APHIDES.
Aphides are attacked by various species of predaceous and parasitic
enemies, and by fungous diseases, and under certain climatic conditions


'V I
a b d e
FIG. 7.-Two-spotted ladybird (Adalia bipunctlafa): a, larva: b, mouth parts of same; e, claw of same;
d, pupa; e,adult or beetle; f, antenna of same. A common arboreal ladybird. All enlarged (from
Marlatt)j.
these agencies exert a very important influence in their control. Species
of ladybirds or Coccinellidav (fig. 7), aphis lions-the larvae of Chryso-


Jr 1

4


FmG. 8.-Thu golden-eyed lace-wing fly (Chrysipa orualaa): a, eggs; b, full-grown larva; c, foot of
samne; d, larva devouring an Insect; c. cocoon: f, adult insect: g, head of same: h, adult, natural
size. All enlarged except h (from Marlatt).
pid, (fig. 8) and Hemerobiida'-and the larve of syrphus flies prey
upon the apple aphides. which are destroyed also by small hymenop-
[Cir. j]


5_151







terous parasite.. Under certain weather conditions entire colonies
may be destroyed by fungous diseases. During periods of rainy
weather the insect enemies of -aphides are much less active than when
the weather is fair. This is particularly true of the minute delicato-
winged hymenopterous parasites, to which such weather conditions
are largely fatal. With the coining of fair weather, however, these
foes of aphides soon multiply, quickly reducing their hosts to much
less injurious numbers.
METHODS OF CONTROL.

Pruniny.-As has been stated, the aphides under consideration pass
the winter in the egg stage on the apple, the eggs, being deposited
more or less promiscuously over the more nearly terminal twig:.
With young trees especially, which are seen to be heavily stocked
with the eggs, the latter may be largely removed during the work of
pruning, and the prunings should be collected and burned.
The insects in the egg condition are frequently distributed on nursery
stock; therefore, if in planting trees this stock be well pruned and the
prunings destroyed, the establishment of the aphides in young orchards
may be often prevented or delayed.
Winter sprayingq fir destruction of eggs.-Several sprays have been
at various times more or less used for the destruction of the eggs on
the trees; among these are strong lye water, whale-oil soap, and kero-
sene and crude petroleum-in soap or mechanical emulsions with water
or even undiluted. On the whole, very little of practical good seems
to have followed these treatments, the eggs being largely resistant to
such insecticides as are not so strong as to injure the trees. In the
experience of Prof. J. M. Aldrich, however, excellent results have
followed the use of lime-sulphur wash, most all of the eggs of the apple
aphis having been destroyed by one thorough application in spring
shortly before the buds opened. The use of this wash for the eggs of
aphides would also control the San Jose scale when present.
Spring awi stimumer treamhnents.-Effective work in controlling these
insects may be done in the spring just after they have hatched from
eggs and have collected on the expanding foliage. Trees seen to be
badly infested at this time should be thoroughly sprayed, taking pains
to wet as completely as possible all parts of the leaves, twigs, and
branches. However thoroughly the work may be done, some of the
".lice" are almost sure to escape destruction, owing to the difficulty of
forcing the spray between the unfolding leaves, more or less covered
with hairs, where some of the insects will have penetrated. A subse-
quent treatment in the course of a week should usually be made, espe-
cially if the first application is seen to have been unsatisfactory.
After the foliage is well out and more or less distorted from the
presence of the aphides, effective spraying is quite difficult., since
[ Cir.81]





10


many of the insects on the lower surface of the curled leaves will.not
be hit by the spray. Repeated applications must be made, therefore,
as necessary to keep the insects under control. It will often be
found practicable to bend over and immerse the terminal shoots of
badly infested young trees in a bucket of the spray solution, and *his
treatment will be very effective.
Spray mlxtures.-The lime-sulphur wash for the destruction of win-
ter eggs is made according to the usual formula for the wash, namely,
lime 20 pounds, sulphur 15 pounds, water to make 50 gallons, and
boiled for one hour.
After the trees are in foliage, a more dilute contact insecticide must
be employed, as strong tobacco decoction, 15 or 20 per cent kerosene
emulsion, 15 per cent crude petroleum emulsion, or whale-oil soap at
the rate of 1 pound for each 4 gallons of water. Since aphides secure
their food by sucking up sap from within the plant, none of the
arsenical poisons would be effective.
Tobacco decoction may be made from tobacco stems and other
refuse tobacco by boiling at the rate of 1 pound for each 1 or 2 gal-
lons of water, sufficient water being added to make up for that lost in
boiling.
A 20 per cent kerosene or crude petroleum emulsion is made as
follows:
Whale-oil or other soap--------------...............-...-----....----..------.. pounds.. 2-
Kerosene or crude petroleum--------...........----------.........-------- gallons 10
Water to make ---------.---.-.-.......------------....-----------..... gallons.. 50
The soap is dissolved in 5 gallons of hot water, which is at once
poured into the spray-pump barrel. The 10 gallons of kerosene or
crude petroleum is next added and the whole thoroughly emulsified
by pumping it back through the hose into the barrel for 6 or 8 min-
utes. After the oil has become thoroughly emulsified, the barrel is
filled with water, and the preparation is ready for use. When a less
amount of emulsion is desired than the quantity above indicated, it
may be reduced as desired by observing the proportions given.
Approved:
JAMES WILSON,
Secretary of Agriculture.
WASHINGTON, D. C., December 18, 1906.
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'111 ;.*, 'Y APP +K i'lE l-.
.1.. .F' it II t .d
"lhe' r' v,,. ..q pl, :alhi, .fri,., l-'lt,"h, :111>1 ,hr,.rilll,,,., t,,, .',l..l,. -, all l.1> .I/,+ ,,'' w/,[/ 1, tl,.lr :,, hl.
i' reaulil i-tiii,...i i-l. l t im i in '** ,"i'. I,' its l|i+r ctr ,ism ., roil dl r
hunlly. inil t,-..iill\ i,,-\ ,, ,t,,r. wvhic*h, ln *v v r, n v \;tl t rn'i, "ftilnmin
) toit n \'i 0'ii I, -I:;l\ ,., ,,r ,1.l.,. tlh 1... ;I\ t,,im covro wd ith
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Ili Iuriipa Ow tola l ii III~uilt 'I f APj/of'. S-A'rlu. ;!in a~htiol to) apple. al~
'-,'/ t f, "1 .' /r V











TIhe Iifu hitir a* I lhi, I i lt I"in tt'rfectlv o .i.t'r
\r ;W.1it Il t it .




(il the tnruuk andm h 11 Irar Iifiii I thali with the othel, -.eIm-. eit imond.
F'I. -hach." I' l '.pri ir a ti l, ple eivt<"f arti i ll -ir : out' mid the'' 1 -e \ tilul!'
phid. r;i i ...i.. 1 '.\ I'v r', hi1. A t later thel t nder loliiwot I;Iir f l




tile haltter thi:- 11CIIaecouuuiild l.II 1mui!T curled. Tflnrec g"lenertion-. frkotl
thIn urrr s ll, 1,:' t0- ,t i ] Iltlt-i i, A11 i, 'm in thle. in lition to apn i ei areI
L it ,,, ,. .i / ,ii ,,, .iI ,' t ii.i .. ...... ,.,".ii- N m< i..+ m+ / lll,*t*. andf lm. iu,,f +'r+i i,/ .
IFK H1STORV.
Th li i .t, l- t,,rv ,,t hi.i -,,.,e is but i pt'f %ctly il nown. :1intpr







to other* trvvm and tit .mthuer1'.*hit p1,lnt-. After til he ilii1mdi:t .
th it' ;' d tpo lt,,l i tlr, eIIdtuIln unt exI al f ,i:I. l th- and more ,ift-.1 ,
api t and tr iik ;n, lir,' ti oli- tru 'exuhan w ith the other fpacii- mentiotd.
Thv. i- ;hrc i i -'i. e ple leaves re 1t out, an the il
aphidc?. iitl'c-t th,' yrtn..h':t,'lr \ and later the tender shoot- n,1 t, li.i._r.
tthe Itittrr" thu'. I,-'comii,_r n-tiili\" l>;tr!l\ (urled. Three +y|neration+s fru~m
thie 0.^i..+ at,, *.;ii'1 t,, oi.:i.ur ,,ii tle :ii'i~i,. in the.-Ipz i,'_", reany ind(ividuals
of lilte *'-t 'l' d~ ;tttd thiir, I *,,*,.ations .*1-.\, l,,i'Iir_- \ in,.-" and tti _,t'iiliiiL
to ftlier tl'rrs" itu, tr ,,th'"- host plant. After the thlmd ,''l ,,r:>li,,n
theaitil)le i- d'-,.t'te, lI I,\r, in-ects until f:ill, wheu the returD ini_'.it-,
appea..r and ^*iv" r i-e' ti tin- true sexual fl~ini-. the ,. lt'-ii ,t,.i,,,itiig
eyy ;t, ,h'srrili',l.
;r':r Il





/




CIRCULAR No. 81 "'-"- I M n '.i_

United States Department of Agriculture,
BUREAU OF ENrOMOLOGY,
L. 0. HOWARD. E'nton0 rloujit and Chief f Buret ,// /^ f

THE APIII1I'E, AFFrI"I' ; TNI I'll: l, ".

/ r,,,, ,' .,.,, ,. ., *,.., .. ... / .r 1 ,, [.! ,.,1 U *

I 'IM {ur' ~'l"ii iN 'X ,tin *'<
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Four species of ahiiil,.. or "p iiia-lict,." i,',if ,Tn-'r )itIl1
in the United .ta ,,-o. naiintlY. the WIIll alilih aphis (.', t. 7,.,,/
yert Hausmm.). the Europii.ii .rain apI ii. (.,',*//l...,..'. 'aLiih l:';Ib.), the
apple phi A l.), tn the apple p itpple aphis (. Fiah' Hi-//I/l
folia Fitch). The fiHrst ,ntliiid the wa ioll apple ;,phi'--iiiif.-
the roots of the apple, protlu'*in' I, a knottel, distorted I owtli. and
also the limbs and iranlit'he>. \lili,, 11the colonies are quite conspicuous
from the white, flourilent Inaterial which the inctsecrete. This
Species has been treateit inii Ciruiilitr No. 2i, .--ermid .,ri,-. of thi,
office, to which the reader i- ref,'rrtd. The other spe.is.. above men-
tioned infe.t the more tender growing shoots arind leaves of the lilh.
and are especially iiijuriou "-when occIurriwn, on ,viiiinr Il, rcti d or nur-
ery trees, whith are inor, commonly infe-t.r'l than, older tre-. inak iii,.
comLpar-atively little iannuIIIl growth. Water sprouts alsoare frequen Ily
infested, and the shoot- of top-worked trees are e.pe.idly .itlbjt( t to
attack.
The presence of these, in-et-', i,. indicated by the curled and distorted
condition of the more terininal leav.s. and if a plant -,1i in,.g these
symptoms he closely exaiinvd, %.ilall oval or pear-shaped -o ft-bodicd
aphides, greenish or pink in color according' to -peci-,. will be found
on the tinder surface of 1th- leaves. ahiong the tender stem or el-ewhui t,,
often practically covering these prts (-ce tigire 1).
Each aphis is provided with a :.mall leak. whi, h is pushed d,,wn
into the tissues of the leaf or stem anid ,by means of which the p
is sacked up for food. When the insects are abundant, the drain
upon the plant is very great, interfering with its proper growth and
development, and in extreme ca-es causing the death of the infested
parts.
The leaves and shoots of plants infested by these insects are fre-
quently seen to he covered with a hlark substance, as if dusted with
IM3-%N... Si-07






9

terous 1,i-itt'-. Un0'i. certain weathTer conditions entire colonies
"iiin he d.-trved by f'ir .iii' ,li-,n'.,.'-. lit ii i, ieriodlk ",f rainy
w01thtlrr the insert enemies of *i-,liil.%, are 1much les active than whlien
the f i l't11'1t'1" is fiir. Tli'i- is particularly true of tIhe minute delicate-
i ti n.rd hvylnrilritr,' 1';iii 1, i-it -. to which sucli we father coInditions
itr'1 .tl'elv l';it:il. \\' I I II the diI I,, of fair weather, however, these
for- of aphides soon multiply, quickly i derninig, their hosts to much
le-s. iniijrni,,-, num} rs.
NEI J1 11)1 ) 1 F ( )NT O ..

Ar',,,l -A- has been ;t:it, tile :ir1 hi, .. undeI r c onsHile nitio1 pas
the winter in the .zy. -t;:L,'- oil the .ipli'. the '..- IiIIf deposited
iore r111 les promnisculously owv r the miore nearly terminal 1,_.
\Witl yo\ tint trees especially, which are .seen to be heavily stocked
with their, v... the latter may be lai ,,_l removed iliMzi-,' the work of
lprnitii.i, aiid the pjII'IIiiI1,- should bh collected alnd burned.
The insects in the 4,.,,, ,.niliti,ii are ri,.,ueutly 'li-i rilimtd on nursery
-t1o': ,rforl, i iin ilia:ntiz,- trees this stock be xelII primed and the
pri t iiing, de-' tird1. thie establi-hment ,f the apjiiid.- in \o ,iin orchards
ii1v be ,ften prevented or il.ilyed.
I ("',, t /,r *r '/''.,6',,,,. dt 't ute '/ .* .''.-.. Several sp)rays have been
at various times more or less iiused for the destruction of the ',...*, on
the tree.-; anio,1 these are -tr on lye water, whale-oil -,.;ip. and kero-
lene and t'rude petroleum-in soap or mniechanical emulsions with water
or even undiluttd. On the whole, very little of practical ',,', 1- seems
to have followed these tri'itiiieIIt.-, the e.,- heizl laru.ly resistant to
such insecticides as are not so strong as to injure the trees. In the
experience of Prof. J. M. Aldrili. however, excellent results have
followed the use of lime-sulphur wa,.s. most all of the eggs of the apple
aiphi, having lhtee destroyed by one thorough application in -iring
shortly before the buds o)p1m1,11. Thr, use of this walsh for the eL,.- of
aphides would also control the S;in Jose scale when present.
,',r,'/ fi and fumemeir treatments. -- ]'tive work in control ing these
insects 1iy be doe lo in the -prinir just :ifter thil. have hatched from
egg,,. and have collected on the xi n niliiL' f,1uli:Tg,. Trees seen to be
badly infe.-ted at this time should be thonoughly spra\ ,lI. a aking pains
to wet as comiplhtly as po,.ijlh all parts of the leaves. twi'i,. and
branches. However thoroughly the work may he done, some of the
"lice" are almost sure to escape ,h-tritcti ,n ,\\ ill to) the dilli.iIlt v ,of
forcing the spray between the unfIolinzg lha\ e-. more or les covered
with hair%, where some of the insects will have penetrated. A subse-
quetit treatment in the course of a week should usually be m:d,. espe-
cially if the ir-it aplpli'ition is seen to have been -iiii:iti-'rttrvy.
After the foliage is well out and more or less distorted from the
pre.-,ence of the :tphide-,. eflt-ive p graying is quite ,i licth. .ince
IClr ,.1i








many of the insects on the lower -urface of the curled leaves will not
be hit by the .,pray. Repeated applications inu.,t be made, therefore,
as necessary to keep the insects under control. It will often be
found practicable to bend over mind immerse the terminal shoots of
badly infested young trees in a bucket of the spray -olution, and 'his
treatment will be very effective.
.jq,ray mixtures.-The lime-sulphur wash for the destruction of win-
ter eggs is made according to the usual formula for the wash, namely,
lime 20 pound.;, sulphur 15 pound.-s, water to make .5o gallons, and
boiled for one hour.
After the trees are in foliage, a more dilute contact insecticide must
be employed, as strong tobacco decoction, 15 or 21) per cent kerosene
emulsion, 15 per cent crude petroleum emulsion, or whale-oil soap at
the rate of 1 pound for each 4 gilonii.- of water. Since aphides secure
their food by .-licking up sap from within the plant, none of the
arsenical poisons would be effective.
Tobacco decoction may be made from tobacco stems and other
refuse tobacco by boiling at the rate of 1 pound for each 1 or 2 gal-
lons of water, sufficient water being added to make up for that lost in
boiling.
A 211 per cent kerosene or crude petroleum emulsion is made as
follows:
Whale-oil or other soap .................................... pounds.. 21
Kerosene or crude petroleum ..-..-----------......--------------......... gallons.. 10
Water to make .......--....--..............--.......--............ gallons.. 50
The soap is dissolved in 5 gallons of hot water, which is at once
poured into the -pray-pump barrel. The 10 gallon, of kerosene or
crude petroleum is next added and the whole thoroughly emulsified
by pumping it back through thie hose into the barrel for 6 or 8 min-
utes. After the oil has become thoroughly emulsified, the barrel is
filled with water, and the preparation is ready for use. When a less
amount of emulsion is desired than the quantity above indicated, it
may be reduced as desired by ob-erving the proportions given.
Approved:
JAMES WILSON,
Secretary of A,4'1;c1ufirt.
W.\.ASHIN;TON, D. C., December 18, 1906.
[Cir. 81]

0 WASNTO. ;GOViLAerN T 't% O'f4








aniid unii'Ihr -iiles tf the bark. Th, v.,, :, are quiite nmall, but 111:1\ be
ri'tlii ,hlt,.,t, NNed with the unaided V. P. These hatch in -iriii-. about
th, tIIII il, t I iII;I leaves I theI apple are ijI-Ii iII! IiI and the ,i:il11.
grrii. -li "" li ,r ." I '-fit' I I ii II in larg e iiiii, 1 1 i-. at onwce attack
thi- Pr l rt-. "These in-r 1-. w hen fully r- nii% are the steim-,,,t ,i 1 -.
aind I -oin hbgi the production of li i ii, 1111,., lllost of which ,-l develop
into thlt- inig,'d ,ILlli ,li,' I i, w which iiiL''r:lt." to other trees and to other
locIIliti-. % hirre new colonies are starlt., the i i.nr5i Ilf t he third
geniratt i -i ii l-l ,, 1, i ji, ,. : ntl \\ii a t ..i. In 111l, somIe fti ,. ,-, ,rri-
ti-. of, :aplhiidc' develop on the ipT%,. Iunt hy early July in the lati-
tiud[ If \\W"-irj.Lnt'on the trees are free froni th.i,,. and
the ipiuh.l Iave 1econie established on L'',iii- and .
Irl.. l' ,r otherr host plants. Upon the :ilpin,.,ii of
fall. :ipleh t 'es are aL;'ii ift'-1id by the return mi- I"i
graIIrI, f'ru, lihe 'r.-. and grnih,. the true NOiW,:lh. fil
rI' -oii pril'tlilrd. i, a l the A inI,.,l mn ales come frnill t he 1
i-t"se, t11 pi i hich they have developed. Winter ,.'-._
ai'V d, ,ir ,It' rii,.z ,.lit,.ilrr October, and early I "' .1
NOviIIliIr in i the manner indicated. -

THE AI''LE APi1IS. 'A

(Aphif .... ', Fah.),
In gVIner:l ;.pIliA raIri the apple 'h1i-. (IiL'. 4). or apple
eIfo.apliiS. i- i tuch like the pNrdiNi,", with which it has'
hfien cnfu.,'di. Tin, ody is pear 1i,:pi.l. instead of oval :
a- in S.* '. ,.,. the colors of both ,.i,,L vNellowi-1h ,i' 1 ii
prtcii-ihli. ,Ir il. rker, x: a \ ii, consuideraldlv in detailed
n,:rkinL_.. anil in the several D..*,u, ,tini, 'Im .
.1,/,.. iai,/ Fab. (pon/' De (Geer) is of European i
orig il. :iaiut h:1i; only recently miade its alpl.:, rait,.e in '-.N f
thi- rinlt ry., Mr. P,,-t,'i ,; i rli2\ iiiL first seen specimle s "'
cholh'ctd ii tihe United States in 1-7. However, ait
the pru,-iit tihne it is widely disti ilutRl. havinig tn 1wr .p-.be,
rtorhodilt ftrii Nvw Jersev, I)elaw:riL.. N,\W York, (G)i- '" "
nictiulit. N',lfr.'l,. .lirlii|: in. .\l:ib:iini.. and (;,., i
Till rrlcd-,l ,ft this Bureau show it to occur in Kentucky. I,'-in':1.
Or,_rii. l'.ncn-l :iai:i. NImr:l-ka. and Arkansas-. In tlii- Omltrv the
iuii.i ipe:l' to if-t apple ti. 1) At iAprincipally. f not entirely,
thtiugh in funi>pe it infests in addition the "wild cih (A'..,. vdal ,
pear. n1d % white thorn (t '. , ).
NATURAL HT' KR1 A-i Hfi rI .
Tie aiphl ;iphii- has been studied by I)r. A. Smith and Prof. E.. D.
a ,r.,iii. Winter 0'1,- (Ai. ';, are !de-itlcd by tihe sexual f n:ile
l. ir -.












aitin) ni v I). "111'1'l or iij,*,-. or both ft',ryi- imay occur; they
I'pludmi~i zagiiiic:ill\, some species b,,inig oviparous and ,.i..-itii,,.
p' .ricid ,v;ti. or ',,,_- which do not require l',.rtiii/.u, f ii for h develop-
m n t:..l ut. w, ii iitllI I )s l)Ie \ i\ l,'1, ,, ,II t'Iit l ',,VIil "- alive.1 theI
1psch. ,.v:i dh. ,liuii- w ithin the bIody of the i; r, 1 it[.There may he
la si.I lI'm I v iii t generation pI reduced :i-,fiii:,illy, with most -1ii, .-
thi- Iniode ,t r, p 'iijr (lii, t I,, c ,Iti iiiit, until thie approach of aitiumI n.
wl.iii t I tI II -. exes atppea" f l d *,li, iii ,_ .1 )1-I or a species ay IIII I
IMITrT (, 1,... l t 1i,. id., Isome iI,,di \ I'lril- pI I1 itii I:I zl11,,,w x 0"-4 true sexes only every
Melid vi i, r. W\ith till other )pe4ies. the true wexes ,1 which are Iat
pr1e.,lit iinkvin,>1 11, : ZI mrl it I ,,jill ,ii.tion p .-.. Il| coittinues for a series
of year-,. I'i" I aiI e species ,' t :IIhide Imay prIesenIt several fr I. as
wiIgle-.- a.'111ii, ft1 niii*h-. 11iiiu,.1 1: ,i"1 rufri. '-. iand the true sexual
fuoruiu.; in Ill I list the male may he i,'l d the female miay, e I-1 a t 1-
Ie.-. or I it it -xes n:nv be wiiLlt--. wl li t given .-peci-,. my va IV more or Iht-. and in Iome intstances this is the
case to ivih in eIxtent tt th t1ny i p: ,.:,' to h,.,r, to distinct -I I,,ie-.
Aphides tire ,i. bled to increase wi-th ,,';it rapidity by reason lit' the
short tinme reIliIired 1,\ their y.\ii i to reach maturity. Their powers
(If nmiulipliciiLti Jon are so -r-,.it that if tuchecked the i:r',iii t ,tl a
single in-t.ct duri.iiL one season would run up into the billions. Very
fortuniitely, liwever, there are iaanv dra backs to their i., I '':i-,..
amtong wh ichli are certain weather conditions, parasitic and predaceous
insects, and fuiingoui, di-en'e-. \\liii. one or more of these i,,r'iuIi..
are in abeyance. phihilc, may )iu,,'iiit. \ .r\ niumerouls and destructive
locally or over a cn.-idtrit rI':1n7,1' ,, of territ'r .

TIlE EUROPEAN I.RAIN AI'JIS.
( s./i,......", fim f Falb. )
The European l grain aphis ri,. -'2 is the common greenilsh apple aphis
of the United Str-.., and is the -pe.ie- erroneously considered by Fitch
as identical ith the European Ap/us mldi Fah., by which name until
recently it hai- been v',rv generally known in our literature. Two
species, however, have been coinft't-,l under this nalmel the present
and the following, which f:t't was I ,- Ilt ,_*'IbZII byi Mr. Th. PL.,.ulu,.
and alst, by lr. .1. B. Smiitli. Prof. E D. Sanderson in 1"' 2 described
this in-ect a- new under the name of t1p n '. I/, hut ',r.:1 ,1iil, has sub-
seqiieiitly shown that the insect is identical with the European g,,.;ii,
aiphi., (. libi I ',.,, Fal.), and considers that the species really blo,.h.-
to the genu- Spi,',i-i,,. of Passerini. This species is recorded friii
\;riotits widely .'vparated localities, and is pro-ia1,lv very ,r,,iier:lly
distributed throuigh)iuit the United Sltatu. Twenty-two plant- upon
which it l ii- Iet'ln ol)- irved are ri"c,,nl.,. ,.,,iilli-i : ,.iriglt tIee-. fmiu -
weeds or herb-, and n r and tel and .i' -mLrI--. =f orchard fruits, :'p1lu.
pear. quince, alm pluIn are fuii.1. plants; and ui f graiii-. r\.. n,it-. :ari\
fuir -1}




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

3 1 262 09216 4499,1 IlIIi 1111111I 11
3 1262 09216 4499







4

wheat are infested, the last, according to Prof. F. M. Webster, often
being quite seriously injured by the aphides in the fall, the yourg
plants being attacked at or just below the ground.


*0

.~I ~


FIG. 2.-The European grain aphis (Siphoworyne a,,nav), a common aphtn on apple n. niirittory
female: b, sexual female; c, antenna of migratory female; d, sid'l %vi'i ,f vii I 1 I-4 f winged
male: e, under side of end of 1-..1' of male; f, under side of cnd of hdy .f .-I.ul fe alI All
ei. Ti enlarged (from l'TrL'iii, i,

NATURAL HISTORY AND HABIT.,.

This species has been well treated 1)' Sanderson and Pergande. and
has been found to present a very intere.Ating life hi-tory. The shiny,
jet-black winter egs aredepiosited lby the female., in the fall around the
buds of the more terminal shoot-, at crotches of limbs, and in cracks
jCiLr 11]






6
in the fall, ovipo.ition heginniiing ..unewhat earlier than but overlap-
ping with that of the preceding specie.-; they are placed in similar
situations, and are not di4itinguishable from tho:-e of Sijhocoryne





^ \ / k








\ < J^ <;

Fie. 4-Apple aphis (Aphis malt).: a, winged agamic form I, |.iiip wliill. i mi!nflt Lor-n; d,
recently born aphis. All grE.[iitl. enlar iil iiliiul,
avenc. They hatch perhaps somewhat hiter in the .-,pring, and after
the foliage is further .ldva'anced and, like thle -,pocit., next considered,
the aphides developing from them cau., Ia greater curling of the
leave-. TIhe apple leaf-
S'a p.hi p in fe-t. tlie apple
b trh,,,ughout the year and
? / toe thi- i'e.onii i, capable of
S. inure injury tlian the other
'-l)&(l(.i.'-' l 'iii treated.
[_'i puii thl. hatching of the
wi liter eg -. in .spring a
i.-qn'ces-ioii nf agiinil( geii-
s;iai'ioii i-, produced, the
earlier o11.., except the
f 'afir._t.\wit h numorous winged
FIG. 5.-Apple aphis (Aphis mali): The true sexual i form. LWiN\ 1idi\\. whicl migrated
a, male; b, female. Greatly enlarged (original). to uther tre,. lnd estab-
lish new colonies. In New Jersey, as found iy Doctoer Smith. there
may be dtisnfu the season seven annliec tenlenation-, followed by the
development of the sexual winglesos lihe l c n,] ai feiiinule (tig. o) in the
fall.
I-- ,r "11








soot. This is due to a black fungus which grows on the honeyy
dew" excreted by the aphides. This may be produced in such quan-
tities as to coat the leaves, and is attractive to various species of ants
and wasps frequently to be seen attending the aphides or frequenting
plants infested by them. The black fungus noted i- not in itself
especially injurious, but it usually indicates the pre-ence of aphides,
which may be
.... *' k the cause of ma-
4. .-- t- L e, trial injury.
APHIDES IN
'e ; L !- ~Z ?h G E N E R A L .
-; -:t Pi ,O ".*' i 1
/ \, The insect., of
', .,. the family Aphi-
1' """"" ***,r^1 \, !dide, or plant-
'*'* :V.l ( lice," are espe-
cially remarkable
on account of
their mode of de-
Svelopment. This
'will v-ary con-
_,) siderably accord-
/ ";t' \ing to the .-pecies,
z,-/'i ,. .fhut at some time
/" species true sexes
are produced,
-usually in the
fall, the sexual
l- -"- \ female depositing
.,- I eggs after the
~Li uual manner of
insects. Egg.-
deposited in the
/ autumn pass the
winter in this
condition, and
FiG. 1.-Terminal shoot of apple infested with the appld aphis ;.Aphi at ir hatching inI
showing condition of leaves, i their i ng isl
the spring is more
or less coincident with the revival of growth of vegetation. From
the winter eggs is produced a generation of females, usually wingless,
which reproduce agamically-that is, without the intervention of
niilhs. 1i:iVy spcci., as those under consideration, giving birth to
living .otliilr. The adult aphides of this first generation are termed
stem-mothers." Tht off-pring of the -teii-inothers (second gener-
[Cir. 811





8

NATURAL ENEMIES OF APHIDES.
Alhiidfr. are attacked by various pcie.ios of predaceous and parasitic
enerni.-, and by figous dikeise-,, and iiiider cert;iin climatic conditions


b d e
FIG. 7.-Two-spotted ladybird (Adaliabipuncetata): a, l.I, ., '. i.inh i~urr -amn- r. I saiv ,jf same:
d, pupa; ,adiullt or bee tle: f, itntennia of same. A (i. i ,ii,. 'ri... ;:l JL I I .r'i All] e.l[ar-.,I from
Marlatt).
these :t-- iii exert a very important in 1ii iwnr' in t liir ir con rol. Species
of ladybirds or Coccinellidat (fig. 7), aldii. lion.--th, ltrva, of Ciryso-


b VUJ'- L --
Fli. ?.-The golden eyed lace-wing fly (''t a.;.. c.'.',r. y ?. fiullgr-,,iin Iir' .,. fi .1 of
samv; d. larva devouring an insect; e, cocoon; f, a-11 ii i o11 '1 i1'*1 d itA i of iic,. A ;Il1li murall
size. All enlarged except h (from .ln rinll
pida (fig-. 8) and Hemerobiidaw-and th- lr\\TV of svrphii- flit, prey
upon the apple iphidv,. which are de-t roved aiko by smniall hiyineimp-
[Cir. 81]