The bagworm (Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis Haw.)

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Material Information

Title:
The bagworm (Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis Haw.)
Series Title:
United States. Dept. of Agriculture. Bureau of Entomology. Circular
Physical Description:
10 p. : illus. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Howard, L. O ( Leland Ossian ), 1857-1950
Chittenden, F. H ( Frank Hurlbut ), 1858-1929 ( joint author )
Publisher:
Gov't Print. Off.
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
By L.O. Howard and F.H. Chittenden.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029651342
oclc - 27942495
lccn - agr08000236
System ID:
AA00020864:00001

Full Text




CIRCULAn NO. 9o Itim) Ibr T' ; IIM
United States Department of .\riclif7~
BUREAU OF" ENTOMOi.OGY. /I -
L. 0. HOW AR 1. -n i> ,lc.,gi,..l and Chieof ,t- Il -/
T______ I-' 1r.irg \ ,
I l

ir.l. .r., ./.I .. ... --- a
11% I, 0 1. AB d F IL I I1,1"1| I1-'T,
GENERAl, APPEAIANCR AN K NA%'\ICI: OF ATACIK.

Shade tre'i-. hiriil-. and lia,.lg,-. and in particular .r _r'' ,- arc
nirlh tlhjlicjtt to injury by mediui-sized *vat*'l ill:r which lias a
cuiriii- hbiti of rra% liig- ahmut on t infst t ifct trees in a bI,-Ilikl case,
wihe'nce it% common name ie' hi:ti w-Iirmi or ba.,ket wornin.
InII the shelt'r i fr these cas ces th, it i,- I- ,iiiln'., all ..
th i I I Iii, -f qii itntl I -, aft' i r whichI the Ii ( ..'- rilli: illn
attAiict'lt to the plants ftl'i solle time and are conspic- .-
Ilzon- ,,Idji.,-t.- on leaille,, trees and shruhs in late autumn lin.1 '
anid in winter. Like the tussock moth" and the fall
wehworiii thi- species is preeilinently at pest on tOhe
stress and in parks and private (r)iii'i- of cities and (
tow i~and is even more .'tlilj, I to fluctuation in inum-
Iher-. It i-. however, more limited in distribution
and not fund ,M a rule north of southern New York *"
anditl the centrl portions 4,' P.nnlIi.laniia and Ohio.
South ,f the'e p,,ilt~ it is in certain years \r\ trou-
blesomn and tih, ii j,. if muuch complaints .-.iich a
ii~
year wa ['. ,, when the hl~awuiin, attracted greater ",. 1-" .L-,,rn
( ThyAidfpt ryi
attention than ;Iny other tree defoliator. Numnerou's f rr, w },
c',ii1 litints were received ',f inj iii., in the r', i,'i ata .c
iiientionil, and especially fir.ini the S1:t1i1,. of Newl
.Jer-,,y I'rin'yhMiii. IMt I lrt-n ". Vii.ii W est Virl_,'ilii,. O(hi,,
Indianiii, and Illimoi.. Tin1, iaiturail enemies ,'f this insect (-'0 p. 6)
were cuiillparat i vlv -'r;trc'. an'l there is ma -I itn. posibilitv of a recur-
z'iue of injirie-v in the years to come.
The general appearance ,ft the lti,.wuril in shown in firn. r,. 1, which
ilWlu-tnItl- the caterpillar when neark, full grnmi. i i its- characteristic
bag. When removed from its la.. it looks as shown in ti,. ur, 2*. ,a.
which reprep.-'nt.% th, la:rvit, t miirity: h-_tpriild i t- '.ivelop-
"..','.......,...'..,, ..........
*' ll11.T ) i J.-nr I. l'Jia' ..iiiy if s. A A l1 J 'b Jib-e _-'(%.,.lI-Ci r /,7 _ii, -- 1 , --- .


"-. -__ -- .--j I'








iii.'t it niayI attain a leng th of ab;htut tliree-fourth-,h of an inch. The
iII i- -I'it in texture :il(l dull lirowni.-Ii or blackilh. while the head
:;iiil i lioi':ti'i .-.'ll('lnt-. ;ii'' horny and whiiti-h. mottled with dark
|lq'\ II.
(li(;.I.Al. IIO'IF: .ANl) PICER ENT DISTItIBUL'TION.

Tlit' iagwrm i, iIniJlttionably native to North America. It
;,i,'LIlilti,. inl th1 ScOUt Itriil SI tas, anil it' proper home- that is to say,
lil, Ipa't of t hI' ct n lnt'v whi r," it rcathe-, it-, matximl lt1 |--is in the Lower
All-itril lit', z,,i,'. It exteiil- through a con.idchrahle portion of the
I'pper .Autral zono. lint their, ar'r, iinlication.- that it has. gradually
>|,ii'al into) tlii ti'rritiirv from ]iure soutli'rili regi'ii-.'" The s..hade
tri'- otf l':tltiiire. \Wa-lhiii'tini, St. Loizi-. and otilir ioure southernn
cities' t'are f'riui'iltly defoliated bY thi.- insert. Northward it occurs












V--- MA. L
c i '



-', N. - l;i.rr,,rt 7'i' Iri,,';ir -', r r -1' 1 1irr i.',ri,-, i ill r.'i ii lnr 'i lj iij '1 -am I tllaI' pupa:
I j. r l I i nm illt irni. l,. H -lr i ll itmii.,Ic. A l ,.1 ni.ir-,* 1 i fruni iH.iw ar.

thlr,,uilc New ,IT'r- \v and at mn:Iv p)oint.- in I-ni.r'ylvaiii.t. including
thie ,itiv ,; I' arri-lliurg, Elliott-tni'v. Allentvii. and Swartbmore.
Farther wv.-t it hIla- eetJi found ;it ('oliun iu-. M:arie'tta. South Salem,
tiil ,tit.r hlca;iliti0- in Ohio. ;it WrVt'erl point- iin \\.-t Virginia. at
'Iriuukli. liil., in I'rcatonic:I. Thm M(i ,ii \\,-,t tit ( )klalioizna. Elr1\wh\irt. .-'tlt of th',-e licalitie.. t'xcept
ill tlI. inuncl'liate (ilft' 1'tg'ii0, it. aboun i(l-. In tht- Ei.-t it i- coinimonlyi
f',inld in NX York (C'ity antid Blrooklyn. and ait -v\':il point- oni Lonmg
1-tltnil. In the ILul-i k Hi\',i Valley region it ha- heo'iin recorded by
I.'It :it Yink,'r:, :and M'iiuti Vernmin, :anil hla- Ijt.lii collected at New
I In rl n1 1 tii, ):n;.i',, irn i- nie of th.-' I haracnteri-tic forms like the % heel-bug
.I, f '. /,, i li\-" (':cnilir.i ii, liti- I.'.' ii',..+,.,t. .irn,i, ,, L. j, anm il the larger
,i-'..'2 r ^ -i,| ','i .-.." ...J /. I i ri i, trut.' ',,,tih,'rn li.rits w hii'h are gr.iiially
S ,'ii lii"2 ti' 1 i,,rllit .tr.l r ;ii' liv l',]!,\v t ii_ ti' -.ocii a- i or vail.y-i t-r. it carried
i ,ii'r, t.ill i,,iit \,i r.il niiilo r:ilr.a.l trzitn!, i b-.t .tb l iitig thiiutselesat pointe beyond
li i *i ., 11, r l .i nl ii t.I l.








p ^Iw. p.

















6' 1T 44,
14J



\in






4

I;Livn. Conn., but it is not known to be injurious in these localities.
It has been sent to the Bureau of Entomology from Splri ngfield, Ma.ss.,
but probably does not breed there.

FOOD PLANTS.

The ,:,igwornm, although a very general feeder, dip)la-ys a particular
fondness for evurgre'e-i, of all kinds and especially for arborvitae,
hence it seems probable that one or the other of these was its original
or normal food plant (fig. 8). Th0 ,pecie-, becomes exceedingly abun-
dant every few y3 ar-, and at such times it may be found on shade,
orchard, atndl forest trees of nearly all kinds. It is fond of the maples,
particularly the cut-leaved and silver maiple-, and the related box
elder; also of the poplars and mulberry, less so of the elvis, and
apparently still less so of the oaks. It feeds more or less freely, how-
ever, on most other trees and shrubs, and even on many low-growing
semni-woody plants, such as elder, mallows (Hibiscus), and ragweed
(Ainbrosiaai/,.'>'l,). Thus, in the absence of its choice food plants, it
is able to subsist on the foliage of almost :iny of the plants of the
character enumerated and which may be available, but it does not
seem to live on grasses and herbaceous plants generally.
HABITS AND LIFE I.IsTT RY.
The bagworm overwinters in the egg stage within the old female
bags, and for this reason hand-picking in winter time is an elfficacious
remedy. In the late -Ilring the young hatch from the eggs, crawl out
upon the twi,,-, make their way to the nearest leaf, and immediately
1,,-in to feed and to construct cases or bags for themselves. They
spin a la nrge amount of silk and attach to it, for additional strength
and protection, bits of leaf or of t % ig-, evidently attempting to disguise
the nature of the case as well as to -,trengthen it. The larva is
remarkably soft-bodied, except for its head and -t r ng thoracic plates,
and it is necessary that the soft abdomen should have some protection.
The construction of the 1N:g of an allied species was carefully studiedd
by I1. G. Hubbard. and it is a v.ry i ntire-tiin, pe)rfoirmnance.
The yn," larva (fig. 4, a) cuts ott with its jaws a small fragment of
leaf which it places between its front lg., gradually forming a pile
fastened loosely with silk. When the pile becomes a transverse tangle
about as I- ,n- as the body it is f'iteined at each end loosely to the surface
upon which it rests; then the caterpillar, nfter placing itself at right
,n;l,-. dives under the mass, turning a complete .siner-.ault. so that it
lies on its 1 a.k. bound down !,by the fillet. It then twists around and
'stands upon its feet, having its neck under a sort of yoke (tig. 4, h,).
It makes the yoke into a complete collar, adding bits to each end until
ir 97]








thl cirvi.h iN complete. 'T'Ihen row afttr row ." fi:i'..,i.'ii- i? added
until I li, case bezit omnes ia. hollow c lhinder (li,., 4. ,). ()n,' c'il i' tlhen
clo.- t l it [ sII d tho inside lil nd iit a tii.h ,.",lin,-, of I+ill. Ihr I'ase

hltinl tel.nl extended ii i,_l.dif and faIItned att one end. W hen it i fully
von upll.ti I the larva cra wl aw a y, w ith I h .+n' Ie arred .I ilI like
it eI ., the upturned end of its body. In tkl ili u Itration I / 1 l wr a
toiupll.Id l it ri a l e li. the I '''_ li\ :i. lightly u ili' le t to i' t l at
.siiirfiar lie ll1'rva 1 i li ,I I' lkatl ithii. Suih Ii.,- iWvix+ frSq'1 Ltii l
brl, fonil oi l I,.i ,.-, IInd
art, qiliill pll~i//1ii,,_' to ti11
II n i i I i: ted uitil the JAt.. .
hitir iim ki- out its h atid 7.
iiid -1(1\I wiilks ,,iT. "_" '4
Mid', li)%1 ; f
I. J ; t'
l l it' iL conI) li tantly-'- -tt ,
.1 .,+.- '4~;
rl~t~l~ Lrf1'*d, l~it< .t t+ i._,-,^ -' '- /' .. '' ,
tnid l ll, other -iL:ill -+' " ,.7.' [
,,,,j,.,., ,,.i,,._. used t, -r^"1"l f t .; ':*l^.?'
l'ar'laill)i tl the o %tsidt',e, S ,'1

Vi'rld ili the kind of 1 : ,
IrT I polit il w hich thet /I I '\.'_''
,.c .,lt i 'l lh , i~s f ( 'e d i n ,-_ .. U g/ 'i' '"
V 1h il, 1. w h 1 rw*la a is sniall ( y ^/,, i ,..";" 1.- : ,',-
it r i'ri,-i it' 0 1as e1 rect. . -...il
it va l-P.- 'It, :1'1
hu \\ h in it is l-, rr rthe . '.
t'l' 1 i'-liff IL dowii (Il'f. 1). l l' S k'ti--- ^' ^ -' ,"j''~
Til' li'\-!il .skill is Cilst ljUB Ir.,. .
froir tin ,-. and duri,,. r.i r' J'
tlhr fi ll il,,. the l1mllo tih of 3I .
tIh lit 1i.- is kept I'o I ed I d
w ii li silk. There is a l el a tax i
1 ,\ ll l ,if l, il,,_, in the 1. "*itw jitit 1 tilmtir> <> ; : 1h wi M Ir' i rl i .
i ,l'l lli +' il' the- .ph t +d; ''xi rci'aiitv ol the !>iar l'l I mp!. hi ,,i I
h after Int Ii Nt lllhi itIli i tnIl 1 re x -
tl'ilir,,ul, which exeret
nin'ilt ;ind cast skins are lnished. T111 nale I'i,..- are stnaller thait tilos'
o(f thlie iiili.-. .'ai i.hiii.- a length -t about ilan inch, while tlio-t of the,
fIniiihle a'e lluch l:i''2.r. ToIward tile end of Aii',i -t. al lout VWash-
in l h 1)n . (J., the larva ,l l iitapli,.- its growth, attacelie its li1. firhill N
V t i-ilk n ii band to a t\i',. '.rii,.Lu't hens it inside with anl additional
l ier of -ilk, and within this retreat, which lnoWl IeconieiT ifts ct 'O1to.
tnin-bfo'l ii to pupa with its head downward. The Ipupal i" ii., last
iltout tl'iOe w ',k-. and the th the iii i,,-o i P ii_ i .-'.' The malet' chrv-ali:
wok-ll it- W:3V out of the lower ,,lO'ni il,, and the ia,,',. not isstuel s






6

through the crackinrI skin, leaving t lie chrysalii, hanging from the bag,
a, lio wn iat, ligiie .'. Th ,.qiIhrvsali, f the female doe.s ntit put.,h its
w:v\ at -iiI out oif the ba'. liut theb kin cTracks and Lth, fetimale gradually
work. I ,r way piartly out. h'r Ihead reaching tln' lower end of the bag,
(jig. :,'. ). Thet ,nales fly a.botut, -'ockking the b)a.tg, of the f'nmales, and
whln one is foin, l iii ihiclh th helwad of the fenmiale i.- near i1the end,
showiig tliat -I'. ha- eii'.rg,,lI froni lih chlrv.salik kin, the male pushes
lii- ,o,,rniitiuIly pro't ru.-ive anl,il ii fact, tl,.scopic genital apparatus up
into ithe lha t,, tli' in:,I -l.id q, f [hl f.'rmail' and fertilizrs her. The
femn;lh thiLn work-Frin \a hack into th, echr.-.ali- .s.kin, gradiually filling
it witlh ,..'- unitil r"l irn1 lv, half otf it i- tille'd, scattei 'ingi in almiong the
t,_ (-)tole of th' .-pair, liai-,i' fronm herI body. lHaving lone this .he
force, her shriveled
bodyy out of the open-
'^*^inr fall-, to the ground,
oP(79
al, die.. lhe egs, re-
I a\ai, ill this way until
tile following pasprinig,
when th'v hatch, as
i fpii' ir viti-,ly de.eri lied.
There' istlirr'~ only one
/ gltren.ir:tticin annually.
NrU.--Th-re is a pos;i-
i i ti,. tI at t ) tl Iha. es tehis
Thr l ixlc rerl 14n-111 u 1 ,ria1 1 inlect
naiglt I ita-itle nIri nier-
d 'i : lli % -l It.-. -iak, from
o : p o otrtiaaI standig(ont, has
a,.i^%,. ,evi i i.rnorelI, but it
i- tirrt,' jya, stronger and
cii''rt. v'a.-aly paun as carded
Fi... lav.'..rr ,. . U .. I,. -' ,' .1 1 1 rU rh MN11 silk tian that id i|st other
I ,. d' 1., IL N n r,1 ,i I lrI % %, i ,d nati'i' silk 'olj(o1 I .
N.\TUH RAi. L \ E N1 I'E.
Althtm]u'hi alparelitlv we'l plrot.vcted fr-o|i the attacks of birds by
ii. t'',u-l, ca-,v. the :,,,_,i Wiriii is A.`mii wII:it t'xten.liV'lV 1ianisitized by
s-everal f,,rii- ,f ii,, eu,,,,,n a l hal'i.a fit',-, ,io-t of the r sl)lecies
N% li ;l''cI all -iinilr trec-t'eling caterpihlhirs.. Pro |minletnt among
V,,i.,i tle ( ,Illlltli I',p/I, ; Sa\ fig. tij. which, however,
i),11'V cunm im,|lv i.'tar.',itize, thie tu--.o,'k motutl, 2,11 tent caterpillars."
7ht' l'(.l:L t'il 1'. '.',',i: i-. al-,o a pa ra-it,' of tlie hagwornm and
a thirl~l..,ci,.- oi i f ]in'uiii n l, l//.,, I (flie l ,,'t, I/, ., ) ,/4 1,;,/1q400 tf/'fl; Riley
(It'. T7. i-. 1-1t:1al] tll niiot abunildant of 4all. Foutr or five individuals
oftlil 'tI) i c,, C.mn11n1 1 tly inIt,.i t :, -.iu, le I 'gWOrII). -,pinning for them-
- iite -ilkken t',v' .,,' \ithin tile' lag.
.liahn .... a,,,.., '-fij.
1( iT '.-i







lh,' Npecie last mentioned wii- for many y'iirs credited with !,, i,,,r
it I i.I I I \ HL I ra it, I f tlfir 1':i,-'\V 11] 1 1. IIII,, l tre t I 1 serv tions
wot ,I indai icate th1t it is a 1 s 1ccotlda1 par i.sit whin i l fesit II-th0I I

\"- 7. .


LAA/
i f t- -0 /^a ^J
.x, ,. ./ '*^ -^ /

\ s, C 1 .. = --
/ /
I .
rr- I I-1 / .' l
i'+ / .* I

I"*Ii... i' / ifl- Ir.,7'
~l + ti :, r.. I + ri+n tHi wirI+|
Ft+l 7+- ',,-At t+,d ll +lb t f ;+iit+y' "+++++++ hll il rl+ .tll 1gr
*' ++r i^Hsi .
li.terpilhui's. T hist m i,,'lht be explahnvd hiy thn' hyl~ioll .is tha~t this
IL, 'it, ovipos1its) only in cocoons or cs1 I s ,f tFiri t xtu ic4 aI I thereI
foni ,an not le the prinmry pa rasite of :in 1insect whiicli is not provihed
W ithi :;








) i .. "
I' .rt*tin chalcis lies a}lso hted in r -
li,' l,'ii.. ",f this int cot. iFh s* include "" -.
. it,,'l,.,J, ^' m uf ;i Rilhy uli_.'. s). ..*'-
I 'f.,/, ;," iiata Say (lib. ), atd thn Fn,. --, l.a a. 1 A, +llrK ,'+[n o i*^ rth l+5 ++ + ,, s,+/+., ,. i fr.ui Ht,,.nr+ +.
i'^n/. (l:". I1'. This last4 i a hy'pe rparaaite( in the case of the ,.i.,Z-
w,,rn pr,,)h:i1 'l secondary, and in the case of other caterpill:i I a






8

telrtiary parasite. I7fln'/,wfu.s fh/yriopt<,rh.;., Ashmn. (fig. 11) is
.'Luinlld to hie a: tertliary paraite on .llli tii y l/, 'ia,,id.-r,';is Riley,
N hIn thie latter i- a v.cmid;ar'v parasite (it the tussock mnoth, but may
Ie' ,ecmndarly when Ibreedin,,g in the ca.-,e- of the barwornm.

EIl EMDI EI) .

lihen the liwt'rm )cI.ir paon deh-.ciduout)Is trees it can be controlled
ib% lhind-picking the a,'- iil the winter. hit when it affects evergreen
treep, it i.-, practi-
t -t ally ivipousil.le to
\ j _-^- apply this rtimedy
Swithi profit unless
(/ li, pliantsar, Iadlyv
def tidiated. There-
*.'rvieatt. fw ir'm- the treat-
~.j ,^ .mer lu'ilt of evergreens
^^ ^ s3' i '-l'irn.t'isg i a neces-
:it '.
o "l'hI methods of
I'ro ui"tladling ,hiade-
Sjt',.h jipt.s in cities
i l .- I/' I. I, ,,.,' ,1 .\,i 'l! I '1 nIll. ll ll, i Tl hu .. I []ll 1 ll.l2l1 o t,
,, h, lh, il.', I l'.',,l,, I[,,uti,.! l11 1d t ml as 118 O nlt-
linit:d in Fiarmers'
hillitin No. f ,'' on I;IL.:', u 7.',-'2!. ;ir' in pIart :ipjlu it: lhIr to this species.
Tlii. Imilltiin .li>,uill ha. i, d I, ll pri'- \\"i h, li\t v y x p)erienced trouble
tfi'illl tlie da ,ii'iltiitilm s ol tilt' ,iatw, rii .
,.n!i,' r ,.'ii / i:' /,,i/./s. 9,-
a)i if thl lillitN t illllp l'tilit .ti i 1 .,


riiiit~iiiit'd lil''i''t liv Iiin a 11(1jf^^'^' K
o i'rl-i' th lic ii t h lil it '014_-, di


whin |\ ve n ,,.t hc. l l, I(.i-
41- L l!- I ll% I n ion fim i 'd Tii t. e+
worI Fk niniv Ibe facilitiittil
I' I 11 Hi# *,., ii tf ,'ri..jt 'r'c ,f fironil lii urge'd IIron
l ti,' t li i f t l 2--ato t I,,,,,It
|I la' ii 'i Oa l- a ir nilli il ;r
!il:1i',ili;> ii 1 _il l intru-tedti, tho.,-e ordinairill" unemployed, such
i- iil,'lr,'n lllil ufld ima'r io h\Vlt're tlhe trtes aire very tajl it will
at it ia,''--i'V to IIs' IL long lhiddei'. For bes.,t ro.eilts tlhe cooperation of
nPit hli 'i4 1 lh, t I iir', t io, uiledi with the I i(lne lipet ,lil 'ld lie secured.
ST i ill li.,ilti'ln 1ii m1y lt' haI I grati.- ou apl -1iat' in i1i to I h Detiartnient of Agriculture.
I 1 r -.i~ i








V.rv considerabhle intiuninityl from future Iiiii\ i result 1, care in
tile ,'iplolh,.\ Ino.iit of this nliethod. It is pIar tiudarly useful where only
I1 fOn trlees4 I'ie iife'- d. The 1 ,. arc s 1itl1 c[JsOicuoi s ilIi t oill
(ll f,' li il d (or mre I tr ees in win iter that it i. nIt t at al dillictult tI o detect
thin. but in cae, where comiparatively ft'w insects aire present on
t\ ii'riTii tie'es they uIae inot so easily s\en.
,''," ... ,'.,' tn f/, l 'ti. N \'hen inn I tree's arem infested it is
advisable to keep the hiand-licked p,.,_,. for a r,asidirjdeil tiin<' in
rcritv pavlr-.. suitc h s 1tirrm s co"verd ivitl nittii._, off'tf l\ of wit-,
So that the inunIieroani beneficial plirsitei- oft tihe est wvill he ableh to
i..sue ill tle *'.Irinll: and a.-,sist in l he ct ntrlll .I i lthe n thei fol-
io Ill_. ye(ir. Onet or two holedes lred in the WWIoton of the barrTl or
lox will prevent walter front t i',i tiuitin1.1tiir and d(I1 ili_,' tIht insects.
Wlhre the l'L.IL ICll he placed in liles id ain open q space or irncloslllr
di-tiit ifinin t'ees and frie frlo listurlaanrce, tie' y.' ,ii, ins-ictn l\ i,,,
vory limited powers of locomotion, will s-oon perish of -tar( v Ltison, s
tlirvY will not be able to reach the trees or shrubs afteler thly hatch.
./1":/'" *,'/ *i,/f acnwf'/ /,, -()n ,. I r','_ ,rie where the I:i I ._ are orett ,
or less dlilliculi to lind, halind-[iliin-" can not lie adtvi-ed. A stril, ii_,
in-iituncl ,, the futility of this limethod under such ci rcUi ustanlces Was
given by Prof. C. V. Riley in Idis testimiony at a conference onl tlhe
gip,.v nmot h in 1 '1I. lie said that he once tried to protect a cedara tree
not more than 6 feet lhili. ilupon liis own! grounds at \V.-lili"''ton, bly
h:ind-picki,,._". I e worked for two consecutive onliths 1i, kinl oil
>iN':ill liii-- tfli n that tree, the ir,.- ny of not more than twho feniualcs.
A.linllo.t daily he went to the tree and f,,'iid fresh specimens which lie
hii' I overlooked the dayI l,..fii. For evi,'irii tree,. therefore, anll
ar'-enlic'il spray is the best remedy. In connection with the storV of
hi- experience ju-i reliil.I. Plrofesor Riley stated that he had aisA -
lutely -" topped injury by the 1:L"ormi oil li'_'' trees in the iSmith-
.-Onian groinds !ly spravyii. andi in the suiinin"r Of I '- '. we had ;i
.-iinil.ar experience on the grounds of thie .A ii iii iun!il apartment at
WVahlliilg-tlm. Trees splravyedi with Paris green :at the rate of 1 pound
t3 glai 1illhio iof ;i.ter weret comnpletely rid f arva of the l':i,' ,,I nio.
It is esier to reach the 1i,.. Inii mi. on i u i,.i H than on lari11"l -.l: .
deciduouis shade i-r,. such as mapqle and enlm. but if carefully carriIed
out -q'pi'. il!ir will re-sult ini the I .-I ruction if the I ;it\' l\ ii- so that
the collection ,,f the In,, in w inter will 1ot be necessary. Alr-senate
of lehad at the rate of 1 pound of the prepal-red pa-te form to froll -'.',
to .' ilg'l ofllhn- ,t water will he found even nimore useful than tele Paris
gren, as its ,:ter adi' lhesiveness renders it less likely to Ie w-i ahead
off by rilin-. which in some seasons frequently occur almost daily at
the time when the larva* are beginniiui, to work.
rfo. 97]






10
The best time to apply the arsenical is when the egg, hatch, or
shortly ;iltr \ yards, and the best methods of ,13ra? ing shade trees are
discussed in Farmers' Bulletin No. It'.

JAMES WIl.:-uXN.
Secr, 1,,,r, of .I I ,l{e.
NV.%III.TON. D. C., Dec.mber 2, 1' -1.
[Cir. 97]

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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
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