The spring grain-aphis or so-called "green bug" (Toxoptera graminum Rond.)

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Title:
The spring grain-aphis or so-called "green bug" (Toxoptera graminum Rond.)
Physical Description:
Book
Creator:
Webster, F. M ( Francis Marion ), 1849-1916
Publisher:
Government Printing Office ( Washington, D.C )
Publication Date:

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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 29651546
oclc - 27902110
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AA00020869:00001

Table of Contents
    Distribution in the United States
        Page 1
        Page 2
    The relation of temperature to destructive outbreaks
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Food plants
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Invasion of 1907
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Development and influence of lysiphlebus tritici
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Experiments in destroying "green bugs" over small areas
        Page 19
    Agricultural methods of control
        Page 20
    The present "green bug" situation in the southern states, May 1, 1909
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
Full Text
371


Taor


C1 CULAR NO. 93, RE'.'LD. a .

tnitld States Depa rtment (f A r PilThi rI,
BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY. I / ll! I.l
L 0 HOW AR[D I|'.- I., i I L', -, ] .,


THESPRINIG (;ltAiN- I'llS .S()-I Ib|I|.ill1 ..f;fIN 1^<;."r
i I' .. t i i i t 1, 1 1, .. 11 I -
IA I \\ i I-i


w hic Ohe lv lii tlnr\ in .\ i,,, r-,i, i,,1" 'i, -|,, i,,.- -I' 1 ,1 ,[ i- li" I I I.
l'h ici, ,,. ,u' ,,m fl ,,l I ,, ,_' ,'n ,, I.,11\ lil,,,, l, .1,- lI, "" I,,':,l I,,,-, ,l- I" l ,l
lioliti l in ('i ,'iiv ii i," N 1. ',.. ,,f l I] ]',,i ..,,i. ,.,n x.. l, i .*r,,ii i '. |, i iJ I ...lir I


-----


S- 14




FI:I- pin Ninp.!


-.1" I. i I .- -r ,, .


here. luflnt-i iit t- -;Ii. lll it i.. i1 ],,,ii i i| -| i"'. -. i,'11- iii>', ill Ill
tlestructiv t, I _1' ,1 11i,,' i-r '.ill -n I'.ii ,l,,.. lll ii, ] i114 Ei iI 11 1li1i- ,11 11 IL I'r'
prior to 10,2. aInd 111i :i- ;i. ,Il.t ,c., .i,\ r 'M1 ,Ii l l'.,,+. TI, lii,..,-
Nixv relatin.- ti- llnI-. ilirl,- ilm .in ~ |.-rhlipi|- in.- i ..- i -.. ili ~l
o f the le'..t. i., -,, llli- l,..' lllL,- 1il.ll 1l11 l ,i' l l,,l :I1i,,1H -, r|||- | 1'x I ll
ordl r to prvx-vc t an-ml|],i,.l,,.i.n,,, .',, I', ..,ir, i, .1l,,dr.l l,,..n
iall pos.-ibt t' el)lelI t i l' i ,1.i1il i iI :i,!\ ;ii .. 'f t 'itlr, -iii, ih r ,itI -
breaks.
|I[-.rI:III 1I1 -N i\ Ilil" 1mll 1 \ 1i \ l % .
"' hin" iii.'-trc i- ,i -ln.il lx ,,,ii ,i,,i,. :ii,,l i- fI',,, ii l 'f ,,nii \ M ,'\!< ...
('o lor.l([,l a ln .11,,111.11 t1 is .\ .ll i,. 'L| t. ;1O W \ 1 1] 1 .1 .I \ ,,i ,\.rl
i11' liy i' :lv.L -0liI1i1 lf tiul, II ,.u',.( i ,,_ 1 ,' \ 'N,,v],. N ,,v. .Tr. .
llull N lew ,li .l;tiI ii .';-t 1,f iu]iil ,',I T 'i '", \\ l ,, ii ,.''iii 1\
it, area ( if 'h- 'r i ,.-|l, ,l l- ; 11 1l, ,. ,' L-
tark dt ri.i 311% NuAr. w ill Ihe w.-n. hlili l 1I\ tx, t','r ,,'r-: l"'n -i, ii..
._ -.I<-l:;--Cir. 'i;;--I0.-- lI


. . .. .....





0

presence of yrunng growing wheat, oats. barley, or rye; and, second,
weather condition, favirinig it-, rapid increase and unfavorable for
the development (if it- natiiral enemies. It wil I breed freely in the
fields from an altitude <'f le,-; tlhan 20 feet above sea level on the At-





J






aa
FIG. 2.- The sljru'i-- *] IIi.,II ,,I ""ij _- ., n l.ui i T',,riilcCiu eIiuuminum : n, Wingless
f rint I i i |ii,. ,i:. MI, ui h ii lar-_', id. i 'l'rni i'.r-anrd l

lantic coast to an elevation Of nearly ',.000 feet in New Mexico, and
from eastern Wailjinitton. .iuntliern Montana. northwestern Minne-
sota, southern Wi-or,-i,. iirtliern Olio. :inid n.itlieirn Pennsylvania
southward to extietie -outliei ii Sotuli Carnlin;. -onutliern Texas, and




''" -- --








\ 1 .1 i
I \ I I,






['1,. :: -- '"11,i' r-,n'. o-a[)l Ii. (,r gn'r-u. liu., i T't,1,ltrra" wi am',ii, umiii i Y. W inged ml-
-r.oru : IF, :intf,.nna l I .-nn, ',, MItl ,.ilnri!''l vI. IlIj.hl.' 11i,1 1ll'n 1 I i 1 Tr'u Pe gande.)
'\\ .[Mexico. Yet. \\itlh norinal weat 'ler ronditio.- during the first
fli\r nr five ,lontlis of tlhe year. these facts signify al,-olutely nothing,
for tli.- insect will not be abundant enough to attraUct ain: attention
bv it,. injuries.N
Ki..',]








III I f c II )l. \li>. iF TEMI'KtKATl E Tti Dk,', !I TI\ U lTiiEAi: .

'ii- in -t', sl with other cloely Tll.,t 1 peies dii,'e- in l\, u \-. A\s cool we ther III Io heJg in ,Iltp, i a\ there
o uilr ii int r :iiirr or less ni iltei' I' oth aliieri 1 iil feliiales ,. the lailtte
dt p i-iliiiig ,'u -- (ree ti,. 4), and it i in 1 the ,..',-:1 .s ie oiil. that, iiInder
ii.1l01i1;i l Il:I f ller condit iOll, t l 1 tI ei i li )l' I 1ii11'. 1 Ie I i" I I I I'" I ,il s
I llr w in ii r. ;iiid I iii thehe ...... it ,,r l ii il,.- hi th -i,| i ,'.., IBIt fro m
iTiig Ic Ill there a 'e n'elith r ,_,.'- ior nil-es; ntl ire I liil, -. iil,
tlih -t giv\ Iiirth to Ii't II F l ti I e i f .. i'i'.liu \I I thn
liiil'niliul < l1| it" early winter tlhei', feliiille- riuliiau lly di--iiivair ailid
llihe viiter tsL.L.. renainh biut if the winter 111111,i.il'iiie i- :iiilc. alil
i ii l li riliit i'il of the t',,1 ill '1 -[,' _"iiL lli(rll;lly cold. the tIiiii riit
Siieli ii l' '1,rproduiction coltiill h i le miller aiwd *,l'ii 'it"
.' [iing. I iuhIe i. it is not imlpl'o aile thait Iiuil 'I Iill llvi,-I' !\e-I
n ui h 'i l n i li \ lI e f ,il i i n i ,r i 'r : e s pl e ri li l l y i l it in 1 S ( il l i.
[iny gracl I ili will breed fre ely ii -
it l-ip irlilllrI .- ';iiiii from 1abo1ve i'1 I I I f
i lic h ,u u |II f A th e \ ,,ii ll7 lin t lllv / "'^ '
in eiigit liv-' and tleniselve l', 1i\ to ( _
give lll'e i ID tiil.'_. it will hx* 'ceel/ thiLt -*.,
niII exempt ioili:ily liiilu winter folhowed o w'e*d ,
li ;111 iliiirg ii:ii ly coldl riL," plIf i I
thn" lIw-t pn,--ifbl, conditions f,,r thie \ \" '/ i
Lxfi:-;ive increase of the pest. which$ ,
* w o lld olrd iluii r vln'liV 'T i i b l'r ', ili L.'_' o nl ly""'
in -.pri,,... ,i,, from the L ._ -' ,.ti, ti1 i ,,
Wi lhl eer--iV'% reproduction ;1u1, the fo"'.,, n ly.tt
IclI ru iilii or :1 li1 i- i tI food plants, en/nr.d at rilht, rtgfiill idar.I
tii- iis ct develops a 1,1 ,- ii ,,ii '
liiind.iii'ce of w iu,..fil iii tr'iiilii f,.i, .iI,-, wh ini are ihe neani of ithe
[-pr'ei,] northward or outw ard from ii ri iiid ventli r.
l ,'i-t ii I i i'" in noriil vear) --that is. when it. I .I 1 i1 ii, '- IlN-
,.iii-. in -rlqini,, -i ,- ivclwy 1i.Id in cileck I.\ its natural eneiies, aind
nl tdil" l M yA a iiilinil,. l:ii k. wam -plike il-,, I. L,,' '/p-1, ;/m ti;i1
A-\i\\1. (-,vi fg.. 5) that depo i-ts ,- -iii,..ly in the "-'i Ii 1'ii,-." tle
grii l:1t< h1l1i friill the *.'I.- fr,..lii, internally on the I, .ii1. (l, de-
.-trinilg it (see Ii'.. 6). Olin r natural enenies- are the larva' if cer-
1.1i pnrl.da<,.,,- Iii,.l-. anld thle larvae .iilI adNs of lady-beetle-. T-11
lit I I .1-pi ki. pa-ra.ite Iirst imient ioned, however, i the oine that keep,
tih "- ,griveI ,il' inl control in normal years, and in year- when the
latitr i mnst abundant finally over .e( c it, as. was the ca-e in ll"i
ill KNnuii-. N'rth (' :i',lii.i. and other .-iit,- in ill,, more northern
P.Nr tl'f the rIili,,_ ,, the j.4..
[Cir. *.::;






4

Un fort linatelvY thli-, para-,itic w.s p-a- withi the other beneficial
insects-is active onlY while thv 1i enperal.ture is :loe vtf;' F., or at
least 10 above that at which tli ""ren b1igir" breetl- freel: and










N- 9 /4'V
\ tt -I







FIG. 5.- Lysiphlcbus trii., 1iiiiiip.al pai.ii.i- ii.1 rhi. -,iing grain-aphis: .\dull female
and antenna of male, gr'-.. li i ninrg.-d. Egg of L.- fplbl,'ii-, jiui,- at right, highly mag-
nified. (Original.,

herein is the whole t-rect of the irregular di,-atirous outbreaks of the
"green bug" in graii field-. A-. accounting for the outbreak in the
year 1i10T. the green bug" had had a
Swhlole winter and tli, following late spring
\ in v ihicli t I breed ai-l inii ltiply unmolested,
.. mlI it accolniJli.-Icd its principal damagee,
,.. 8. ". in Texir and -outlhern (Oklahoma. before
/ "~' ,, the weather was warni enough for thepara-
A- -ite tu inrcea e .u ficieri1ntlv to overcome it.
, .A, further illustrative oif the important
-- 1 bearingg (f weathlier condition., it is found
tliat in lie ca..e of the three important
I (a oitlbrea k- of thi.is iniet namelv.y, for the
vear- IS'90. 1901. and 1907. thle temperature
FIG. 6.-Wingless fcmhE, nf for (lie fir.t five nmntlh of each of these
"green bug," containing te ft I o l of these
larva of the parasit,. Lru \ea r, including tlie latter part of winter
siphlebus trilici. Muat i n-' i e l i
large. (Original.) ;ln*d pring. \\a- al \e tlie normal for the
inter nionth-, ai ni below thlie normal for the
-pri',,i months; in ,t her wor l.-. warm winter, and cold. late springs.
The little parasitic wa.-pj which i- so n,-efu l iII the control of think
pest is native to thi- country, widely di-triiluted. and every year does
its work with the green bug and with other aphide-. It is always
[Cir. 93]









iprt,.tr-t 11 L''liill I,'i ll~. 11- iii i Ib its ipellriaiince every v :i, to v war
(o11 tli..'e I --.w li ,.i v,.r I I \, l t Co Iditions make it I 11 ,.,.lII-II
i111d Ilfl l.;ll ,..ll Iill i I~ l ,.. .,l,, ,ts fate of ,dil,-, is SO ,lpid (th)Ii.Ie
| ill iv L'ili'.lilii l .l i .l '\ 'i I, I ,d;1iys) that Iilh 'I wIek I jI4 tw,1 o) of
favoillralild 'evitl i il ,_.iIii- I ,,iir, i over iti lIost i'Ict I mid dlstlrovs
lit-llli.
l ,l' I'IAiii

Tlho sping 7r.ili-;ip: l1i- i .... itial :ly l eaf 1'iif r '-(iill; iI-.I I ,11 wii fomilidI ,i ll 1' -i'i \ I' I, rrr.l' i ii 4aIlt it will in dilv attaII k
,lii'ii. r'e. i li ,;i l.\. i la i\ ,iiia 'i i Ib fo nild Iil thI iii 4 r-I IVl<' f
thi' ll f%,l ItIi ,1i" ,',ii ('l Iii ,x 'ipted, itth.ei oi ll on I'ave', v ,
,r'lilli, \\ i'hn'l |irl''-'ril il1 l;i' ,, liillli,,i-~. i s to ci sctlll u i l' iir,-i ,d ]lenv 's
t(I ('hlialnlr III, i if l r',h r. Ili,' i, ht hi \i \ c'ltlir)icte wixti ,,ft'
T cxm pte''ii ;iiil lil imi l',,]1i,, :i;i(t ck- ,f uticr t" M'cii"- o1f .i, lii,,i,1,
oil t t'- rl;iiii-. '11I. iii''t li;i- il".) lMen ftiind I0ir'.',liii. uapoi i
Vi ', -ihi'riill' li llil,'i" ,,|f il';i--'-- 11i. .i ill' n 1 of w ihich i lm ;Iy ('II tiiltti' iits
1iltt'rnltii'g fli),l ,1 IlIi1 illii l Mich it 1may sirvive the 1s imIer in
diti rer'iit otii'i ofi'- )1' lit I I iii.,I .ti;l i tes. It 11- hecln found rII... liiiLr,
fr i'v'\ Ilponl !iuii'-.[i I',,\l,iil i I.,1/* /H'< H'ur ,,,,,;,,,/,,/1 .... *) inl l )IJ .dli ,,iii
lbv MIr. \V. .1. m'lilli,-. iilI I\ %1 Mr. C. N. Ainil"ie iii Kmisa- : (Ii
. i,/,p/i f ,, ,,;i /, -#IX/;. .i1-(, Ill ()A l.ih,,lii .I. b\ M rI. Phillipi i 1 >\
M 1 E O f. Ke ll\ :il. P'il'. C. P. (lilhctie in (',, ,l..iil,,. Mli "
w*l'iIv I -gra-. ( .I/ '/p.,/ ', i, #/") wIt- found lmoderatelyiv iife(-t ed
I)\ M r. ili-lit i;It Iai- V', .i- N e\. T in-. pecies N wa- mi t'iiil Ih d-
ilig ioiig n 'rmliii- at \';i-liliLrloi. D. C., andu asIo upon aPorter"' heiss( )
SBrI ,riii f/rle i at L.- NLr.i-. Mi... ;iidi ofn ii liinldteri1ii'ili'd
l-pe'i'- -if Iri', iini- t .I'il!;i P'ark. N. NIl\.. all by Mr. A1inlie.
Thle \riter Ilb-erI\.dl it ii\ :i% liii :iiilly Om orchard "l:-- (/'P f b, 'i
//yli,, ,t., i) ili i li ii i I"' 11. :i d 1 I'i i:ii ex.1e lively aliundaInt in aI
.iniiill i-mldi:',l iii,;idoi,\\ int' ilii- ,_ i.i-- near ill" i' iliI:in. Va.. in A pril,
1107. T lii- i ail'.i % % \\a:1- 1,i,:l>'il' in a '., ,l ii W;t ;ldtl1)tcd to the -,r'>" -
ii of r.i In. a:ili, i ir' w:i- i1 Iii.ld of ,i, m ill-, \ iheait or1' oat witliin
mi iiihl.-. M r. K ,lIIv f',lili- i. l ill i l,,i' l.111:1, iiil,.il iil ii i'm a s s ik1 -
iri'a?: I/;,; h/, "i ;' ,,nt', ill -iiili aliiiiid]ivin' as to he d1ini'i:l^'iri; thilis
Irin-.- whili i, i ll pi' ot Ilie .I', .lil Ir is known I Icorinvonly as
" l ilt -i' I--," I -;i- I' ildiid i t li i l -ii,-, s lll l ernde w ild I -\ (/I.'/ / .....
,,,f, ) -;it ],;i- V '_,r:i-.N. N v.. I,, NI r. A in-lie. M[r. l' hiillip- f-miiil
iit :itiliki.l" Iitll' h:irlmhv i//,',/, ,m pf !hui) at Belliit. 1i\i-.. and
K iliLrti-h'ir. ( lkl;i.. Ii' I ile h riteXf r f',,iil thil- to 1,, ,,f f'r,.,i ,.iit1
(xhc'iire'lil' lhilriiirlioi I alii-:i-. NI r. I KI, observed it abundant
onl -Ili -I'i.Tl-l;iil l i'a~- I .... /,,,11, j ,, ifin, ) in M r.il.iiii. ,v1ii l l'.
.Ainslie foiiind it iiilrilieri'l :11,iiidallnt on i,',,, ,I/, fusp h,/it lu;I near
Ciniuirroin. N. M'.X. W1ilm'i'Tv iiiil'itir hli.-,-.'ras ( pi'', /,iat u'.j')
grow-. thlie inl-'i will IiuoillaaNl he founiid ,re'edliiim upon it liro'ii_'i-
I ir '.I. 1
*









out the entire summer. In fact. this has been actually bIse,'ved to
occur in the city of Wa,,hiington. Mr. Phillipl, has ob-erved the
same thing in Indiana, and throughout the northern sections of the
country where the T,,xo ptera iicir- it is mnIre likely to I)be found on
this plant during sunumer than upon grain, excel)ting, perhaps,
diurinig seahonws of excc-i'e aliiundilance. Mr. Aili.Iie also found
it moderately abundant oi beard-gra--, (Pulypofton monspcliel8lis)
about AlbnqIIerqle, l'. Mex. It Ii- been found bleeding on fellow
foxtail or pigeon-grass (.1/o/,ritv,. f,/htlitii,.s) by IMr. Phillips at
Richmond, Tid1.. and on ,_reeil -tili i ./l,, Iiiihi) a;t LIas Vegas, .
N. Mlex.. by Mr. Ainslie. Ili the latter case thle grass was heavily
infested. As one or niore of the-c gnra-e:., will be found to occur
in almhnost every portion otf tlie U'nited State-. it would appear that
the nonoccurrence of Toxopltera iii an1Y con-ileraljble -ection of coun-
try can not be due to a lack -f iinciultivattd food p.lnts. Of food
plants other than gra--eo, w\e hl.ive oilly the one observation made
by Mi. Phillips at Kighi-.l'r. )khli.. .\April 2-,. 190. where a species
of riragjri vnl .Wiig Up ii a badly il dniaged wheat field was quite
heavily infested with Txopl)tera, at lthe time breeding freely on this .;
plant.
The outbreak on the ground- of tlhe Delpartment of Agriculture
was notable in some re-pect-. in that the continued close cutting of
the blue grass supplied a conitinual fre-li. tender growth as food for
thle "green ulig." thus p)rvV i li ie dltevelopmi)ent and escape of
wine-,d females; and eili',iallv i- it niotallec in view of tihe total lack
of Lysiphleb8us !i'/i t ti' i n,-t inipo'rt nt iof tlie natural enemies of
this aphis. The only natural ene iliV f,,ulid in tlii-. ca.-e feeding upon
the "girel bur" was tlie ldiniiinutive black and yellow lady-beetle
(H[,,/" ,/.,mTi undulata Say ). nlut i'evioi-lv knownii in connection with
this pest.
When this outbreak became known to Mr. E. M. Byrnes. superin-
tendent of Experiiiental GardeZlI- .11 (G I;'1iiid.-. h ;it (Once had tilhe
entire infested block -prayed witl;i :O -oliiiln of oiie-lihlf gill of ro-e-
leaf nicotine to each gallon of w\eaIk :-oal-iii-l. T'hw application was,
however, ineffective. Four dayl- later aI -trii th'rougl thli-, plat was :
tlhiroughly saturated within a .-trong solution (of harnvard manure.
made by soaking the manure in water. Wlhile there \v no evidence
that this killed any of thlie "green i'tig. after nine hday; the pest was
notably less on this area than where the application of nanur ,
solution was not made.
A series of experiment- wa tliIIen undertaken under (lie writer's .:
direction by Mr. E. 0. GKellv. a- follow-: ;l
Tobacco dust was applied ;it rate.- of one-foull'lli. wine-llilf. and 1 |ii
pound to each 100 square feet. but after over a; week lhad elaps-ed M
ICir. 93] "'









1 from llie h vI)r of :i p i li. ;il l miid) I
d(hield il-,.'t- r,'TV 1',,,lllll.
Ki'it -.c'iii' elii-imlt Wa is ;illipp id ill" s a1 10 per r'clit -Ian llt l".
a -hr, I,' :i- ( ] I, i, :Il, [I(- .1ir,.1 ',.,,. 1- in th e ,. -l.. (J' t ,,n -1', 1 1 ,._1 Its,
;,i ] lttle ,,; l ,ill I lh ii, di l''r l u lr l m i e r, I.. ( -f. l llS III ili th i i
i'l0 111 t111 0'1' 1 1.(l d t I( i I' 1 III' I~' I W e e 1I > l' i tli 1 ( 1 h
i'it lsi -a' 'l'tilcedl. .\lI-o there w s oi pi 'l'i alyhl, ilil'\ ito tile _'I. -.



s* iih l -i ,:iii ili eiir .i iI_' ii irt li fr 1ii 11-. oil f n f i
WiVt itl ill) iiilI- ,, Oi> t li li xx I vih' i Oiiw of Wcit ir t\: i' i iii )ld tft i'
siaimilil i ii'' i-. In I is fn'o tll -i i.ii ii' i tdiltio p il .il tle 'Wi i--
h li.,iln Iv. lI~il iI |I,,i'riii:iiwnlyl~v: n>l tliif <**i ( I ll Ic:- Pl si r,'i'.'tli s llicric
WI'it". II i11]111\ \\li~lm r. .ln ,','lOlr i iliai 1" ^rcv i ~ii;" w ll.s i ,,,
. 'iilni' il r'VclV r':i-r'. TI,,.\ wen1i lnot" on l\ liht lh':l f~xtl{ 'nihiitn I oi tl"o
the ir il;.-, tr't'.iinil. INii i lie N lt h .il Ara- i l lt'd t | xl'(el r i 1t toi i r 1ii-
fli'-i lt i, i. TII r':i-r, ll t [[i' w1 h iP i l i x( 11t -l tit i ii lu ; riimiitilition. i,,
iliv- aifter ll :ip:.li, .itihi, \i Imi.i,'' itvraih d iht' "i',', I] ,i ,- in
ii\'ril .in,' l% I ,lin ,' fiwl oni i iii' l \tiiiip\lci- -t pil u. hlb lM M lill
Sint'li'.* i l;,v i :i ,l 011, i i l '*.t it' d iii 'ii I' i,,- < ,i 1,_- wii re ii' r'\ t( I>('
I'mimll m. tlhi -'li lli t, ,h';' l wIr lte' to ;i -' t T v l ll--,s ais ;illli-i< ily Ci,-

\ l'l 11 tl r1 Ii\ i l 1, 1 liti' on ll t S IC 'Itt.el,' It limsl II n'llitilWl 'r IAl,
li i w\ ,ivr i. ihim ii -i'i \), i 'ii iiil" \\.1, val' 'd uet ii "i i-- k(>|)t 3lo 411 l
<'i'Ipp l, I' fi ,ijic lipie I\se of the i iwn niuiw ', ii dii 16 ierel11s o ii l0'd
ill ii, W 1 114i1, ii,, nii ii ar r\|i i ll, Il- mii''i i o it v Nl -i'r .
A ili .li, iiil Ik 1 'l lli, i- the i I_'i t11till 6 11- ,,oI Mh!,l] lei ii.

INVIOIN OF l'Vi"7.

A Ii ,I l ii, ;p ian pilof it ijiexa'l{hiion il,' till to ,o lrt Worth, Wan,
1i- pri-llp:ill pi 'i r itr i, n ltey alrl he o vepIed\ (i r *iiik iI.l hlo O-
lii,.'i il -I i 1'uii ,'11 ,,1i I' th i ,' -l .ii ions (of nlie vwtheiy' r a eli .t l"o iiitL -
., ii 4f iOw .l i m i tI .L lThe fil'l i'lliilm- ift iliii vat Iny te hi II pe t eili/ 1s I rly'm v in .o iniu-u -
ilr y flin lli t:- I. u ltini Tex tls,. where the "' ii s ii." were i, rpirl
1l) .1 1 1" ) n. lliilel', in Chat,,r of cotton l ol 1l w t.eKvil ini'.r.- i t,' oij i
,if thi- ] l i, 1 :1i1. :1- .il1 .i, 1,U IIL, f'.il );Its D i ill-, tll- io th in T e" l s.
i-l ofl 1 .1 lit. ,i i fi,,ii liearl (d aineh vill.' tlliIiL-li Alhilhene, ainid
,"-;in A iiiie i, fo .l,-to e !tha e telpertuilre w al v e \InIa.
W\'illiin thi- -Ir'.i %%.i- a snIlmaller Ponl the hl dllltnies ,f wiith tIn'lv loe
indii, :ildl Iy .Y la i ',l- .ilr 1 'irini" Te irkinii to, Fom t W ortih. VWilcf.
;indi ,I, ): {iiin. ()\ i, i latter thel l (i t, emll perat i ire l r,, -ill, saIelll
; immlh w% i.-: 1-2 di \,, ih oii, ii l.l], iiid witllhi ;ili reaI ir t h peii I!,,':II


.pi ,.ly i ll fill,-o ot'i s eili Cll i iw lltrllil) ', I i l li ,{. w :ihere the tcmi' -
pl'il 't % i, from 6- to '.h" l th il il.
11'l ', l








Dining Felirui ry all over thie region we-,l of tlie Missi.sippi River
and the Grat ILake.- he te inperat iire wa- alove thle normal, and
in the Carniii, it wa- inly li,_,htl% below. During this month
much danmaige -eels io, Iaiive Ieen done in Texa-. and there is every
probability that tie xpe-t wa VI breeding.1 freely in the Carolinas. tihouql
it lim;, not et bleeni rep)irtedi from the lahitter State'.
I'p to thi- tjime ti (li iinbreak i Texa- wai- being investigated by
Mr. E. C. ,anlinii. mit agent of thii Bureaui detailed to the Texas
.Agricultural Experiiiiint Station. Thle fir-t report of the insect
outside of Texa- w.s uiinder date of Marcli i. from Mr. C. H. Drake.
of Summer.,. Ark.. whli reported that a; -mall green bug" had
dc-li-r, ved thle wleat in -p]ot- inl tlie fild.- in lii hlocalit'. This letter.
received Marchli 11. led to thlI proni p 1i-lpatehing of Mr. C. N.
Ainslie for thle WV-t. itli full ili-triictioiin- tot inv-e.tigate tile out-
break thorouglihly, to, experiment witi mnea-uire- for destroying the
insects in tli tid,-. -peciil illy over tlie -pot- where thevv seemed to
b). most alillldaiint. aiild to dehter)ine whi't Could lel accomplished in
e1i..leit the ravai,- of tli- ie-t hv tliet, early intirQdluctiol of natural
enemies into (lie infe-ted lield-. .%rrngement- were perfected witli
iMr. W. D. lliintr to, -liii to Arkan-a- living |j:ira-ite'- (Lyi;phlcbui.
tficir), whici wer,' t21 hi a;buindaiit i) T ;Ia-. anild thlie -ame train by
which Mr. Ain-lie rcacied lie S.Iilitner- IIruIgiit -everal boxes of the
parasites. Tlie-c | ara-ite- wert, pron(iiiptl lv laied in the infe-ted
fields and lil erated Mar,'li 1',. Bit Mr. Ain-lie found that both tlhe
lady-beetles anil tlir little ti-a-plike paria-ite- ( Li.,;p/e'ld'bus t/r il)
were already prle-eiit at S.liiiier- ;id neia -Iy pi)oint- ini greater num-
bers than could p<--il I \,av Ieeii introdiicf-'d. The latter were
simply evv'ryw1ire., rulnninig ;iioiit over t- \ong grain plants and
iplaintg their ef-g- in tlhe bodie- 'if tlie g'te. l btLIg!."
Clearly tlie iminportation of parai-ite- would Ie ui.-ele.,t under these
,i.,,ilitio,,ii. ailnd Mr. Aintlie. hoping to Inul ai more favorable field for
the introduction 1,f pari'-ile., 4, dlireri experimentall work witli rem-
,i.-. prc,.led,. on Marcli 2>-, for variou- point- in Oklahoma.
At Cliain.]lcr aid (iitlirie. Marcli 23 to 2'.. thle pest was very
ailtindant. liut tilhe conditions at tlie-e poiint- were again even less
favorable than in A.rkanii-a for tlhe intr odctioim of parasites. For
example, on one bIlade containing about l.0 of the "green bugs Mr.
Ainslie coujtedl 2': that wxere para-itized. li then proceeded to
lKiig-li-her iMarclih 2'1) anil here found tlie par..i.ite- ;apparently less
plentiful than at thle otlier point, visited. wiliii- were to the eastward.
Arrangement:n had been made witli Mr. lhuinter to furni-h parasites
from Texas field- when tI e-e were.called for. atid in response to a
telegraphic reqiie-t lie di-p.ttcheied ;I (iinlitY of material collected by
his assistant- in Texa- and ili southern Oklalhoma. When this was
[Cir. 0: ]








r1,,.i,,\,.di .,1,,I l 11,- ,, .-iltr- lilieraied in ltin inl,- iM .1l5i4 .. nAthive |)rw-
.-.il -, er'e ;i'alrva ,l\ I --,il,,_i ill ;,.I I It n m lMT1 lit o Iher woI, \ l tI he
p.. .'i-iv %'a~- ;all,.-d;l\ tl,,.ni I ,II ._ uI aided its actite work of cotr' oI .
It\ NMI:i rt I "' l,. "I ,_' .1 I.IL' i I h, velo-ed k ikII,,' l adults in II-i",:II
iinti[lir-. :,Il I l'-w -veted to drift liorh ;itl.
MI A il-I it i st- Itrtted to lookI for a i i. 'i. I t t i norIth ard
hlir'' Ile "1 .li 'e rii I'IIL was just sllii iL,'._ and lie malde hii Is -i std|.
N ilrrl :I1 I lIb I I 1)t StI IIII (III K( 'I II- a 1-l ft IIAl t iIt n In-
dlitiioin- Ili'i, -Iili ;i to ,,ll,. a faivu ilil lil.I'l for eWiM rilM e iitalil ain
\viil t rira-iII-.
l'\ .\]ril I t hoi ;l i ll 1s about W eHllington were I., i. .:illy, ltl I LI,
.-I r'-ll i '.-t,.l \I 1li ti ] n. 'i ,'' -ii I,, I'." o li 'Oe itd if i in, a" Qr s
by r ie 'il.,1 l',iii 1,1:l ~ Ilmt fhrd se ,. ,in ,.a'_l' iii ., ti' l to th(t, litihes e iai



I .% %\ I I !l I.- II;IIv II II. Iv the .th hoII weveIIr_ Il II ie_ I U t I t i I t(I ind
w,,l ..lrl ,.. l,,l~ t i l, t,, thiara'- ,itiel r ii,..'i~- lwdx+le th++ co! l'lece at O l 'iib t
werer I nil ILnii i I tl i ; 1 irl \. -o lidY- 'tlc wci ct inii v lmt,
,I rv r Is, I ..d -, l Ns a- "S, IVtl. A lh, I o amlnI or (lmyba spewht
i, the vi,-iiIl\ N, i \',. Ili ,,,l. M. r .+r a i slht 1 rrtueI in cd to 1 u iir l ,ar to
,-.e bU i Iii 'ii-i,- l',- iit,,,l'iII 1ii into so tlhrf Kt e llisa ut ini the
nd ,.'la iti(,, -111 a U 1 1'i tor] ,' iii iu'd t 1h h1avy frosts, al ,i p'e-
vnilil. a d:id li i ,u& in-ntit fond.iirly Aiwin i ,l ,o at t Kii,.-ha-l,, !i;d I th'omI
exct tdini li iv,'i BT1 y the t a th, hIt oweer t p, I nl.,r init .I-': iin to lindi
v I'r\ i. lin I I.i :iili Z I'td t" ui, I I oil.-." ; )kd l I 7t 111 li lt vIr arl i siats
lM hln -'lVI 1.1i: ;n t ii-:rl o (,ve e'd \\i, l i ltarasitized ,rat Ie .-a." wna r oil tted A it luF i
-lltin'. ilil i.ikl-n ii, \Vlliiton Appril 9. Mt thit timt fully 1-2 per
.vil of iliv i,._,i iii rl,- l" at n r.,lii,- ,,tti wev e ailn,;id h i..,ia'isitizeld,
mlihilhe ,iI lihe l _'il, M.l i inlie .ou lited i. i; ny a ;i 11 |l,:I -itiza ,d in-
dlivit i ll-, o i m -nIiiil fonn I dlate oI)f wheIInt.
.i% Ial Ill, iliill l. r ,itf AM:rhtii ail .app,.l c lo t this Ih l 'iaiill from
tlte T'I x:n- ( itr'in I >,,lel" AV oci0atio6m, Ilhr.,illui their se lte re i'V. M r1.
II. II. I-Mim- .i. I",ri WIorti in iihrlwihite tl iel A'pri l l'." In
X'-]),ii-e Iln tlhi- ;il,.1,l M r. W J. I'Phillips, of tle l rea I Ill, was
di-pat.ili,, to, ",ori W orthk ;ir.i\ inL,' on the *27th. t'clal dtla\ s w'ito
in tex.iiiiiinirn ti[lA1- iW the vON& iti of l'ort Worlli d1ionitlrated ili\
tlhe -M'TI,,Ii I i "" 1I,:.,I totally destlro\ d tlie ,1,'I'.i Ihi i h tl vNici itv I dilt
di-a~;i[ el ai, .al. iaiI I li,' I w a\ I no ,,il,,,iI tunity \',I" ex .i>eri Iiielt;il orwk.
l it, thelln IilI. I, I in-;t0 t. Ikhln., aii, later reliieted
M r..\ill-li, ;it I ii,_,li~li.. and. i resp olise tIo a i,., 11r.i- f11oli fVr.
.ik -ii,. -viii ,lit nii nt 4' piirasitized wie;it frio ii KNin li-i,' to
W ellill.Tii ,.li:il in o Ii r than till firit ship e t.ill .
.M l of ilo iniil'.i i.i1 which M r. Ailln lie took with hiln h',nii ( l,l.i-
hoill aiiid ;l 1i1.1n~,plieil hih by .M I'\1,,11!.- w\a- placed in ni -i,,L_,
wlie t Ihhl ii,"il" \ ,'dll -Iril-li. it is i 'A I, etimINa led, froM points of
la vi 'J WI,, ali, I d aI|.i ,.-. t11at ii i"lw ,l ,, 'f tw o \ nd one-half ). I illi,,i .. ..- f
)a r.I-itIe c. ,, 1i111- lil,,.i. in 4 hii -i l N- I wheat field on April :'.. an1d
N-1l,% :- I r ':, i a '- -








by this time many were already there. This introduction of para-
sites was carried out in order to give a decisive test as to whether it
was possible to aid in protecting fields in this manner along the ad-
vance line of invasion. The weather was still cold, and if the artifi-
cial introduction of parasites would. with the return of warmer
weather, hasten the control of the green bug," thlie introduction of
such large numbers would clearly demnion- rate lhii fact. And if
such introduction oni a large scale proJved favorable, it would show
reasonable ground for the more general introduction of parasites in
lesser numbers.
T1lhere was a minor introduction of Lysilphlebul9 started at McPher-
son, Kans., April 18, though this paira.ite was already found in the
fields in that vicinity at that time.
The weather during the whole of A ,ril was genera lly cold with, as
on May 4, an occasional storm that i. known to have killed many of
the parasites, and though there were Irif periods of warm weather
during which the parasites would increi( se rapidly, tlie Ly.-iphilebis
did not finally overcome the "green bug" in southern Kansas until
about the middle of May.
As will be o1,.erved. this experiment wsa made under weather con-
ditions almost uniformly unfavor:ille to the para-ite and favorable
to the development of the "grecn Iiir." There i. no reason for
suplpoing that the weather would afl.'ct thile intrOiduced parasites
dilth.reiitly from those already pre-unt when the introduction was
made.
Mr. Ainslie remained in the vicinitlyv if Wellington. and more
briefly at McPherson and Strling. for tie purpose of watching
these experiiient-, and he was, moreover, in direct communication
with 3Mr. Phillips in northern Oklahloma: and the two were therefore
able to keep under their observation a wide range of country, thus
climniiting the possibility of overi,_,dit or nisconception on the part
of either that iiight otherwise have occurred.
It was diiring this period of generally cold weather ini late April
and early May, interspersed by .liorter period-4 of weather favor-
able to the ,p:ira-itte. that the latter inii'rea -d gnierailly throughout
Kansas anuld. j ud -ing, from repIut,. a !;o in Mi--ouri a nd Colorado.
It wanted only the more extended warm spell that came soon after
to enable them to get the upper liand a n(d :-uldue (lie pest. as they
did throuifghiuit the southern Atlantic coast section earlier in the
season.
The field in which the two and a half million Lysiphlebus were
introduced and liberated on April 9 did not. at (lie time of the over-
coming of the pest in this and the adjacent country iii May. indicate
;aiY benefit whatever above other fields, near or remote, where no
[Cir. 93]






11

rliH 'i i il irlrotir-l ,m- lillthad MeNi Illade. "li, r I4sult l lf il I. ItIinoIr
ItX\[)I'inTfiii t :il Mr 'lrr4iii;1.a -rr iiled b.Y M r. K ii.iii-, no mor
fi toralile.
I)iii ii lli, l:tst two weeks (,f A \ iil ; a ; 'I .i .I iany .siall lots. of
i1ii i I- I itr )isIt riIuted ov Ir tI h I o Iu IeI anI d I rI I t i m I cI tt l ie i) of
K iu -li- I, l r. S. 'J. illilter, oIf ht' I a asK I StaI te I 'it'l 'lsilv. Ili,"
iiii- 'ir il .c.liiiLr- out
%l% IIII'. cI II I iiii I '' NxjITiimI I it I I IIt I h ve tlv i c1 11ow 1 1ctv
fi' ii '!n-ivu'l\ iliit tih,n i'l I I' t id it ll o I wiN 'lit h l\t l". I t o lth r
w\ 'rdll,. ;i-, It,1, i l ,.a11' I\ v. the I)i tI-siti, ;I wcrt iil ,cid 1V ',-IL r 1 I I r
c'lli it ii ,rrili I .ri v" at W i llifitlto K"iis. A | ;pri! \, I lii'i ii'
arli' l 'i:il l11t '.il4'1 i ln w as ii,,' and1 It1 1 ;) to 11 11111 7.l |, t a it l ii-I'
tisl'r. ( )kli.. il the sniIe ticat,, ; int illn w ,erc oiily "( .,i il -i fI or
wellh'i r ic., ii I11i,)o to Im ke it pmossibl, four i mii to ,i,) thlii r l ork.
Just it, I"Ill I~- ihe I ; 'mahil't wte-tlier ;i 'ii h jtl ani itc d r In ettor-
vliOil.']l iliii ,|ii,-ktl over;c li i* th "" ', ', I,,," In no \\ic ,as I h lvl
i tkild orl I II,,' h dreds exat nitilid t( it llitr ill n sa whlort, Hit pl;rl i-
-itie-. it ili,'1 \ iY re.c t l id inot Ot llitllmillh'tr \y it;iii t li mu-ai i 1-ds o1r liin -
drltId- of t i-:II id. -; I n l inivbIItIIer llit c.udd lii V II Itbci itlirltD iccd
lir iil4 'iillv. :i1 ::i tiile hII en weather ( II zditionis htil liccttim i' '4 1h lli tal
tilt Iil',.-;il iI)ll- ,ould hlave had any lhiitil. A11s Vlowit lv II caIi fuli
iiiv,:i ,.. i l; ,, i .n ,,"I (liet ,i,.i'-t il- ,1 tlhi. B niir iiu inli l tlic l ii<* ld un id m ldeip d-
ent\ v f Iofi IK P ,iiii,. il ,iii.>i..,ist of El w -a iisa- ;ii
A riiitlliiril r 'o,1,lll.,'. aind lii- a'I 1 -ta i : l i ti I :i tisit s wc re- <' ( iiillY
illiliiid.ilnt ini :ill tl,.Iil- iln May1 wh'len wra:lhicr con iditions h!ocsiilic fitu r-
alh,'. iri', I f-]Nh 0'l \ of w th r di- ili ins aid In1 inlli o no I]t.
Thi- w o: ili,%r. therefore, is the itnport;ii( l iO ii nce. Ah tinnion-
. 't i'ltt l I\ ti ii experience of this iati o Itinr t' (nA'!. ii;' l iralites,
n]i':lwii pllic' ii in lilini,',l nlllinl, 'rs. will o>ve.rtolle ilie i|>lhis uniiiide'd
i-' -1i o io .i- II(. lih.ther ft(,dii itin he I II'ri it. and I o 11 ar1 1 i.il introd tlIcitioIn.
g re: It oI II ill. a IpIlarl to lialt1 or increay' tl ir i.,t I' .
Tlhe '% il c. Ir ft WV;i-liii iL ,i on for KaisI a1- May 13 to I take 1 i-,II il
ulili ', ii of Ili' till work in relali n Noll t "" LI' I'' "I IL a d t ito imake
ii tlioroltlii -ill'\ev of act 1lt1 field condiitotIl-. Tlhe' I I i I ii
tlii ilii, I M: 1 l>) had Ni:ecotim' a dlit il llant in oatI a- far inorth aI s
Ma nhi;tlliai. Ki .i-; li- t whot vhe r I I' I iiI t Ieit- we tre nrltiil I 'r of pIaraI-
sitl ;il-, al'e;II ,lv in evideIlnce. I Il' I )IMr,,. I'|iillip- fi,1 i1l tlhi
to iw triple :it K earned, N '-Ir.. whiichi point ie vIisitd aboi It a weII; ek
hiter. Ilin nlilt il-tanice was- a lii I o1 servi'd, eit het. r i(n lhe vio'init 1 of
M 11inha1tl;in or. ,% uriilL.' the next weeck or teii .l.i\-. ianv',where, in 1an--
sa % where thit, parasite was not preIent wherever ithe "!" '. 1,,,'
liCC' rr Ied.
[ tir. Ll3;








A further experiment, this time tried for the purpose of testing the
po,.-iilily of hastening the work of the parasite during favorable
weather by large introductiorns, was carried out a., follows: The sub-
jects of the experiment were two fields of oat.,, each containing 4
acres. In one of these it was dtt..rmiinneI to introduce enormous
numbers of parasites artificially, kutping rcoril.s of this field for
comparison with the other field in which no int reductions were made,


FiG. 7.-Stalk of wheat, the leaves covered with dead 'rIn hiu killed I-y thle parasite
Lysiphlebus tritici. About natural stiz, Or1,inil

thus determining the measure of benefit, if any. which re.-ulted from
the artificial introduction. Mr. Ainslie wa- inst ructed )y" wire to ship
from Wellington, K;n-.. 6.bu-hl., of the whieat plants-; that had been
destroyed by the "green bug and which, in -omne cn.M-. were I iterally
covered with the parasitized bodies of the pest. upward of .00O having
been found on a -ingle plant. (See fig. 7.) Before taking up the ex-
ICir. 93]








pernim-.tit. limievtir, it was die-ir"ahle to ktioIw jtN wh at tII Ie 1 1)dition-
er', iii i, I '.r ilicdi it l ,,...,iin .\A -tate- d i ov "e", oie ,f tf ese oat
Iivi l-, i- % l, ,-,1 t' h t expl erim ,ili of jit 'tit,, l,,, i, raiith,. whilh theI
ilier %a:I-, kjpt as a lh ek Titw Iti. 1.1, r, wt idel e, llarateld tlhat
the illru1', ii, l, l i W cotuhld t h1v\. -Prli'Ad'l f I f.1 1. 1i. II t li otheol r.
Six : --f;i 'I :i qlllare' y iirt 4 ,1ll. a"h 't0' 1 f r lthe exaiiiiailtioiII ill lif
fie.' ii nLrl- ,,f eUit h tilIl. xxerT' 11\1, Ti o\i M r. P'hillipi inil t1\x of
'i'if I -I -,nr I',, 'l, iioe's as i tih t1t1., Ex iitii jiiit1-, 1f lot1,t of tlt'-' I, IlI-.
illi.'ih 'll n li\ 17 !inl I liow d 1i lthat tli i I.I ii wxlhidh the plari--itc-
.s~ril fri, XX',,llii,,._toii l'\ M r. Li%-lif w+r' tA IN, IAN NiI t'd foiitiiincd
2 1|)] r',\i, i,.Irl til'i\ inillioiis of the u pil i>riiixl ..i, i, I ._, :iid
!iP i ir, il, l\ tne and lh-Iltr(- i; (r niillions Ihlit wecre 1111ohllh tt]c|v
Imi.'i-Ltir d I in ot:i her \\onrda alc|roxiiX 1 t(.l ;.'7 Iiw t'elit of tie "w Il 1
It,.. l "" r \\.rv :i that tim t' i me a r itixc, L. In tlie ilhi+k liWlid th li | r al itl-
vrl v.'.ii inurI altii daiiit, ia (nt 7." !" i dtllt I0.il ,in' tlin- r foi.pi l, yIn
,illila: r iir-. to he fIr) siti4zd.
(O)n M ;i\ I p)I rasite I1'r.,ii 1 I |! Ir,._L'Lo 4. ,arli i ,, i. iii,-' a uitl hi1 f
a i ill o,' I tat pliaint'., of err lilHe'a r id in o(in of tlh'", li,.6M-.. Now,
it iioilili -iiiiil;ir to that mladto III till(e pOlw u i'ci w ler iitirdiu 'ead
wa.- nii:tti l .I L.iy -2:',. and this .sho,,e, d that th, |ii ]- i It.i.li', of |>ia-
,.iti-I iI tl li ihr ll illi wlilh tih c\jx rla lieilil xws\ cariI'd out hald in-
Crii'amd o1il\y Io 5.4i nr lit xi. \hiilc, ill lit, li.IlI in WVhilich no pliai'ra ites
had i I uei a Ilirmiltl it wai 19;.3 ptr ctlit. ()1i M\iyx *7 a 'iniiilar coliil
ivi.- nininl xlien ti Ir,' iit:iLp ,1' {lrli- tiisii il tI li t hi ck here till
intrl',lii.t tion "wa- niadeh, wa- 27.1 p r ,cent. \\ ih, in thit chl"k lii lI it
..v :'2...1 tr ient. Clearly, U nde-r w eathher conliditiolin- faxorahle for
their ,Iv l1 ihiiil. 111 iiit'odliid tio l ol f lit 'e- l>it la.ite' to tli- eIN t'l t of
iuiliiia-. ,:irricd oult iilindlr li' hl tonidith Mio-, did lnot hindiate ini',1,
teflicitiyt o It, ll'oril llany 'i 'ir. 'ii ,''lt for tit' us-e of this liim:ea il' in
the prlit'.io oIr tilht' gTill iliIhl- of the farmer in ta-ac of ftiiturl
attack.
\W'i i ll ltih artili,-ial intirodhuction. of tlii- palr;i-ite tint wlm ere liltld,
ill tilie fl':ii held of I+ sti n ai iajaient lit State alid Tel 'ri'ii.-.
tlh re iT I- i) prolruil ilty thiilt a -ii],. l/iiel of, \rain wai- -iaViIl tlertlix
or thi:it (le Ilnitd .'n i l;ld l- iari've-tetd folie ici-hi'l e lt re of I'r:ili tlhiin
it %vt-ill, 11:11 h1- r h est Ild hald nlol iit)ro( hiu tionl s oif iol i ll ti itc, hes il Ililde
or allteiipldI. In flbstaintiitio t 'f 1isii -tateiienllt it i- ilitere'-iill
to llo1te tlv e Iistory of the "grel'il Ini-' dllii l'1, tlui',,'.'liil
Noli. i andii Siouith Ciarolina. ilpwlrtld -- Ai a iioull-an Illie- frIi whlitre
i liN initriiiii ion of ipara-ite- h11:,1 been i1 ttliill tetl. '*. iii two
thdil Ilie xxritir himtinif condui'ted. A conidtlerablle amllolint of in1-
terial w.i -wiit Ofrin Wiln-to1 Sihlii. N. C., oli April i'1. to a point
a1 ft\ew inile- wet of Ricilhmniln, V:I.. where it Was introdluced ilnto a
siiall aill-1ow of orchard ,.r,--. with 110no .':ili field within mIile.
I r "1








But even here the effect was uncertain, a,- the writer had found the
parasite present in hti- locality before the introduction was made.
In the other case a larger consignment wa, sent from thle same local-
itv in North Carolina to Siiuter. S. C.. to be placed in a field of oats
that the writer vi-ited in company with the owner on the 16th of
April. when parasites were found in considerable numbers. In this
case the owner of the field. writing under date of June IS and report-
ing on the outcome of the experiment, said:
I am sorry that the information to ii- derikecl fronim omr experiments with the
parasites is so iiii,-riii e. It just h1lipeneil tlhat ilheir 'ii11lintions pru'bably over-
came the atphis before the l,:lr;litc- lt:id time tip iiniltijily sulitlcieutly to get in
their work. About the time lh.it y ilim It.x wa';is re'eied wea;lther conditions
changed somewhat fri'il cool to warniel cVar:liri- miild 0i4- liia.s se.ieied to dis-
appear very .r;'|i>11.. F- ii.u thin ilo. thlie Ih s ilisaippe.;irtil. ihe ,nts, the only
grain grown, began to improve, i vnil while theY will % not inmike -I full crolI by any
means, they are much better than we ..ilitipinlted when yon were here.
Thi-, is, as the writer personally observed. al,-o the history of the
disappearance of the pest in western North ('arolitna. here both fall
wheat and fall oats are grown and where no parasites were intro-
diicld. but where thiy were literally .swarming on April 20.
From all of this it would seem that throughout thle greater areas
over which this insect becomes injurious it iha- so far been impos-
sible to assist the work in any way. We have apparently been wholly
unable to aid the parasites in getting thlie iiper hand. They accom-
plished their work earlier in the Carolina- than in the West, but
reference to the records of the Weather Bureau will show that the
weather conditions as regard, temperature were precisely such as to
bring this about.
TVi only possibility of accoiiipli-hing anything by the artificial
use of natural enemies of the "green bug" .-eeni to be in Texas and
South Ca'ol]in;i. where the pest get- it- -tart earliest. making its ap-
pearance in the field-, in spots (of greater or le-.- area iIn (lthe fall or
early winter. If these incipient outlbreak:- can be -tamped out by
farm nietl:hod-, as indicated further on. or by the encouragement of
parasites, or if they can be so weakened as to prevent thlie green bug"
from developing in such enormoui- iminiber-, it will -erve to protect
the rIr-iii crops not only of thee twio State-. but of aill those to the
northward over which the pest ria:age- in -e':-ot- favorable for its
development. The Texas Agricultural Exp)eriment Station is con-
iuiiijlLting an experiment whereby tiey hope. by the artificial intro-
duction at the proper time of a large niinl)tibr of the natural enemies
of tlie ,.roii' buig into these -)(pots of early infe-tation, to forestall
a future outbreak. If this can be accomnpli-hed it will prove of geat.
benefit to the farmers. Whatev,.-r the outcome may be, the experi-
ment seems worth trying.
I dir. 93]








*F ) I>. I o I M .% I AN I A IINr t N F ( II1: t1l .)' 1I ,KB'll TRIi. th1 1 l.
lInI_- I I l -l t were ae s aeral natural t' emha of th-t "I ,'r,. 1 li-rI ."
t.'c lnlitl i'r recently hu s cri!Ntl f \ I r. L. m. o lV ward as +Ip/'vf o iis
'* 11lhf"if ,,,.,. ytt :ill of them +.rctin to+ be+ of lttle impo+ rtance as ,',,ii|>:,im l
n /ith (in. ,li, Iiinu te parasitic er cies, t i ,./i./II ,i t rttud It I this




%11 I I I I it, I I:-- uli II I r;I t'ite'( ha I hee prvttt lii II-~I
SpeCie-. tor liit w ae at III)Iesent ia -. I ,I Ii 1 ii 11 1i, th ti normally
Ihold, To', ,i Cri in cheI k i this cou ntry, iiml so I.f a Iis its deve lIp-
ltnt i il l l ity are not oI ltructed lv A idve t" 1 .inr ,l ) r.I :I1 condi -
lion-,. it \\\\\I 10r,,ba ly conti1111e to rtuntrol it. \inletd, so ii,,i,,rtiint is
tlhis i. tiiccl Iiili so Ir,< :rl'dil is its ,Lelli.tir. th ait a short spo hic of
fIO tll t l '- to two 1 11'l- it aIIn ko ic tll al ii ost te xiotsr od t ItI(lk of1i
Tnxo, tili. iin, l thus save frol111 dst rilction vist i vIas of -Irow, I Ii
gra i TI,,e -pccies winters over il tihe li,lld in tinl hM)dy of its host.
il In /l Y -I V r'li t'. thne-, Paaratsites. I-, I xII-,I IM I ) 4 IreII Ited I'l'I 111 ,'11 I".11iI IL!
thlie' revil-l fll 1i \ t heit adventt of col4d weather. ailerrute as nearly v
dt'vloped olr lilly developed :lill-. ready to ,.,ii r._, whenw tlhe teoil-
clir.t'rii r ri.,- 1 o about : ,i I F. and e I IsI tere for a l hlt I, t 1 f 1 11, ii i
unilhui of timie. Tlii- is clearly t -iown 1ei tlhe f1i ti at ISMr. Q. (1.
Keilly found leilicr1iilino w ut1ll- at Ie.avenwortlI. Kant.. on Novemberi
13. In on I- it i ,fI'50 ded. t .parasitizcd Taox )tera that had I lenI
washlue d o h r rih I id from the leaves I if (re lue ite ii'_ .lii .,.I taklt fronttl
th' mnn Ili i)t lIhe wAheat plants on tIt hruare -; a ri. r the wiIter Wasi
pral'leic:ill o\ri,. Mr. K,.ll \ fo, ,l 17 mr in.i nis,-, fNH- rown larva of
It* 'I I v I itiI. 1-2 i .'iel -ti 1 1 uI paI of a li-ht olor. an I I Id I I IiI i .-
li rk-,,ii ir, I piult .' the latter evidently reaI dyI i to dh e viol l ) 1 1,1, ,oily
with Ilc aldvint h of war11 weather. MI r. tll on theye same date. also
,reilIri.1 a larI e iirxin. r ,,f Toxo) >tera illn variott s I. of ite vitelorinnt
1 Ihlt ferl hill.r iili'. iln w It ,t i ho l- nar Leavenwortl. Kltanl The
we'iOl'r hidl len suchli as toi preclude tlhie powssiility that these iw ad
heen recently parasitized. Yet somie of them soon ;,,'_'.,rI t4o show the
Vellow i-hl eolr characteristic of ToxopItcra parasitized l)\ Iysi|)le-
bt-. and .'lltr- were afterwards I reared from them. This sh-o1s -
clh.ivl\y that tlie ,ysiphlel)ns parasites hihernate in advanced -l.,Nv
of devlopilii'l. In in the ai1,ir.- oIf their List. w \hiilh they ha\,. killed the
previon-..l,l 1ni. and also as larva' in tIhose p"i-d'a tlhe winter 'frbll
half to, fully i.to\\ n.
Tie femili Lysiphtbus is even motn i IIllS tlian the female
Toxptr;L. Mr. l'thilli,- has found fenmahe which had uWardl 4f
4M0 cg- in llihir ovaries, and Mr. N1.1ly has reared in llme eases
206; indi\idiial- fromii a -it l,, mother Lysiphlelns. c-1,, ,....-+-. arc
lem-.on-h..laped and white. \'liii excessively abundant this parasite
will t1hr.-.t it- ovipositor into old and v,.1, ;illd,,- of both sexes.
including thlie exual female evenll tihiidl previously parasitized :.ild
Mr. Plhilli.-h. Ini, observed that it will even oviposit in the dead bodies
[t'r. 93]








of those that have been killed by fiiiigou, attack. When its numbers
are not so great it shows more diScrimiination and .eems to prefer
half-grownu individuals for ovipo-it iim.
This species of Lysiphlebus i, parthenogenetic, as was first ob-
.-(rVd by Mr. Phillips at Riichmond. Inl.. and afterwards more fully
elucidated by FMe, T. 0. G. Kelly 'yand T. I). Urbalins at Welling-
ton, Kans. The experimental ,reedinag- byl Mr. Phili) in 1107
indicated that the off-pl1ring of virgi, female Ly.-iplilebus were nearly
always exclusively males. In a eruie, of ilupward of 80 breeding
experiments carried on indoor-.-, in 1 0.O. lby K vlly and Urbahnm. only
48 gave results of any kind. In oi]lv foir iof tlhes were females pro-
duced, the others givig exclusively malh-. In the 4 exceptional cases
the females remained virgiii. and all finally gave birth to male-s alone,
2 with the first gerira:tiil. 1 witli lite -,ionud. and 1 witil thle third.
The mode of procedure was as follow-:
.Stirdilrg with a mated female., the females fi'om among her off-
spring were isolated, even before enw'r-enle. Onil their appearance
these were given Toxoptera reared under cover to preclude parasit-
ism; the few females from among Illh -.condl generation \were again
isolated in the same manner, the feniiaile- in all ca-e- being kept uin-
minated. It was thus found possible to lirced i limited number of
females partlhuiiioL-nli'ially to and In'luling tlli- third generation.
Beyond this all Jff,-prinig were ni:le-. ltii..-eeniinply lieing the limit.
Just why such a large i ,evre,;nhig. 'if tlie-. xi)criniient -.liould have
proved abortive is not clear. The renidition- under wlichli they were
carried out were of course unnatural Ibut inui'n more protected from
the adverse elements of the open field.
The e,_. of the Lysiphlebus io'iiinilly dmevlop- to tie emerging
adult in about ten days, du tin, tli t- i -t -ix of wlhih the host insect
remains alive, and at the end of which it ci',niiihitui.-s to take on a
yellowish hue, the larva of the para-ite -lm irng. chlaily through the
skin of the abdomen.
The celerity with which an inva:-iin ,if Toxoptera is overcome by
Lysiplhlebus is frequently a mattte of wnmider,. a, it hardly seems
possible that this host alone could lie, tli -o uiirce of thlie swarms of
parasites that make their appear: nc :iftir a few warin days have
elapsed in the midst of an unsea-oillr -pro ing- preceded by a
winter abnormally mild.
In order to lhtei iiiiiit the ori'liin (if tlie-ie myriads of parasites
Mt,-i-. Kelly and Vrbahns iega I la in -tiie.- otf experiments at
Wellington, Kans., to determine lwtlilier tliere might not be a inul-
tiplicitv of host species from wiii'-li _rvai nIumliiter- o(f Lysiphlebus
would emanate to fall upon ;,nd1 ,h-t r Iy Toxoptiera whenever it be-
conies excessively abundant. The entire failure to introduce these
[Cir. 93]








JI piir;,%ii,'., in ;i.I\, ,ii .,11 mv is Il f tIin jh4Ira+I 1r frfm IIte
lH .S ill ll. !!,' \l :l l f , ..,r~ III K l l.,1 H i t> MX l + l ,,l7 l lH iS i l ilt l it'H (>( I t l lil
i]i' ii lr,, ,'tii l ,i'ii-, \n'r,' r,.t Jpo:.--il)he and tlIt to a't'i o i it w vieri-
t 11 i f :il r in rl i I tI I I I t Ia Itlex i

Fea I -it vi I I I % I I I I I- I.. I f. I F i I t- 1f Lv.j-1~n- tied n e
|||ilti, h' iln,1ln i ii tl -l n,' I,\ -i fl, rih', ti i, ,n the ," dlb.i,.,. aphi e ( A/ifid
t,,. i.- ,,-ii 1. i l,'1 l liI liO,.t.ldl weI iitdt u llm -wh, i t, A,:io i;ar i hp r T a |-
te" iinv l fi i tll, l.ill'' i l.ih i'lt- w ere tlitnirn*(l. Th ii tlex | ri lit-
wa- ..<,\'r il tli,. ,' r i,'l, l. FeUkIull c (.,l,+'v ,"fr i t',',,, ci]. ,,l ri',,,,-,,~l,]ii (A+ fI/ iM+ ,+if,,';+;+'in I h ;l, '.-, ;I; li .\ I I | I. I.-11 LIPi Tl I +X ldtt i d11 e atl d :i ultl t lht ail tdl I Fv -
niiih- i f It .%i .l lh l,,a -lII l\ .ik ii fl4 lli ii / I/,i/, ii 'i t I in tllw i,-l- Ia;I
thie i-.siiii -i:ir'ii- I I,.- I I ,i llow d to im ii izi T O i')teA ;I I nI
Otll ~ -, .ii'.I. "l ii .i .. i, tsl+o ;i rcli't, d + +'Vt'rd tiiit.1-S
Fiiiilh, indili% idii l', ,f l% -iiiltlsi 1; \w r 1 ikti li1,iin t11, corni he if-
IIphii (.1/1M Imit,'il.1 1li in t ie ie mil d tho, ildit iuiisitera. tei'r-
iiittt',l ti, ]i ';ii i zi '' i i ,Il, .i'. ,. frl iml w hit h fnlt llya t o ll ,' i er'"a1.
Tlii- -\[i'i ii -i-i t %:i I' ,' ,,'.tii'd C 'errnil t iin -e. Ihliih onl ('a1i-ieIn +ie
Lfaiiil hh'lii-' ui'i'a l.'i ri' fr',i i. ti ii ti oi iii 1h ii --ii| ii+ f iri t
:L/,,...;#] 7 l ( ll ,\ I ,l ,lOll


Ing, !..ION.(

fi :l i i -1 '





'liNfjt Mr\'H(hi id L'iic l *t :ii n1, I-tnI_~~L-i)i~~
f ii.\' ij l ;1- .1 "ii I- I li.' 'II .._ t- er
r <)t" I.V lilllih ltl~i \\. ri, ...... ""'..-'+ / -
t aiike'n fl'illl /,], -- 'A'/ \
tI e;, ill l r t il' ti,'I :ellll '
giHV'iII "'l i\ lriITl'.l .I- :1 I + 1-t hplitenlni- dlpiis+i n t+ 1 s In t~ln bodily o+f







whe .ie flr i- an a pi.'l Ini *;iclv tls Mu- lien abdome underneat
lio -,t. t le i Jr r ll-i i il.
tr'ii i-ferr'd I I .l e ,',.... ] I and w it -t _'a' r ii 'i ii-for1-1r1d
ki c'k I., Ti >\, liTi. ",i*i ,. l 1 1li]idi oi],i f :]>i lildl is ('v' tilk nli
f l'i iin 1I 1 .,,, ii i ll r,, Ii,'1 Il .ii ,i ti allo w ed t o p a ra'si it iz e' T o x o]i)t e r a ,i th eir
io lf l r n ^ i iiit'ii ,_ ';l l- ri', I r .1, I . f.< n w t h e n e x" t f +lf e n e r ia t io n t T ,\ ,i i; ,le r;i .
aind tie. f llih, ini .. u'i,.',r iliii to +!. bt fuw. from whih Ni d tsi were
SCIC I I Il-,' I I.
I ii ln l I-r- tli,.-'-," ,,,,.li ,,,Hwdi were reversed. Thle oHIv t+'l" ,i1
failure wete ii ilit'inliiiL,, to thv;ii-f,.i Tl -iliili ,,i. i--iii,.A firoVlm
Toxopteni to C'liiitophlhiii- ;ind in ii.i',.fii : Lysitlhhebnx i.-iii_-
front I ii p i in .T/-- .....,.,,,,1/- 1 h'u nt ,W Zm. 4 li Th i \|"'i iliin tlo e'..
revere' l Wv'ili il >l i 'l'-,il s.
Tihe feliiAilt".."t' :111i: 1"ii. if n ,.'lgiil, K Yeld :ii O=,ii .... tlhe pla mnt. and
when .liv ti, d, ;1i 1 :;i1pli- lie, ijjicilkN thriowm her ibdo l ln ndernelith
her lod v iand Ietee,, her ,.-j aind with -ir,'_'ll,,' niiotion thlstt
her i-ipol..i inl I tilt, ,, [i i, ,,tp1,ih (J...'. ). I,-:t\ ill-- tlh reiri a
Ic.ir y ',







1S

I Y eg-g. This egg hatche-, inito a larva in a few days. and thle usual
position in the body of the "" green bugI" of the lIar:i up1) to the time
it becomes full-prowiNi is -I-11w i li li'. C;, pw e 4. U'p to this time it
has fed within the body of thle "green bug" wVithout reaching any
of the vital part-. but pr-veniting t., a greater or less degree the
*ivin g of birth to yoing-. Tiii., is an iIl'orltant fact. for, as the
parasite seems to prefer plr'tly 1' rown young, it begins to chlieck the
increase of the pest before li. deaiilli of thle green ],iug lakes place.
Mr. Phillips has found th;it frii:]ic-. 'ar:r-itizel :At tlii-, period of their
about six days the larva of t lie pinraite re:ii'lie, fill growth and becomes
more active, \vwor]iing its way alwiit within the -till living body of its


Fric. 9.-Dead "green bugs,"
showing hole from which the
matured parasite of Lysipl-
Icbus tritici emerges. The
top figure shows the lid still
attached, but pushed back;
the bottom figure shows the
parasite emerging. Enlarged.
(Original.)

if the center from which
-it'-. as it always doe-.


110o-t. which now lie- a seemingly terrible
let lth. Tlie motions of the parasitic larva
within cau-e til, sklin of the green bug"
to( b'conllie rot [ntlt il -1,;.e, a- -hown ii n fig.
!': lte :-kin al-o becomes darker and
li:irdien-.. Within four dlav-; (tlhe life cycle
ill \,rin \',atlher ockr.ll ing about ten days)
tle ;ditlult Lv.siplilehll-: enIIIigs through a
roiild hole in tlie drieul -kin of tlie "green
hug." ;it. -li v, al-,, ii tig. In fields
that Iiavt. ii'tn de-t'royed tll, leave,- become
;lnio,(-.t \etred b)y tliei i brown bodies, as
:liow ii lig. 7. A- -tated. many of (bhe
i'reeIt I f- ;aic -tung Iv the Lysiphlebus
while quite young. a.Ini if the.-,e develop to
winii-I adlult,. ,as they do at times in
,,riaduin and ,irift away to distant fields,
hey cVarr "Y thle para:-ite with them in their
lioklies. ()Onie of tlie-,e parasitized winged
femiale-; i, shown in fig. 10.
The very act of migration of the "green
Ilig.." therefore. bring- tlie parasite, and
there is no nced of arti licial introduction, for
tile green bug i- migrating has the para-
tlie latter are of iiece.--ity carried by their


lo-t-. and, furthermore, thle adult parasite.n fly with thle latter with
favoring winds.
During strong winds the LysiphlelI s does not u-e its wings, but
crawls about over the plant- andl probably tioes not become scattered
by gale.-. But in warm, comparatively -till weather thle writer has
observed both winged "gr;':,n Il'g "- and pir:Hsite- cra wling about on
the windows of railwa'N coaclie, many mile- away from -eriously
infested fields of grain.
[Cir. '9':]









i:\r"R'iH:ES i", IN I)ESTRYIi ( IN. F;REN Hurs "I :ER SMAIL AREAH.

()n Iha ii \\a'i-liii.l hl both .)iMr. Aiislie and Mr. P1ihli|p were
iii-trir lct' l ii I laicet thel i-elves il tllhe po-itionmi of ;1 f.irln a -lo.* :'ii,
ti'hiI- "vr. I,,,iialaiii' to shiow the impr iw' of the ,-r,.ii, Ii, '" I v
.-M ill ,l,;nl>'Illl_. -|ml -. and t( le av ,,,,llil llll,,.l.-Zr O ulltlri( l t(ih lt
I,,lhll 1 f l ill :I l]',n Ir lilef and sa; l\ th1 r( 'p.
Mr. Ainli'.- instituted somle expl-'riment" ill thle 1-, .,f a 1iihli *1, !-.
:it Si1iiliiclr"..\Arl.. and IMr. Pliillips 'ai'rrhd out simlilar (xlwriniiits
nt II l. ( )kl. I it Iht in nelither al-r o w\\ i t1rt. iule;wied -i li. iIii ily
ti'vt,'li\,' ill \\.irran t its recom ninenilltion, l. ,\l,,.liri,, in r,1lii,_'
iiit'r-Ill fil,- with heavy I'.ivrn rolle cr .,ioiAd weIk l,% 1othl of


ihe-v agilil-. hiut it was invariald:
effetjiiv ,iiit n it,,tl, lands. WIheI
drill. :1,- tiiu.t of it i-. the plants
fiirr ',w-. :indI tl1t roller comnc-
Iin uuiiil "jilli i~. rid'lre uuuu1y,
liv IiI I Il4' \'IIIIL'. I plants and
thei r illh.'ill aiits almost whIolly
Im ll iIlitill. I l'li-I m measure, Ilso.
is llt'ief, wc I iF little practice al
vi': liltv.
Mr. Ain-lie tried diiltiiI with
llitit' it 111 :;1, with sulphur, but
Im tll -li-,tilir,.tr w ere iii,.'llv,.li\,.
IBotlh M1 Ain-iir and lMr. Phil-
liP) ,arri,,l oit a series of lare-
fiul experiniilet- in -]p:"it,!_- within
kr,.-vilnk iijillioil aind with-
whall-oil .oaip-uds. From these


t'1i1,, t hat this uleisuiri waO s onlyI
tiht -,-, ,li I,'" is .!.,m.. with ;i ,2' .1il
*i. ilI iii thi. b4ttolmi of 1"lih(


X/


1~
*K~e~. '.~* -


lIr.~ ti

eNperiiueiit-~ it ~~'a- t' 'aid po~-'-~ih1e


to let'roy .'710 per cent or lllior'e of the '.. ii .ii_ '" at aii "1\i 1 -t, of
Iaboutl I per ;:ire. IITii- treatment, of course, is initenlided for use only
wherv'e. a- -emIII- to be lmore iusial to the -,I,111 iiI. the outbreaks of
the pest (oI'iil;lt, in spots in the fields.
Mir. .Ain-lie also tried .-n1,\,ii,:- -l"ie '4 these -pill with straw and
buiirnine; it. ih il r lh-tr' IIl". of oiur-'se, both ,i:] iI and ." 'l' ,l ii, '-.
Thii>. tou,. ,_i.'i ,, ,iiil:ilii.' resiuits, and probably would prove ,.1i, I-
ieT if applied earlier in the season. \', Ii the pe- st fist l -ii- to
:ip)ealr a:lndi tli- iii t'-t, spots are siall.
At lmooker. ( kli.. Mr. Pli-illp tried ilicll i.ilry'; of ,l iltl-, these
spot- under. aind as the field in w which lie Wa i- ,,liii- was- isolated
nnd the gren eiim"- ,liI not make their \ ai\ in ti''lii without, lie
wla- :,111 i'.- -l1, colCuls-ively that s-uh outbreaks, under certain
conlditionl-, 11my I- -p .il1.u
[ i'lr 1. :1






20

In summing i)p thee field experiment-. then. it is found that these
spots may be treated -itece,-fillv either by plowing under and har-
riiwVing and rolling the siirface of the ground. bv spreading straw
over them and b)iirning. or I)- treating with 10 per cent solution of
kerosene emulsion. Except in thle southernmost regions infested by
this pest, however. tlie greate-t difficulty doe, not ari',e from these
isolated colonies. whlichi -reln to extend outward day after day, but
from the fact that, after their food supply liha become either largely
de-troved or the grain too old and tough for them to feed upon,
immense swarms of winged adult-; are produced, and these drift,
in general, northward with the.advance of the -eason and infest the
grain fields of entire -ections of the country much earlier and more
completely than wotild be polOiible from the scanty stock natively
present. This habit i, also seen in the behaviorr of the pest in its
,igiLal home iii E'uritip. It may thereftore prove that the country
north of the Red River may I' e more or le-s prot-eted if thle pest can
be emarlv overcome in itiortliOrli Tt.xa-.

.\rlI U'LTIR.\I. METIoI( S OF CONTROL..

The fact that tiw "" g.rij i u" in tlie Sottiitli ,ri.ginate-. in spots in
the _,';ii fields lizi bI''iit allied ti. amid al-o that from these fields
come the vast swavrm,- (f wN itgeil ft-iale- that develop and drift over
the country, dilt.:.r-in 2 tlle-M\.-U in iiiiinfe,',il fields. Early sown
fields or fields ov'rgrown with volunteer grain -eem especially to
invite early attack ii, lie iliore -utiltern Iocalitit-. li.lere these im-
mense swarms settle dlowni in I section of country %. even the best fields
of ;ra lj may succttiiil) to their attack-. But usually outside of an
extremely limiteI 11tea. 111Ve i- a not Iice.lTIe iliffeteneI in intensity of
attack as between ditit'rent field-;. In ()Oklaliomna and northward, fields
that have been ;ite -own ror that were patuired during the winter
suffered worst and were tli, fir-t to 1wl dt,-troved. It hnl been fre-
Iquently noticed that a fieli of grain may be totally destroyed, while
an adjoining field,1 thiottl -rioii-lv injured, will frequently pI)duIce
a partial crop. An t imt'-tioiIi of thlie hi-tory of these fields has
invariably shown that the re-zult in tlih latter ca-e i, due to fertile soil,
proper cultivation, amd v,'eding at tlie proper time. It seems to have
b/en almost univer-allv rtrue. outi-ile of the limited area of total
destruction, that the Ip-t farmed field have iti ered the least. This
does not apply alone to \vlat. a:- the w writer ol)-er'ed ia field of oats
near Itutlchtlil-ot,. Kan,-.. that gave promi-e of a fair yield, where
almost the entire crop would otlherwli.-e hliave been de.-troy\ed. The
owner of this field, who ihad been obliged to plow tip other fields
where the' cultural Mnethods had been the same. expressed his opinion
[Cir. 931









illi-. 1 in, i, i ll a lj I ,. I I;, I.I eca e I.d t hi I ltt li i il t l( 114" '. ; I I" ,,-' t1 )
,,r,' mp.I ;ii,,i tlli;l (*(it~, lu+,ivn,.. ln'fiin thikcii romn it since( alIfalfa iad
l .,l ii riir.l ,ur .,.'. lhb I tN itte that lhe t , i, i ,,J..._ w;%is sl o pn tim e
11- i, iiii. l l. I i l, ti. M in (,1 i oe Ite Ihi Ih i I' IAd l I i I I > 1 l 1_k .I tI,



ii'I id1 Ill Iliw 1wr ji!: I lir I. '1.e F ni.T
ldh iIIlr i ll lat A in'j thi1 ,e riai ( h -i 1. ti t i P d -ith- tood, t-i
t all:., k ,,.i i, ..,,l u t hN \ Ill (l

fu.r lii ri l \ I t411 1 14 i .li -i, i -< \l t:.-. i; 1 1 2 iti-aliit i'.. ','.h a'W
r, g, I 1H l il t ,, Il ," 1, Ii'r 1l i t" I ,.., .',, < fgi i[ !i (fi l It>
Ill 'Xtlt'lrl ,' \\ ,l~l Ir l ]H ;in to :tn i )i'L': Il i-1' ,llii'li lbt w~hich lt.lm~ lint~t IHC rr _.'.,icl ']..ht^l
f% rildlh d lli, 'll. rI ,f i I in hail I. iS i how_' Im i tioi d a
r i ^ .i l l i, i .. .. r\ ~ I' L] , ) , -l : r , v. l , ( t f r ( m + 1 0 ( )> '. ) i f, w t i n
i,]tl, \\l..r,. il,. ""^ '-r,..i I,, _. "" luul -,,' i,.rn,_4'l dd n, Ito) injury. Hf,-
1,4iu1l tlii-. dic., lt e h nioinuturi e froui thl i ,_' ili, ditch I Ii It.
|)i -1'itr;il,,,l. t\,;. I, W!I total. In I nl tlu'r +'ii+., hn the .*' im, lot tality
;a [artl ,i llr w l lf al m'. i 1 in1 i,'.,i,.,T 1 II Im I|) p in the f ill ;thi t -i
r,-I int 11,til -ii r ..iu :; the f)rlu tr ;i nna uninji r d I)i i '_.'i,., ''-ii ."
*liil.. til' l.'u11r \..s kill,,. W hile lhtt .+ i in T'exua will p1+,h-
i.l~l Ih.--.ii ..tl.., 1. in the r.11. it ii dauuhtf-i if tlii rail lie rt <;m-
tn1iiif Il 'irili ,' lit I ,.I I i t Fe t I I v I o ;I t w l c'er-
l;iinl\ it".-- :;'iI'.,l thlian ottheri' ih Norlh ('arolina.+

TrIlE [it-'.+t.>. t" "" ,l;EEX+] rtr,(;" srn'ATioN IN THlE sortTHil]l, T.STTE .
MAY 1f II"''+.
T lI,, *'itl .il i,,) ,,\,'t thie (:+tritlr w ith (l n ,.\ ,-i to) ii lt' li',r h+'inv itin'
o (f llii- ],i-t. rt!,,'.'li not alOi %iiiiL'. i -' r1. .. iii v neiiiun M Y to reilder a
u otrdl iI :ui1II iiiL e.\,'t.,.,iii_'ly :a i) |liii ,I,, In \ il, lv -ije) r., i.,
Ihxaltit.i- fr,'i, V'-tiii North ('uro(liia to ):|ituern New Mex1ico the
inI-14t !l I l -iit i Ii'II i 0fliciently ;t1l tIid:nt ahri,. Mairclh andl April to
rk< >, ~',, id-i~l,.:lit' tIniiir\ locally.+ "II,'.i-s hliow tlh t the lir, t lias rp,-
c,,V' rtl I Hrizi lli. -(,vene rI vrlj' 2i, it liv it llt'tru l ,eiieineit ini
1I.17. :.' .l l,,i .I ieeltitioin of the wnild %\inter' l''f 0 9 and tli,
l)n'i.-eit I ',,ll. I,.2, lI nard ~[,i 111._ w\ ill lI. a;dniost certain to pirc'ipitate a
!iuini, ,r I, l..- li-.i-I ro Ki mtr r (,f l'i' iii Ill ;:1 the -ll ,.= ,f l!t'IO wilkt IN l but i 1t st; the
l':tili .l._r|"l " L tinliAnd t1 z,- i-"i-',,,:t Ithe ' lnUltrv w Irth of V\ i..'' ia.
ir iii, ',,... i--,,'i i i. and K an,-as tat d l.-rut' y. as far as, I .--'tl(>. ;ll
v,,ltitntl.,r .,_r.)ii, ,i.,iiii,... ,up in tin* iehlds ,lm, iii,-, the. ... r .!!iii_'- a) ttnnin ;
K v I'rrr k I I I are I sowi tI a i ,Iier ll, tIi -e i ].,,,P tIfiI

ct)iintrv. dli, -,uo iii, shoitltd he due.la ed a;i lite as [.--.],, "]ii. -, (wo
nii'.< iiii". li:iV, ,i I I u 'I t' i[ + I NIy to Irev t tlie ,p' t from I,,1 2.-' so t '; :+
o u.hi 11 ,1 .li li-li,.l i the I.. it Ii I I l'II lii'.. thie a tultn n ini th-. L.,
I i'r T .1








are the only mea-utires that canl be taken that will have a tendency to
ward fl an imnipending inva-ioii.
We have found that \\liere eridaimage has been (lone to fields
of grain in late \wiiter andl -pring such field- had become seriously
infested diiiiig thlie pIreveding a1litum0n1. 'ITlle rarrylving out of these
measures in the .oiitli l ,portiio (of Ili country has a tendency to
protect the grain fiel.1d- fartlh.r nurtli. ftPr we have had additional
illustration of tlhi fact tliat winge.I intliii lial.,s are. tiring the spring
liiniltlti-;., ieiili. alimos-t oilcutiIn l lo\uI carried northward bY the wind.
It is somewliat a i'ii-tiou a, to wl'tlier the ,pring-sown oats far-
ther north would tifler to ;I le-- degree if ti'here were no invasion
in the South iin field- cf fill--sown grain. Ioth -if oat, and wheat.
While it is not pi,-sible fo(r :in insect to make it- way or be carried
by the wind front Texa, to northern Kan,-a. M. oiiri, southern Illi-
loi. Indianail aand ( )l4ii. nlevvrtliele-s ,, intinnoiou- breeding to the
southward certainly (di iiitflieieci the 1nuuinj.r. over thi-> last-mentioned
territory.
If the farnmi:- of ti t cuiintry'., instead of being carried away by
the highly color.Id iiw,'\\-paper riport-, of tHlit. c ff.(t of the introduc-
tion of a few paira:-ite- inl their lieli-. will seek to evade the pest by
the destruction it' v'lint tt 'railI in tihe fall ainId late sow ing in the
extreme South ;iandl tiirn thtliir attention to better farm methods, in-
cl ddilng not only ciultulral metloiod- [)tibut by all miean-s rotation of crops.
watching for :il] -taimping outt the pe-t \\liei it tir-t appears in the
South in the fill ;iil Ninter. tlh'y will inll l lru;b:ibilitY sutiffer far
less from destriicti ii of their crop, when the next invasion of this
pest occurs.
Approved:
JAMES WII..NN,
ASc< it' /f /1 of -1 i' r<.

WASHINGTON. I). C.. .,, ; ,. 'I'.
[ Cir. 9:1



























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