The Catalpa sphinx (Ceratomia catalpæ Bdv.)

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Title:
The Catalpa sphinx (Ceratomia catalpæ Bdv.)
Physical Description:
Book
Creator:
Howard, L. O ( Leland Ossian ), 1857-1950
Chittenden, F. H ( Frank Hurlbut ), 1858-1929 ( joint author )
Publisher:
Gov't. Print. Off. ( Washington )
Publication Date:

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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 29651372
oclc - 28141141
System ID:
AA00020865:00001

Full Text




CIRCULAR


n Ni. 916. i ... i i

United States Depairtment (if A-riilAflj' -I

- HUIABUKALI 01r ENTOMOLOGY /
i,, ....iW A Il fl t r.. l a Llilciul Iurra1. ...l i | ,,,I'


I * ... I l,', I

j ., 'l'II1I l 'All'A SPH'IIINX.
US DE 0o1r. P"i O.. I o 1 R


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,itl lo riti,'ly f <1'r,11, lal',1 ii -,,ll r :, Pr ilk .-, ,'ll ,.,,1llliil -I 4 1< ,.-I :',-,

tItf)li tlforI its tlhe lI.:I\g irrii :ini f.ll \ rII'li\v\,u ii i , ..i-iti.,11,1 I'.l.Ir

pl altal eih Ill thr i,. 1'h'lr, i 1 1il,1 Ill1-,., ,,,,,l\ \ ,r\ llt ,..,tlili.i -|iln, i,\
( 'f rybi ll i 'lf /' / ] ll ."l. h i0ll lic,~11%" I'1irillllly \alll- i'nd ,,i,
hti flliml n of Htli- I I' f ;.-i tl 111 -<,i1 -,'.1 -,,i l- ,I,,,' r, ir t I-iloi'r.ilil,.
iIItjiir .' fretitii. tly I'Ii-i -'mrIiiiplhti ulrl',littliii,. 'I'lN.r i- ,. i<]rir,.1r'
that till, Ip' i .i-. ill ii t nih tr n lll'l--r III I itllilI t I't Tim-lr '-f
tree, i11 r1 giiu ,tli'n r tlh n ll ir ir L.ti' iiui-. liH- il-i iI-ia.i 'I-r1 it-
naturil rang,'. :min inj i' ojr' i- l i, '\1'ii-i\,' 111' i n l l iirit'rl, .
D)utring the yvrar PO',"i iiijlrv %%:I- tIiil it )liiu,. Nr,' .Ti'r-u'v. :idi]
Petiili-vlvaniii. lbut Iin 1'.*H7 r [ Inl-- iritlie..tte ,'t.' l l, ^ -:' ittfr.'tnt loi \Mi llr .1 i lit l: l'_ .riT :N'':. '1*LL- 1111, Il, ,',
liortio)T of M. arv':l;iil. V ir,_inia. tlhe I) -~(r t 4if ( "1lnir,,li.t. ( )li.i-. N',
.TJtrsey. I, i>liuian anidl Fl'riI a. M r. A.. S. I'.i k. ,if ti,' L'" r.-t ,r, ir''.
.1111 pnri' tor injilry ill Jilih". I':1117. ;il 11.ir ;\ 1 Ir 1 1%i nl.ll
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I) '', I~li l ^ll' F .

T h, c ila; li,;i -]lhiitx in it- :ii,'lti tf', liiilr -i. '",, i- :I l. -r.-,. ,:ilrt, .ilIt.ir.
.tl ii .._ ; Ir .ritli -if full; 3' 14 I lrlr.-. It i- 'r, .ir'ii >l' ii, M ,lr.
there lb.eing, i light :iil, ;a ilark f'irin. ;i- in tli n, i-,' d' i',s re .ii..l
pt'r'itf-. "]" t' prviu'T ili.irt' ,,h r- ;,r ,,lli i *I,,, l'n .,'' k.:.I l lli-. /,gt:-
*' .S.n'l Tiyt.iil'. -;II'f .".i/ii'n.i ,llihi +l~ .llll Itin i' iniiii r',l'illli'i.
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1'1
l, lied %% iltl till- l;tir < .-izv, of til- in -.ct. iaik i it ;I co'n.-piciio i-, object
I'll infr'e-1.d l r, Tho, r, i t.l ift I lif i-loIry\ hIy -t;Iirg <,," Ilri, d., uf
r't\ Itli i- \%%vl Ill tl-,r titi.l] ib til- ;v'on' pilp; Ii\y in-" lii illl' oll p;-li. '.
tli, I',i i ,[ for" whlii'li \ a;i- ima F i v lit'. hlatv ])i. (t'o .",' M arx. of
\lii>~r' *.'
'I' pIle l.lit of Olil- ,';it(-'pi11;ir i- ;I \h\\- v _1.i i.-li- 'nn n i 1ot f of
t II n ii(I, SJliitig ii. in;ii'kid ;I- -liuawn in tiuittt' 1. It hla- a lar'rt
Iiri\' v ,,l v li Ii n ,',er' ful 'ii..- \\wit ;i tla lOda :1 ix ii-t' of 3 inclhe,-.
It ,i'|>i,-il it- t'L- I- ill lliil--t'-. iitd iII tili- It.-j 'c't Iliti ti'r- froin oith ier
?)ii -1 l u. A l h i....lf ll ihi -Ii:l iM thl- illn-tratioii at a ;lII aIl in-
'li\ ilil a it 1. Tilt. tt nll ii "a itru illtr' .in'g |:iit r iFnlo '!it. iw s tiaurd




Co ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~? tlit bil.-~~~p i.frnot ~I a ck I ana hr.T's cilvv
,,,ii -. I,1i" ;I pt ,. i'i'' llii i f irii i .'I a (' t ( iiit lv. ;Id tdlil l iOr T \ra o
-lrbileiin 'i-a \ -ii'oiiit'ui "a'-\ taken at elt'et i1t light at i tand
,. Llt' t u ii iiili'i'-. hT itu t ii-' a -',(i l.oii .t ':ilrk ftorill tf ;lr ilin Dla wr.

IlillI N .% I l t" .\iM L I ') I 'IF.:"NT I)1.', lll 1 T l' Nl .

Ta ii- it-ha t i-. :i -t ric i'tl Nri li .iliii ,_t'iii -ile ,'it,. wa- it- eri' ye i'e
ra 'i. I' ]i '1. .I \i Sin itrnI b i- fl' ,in l \'ii' llit 'i t' I h1(iii l;i: Ist\o rdn
11ig fl it- .ii-. jip|>i : i-. a-i o I ti't, I- I'|li i i." It i. tif M exi)ciill"
,-,t'i-t'i'i fori il ian'idiii1.olt 'rin' l. ; li] ( )ii io. ;lit] (if ii ttg vi,'a .- liasr
:ixtil,,utl it-'va,'u ri ge ii, tl --air l tint- Atlniti- c'm-t. -i 'i, it ]ai' been
i't' iviil ai t tli-i, f'i'llti i\iri' l loc.ilitit,- il -u o tlhi'( l 'iit r I IP nn'flC I -j
\;iie a ;i i a M til W\\ hrii-t'V.
Il In L it \\;i:- riv.orihd froim l i\v ,. (.', \'ini P'ai.. mid M r. Frank
.. i -ttilt ,- t l, it It (iii itiisi ,' t i.ll u'-'.i:, 1 i' 1 ii i--u x (C'o iinty, D el.,
Slihil ll t!t ;i U.."9.a' iCllit' u tWii ,. :it th.lri,, lill ;it W il nington,
I -. In l1,.!s tl,, l~iriv.' ;iipt.-i e I'll tin, ';it:l];Li t"t- ait W\'ilmiington
ill rl(;i,,it Ii li'ilN r-. TI S' -i' ec' l -1 t i I.. .i ii i, th ;li | i ll D eli\'are,
;,id it h i- i ,;itlv ii.i';';-i l in Ill litii r- w\'l'i'' it \';i- fornii'll ] v r
~i':,rr,. It-. iior'li\\ird l vin -. li- -, t' y to In' liilit, l I llinoi- in
lilt- AV -..t. il \\liil'1 St~it, ]r<,lf---,i F. rl,,- rt',i' ,h it lin 1884..1 The
i';iltf of it- fl,,, plillt i, ai- folhow-: Fromi tilt- milf (if M (eXico ill
c-t('- I'' loii l' ;ind ;11 i on thi riv'i r-, i l liliiii ;iii d (and rGi a 'tltw ird
ii ld ;11o1 ,lli\\riil ;iilo ii li, M i- i--r-- pi ;)till 'I- -m ill i 'ii iri li i'it _"e ill
lilt. ri'i1;t th lt i foli'l iio,,l Il ii,\'t, tinI lioilV [ith o 'f lli () : tlihence tip
l elt \\'aild;i-li Wiinl, \' ilte rivir., of llilin:Lill lo i'-ii" V illi't ii t'.. T hli.
li..i- i lir l i l i l ,N R i .y to i id i(_-;it<. :il-, tll,, (.ii.._ of tit,- vatalpa
-p1ili \x. i illi'-liv.l %'V','< ,d lio x\\ \ 'r. \\ h'i' ]l 'kiiL,," 111lil i't'lTi i to
., i> 'iii,illy Inilv l -lil. ;I- i 'l'it' X III. I fri-w u,' I '. 4. iD 'lii. .\ -r. fir 1S,1-S..
M l F ill i n' ll Iit" iht Splihill-h -'l Ai" .t iit l'ri';i NX lili ,,i"' M. x i, Ip. 2- 11,-., l,"SS.
l.:lllii ,llidl .'il '; ~ll "- v... ', ,I llirl'. 1 ;! |. I"'l,.. 2Cll i, l!> | ;I.
4'T rl ,i-. III. tit l IIrt. S 104. l 4-. [I 1*'.,
I' lu l I | if'l l;il'-ir- 1", .il'1il lihng Il '-4 | i- in I ',ll _,-' v'. -i,- ('il'r'. s't-. 1' i-l' i' ''V e.
II I1i.'. t.; |






















































































o 1- '. N. [ %1 1 1Il.NI.L a I n1. egg mnass : h, II, n-rlI hWtchTP h Ir :1
I. ii..- I I r.I I .1, r < *t 'nt y I IirIis I I Iarl3I
(ni' L I;r,, l| i i i.- view O( t jit ,i full|erown -irk djrva -orIal vlw of
Ci I ,' me;/. Ii i m th ; I, eg. li n .l All n turt size. xta pt M rx rdI..
[Cir. '.I









show its general occurrence w,-t of IFlorida andal (eorgia along the
Gulf. From the files of til Butreau of Etomniology wi. learn that
this species was observed in Al. 1il nim iII 1.ss;, ;nd wa. received from
I)enison, Te\.. in 1889. More recently l'y tlie pecie. Ila- been reported
from A.rk:;i-a. (by Webklt, ier I'llJ 00) ainl fnii Cedar Creek, Ala.
(in 1904), following whit li it ocurrel at St. Elino. Ala. In 1S!)9
the species was not known I to ocir in New J.r-.cy. ibut in O1900 it was
observed in Camden Countyt. near IPiladelhiia. and in IIunterdon
County.a By 1906 it had l.conie c..tabllied ait EIlberon ;iind Blooim-
fild,. the latter-westward aind i a little ,,irt, (if Maiiiiittn \ii. New York
City-being the northern i ,-t p,(in t ,f which w%\ have knowledge of
its occurrence in the East.

LIFE: I '1O'HIV .\ANi 11.\II1S.

The catalpa sphinx is -iilije't tI, coi-nidhialdlth ll'iii iat iollH in num-
bers. For one or two <',ir.~ e,, vvii -(\'vraI v.iir, it will i it lo
noticed in a given locality anti will tlell iidldeniily ,pl)ear in great
iim.e-. comnilet.tlv defolialinpg tille tree,, aiil 'oe'inig tiie ground
beneath them with its lar'il excreiii't. It i-. interest iigr to obseIrve
that John Abbot, wlho ctlle',te l til tlji -pt.el'ini~- ini (,,crgia. tncll-
tioned more than a hlnnr, Ii-tIr-. a;io tlie f:Nt I iatlie tl fi ler-lien
who inhabited the border- o(if tle -\NanI)ip-. lIintiitd for tIh.-, l]irvam
as the best bait for catching i:,li. alnd it i, .-aid that tlli.Is Iait is so
esteemed for this purpose- in -,i part )it- of Ilorida tiat tie catalpa
is often cultivated for no oilier piirpo-e tliai to atttrait tlie insect.
The e,..-., as has been -.t;ited. are lailid in llla-e-. and1 the young
larvae feed gregariously for -o)me int. Tlic Iwoliic'awy of the .pecie..
may be judged from the f:act tliat an egg i:1-- in tie 'ollectiol of tlhe
U7. S. National "Mii-eiii 'intaiii.- iic:rIl l.'.uiim eggF.. TIle mIas, i, not
compact and is -lightly fa-tiietd to tll' ii1ider1,':i.l of Ilie lea ve.. Some-
tiniw.. according to Koeliele. tlie eU2". are laiil in .-IiiiallVr 'lliase., on
the stems and branches. Thle larva moult fuur time-. Becoming as
tln-y grow older very variable in tlair nimrkingi. In tlhe extreme
South the insect is reported to lie fioumad in all .tage.v, during., thle ,iim-
miner, and there are three or four generaitonl- anlnuially, tlhe last lliber-
nating in the pupa state Ibeneatli tlie gr ,oud 1an11 giving, fortli the
moth the following Maricl. In the imiimimier linc. atcrdtling to Koe-
I lt-i. whose observations vweriv manle in Florilda, tlie itie occupl)ied by
an entire generation is aloit .i\ week-.. Ii tlie \iinitv of Washing-
ton, at Co,:ll', i. W. Va.. andi probaIlly everywl ere in it, northern
rI'ig,1. there are two ginviration-. ,'u brood-. aninuamill.
a Entomiological News.. N9it'eiil't'. IIHI I. 1-11. iiS. iill.
[Cir. nI';l











.A PnMl.er of parasitic inet'is atitack: aind kill ti he cail; .i phin x.
.1 init l/ I *.../..' /, SayI a I ommon. I IIIIid I p1' read, an very l,- I I
I' ll pI arasithi enemy I'f sphinx w'kterliillari. atlttk- thiu ,i" i ..
4inIilt :i-I fri',l\ as it I( o l the ornl worll w "' of tiobl icco nidi tomato.
I',ifrtii I:ti ily V l 'pa site is it tJI r/ parasitized by oli er I l ine-
nopiti~ t.,of w, hich twoc sp~ecie's.l, J/ .(w ///'..( uprl lnitH' As-hmn. an l]<'<'
1, I. mesJ /r.''il,/ IRiley MS'l., ar1 rii'. irlttl Tliec s-,Prondnry parI;ii
-it-i ii oulr eXI Ierit'nc, iowrver, t ire nlit ,'ii',i,. lly !iltnll lali( ; h1'licc
ile I ienefiial primary tti -I ite flon rislics iii spite of lheir iit t iick.
.1 I/,i,, te'h'H ,,,/,, I',f tl the a riinlrV l)p iI I)it('l, i 1; i1iriiit. fo1reI-\ Ili' 1.
wIiI-plilk lv. Its l rvI l, I I i white. 4,,.,.r..,llile (Teati l T'. il, i'i,-;
iilliin tihe io ly uf' the ctilcrplillir, :iiol wliti, full fil ;iitcl ritvil for
t riii1-ftl'ii iiiii each indi-
vidliiil eats a hole tliiii'li I ) -
thi' -kin of the caterpillar (_ /^jy^\ "
II III spins its little white "' / f -
',iI',,,, o01 the outbid,. Tw) .lf ., (
'iimi'rl)I or I more of ii ucI
liA'l)1ns iil \ be set'n Onl tiht' .
I,,,,Ir Ati'r a I' It,,Ipy1 t1 Ifr'om
' ,iiiig'd I)arasite issues fronm // 1- i \
Ill' ,coo( -ns to lay ".'-- and pi'
; i'2 ,1 l i :i, ', a tl h ,_i i .rjir i ,l t h e ._..
"id lairvte. "'l']i lparasite is -f I--
lilluitlii n thi ,ll ,I-Ili,,ill the I
evl'l I l 1l1ll.od States. ^ 2 u~,,... ..*.*,. i;r.U.o i
.ll;<'IOld iti-fi ( .1/" if ..... ',L ') catail(a f|>liln ': Ailutll witiii l,,,i,:rfttii, nl rlilht
,,ti TR iey 1h l a- 1ind~ erilnrif d ,'intpnnn )t left. (l''riom llo tivi l.t
< iit,//p I.H I `' I j iv\. w\hich :I I)-
ipeai.- to he a special parasite of the .iii_ ( 'ratonni, i also i ,.ii i i.,i
i1- Ml. 1 e Inemy ,,f the -1,.1i,4- under dijcilsioni. e xi ei e i pa ras-it isn of
tiw ,;.italpa s)l phinx by this specie wasI obIer1ved, I" Mr. A. 1-. B1I ,<, .-.
at .*I',kJ ,i U k ( i,,. in 1',i.,. In one case a l:sr..'e i inlmb r of the hy per-
paral-Aite ,/.'.'. pteri'mV i'let f ,f/lfle Fitch a nd a f,. j i:n ividiial of
H, ,r..men t H.ubIt) /Ii ', ...I *" II/' A\-hil. were ,r ret ared fromI tIhe
-;aie ht of larval, the hvyperlaratites oiitnii1l'ri!, ii I the priIlary
pia 1r: ites fourI to one. min-, however, is exceptional.
lvI collonImon sAecies of tachina i1'-. EInI);oroe' iaftpi/flS
MNu'i. (t. 2) and t-rontmnu i"" .'; Will.. N il- attack tIle larva ,if
tile catalpa sphinx. Tl,'-, are1 -,0 i ',i.l plra 1it1 of lA pidoptera, the
forilltlr ill f'-I i inf 27 distinct -pecies. the latter "22.
I lir. 9;l"


NAT I 11 1 NIMItS.









A few birds prey upon the caterpilli ir. Iut mn,-t of them evi-
dently find it, wlihen full go,,,,i. a rather t, gl, mor-,el. tlih -kin being
especially tough and thick and the insect :i very'v iuii:-cilar one, so that,
in fact, it is ,liii.iilt to crush one with the eliii of a caIne. Among the
birds which have been rii ,,rd.d as de-troying thi, iii-ect are cuckoo.-,
the ,: 1iid. and the Baltimore oriole.

REMEI)IES.

hle', catalpa sphinx may be readily de-trotyvi 1by differentt method-.
H1,,d pwick/ig.--Owing to its hir,,gi siz,. tlie titrl)illiar is., easily
-c.,. and it is possible to control it by h:nad pi.lking with the aid ot
a long ladder and a 12-foot pole pruner or -iiiiliar device.
Arenicalsd..-The insect can be destrovd.l b'y an ar-enical -pray
of either Paris green or arsenate of lead. lappliled a for other shade-
tree pests, such as the tussock moth and fill \\emve orii.'7 We may
take ad ; ita ,;,e of our knowledge of the gwrgarim ns Iialit If thle young
of this caterpillar by watching rather clo-ely for it in ll ie -pring, and
if the leaves are observed to be eaten in anv pirticii.lir ])place. a poi-
sonous spray should be applied. This max' frciiiently -,ave an entire
tree. Where only a few trees are to be trenltci, it will In, lje.t to spray
all the leaves. Owi ig to the fact that tli, t'oli;.ige i- freiiiently in-
fected by a leaf-spot disease,' the added ,pr,;tuit il of u-iing Bordleaux
mixture as a diluent for either the Paris gre,'n or ar-.enate of lead is
advisable.
Dcstrutction of the pfupm'.-Where the caterl)lliar- h;ve been so
abundant as to have affected the trvee, it u ill pamy a- a precatition for
the folli iig,, year to spade up the grlouidl tlhi romglil. ; tl ilis.inte-
grate it in the fall so as to d(-tr,, the 1pup)w. whIirli,. will he foiuind con-
centrated under the surface of the ground in tlhe inmmeuliate vicinity
of the trunk.
Prote(-ting the parasites.-The second or la-t generation, which
appears in Sep)tember and October, is largl. dle-troyed u y parlasites
which are frequently very abundant just ;I- tlie olde-t caterpillars are
lI'i-inninig to reach full ,_r,,wlth. At thi- time the par:;i-ite-. which
have been previously iicniitiiiied. issue fn-iu tlli body of their host
and spin large masses of white cocoons oin 11,. I ik- 1if the cater-
pillars. These masses are so laIrLre that the c(;iin lie -,ei at a con-
siderable distance airii-t the black stripe- of tlie I,,)-t in-e(ct. It is
not advisable to destroy the caterpillars at tlii- -tge. a- tIlie I)' ra.-ites
are very beneficial and in ordinary seas,,l- % ill redii,'el tlie 11imher-.
SFor (lirec-tiotUs, see Frniers' Bulletins '.0 aniil 12-T. wli-hi imaiy he ubt.iiiedi
L'r;ii Ulion l )i )liiiatioui.
1 Phyllosticta Catalip .
[Cir. 9(0]








or ll. spihiinx caIerpillar io tlhit they will niot alpar the f,,lli," i.,
s.a:iili to do iiiimuch harm. \\ .i t0he cat.r'lijilrs c;in i I-. ,ailv
giitlird,1 it will pay to pick Ithem from tiI, l]avi, ,t l rd rWn-fr tltm
I, I rrl or l.i.i, ._, iox co 'red with 'wir\ r\% in.: n cttiL' hi T i ill prv- \nil
Ihli ,.it(r(ilhu'i fr'o n i--ii, -, or rilliii ;- i |'r,' to birds or otl r ;m i
nilil-..,Ind w ill iliiurc (ih 1 i. lliilifv ,1 l l' < l> )!il^'li:-il! ilirni-,l] (hrl nie-htn"-,
Iliu- ,riiicic Lr:LiriL' their ,. ....1c work. A fe1 lioh'- sio ld Ii lh orel ii
llii. ImuIttoin of I h Imrrti or l4txes isied. -1iiall .i itilIi 1.o i'eveiiI Ihi'
'illr; illars fronmi crnwl i,,' l, Iir 1 .11.h iieh mi il1 the i o i r, iilii. \1\l, will
Ipri'v-nit the i'uimnihition of water .if'i r riihk" whili i,.lci Ilrow n
I li i i eets or set 1'I putrI efvItioiin it tie ll iII-.
If I the cooperation of ti1lcl,, I- whole hal Ive citalp)il t ree-s -ri, illcf Oil
llivir [>reniseN ('aill bc s-ecired, 0i0- eilterpillir cili lhe larLIrly controlhnd
,r -,.veral veIlrs in -s1ce'-SioIl.
\ pIE proved :
.1 \NKS IV In\
."%, ,,'t' ./ I ,/", .' I" t 1ff .
\\ \siili?;Tt? I). C., .\'Aircm/'hr 6;, 1',,.'.
[I Itl. :;l ;




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

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