The apple maggot or "railroad worm" (Rhagoletis [Trypeta] pomonella Walsh.)

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Title:
The apple maggot or "railroad worm" (Rhagoletis Trypeta pomonella Walsh.)
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Quaintance, A. L ( Altus Lacy ), 1870-1958
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Government Printing Office ( Washington, D.C )
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Full Text
FRANK W. MEAD
dABRAR'y
CIRCULAR No. 101. STATE PLANT BOARD I'"1"l "n 11" '"OK

United States Department of Agriculture,
BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY.
L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.


THE APPLE MAGGOT OR RAILROAD WORM."
(?/hagole/is [T 'rypeta ] pomonclla Walsh.)
By A. L. QUAINTANCE,
In Charge of Deciduous Fruit Insrct inres/igntions.

Five important insect pests injure the fruit of the apple in the
United States, namely, the codling moth (Carpocapsa pomonella L.).
the lesser apple worm (Enarmonia prunivora Walsh), the plum cur-
culio (Conotrachelus nenuphar Hbst.), the apple curculio (Antho-
omrus quadrigibbus Say), and the species under consideration.


,a

i I





C .


FIG. 1.-Apple maggot (Rhagoletis pornonella) a, Adult; b, larva or maggot; c, funnel
of cephalic spiracle; d, puparium ; e, portion of apple showing injury by maggots.
a, b, and d, Enlarged ; c, still more enlarged; e, reduced. (Original.)

The apple maggot, as the name implies, is the larva of a fly or
dipterous insect, and belongs to the family Trypetida, which group
contains numerous other fruit-infesting maggots,0 some of them very
serious pests, and. from their structure, mode of life. and feeding
habits, very difficult of control. Apples injured or railroaded "
by the apple maggot show discolored winding burrows, or tracks, and
0 Anastrepha (Trypeta) ludens Loew., the so-called Mexican orange worm, is
an enemy of oranges in portions of Mexico, infesting also the guava and mango,
and A. acidusa Walk. infests the peach in the same country. Rhagoletis
ribicola Doane infests currants and gooseberries in the United States, as does
also Epochra canadensis Loew. R. cingulata Loew has recently been found to
be a cherry pest in this country, working in a way similar to the European
cherry fly. Trypcta ecrasi L. (signata Meig.). Ceratilis capitata Wied., the so-
36878-No. 101--OS


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533
h33




2 :! ..

cavities here and there in the flesh, and when infested with several
larvme the pulp will be usually quite honeycombed with their burrows
and more or less broken down into a yellowish mass, merely held
together by the skin. (See fig. 1, e.)
DISTRIBUTION AND DESTRUCTIVENESS.
The apple maggot is a native American species, its natural food
being haws (Crathegus), and in at least one instance it-has been bred
from crab-apples. Its feeding upon cultivated apples is thus an ac-
quired habit, and although the insect has been reported from widely
separated points in the central and eastern States, indicating its pos-
sible general distribution, for some reason it does not attack the apple
throughout its range, but only in certain localities and portions of the
country. This circumstance is a fortunate one for the apple grower,
and from a scientific standpoint is of much interest. Walsh thought
it might be explained on the supposition of the development in the
New England States, where its injuries to apples were first noticed,
of a race of apple-infesting individuals, the descendants of which,
with the acquired habit, have been gradually distributed to other
localities.
The apple maggot was described by Walsh in the American Jour-
nal of Horticulture for December, 1867, pages 338-343, and also in
the First Report of the Acting State Entomologist of Illinois, from
flies from eastern apples and from Illinois haws. Adult specimens
from this latter fruit had been secured by him some five or six years
earlier, and in July, 1867, he reared flies from maggots infesting ap-
ples from Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New York, and conclu-
sively showed the identity of the insects infesting haws in Illinois
with those infesting apples in the northeastern part of the United
States. In the New England States mentioned, however, the species
had been noted as an enemy of apple for some years before the time
of Walsh's description. By 1866 it was common in the Hudson River
country, at North Hempstead, Long Island, in the Oneida commu-
nity in New York State, at East Falmouth, Mass., and probably in
Vermont, and it occurred in Connecticut.a

called Mediterranean fruit fly, or Bermuda peach maggot, is widely distributed,
infesting a considerable variety of soft fruits, as oranges, peaches, plums,
pineapples, and bananas, but fortunately has not yet been introduced into the
United States. In Europe Tepliritis onoperdinis Fab. injures celery, and T.
tryoni Froggatt seriously infests, in portions of Australia, bananas, peaches,
oranges, etc., and another species of this genus (psidi Froggatt) in that country
infests guavas. Trypeta musw Froggatt seriously injures bananas in the New
Hebrides. Some of these species are very general feeders, and the greatest
care should be exercised, especially in the case of the Bermuda peach maggot,
that they be not introduced into the United States.
a First Repit. Acting State Ent. Illinois, ppl. 29-33 (1867).
[fCir. 101 ]







In 1881 the apple maggot was reported by Profeir Col-,tork
from Ithaca, N. Y., in apples, and was bred by him from (Crati'cgiis
at Washington, D. C. ProfessorCook,b in 1SS4, received speeiIics
from Delavan, Wis., where it was reported as doing very great in-
jury, and the year following, the insect was the cause of considerable
loss in Inghain and adjoining counties in Michigan.
Lintner,c in 1885, gives the additional localities of North Aslhburn-
ham, Mass., Franklin and Schenectady, N. Y., and Brandon,. Vt. Its
introduction into Maine, as stated by Professor Harvey, occurred
prior to 1882, by which time it had become well established, and by
1899 occurred quite generally over the State. Its occurrence at Mont-
clair, N. J., was recorded in 1889 by Mr. E. Williamns, in Garden
and Forest, page 527, and this locality is also given for the apple
maggot by Dr. J. B. Smith in his list of insects of New Jersey, pag{e
687 (1899).
In 1894 Doctor Howard e records the occurrence of the apple mag-
got from Waynesville, N. C., and Doctor Fletcher t records its first ap-
pearance in Canada, August 31, 1896, in apples' from Adolphustown,
Ontario. As stated by Professor Lochhead,9 it had become quite in-
jurious by 1902, more than one-half of the crop having been destroyed
in some orchards in Prince Edward County. Professor Osborn,h
on the authority of Professor Hine, records its occurrence in north-
western Ohio in 1904, and states that injured fruit comes on the mar-
ket at Columbus, though perhaps from outside of the State. Doctor
Chittenden 4 notes that the apple maggot was unusually injurious in
Ohio in 1903. By 1905 the insect had extended its range in Canada,
as shown by the records of Doctor FletcheriJ of its occurrence at
Como and St. Hilaire, Quebec. The apple maggot is recorded from
Minnesota by Professor Washburn,7 and the records of the Bureau of
Entomology show the additional localities of Dyberry, Pa., and
Douglas, Mich.
Numerous records of this Bureau, as well as published accounts,
show that the insect is generally distributed throughout the greater
part of the New England States, and that it is a very destructive
a Rept. Ent. U. S. Dept. Agric., 18S1-82, p. 196.
Rept. Mich. Hort. Soc., 1884, p. 200.
C Second Report N. Y. State Ent., p. 121 (1885).
dAnn. Rept. Maine State Coll. Agr. Exp. Sta., 1889. Pt. IIr, pp. 190-241.
SInsect Life, VII, p. 279.
f Rept. Ent. and Bot. Exp. Farms Canada for 1S96, p. 257 (1S97).
933rd Ann. Rept. Ent. Soc. Ont., p. 67, 1902 (1903).
ABuI. 46, Div. Ent. U. S. Dept. Agric., p. 88 (1904).
SYearbook, U. S. Dept. Agric. for 1903, p. 563.
Rept. Ent. and Bot. Exp. Farms of Canada for 1904, p. 23S (196n5).
kBul. 93. Miuu. Agric. Exp. Sta., p. 118 (1905).
[Cir. 101]







enemy to apples. The flies do not spread rapidly, and hence individ-
ual orchards or certain varieties of apples may suffer severely, while
those adjoining may be little injured. Although the pest was bred
from haws, in 1867, in Illinois, there has been but one record of its
infesting apples in that State."

FOOD PLANTS.

The natural food of the apple maggot is wild haw (Crataegus),
and probably several species are infested. It was bred from haws
by Walsh in Illinois, by Cook in Illinois and Wisconsin, and by
Comstock at Washington, D. C. Despite its supposed general occur-
rence in the fruit of this plant, no further records of breeding from
haws have been found, and Professor Harvey states that it was not i
found in haws in Maine. During the past three years the Bureau of
Entomology has collected or received fruit of Cratcegus spp. from
various parts of the country, but has not observed it to be infested
with the apple maggot in any instance, and it appears quite doubtful t
if the distribution of the species is as general as is that of its native
food plants.
The early statements of the probable feeding of this species on crab- i
apple appear not to have been based on actual observations, and
aside from Riley's record of its occurrence on crabs,b no definite data
have been presented to show that it infests this fruit. Professor
Harvey thought it improbable that this fruit would be used, for the
reason that it is quite green and hard during the period of flight and
oviposition of the flies. The insect was found infesting plums and
late cherries in northern Michigan, by Professor Cook, in 1889,
though no additional records of its occurrence in these fruits have
been seen.
Of apples, sweet and subacid summer varieties are worst attacked,
but fall and winter sorts are also infested, including distinctly acid
varieties. Professor Harvey has prepared a list of apples showing
their relative degree of infestation as observed by him in Maine
during his careful study of the apple maggot.d
a Cordley, Orchard and Garden, 1889, p. 192.
bAmrn. Agric., 1872, p. 263.
c Second Ann. Rept. Mich. Agric. Exp. Sta., p. 153.
d Loc. cit.


[Cir. 1011







5


Variclic.- of applc.'x knoirn to bt' biyfccld bh Iha!fu,,lu'i.; (TrIl*l/, ai ) pf m ,,'lt'f.a


Variety.
Sweet.

Alexander ...... .. .. .... ...... .
Bullock (Am. Golden Russet)---.--. --.-.
Bailey Sweet ----------------------+
Baldw in..... ...... ...............
Benoni -- --. .- .......- ......... ... .. .
Bough -.--------..-. -----------.........--
Canada Baldwin ..... .- ------
Catshend---------- ----------.....-------....... ........-
Chenango --------- --- -------..-.. ......
Colvert-..-----------------------.. ----
Danvers-------------..-------------+............
Dayton ..----.------ ---------...............--...
Derby Pippin -------------------------------
Diana----------.----------------.............----.....
Early Harvest ---------- -------
Esopus (EsoDus Spitzenburgi----------
Fall Jenneting------------ ---.--.-......
Fall Pippin l...
Fameuse Ppi-----------------------.--.. -------
Franklin Sweet -------------------... +
Garden Royal----- ----------- -------
Golden Ball ---- -----------..... ---
Golden Russet--------------------.-. ------
Gravenstein---------------
Grimes-------------------------
Hightop Sweet---------------------- +
Hubbardston-----..-----------------............. ----.-
Hurlbut-------- ---------- -.- -------
Irish Peach----------------------.----.... ----
Jewett Red -----------------------------.
King Sweet-- --------------------- +
Lady Sweet -------- -------------+
Maiden Blush--..---..---....--------------......... +
Mexico----..------....------------------............ +
Mother------------------------...... -------
Munson---------..--------..-----------..
New York Sweet ------------------- -I-
Northern Spy----------------------.---.. -----
Oldenburg (Duchess)-------------I -..
Paradise Sweet--- -----------..-------
Pearmain (?)-------------- ----
Pewaukee (?) ...-------------------...-
Porter---------- ------------.
Pound Sweet -------------------- +
Primate--.-------------.--.-------.. ----
Pumpkin Sweet------ ----------
Ramsdell----------------------- +
Red Astrachan-------------------------
Rhode Island Greening------------- ------
Ribston..----.----.----- ---... --. --
Rolfe------------------------ -------
Russell---------------- ------ -----
Snow--------------------------------
Somerset---------------------- -------
Sops of Wine-------------------------.----
Tetofski ---------------------------- +
Tolman----------------------- +
Tompkins King----------------------------
Twenty Ounce---------------------- -----
Wagener----------------------------------
Wealthy -------------------------- -------
Westfield (Seek-no-further)--- ---------
Williams -------------------- ------
Winthrop Greening --------- --------
Yellow Bellflower----------------------


Flavor.

Sub- i .,
actid. A*.il..


'Tlime tof
maturity.


... Autumn -
--...-------- Wintr- .
---- -- -- .- --do -....-..-
-------- .Autun do---
+ ..........Su Autumno....
S------ -- -- Su..er--.
------- I W inter-
+ -- Autumn--
+ -.-. --do ---.
+ ----------do-_
________- ~Winter -
+ --.- ----do ---..-

-+ .....----- ---------o ...
+ ------ Winter ----.
+ ------ Autumn-..-
+
+ I..... do .. ...
+- Winter .
-----.--------. Autumn..
+ ------ -----do----
+ Winter ------
+ ... do ----.-
+ -.-------------- -do ---.--
----- ----- Autumn--.
-------- Winter -----
-------- Autumn---
+ Winter------

------- -------- Summer---
--------i-------- IW inter ------
----- -------- Autumn---.



+ -------- Winter----
-------------.ut um-er--
--------- +do .----
+ -- Winter---.
Summner ...
...... ...-- -_. W inter .







+ ----- --- o--
+ -------- !-----do ------
.+ ------ Autumn ----
.do .




----- ------- Winter------
+ -------- Summer --.
~~do -....
+ W inter .....



-- -------4- Autumn---.
----------- Winter ----.-
+-_ .. do .



+ ------ Summer --do -
+ .... Autumnn..


W---- + inter----


---.-------- ---- d----
+ -- Summer.




+ -------'- ---d------- --
+ ------ Autumn--...



+ ------------ do-------
Winqter ...



+ -------- Summer.----



------------. ---- do -----
-.-----+ Winter-----
---do-----
+ -------- Autumn---.



+- -------- Winter---
+ .......do--.






----- -W edo---
+ --------- Summer--
.....-------Au m... .



------ + IAutun--

-------- Winterd--o ---
+ .....---- .....do....
+ +.... Autumn ....


+ Winter...


lSii iii 'h L if- pd
XIa rimigly fr t ,I.
Do.
Do.
Do.
hui dly ill ft, tl.
Do.
Saiidgly infested.
Do.
Badly infe.ted.
Sparingly infDot.l.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Badly infe.,tPi.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Badly infe-tp'l.
Do.
Sparingly infested.
Do.
Badly infested.
Sparingly infested.
Badly infestIed.
Sparingly infested.
Badly infested.
Sparingly infested.
Badly infested.
Do.
Sparingly infested.
Do.
Do.
Baaly infe-tel.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Sparingly infested.
Badly infested.
Do.
Sparingly infested.
Badly infested.
Sparingly infested.
Do.
Badly infested.
Sparingly infested.
Badly infested.
Sparingly infested.
Do.
Do.
Badly infested.
Do.
Sparingly infested.
Badly infested.
Do.
Do.
Sparingly infested.

Badly infested.
Dio.
Do.
Do.


a Names of varieties of apples have been corrected to agree with those given in "No-
menclature of the Apple." by W. H. Ragan. Bul. 56, Bur. Plant Industry. U. S. Dept.
Agric. (1905).

The susceptibility to injury of the respective varieties mentioned.
as observed in Maine, would not necessarily be true for other regions,
but the list will serve to show that all classes of fruit are subject to
[Cir. 101]








attack. As a general statement, it may be said that the insect will be
most destructive to sunummer and fall varieties, or to those varieties
which are ripe or are approaching maturity during the period of
principal activity of the flies.

HOW THE INSECT SPREADS.

It is not known whether the apple maggot has spread from the
New England States, where its injuries were first noticed, to the sev-
eral localities where its presence has been observed-as in Ohio, Wis-
consin, Michigan, North Carolina, etc.--or whether the insect, al-
ready present on haws, simply turned its attention to apples. The
former view, however, appears the more probable, and its spread
would have been readily brought about by the introduction of in-
fested apples. In regions where the insect occurs in apples, a con-
siderable amount of infested fruit will be barreled, the larvae later
deserting the fruit and forming puparia on the bottom of the barrel.
In the ordinary course of commerce the insect would thus be intro-
duced into new localities, often quite remote. In view of the extent
of apple production in the territory which has long been infested
with this species (i. e., the New England States), and the consequent
almost certain dissemination of the apple maggot to various parts of
the country, it is cause for much surprise that the insect is not much
more generally and widely established as an apple pest. It is very
probable that the insect has been introduced into most of the apple-
growing regions in the United States and also into those of Europe
and the Colonies, but for some reason has not established itself.
Thus the insect has been frequently found in apples on the markets in
Washington, D. C., though there is no evidence to indicate that it
has become established in orchards in that vicinity.
When once established in an orchard, its spread fortunately is
usually very slow. It may confine its attack to a single tree, for two
or three years, before spreading to adjacent trees of the same or
other varieties equally subject to attack; and varieties seriously in-
fested in one orchard may be exempt in another'. The slowness of
its spread from tree to tree and from one orchard to another has been
commented upon by numerous workers.
The flies in their habits are exceedingly local, apparently confining
their attention to the trees upon which the previous generation devel-
oped-in marked distinction to the spreading habits of many other
insects. This habit is a very fortunate one for the fruit grower, and
is of much practical importance in control, permitting great reduc-
tion and possible extermination of the pests when infestation is lim-
ited to but :i few trees, and especially in localities but recently
invaded.
[Cir. 1011








DESC'IPTIUN.

Egg.-The eggs of the apple maggot are quite small, varying from
0.8 to 0.9 mm. in length by 0.2 to 0.25 mm. in width, fusiform, and
light yellow in color as taken from the fruit. A short, broad pedicel,
about one-twentieth the length of the egg, is found at the broader
end, which end is darker and pitted with irregular hexagonal cells
with raised lacerated borders for about one-fourth the length of the
egg. (See fig. 2, a.)
Larva.-The larva (fig. 1, b) is footless, and when full grown is
from 7 to 8 mm. long, with a width of from 1.75 to 2 mm., yellowish-














(J J
... ..,.











AJ










FIG. 2.-Rhagolctiu pnioinellu a, Egg; b, head of larva, showing cbitinous hooks andl
framework within the head, and funnel-shaped spiracle; c, caudal spiracle; d, oviposi-
tor, with which eggs are placed beneath skin of apple. All greatly enlarged. (b, c,
After Comstock; a, d, after Harvey.)

white in color, at times tinged with greenish. The body is composed
of 14 segments, widest across the ninth, tenth, and eleventh, and
sloping gradually backward, and more rapidly toward the head end.
The caudal end is truncate, and on the lower portion of the anterior
end (first segment) is a pair of black, curved, parallel hooks, attached
to a chitinous framework within the head, the hooks being used to
rasp the pulp in the liberation of juice for food. A pair of spiracles
occurs on the dorsal surface on each side at the juncture of the first
LCIr. 101]








and second segments (fig. 2, b) and a pair on the sloping surface of
the caudal segment. The spiracles on the cephalic end have funnel-
shaped mouths, the funnel being bordered with a double row of about
20 projections. The caudal spiracles each show 3 transverse slit-like
openings and 4 groups of bristles. (See fig. 2, c.)
Pupa.-The pupa is a small, barrel-shaped structure, pale yellow-
ish-brown in color, measuring about 4.2 to 5.2 mm. in length, with a
width of from 2 to 2.6 mm. The larva in pupating does not shed its
skin, but simply contracts, assuming an oval form, causing the
cephalic spiracles to project in front as tubercles. Although the cau-
dal end also shrinks, the spiracles are still visible, as are also the body
segments of the larva. The true pupa is formed within the larval
skin. (See fig. 1, d.)
Addt.-The parent of the apple maggot is a two-winged fly (fig.
1, a), somewhat smaller than the house fly, of a general black color,
with yellowish head and legs, greenish eyes, and dark feet. In the
male there are 3, and in the female 4 white bands across the abdomen.
Across the wings of both sexes are 4 black bands as shown in the fig-
ure. The females are from 5 to 6 mm. in length, with a spread of
wings of about 12#15 mm. The males are somewhat smaller.

LIFE HISTORY AND HIABITS.a

There is but one generation of the apple maggot each year, though
the occurrence of maggots in the fruit during the summer and
autumn, due to the great irregularity in time of appearance of the
flies, is calculated to mislead those not familiar with the insect's life
history. The time and appearance of the adults is thought to be
influenced by the date of the ripening of the fruit which they in-
fested the previous season, though this supposition has not been
established. During an ordinary season in Maine, the flies will
begin to appear and will be ovipositing about July 1, and earlier in
the States to the south. By the middle of July, in Rhode Island,
during an average season, as stated by Profs. F. W. Card and A. E.
Stene, early varieties subject to attack will show many of the egg
) punctures of the females.
Flies have lived in confinement for three weeks, and out of doors
the period is doubtless somewhat longer. The female makes punc-
tures through the skin of the apple by means of her sharp ovipositor
(fig. 2, d), inserting the eggs singly into the flesh in a vertical posi-
tion. Oviposition may occur on any part of the fruit, though mostly
on the side and especially on the paler portions, where the apple has
SThe apple maggot was carefully investigated in Maine by the late Professor
Harvey, and his Report (1. c.) has been largely the basis of the present article.
[Cir. lo 101]







been protected from the sun by the foliage. A-n individual female
is capable of producing from 300 to 400 eggs, egg laying continuing
throughout her life. About one-half minute is occupied in the act
of depositing a single egg, and the characteristic brownis-hl speck left
by the ovipositor can, upon close examination, be detected by tle miun-
aided eye, and resembles the brownish rusty spots occurring normally
on some varieties. These egg punctures may be best observed, how-
ever, with a hand lens, and are then seen to be oblong or circular
holes, with the surrounding border brownish and somewhat shrunken.
In four or five days, under favorable conditions, the egg liatchees and
the minute footless maggot begins to feed on the pulp of the fruit.
Although the larva is without true opposable jaws, it is provided
with two hooks on the head above the mouth by which the pulp is
rasped loose, the larva drawing into the mouth the juices thus lib-
erated. The pulp which is not eaten soon turns brown and renders
the burrows through the flesh more readily visible. The larva, in
its feeding, channels here and there through the flesh, sometimes
burrowing for a distance just under the skin,' the brownish trail in
light-skinned varieties appearing as a linear bruise.
The rate of development of the larvae conforms to that of the fruit,
and the larvae do not mature until the fruit is ripe. Early appearing
flies attack the summer varieties, and those appearing later infest
fall and winter sorts. Their development is checked by cold, and
they are apparently able to exist for a considerable time in a prac-
tically stationary condition until the maturity of the fruit permits of
their further growth to maturity.
Apples at gathering time may show no exterior indications of in-
festation, yet when, cut open will be found thoroughly burrowed and
honeycombed by the larvae; or the apparently sound mature fruit may
be so infested with the small, inconspicuous larvae and eggs that it
may be soon destroyed after storing, The work of a single-maggot
will injure the value of the fruit, though a dozen or more may often
be present. Under favorable conditions of temperature and in ripen-
ing'fruit, the maggots will become full grown in four or five weeks.
The larva mature as the fruit is ripe, and leave this after it has fallen
to the ground, as no exit holes have been noticed in fruit on the trees.
In deserting the fruit a hole is made through the skin and the larva
burrows an inch or less below the surface of the soil, or on sod land
probably pupates around the roots of the grass; or sometimes the
pupal stage is entered on the surface of the ground under the de-
cayed fruit. In fruit in barrels, in storehouses, etc., the larva
pupate on the bottom of the receptacle, and the puparia are often
very numerous in such places. The insect remains in the pupal stage
[Cir. 101]







until the following summer, the adult fly appearing early or late,
depending apparently on whether the larvae infested summer, fall, or
winter fruit.

INSECTS WHICH MAY BE MISTAKEN FOR THE APPLE MAGGOT.

There will often be found in apples partly or wholly decayed, a,s
from the work of the apple maggot or other causes, larvae which
might very readily be mistaken for those of the species under consid-
eration. Principally the larvae of two kinds of flies will thus be
found, namely, the vine-loving pomace fly (Drosophila ampelophila
Loew)-a small clear-winged, red-eyed fly-and the pretty pomace
fly (Drosophila amcena Loew), similar to the former, but with black
spots on the wings. These insects are of interest as likely to be mis-
taken for the apple maggot and hence the cause of needless alarm.
They are of little economic importance, though undoubtedly hasten-
ing the decay of fruits.

PREVENTIVE MEASURES.

The apple maggot has proved to be an unusually troublesome in-
sect to combat successfully. The eggs are deposited beneath the skin
of the fruit, within which also the larva feeds until full grown. The
pupal stage is passed just under the soil, or around the roots of grass
in sod land, and the flies do not feed in a way to permit of their
destruction. Spraying with arsenicals, so effective against the codling
moth or apple worm, is for this pest quite useless.
The insect, however, may be attacked in two important ways. As
stated, the larvae do not leave the fruit until the latter has ripened
and fallen to the ground. The prompt gathering and destruction of
the windfalls, before they are deserted by the maggots, would serve
to keep the insects greatly reduced, amounting to practical extermina-
tion if thoroughly carried out. This practice has long been recom-
mended by entomologists, and comprises the most effective measure
of controlling the pest at present known. Greatest benefit will come
from the practice when carried out uniformly by the orchardists of a
community. Allowing the wormy fruit to decay on the ground is
most favorable to multiplication of the apple maggot. Orchardists
having this pest to contend with should arrange to destroy the in-
fested fruit promptly after it falls, and this may be accomplished in
whatever way is most practicable under individual conditions.
Picking up the fruit by hand will often prove feasible and can be
done by children, but great care is necessary that the work be done
thoroughly. The gatherings should be made daily if possible, or at
least every two or three days. The fruit may be fed to stock, taking


Ilir. il0 ]







care that any excess not at the moment needed be stored in tight
boxes or receptacles so that any larvae deserting the fruit will be
forced to pupate on the bottom of the container, where later they may
be destroyed. When the drop fruit is not needed for the stock, it
may be simply thrown into a hole or holes here anid there in tlhe
orchard, to be finally covered with 2 or 3 feet of earth in the late fall
after frosts have occurred, to prevent the escape of flies the following
season. The work of gathering need not be begun until the first ripe
windfalls of the early varieties are found, but should be kept ti up from
this time until all the fruit has been harvested.
Orchards may often be pastured with sheep, hogs, or cattle, in a
way to insure the destruction of the windfalls, and this practice is
recommended as the cheapest and most satisfactory method of deal-
ing with the apple-maggot problem. Orchards may be permanently
pastured or the stock turned in daily in sufficient numbers and at
times to accomplish the desired consumption of the fallen fruit. This
practice will be especially useful in commercial orchards, and. where
infestation from adjacent orchards is not great, Will insure practically
clean fruit.
Plowing and cultivation of orchards would appear to be a useful
practice in the control of this pest, and these methods have been
more or less recommended for some years. Careful experiments in
Rhode Island on the value of such work have recently been reported
by Professors Card and Stene.a Puparia of apple maggots were
placed at different depths in the soil. ranging from 1 to 6 inches, to
approximate conditions resulting from plowing to bury the pupae, but
this was found to have little effect in preventing the escape of flies,
and the conclusion was reached that spring plowing of orchards to
turn under the pupae was valueless, under the soil conditions which
there obtained.
It is thought, however, that frequent tillage of the orchard in early
summer may be unfavorable to the development of the pupae to
flies, and experiments made in 1904 by Messrs. Card and M. A.
Blake b with pupae placed in boxes in which the soil was frequently
stirred, resulted apparently in their complete destruction. More ex-
tended and conclusive experiments along these lines are urgently
needed. Aside from its possible value in destroying the apple maggot,
frequent tillage of orchards in late spring and early summer is de-
sirable, especially for young trees, as favoring a better tree and fruit
development.
a Seventeenth Ann. Rept. R. I. Agr. Exp. Sta., Part II, p. 191 (,1904).
b Eighteenth Ann. Rept. R. I. Agr. Exp. Sta., Part II. p. 197 (10.05).
ICir. 101 ]




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
Il12I~l I 11111IIIIIII1II1111II 1IIIII I111IIIII U 1111 Hill1
3 1262 09228 3463
Much infested fruit goes to market, or is stored at home for future
consumption. The refuse from such fruit should always be de-
stroyed, and the barrels and boxes in which the maggots have pupated
upon leaving the fruit should be treated in such a way as to insure
the destruction of the pupae. The floor of storerooms should also be
carefully swept, and the sweepings collected and burned.
Approved:
JAMES WILSON,
Secretary of Agriculture.
WASHINGTON, D. 0., March 97. 1908.
[Cir. 101]
0




Full Text




t~r' thIll :111 exl es v\C~" l i~i t lielC IHIo 'lld lIH'Cled h br tl'l ill 2 *-il(
AI 1,\ 1 ;1r IwceI ta 10 tvt so tihat any liar Aie dlsi rti l-, th ll i l I. ill -I[
'i., Il t( 1 rtimate oi il he boittoit I of the I ()l iil1r. I here l iter they Niay
lie Il-I 1, % ,.,l. Wheni the drop fruit i nt nieeilded r.'I the -lo<,. it
111:i1\ I. *.iiplv thrown into a hole or hohle+ here anid here in the
1irli.i;l, to Iih tiietlly covered with 2 or 3 fee otf earth in the late fall
I'll fi'ili -t have occurred. to pre vent ih I -If'ape- of fIII t ti' foil,.'. II f .II
'Ia-,It. ,lie work of -i i i,.i I,. e1 not _ti b 'I ii 11til t l ie .i ripe
\ iil' llI- of the earl varietis avre fiiii, ,. l, lut iouhl l, kept tllp froni
lIii- flii,, i,1m til all thie fruit has I 6 t. rv.t< 11:11 .
()4,'l:I:, ls n vy ,,l'.'tI be lmitirid with sheep, l,,,I'l or cattle. il a
\;iv t,- insure the district ion of the wI il iill-, ind thiI |i ., t ice i
r1",cIniiii,'icl"1 as the cheapest and' iimsl -at i-farctolry niethod of dilal-
ing \ iti the .,1',lI..,.i__',-t j i' l 4prohlei ()riiird may lIIe rn anii entpitly
li-ti, '.1 ,'r the stuck turned in daily iln uilhint nuiii1lnrs aund at
ti II- to, ,,I,.oIII lish the l,.-i I,.l onsIiu n>Ition i of the fallen lI ii I i 'I
pra'ii ii,, I ill he especially useful in conii ecia I orcIhard, III. where
iiif.-t:;liil I'c,,li .,j:ii: ciilt orchard- is not L.i, .-i, will insure practically
c .'i l'iia i f ii.
i'lm ii, I- and cultivation of orchards would appear to Ie a useful
rp,1icl i,', ii the control of this pest. and the-se methods have been
iaiort ir I,ss recommended for some years. i('at' il ex\perinients in
lh,,idh 1-l:nd oni the value of such work havi recently been reported
Iv o' r,,f,-,,r- Card and Stii,.'. Pu li1a f apple l,1.,LruLl i- were
piWd1,1I al *1lit', iiiI depths in the soil. i iii',iii, from 1 to w i incies, to
IIppro,,in,,ilt, ,.,,iilit ioi,- r'~r il] i,1iL from ll p il_" to 1ii \ thle lpupa'. but
lihi- %%:i- fo.IIII' to have little .tr. iln ji,''. ribin, thle escape of fli-.
1iniliii t inclusion was reached that -1prii ''. 'l,. iii: of orchards to
tiir lici,,r the pupae was valueless, under tie soil ,iiil itni- which
li'erl ,,ilt lined.
It i ilii.ught, how eveTr, that fi.,l Viil till1.2e of the orchard in early
.-iiiiiLniiT r i;i\ iii Il'ivoraIble to thle ,i,'vcliipiii".i of thie piip". to
tlii-. :n,1 e\jl,'riii'iil- made in I'."I byv Messrs. Card and M. A.
Ilaki ith pupal placed in Ioxes in which thle ~-i was frequently
-t irreI, r1-,1l0I'l apparently in their ,i, 11',ite destruction. M fire ex-
henlihel .;i1(d conclusive '\jrpiirii'l~- ;il'i, these lines are !ri.i(, l v
needed. Aside fr,,i its possible value in dleti \ ,iiL the tip-- iiim1, : Lt.
ri>',iient ill:,Lrt. of orchards in late .riIl.l i and ,..1i1x summer is de-
.ir,'ilhil. i-pecially fior oV ii, treess. as tI'.0VI,,iill a better tree and fruit

'" Sl'll iiili''llll A lm I;,'l|t. 1.. I. A gr. I \i si.i I'ir I[. p. 1 P 14 1 t
"' i-:i.lit,,.'nli An1 ;1 i. II AI r. \| .. si... Part II. i 1'. Ir (I p .-
lc'ir 1011








I,,le d l i r, I I'riva t da MHI t,., the a t',l .i,, t. A i d|iv'eid al- I", il,.i,-
1ri i. II rt ji li I Il- lo t eat ilr, ,'iili,, li n. 1ii, .t A bre t In e -harlf m i.te i -1ii i i][,-,i in 11 it'te a'ct
,,f ,I,'lii-it ii.' .,I, ,.,'. iili tI '1h' iro i :ri ti I ro1,w nih 1--- ki. 1l.Iq


I nv ILi, ,>\ i| t-]lr i 'n ii.a e ton lo ex aiifr a tioni, u e dea iteI bn ti l l-
I i',i v \,r. lili i" iI I, ', hiI t iih i r o lri i ii irii l
t in -*,It{* ^.il'l I1,'s. These _' ,"- punclturlles' ilmay I 1 be t ol {l '\'rvi'l. lln w-
t ,t.' liili ., l ,.ind hrii' iit id i ire i i li toV IM. ,,1,1,,,-, or fih'fniiir












A': w i.- LI I ri v a' I .t Il I I Iho j1 eIero Iu i It io- f In
iftIt,- \\ I l I" -ri',, lli i i_, t ori)'i l w is e f ii l ii o11 A I hil liti ktan.
I in{ Ii' \,' I li -. -n-hr .IIv ir ilh r'dlitii onii, illt '..'- \ Iiti l at1 ii
Sih,' illll l'", ,hi i ]t.,,'-,, L .,lll, i 10 l t 'i t 'i Oli il'v of llliI i tl r.




.lliilii Iili Ivaliu o tilh i it tIl I |va lladlr' oi wi) it i pr o vided I
vile i ,, Io. ,k- o*r ie f l ra i'l ihlhmvi till' oifO lith h\y \!tli'uli thi pn ll) is




rii-u, l,,a ., ilit i rvi i d II iwi, ibtoe tiu ii th th I' Is orIi ve ih li-f
ifali'1,. TI,,' ,i dl: whiIel it f iO i t ii l oo rrpb. and l Ie I i atri t a Illend s
tli i'-4lrt1rin\- 1 il fitai h. e ladt'!,'--li] o n'iiri ilt-dily -Il,, Th t' l arv ai in



il i', ilr ,. wili-el l e 1 IliI to.ie tv ai' i hr ,,o i llo,-i :o -on i iiie sl
lir 1 1iiii' n I i,' tltt 1nro t-1 of1 t he'I thI: 01 owlish trai] ilt
lip lit--kiii,. \ e tri et ni, theii], asil i' it li eal t1lr 1'ii-,.




T le, rmilv I I I v lit in .nt rrf r lIe li r)iI tnfori1i to that oIrf t.. tt 'I liril.v

%%ii i I e l I Ir\ : i nott at I rI e f ntil t- hli e t l is riae. t E raril areI Iii ''i
tl' Iv iil r li i s h Iiniiier v rieies, ande tiren aii ill il ter a i f-1'-i
(. ill ind \iiiirl s)rts. iI i d velopmeit i e l'/ -,1.l. ind
ih, ll'i ; i i ; ,.ip,irntly ab{le. to eLxist for ai run'i/dei'able~ thiein) h i II]rac(-
tic.-illv *-lilii:iii~ y L,],i i ,,id u ii n il th{ lie maturity o~f llte rI' iltl pern its of
fI l. I'ilrl i r,,'> l(I I ito iIrity .
Th le I a .- i ,_ I la I 'ili" I timei fi- s'I I ow vno exterior IId .,tios of in-
f0 It, l h1i. I ,[ II I I h tcu II top will I e fo d (I I I ,,I'..', I I urron wdt ald
h,,nI'',',,in 'd I, I the alarva' tr tlie 1 .ar t, l o- t atII e .u I r I I I t I I1Ni:
lie -,> ii l',-i,, with tlhe, s ) hall o i-co si c o s lrva* aid .I.t')1 that it
bIi a I,. *v I, ,I, -i ',~ t ', a t'l "ii II t i,... T it i w ork oif ao -)iI-I I Iii--I.I,,
\ill i jiir, il,' vtluie of tIe fruit ', .',"l, I dozen or ImIfre n Ia ofi,'-l
C.e oiI'-,I' I I I 'IdIIr faIvoral~le II I I li lons of I' Ii ,, I.itllre id t in ripew-
ing I'rllll. Ill,. ii.i_.,~.,,,i'- w ill Ixt'c'O1 e frill _,'. i v ll in ,,iir orl |i\ve weeks..
" lrh flit-\..r Ii;illi;re aIs the fritil is ripe. nind hleave thiis after it lials fallen
It) t in i 1' liliLid .i s i1 o e xit lio l sh a v e fie en{ n od{ i {rtd,, iln f ii n i o n t h e t r e es{.
Ini dh,.-eiti., Ill, frnit a hole is nade t l l -ili tlie -kin ;i il th larvaI
ol'l',v :ill ~in'h or e low tihe sIface of te .,i. or Ion Io1 hlatId
pr,,!.,illily I, i ,ii] ~e s airO undi the roots of th e{ gi ass: o r" solmetili es the
p up al~ l .-, siL,.',' i- e nlte re d o n t~h e -Iil i'.i, r ,' tI' tille '..'i, nii,,l uin d:er tlie ,I,-
r'liy ed, fr uitl. In fliii inl b arre ls, in stores o(u ses etc'., tih e larv a*
pupatei {n lir tl,, ottorm ,,f il, ir receptaicle, an d the pnlpariai are ,,fd'lri

II i. li~l I









-,> ( I{ I ITIItN.

/',t..-The ,-- of the apple III.ILr;,t are quite -Ii:ili. v;Iryii'l. from
t i, ,.'it m m in 1i.lli by (0 to i.-1 1 1. inl width, Il-if, 'iiii. and
li1 l tI yellow in color aI taken (l rr, i the fI I ii. A short, IN road pedicel.
,l,,i \kt one-twentieth the ,irl.1thli of the ,'. is ',iiiI at the broader
,i.ii. which _.il is darker and 1iltlI with iii, i. r i, \:II;,i l cells
witli raid la.ir:il t, borders f,,r alIut one-fI iil t the li.gtli nth theli
e,,. ( ', ti_. 2' a.)
I.fwI'ff.-The larva (\'\^. 1, b) is f, ,,t ,.--. and when I'll gri,) iw is
fr nii7 to 1 s m1. ht IIi.. with a I ; i illi of f i iII 1.75 to 12 mil.. yellowis-h-

























Pit; --RhanletiH fi nmmu +li '. 1 1-; b, he-ald +,f larva. bh(Iwii cliittlnus hooka and
fra ework within the I hw ad. I nd IIiinnIl-sha|p il spiracile caudal sph racif; d, oviposl-
l,,r. with which t'Kzs ar: plaid I],neath ski-n -f apple. All greatly enlarged. (6, e,
Affr Com -to : d, after l arTey .

white in color, at times t NiN.,1 with -' fi-1,. The body is ,',mlpi-I d
of 14 -,.--ri,,i.l-. Ail,-I acrosIs tIhI ninth, tenth, Ind -b1,.h ,iIli. and
sloping gri:il1,dilly baekwarl, and more rpidlly toward the head end.
The cvin|lil end is truncate, and on the lower portion oIf the anterior
end ( tir- segment) is a p,,i, Irf black, 'II\ -..1, parallel lI,,,,-, 0 .,If'.,IlIII
to .a chitinous framework within the head, the hoks ,,i,,'. se to
rai-sp the pulp in th,, lile ration ,f j4 i e t fr food. A pair oif spiracles
occnir- on the dorsal -~t'iirI on each sidi e at the j Iunctre f the first
[Cir+ I1 a]






ti a../
CIRCULAR Nu. 101. I., "r,, I P0.

United States Department oof ,cii h
BUREAU OF ENTOM (
L. 0. H1-OWARI1. FF:ntirmrluKI,, n.J. /If I HLITC.iu A 0


THE t ii.: M A4.W4T fl It 1 o 14M2."'



In i'hn 1, oif [il ,ii i" n I I... i... -i'j 'it i. I

F ive imp)ortant ill.-'' l [l.-l- tlll ltl,' Il fil lil ,,l Ill,' .,p l h. i l 111 1i,
uhI itt'1 S tiltv-. 1iv l dli 'I 1,i1141. .11 11, I ll 1 '1 i f f i p, -/I -it //.I L. Ii .
htill h ..- -er ai,|[,l,"lr v I I:'l ,, ( ,/,.,,,., / ,, ,,,;* ,.,t *Il \\'.l l-[lll. lI l ir l, ll 'lllrlr-
tilell .1 114 %% Hf 'l l*/ 111,1; 1 1 i i 1 1 A'4/ 0- I1 1 W.1 I -]''* rIII.r I nh I 1 Il rulr-
e t tm i.M n /t r ff f'. ; i .illi li 0. -[,,., it.- ii/, 1 ,,% i-. i i l.'r: i 1 11 ll.









t" o: -,
-Ar





--"
S.. .-r n



I'Il 1.-- ppl,- nin;i, 'i ril ,l-'i .' ........n .;,, ,,. \,ll r I, 'i r'lri i ,'- i. rilirir 1
uf ce'phali ,"r 'r ,i |,1i,.ii"iii' qiI. 1 I i,.' I i, i' ii h'. iIi,'LW" [.!
o, b. and d, l.;nluhtri 'l : i. r 1,p-r ii r. .I .ll;.. ,l rli.ii il .

T he apple, a.; -m oI-,- tl i. 1a1: ,11' Iitpl,.-. I- l,,. l:,r ., t' :i Iv ,x ,"
dipterolz., il-e't. andli IMlIl !,. ', Ill 1i I'.n,,ilv 'I'l 1,. 'il.,. u lill i.r',ul' ,'
C.'1ti ain,, lllS in rnin- n li'r I'r1in -il',-Iit1,1..' 01114Ti nl, tliin \,'r\
'-16rioi-. i ,st-. itll frini i li.ir .i 'ii, Il r,. tw.,, ,,1' li t',.. ;tnu | t',. ,r,.di iL_
habits, verve tiflictiht of c. ,,Iin .A ppllh- itijuril ,ir r iilrl-1 ,,',"l "

SIt- )ii [)lr ', I "rjp. ,i Iv ,i, il, I..\! Ti h, Ii,', lm1 I i" i';r~ tI -
0* t HlllI-plel'lll' ll fi ll til dI llll L,, \ I I ,,. .T f '.. .l. :I !11 1.4 l l .l lli-l \I.\[. ii l "|
ii t neily tf iirmr.ai in l iit 'Ii.i'bi Sf m.4i. .. ]4r"f- z-:tiir i-.1 'i.m iii'! iii.ir ."..
illll .1. l idlr tll 'il W 3lk. 11i"1- I lhr I,':.i I ill t,,- -:llli, ,il t. I/i'/h jl,./i t i
rihbitiql, f unt I' infests ciL rr. mitr s ;iml -.i"m-,'..rri- im n i ll- lIb i itmil si:it,-. .1- i1i14'
IIs l .i Elochru r naii irmii v I w.it',. IR. i-iiijil,hii l .,,,'i.\ hri r.'''n ly Im-,,11 fibnnii Im
be a cherry prst in tli 'ouiiintry. 1i1.rkinii iu .i',j-'mlur [1I *u i-.
cherry fly. Trjiprila rcrn.vi I.. i .mimujrubi Meis:. i. '' *ipa u Jw Wie\.. Iii- si
36.7V-4- No. 101--S-0 -
I .


_.. D .. ,








III [.,Nl the ( apple Ii,;,..-_r,,t was reported by Il ',,,.--..r ( ni'stock
fr111 Ilili.i' ,,. N. Y., in ui.il'-. and was bred by hium 1 ,Iii ('rat., .',-
at W .;I-liii...t, I). (C. I',.-,f .-... ook.'' in 1--I, received sp1e imens
from [)LI.n. \\tis.. where it was reported as doiiR,- ery Ii ..i in-1
jur., and tie i,.i. foll,, 'i,.., the insert was the cause of ,'.,l-,,I',. .,ii,
1 i n 1 in _fl~ a :1.,1 : n l a d ,i n ni f ut O l l ie s i l l M ~ K Li i .Z ,
Lintner. in 1 t'-, pvs the akl 11:111. N:,--.. Franklin and Sc'lheneetady, N. ., avd. lNa1inlid. Vt. 11s
iii ,, i'i, into l.w,,i'.. a1 stated v. lh ife-s(r II ,'', .' oeur'red
Iiri to I"'--'. 1\ w i ici ti it iad ecMiw well e It abolish Ied, and I t
I ','. occurred quiie _'',ii1 :il v ovwr tlle S .ate. Ith occurrence at I t Il -
,l,,ir. A., a-I recorded in 1 I ,' I '. I M i. I Villiam in iII(ia lrden
,iil Forest. [|a,, ,l'- (nd this Ilcality is also .;i'.ii i tle %i .pple
niiui-',, 1,' DrI. J. B. Smith in hii' list of insects of New IeIrse, t>.:',
;-7 (1-v'.,).
Ia l'', Doctor Howard' records the :Ieurretice ,i tie ,t1t r I, II'.-
got frnii Waynesville. N. C.. and I)otIor c1 ,.cher records it.l lirst ap-
)i'aIr. IIl('' in (I.',Idll- t ..II 'rI L i- 1. 1"-'. in api ple) s f i Ii Adol I)hu ,-tow ii.
11 iiniri,. As stated by I l' ~ .-.'. Loc, Ihheads it hlad become1 quite in-
jiariOl- lI\ '.-'. more than one-half f the crop ha' ia,- I leen *1.-i,,ri ,li
iii -,in' orchards in Prinee Edward Cotnty. Prol .--... ( ()slirn.
on he aitll1iliv of Professor lite, records its oef urreiew in north-
wester ( mll in in l11'I, and states that iInjp'il.I fruit cones on the mar-
ket at ('iiiiinll -, tl,,i,_,'l, lprl I, froni outside of the State. Doctor
t 'l r'ttih.i l notes that the apple i.,'"',t was iiunu.ually injurious in
()hiio in 1'.,i.;. l i Pl the insect had l .\h r1,lr its r1,_', in ('.,ifil.i.
as shown by the records- of l)octor Fletc1,her. of its occurrenc-e at
C'oin, ;-d M-. II l:iare, Q.irli,.. The apple Tu,l,,'._,t is recorded from
1iliii,'-ia hrv P, |'fr--,,r iVasiiburn,1' ail,, the records Eaitiulim,,gy show the additional localities of I)ybvrry. Pa., and
Doiigla-. M i,'l,.
Numerous records of this l ,aiI'a,. as well as published a., ,,,ti'l-.
,how that the insect is LrII rallv iy I-I ributi.l th,'' ,l,,iit the Ireaiter
part ',f the N,,"' Ei..'l.,nd States. ,Ti, that it i. a very destIrutive

l;.1 lIii r. H i Spt. .\ I -'I p. I .
b li;'<-i.i .M hii ii rt. s,,, I--I I'. *-*""
S, ii. I lelpirt N. Y. Str I I ', In.. 1. 1 1 r1 '.i..
d Anan. l'.il. Maine ..itr, Coll. A.r. 1 1. Sl:t.. 1i'. t. I II. [. 19 -241.
isect I.ii*,. \ II. p. S42 "'.
I I:'-l' Ent. arid !',Ia Exi. *.ii i- I '.ii.Il:, for I''' ; p. -f.7 ( I,7 i .
013rd Ann. Ii.l Ent. s*1* %.T p. '; 1042 1' ra ;.
&Biil. P;. I'it. E:nt. I'. impt. Agrie.. p. '-- (1d .
1,. %rl .k. 1'. S l I' lt. A. :-, f. I ,r 1 41,:',. 1' -'..:.
J Ii 'I,. R:,1 and Bot. I:\ '. I'nrill- 1nf 1'.i,.ii.i r.r 1 10 Ip. : i '.''
C1lU1 ):,: I IIII. ii lI .l, :- l.i.. \'- 1 (I l ).1
iCir. 1011








enemy to apples. The flies do not spread rapidly, and hence individ-
ual orchards or certain varieties of apples may -u11'er 'everel while
those adjoiniiig niiyv be little injured. Although the pe1-t wae bred
from haw,, in 1,(;T, in Illinois, there has been but one record of its
i fr-ti ng apples in that State.a*

FOOD PLANTS.

The natural food of the apple i,:ggot is wild haw (Cratiegu),
and p1rnably several species are infested. It was 1brd from haws
],. Walsh in Illinois, by Cook in Illinois and WiVci.on-iin. and by
Comstock at Wa-hiirigton. D. C. Del-pito its sipl)o-vd general occur-
rence in the fruit of this pil t. no further records of breeding from
haws have been find.l, and Professor Harvey states that it was not
found in haws in MIiinv. During the past three vear- the Bureau of
Entoiiiolugy has collected or received fruit of Cratagus -pp. from
various parts of the country, but has not observed it to be infected
with the apple minaggot in any in!-tan<., and it appears quite doubtful
if the distribution of the species is as general as is that of it- native
food plants.
The early statements of the probable filing of this species on crab-
apple appear not to have been based on actual 'ob-ervatios. and
aside from nilvx'- record of its occurrence on cral,-.6b no ldefinite data
have been presented to show that it iii f,-t, this fruit. Professor
Harvey thought it improbable that this fruit would be ,i-ed. for the
reason that it is quite green and hard during the period of flight and
oviposition of the flies. The insect was found inf,.-tirg plumns and
late cherries in northern Miu*hii.g:n. by Professor Cool". in .SS9,
though no additional records of its occurrence in these fruit:. have
been seen.
Of apl&e-. sweet and subacid summer varieties are worst attacked,
but fall and winter sorts are also iife.-til. including distinctly acid
varieties. Professor Harvey has prepared a list of apples -howing
their relative de.re. of infestation as observed bv him in Maine
during his careful study of the apple iiiaggiit.4
a ',rillev. Orchard and <;;i<1' N. 1".'. p. 192.
b Am. Agric., 1872, p. 26;:1.
c Second Ann. Rept. Mich. Agric. Exl. si.a.. p. 153.
d Loc. cit.
[Cir. 101]








until the follwiLg i-iijwier. the adult Hy aipem-ing varly or late,
dpt.pdin g apparently on whether the hiirv, ife-td sumlnimier. fall, or
winter fruit.

INSECTS WHICH MAY BE MISTAKEN I h' IL11E: A.l'.I." M.A(;,)T.
l'li'rr will often be found in apple, partly or wholly decayed, as
from the work of the apple mnaggt ,r ii,'tlr a iise, l;Ir\ f wh ich
imiglit \vvr. readily be mistaken for th(,o-e of tinh species under consid-
eration. Principally the larvae of two kind- of flie.- will thus be
foIIIl. naniely, the vine-loving pomace II Ih 1 ,.,phht ulimpeloph/da
Loew)-a small clear-winged. red-uyed ly-and the pretty pomace
fly (Drosophila am ina Loew), similar to the former, but with black
spots on the wing-. The-e insects are of interest as likely to be mis-
taken for the apple maggot and hence the cause of needless alarm.
Tliy are of little economic import a nce, though undoubtedly hasten-
ing the decay of fruits.

PREVENTIVE MEASURES.

Tie. apple maggot has proved to be an unusually troublesome in-
sect to combat successfully. The 'gg. are depo-iteil beneath the skin
of the fruit, within which also the larva feeds until full grown. The
pupal stage is passed just under the soil, or around the roots of grass
in sod land. and the flies do not feed in a way to permit of their
destruction. Spraying with ar-eni-. i'(-. so effective agnin t the codling
moth or apple wormn. is for this pest quite i-ele--.
The in.-:ct, however, may be attacked in two iiiiportant ways. As
-tated. the larvae do not leave the fruit until the latter has ripened
and fallen to the ground. The prompt gathering and destruction of
the windfall-. before they are deserted by the miggot:-. would serve
to keep the insects greatly reduced, anmointing to practical extermina-
tion if thoroughly carried out. This practice has long been recom-
mended by entomologi-t,. and comprises the most effective measure
of controlling the pe-t at present known. Greatest benefit will come
from the practice when carried out uniformly by the orchardists of a
community. Allowing the wormy fruit to decay on the ground is
most favorable to multiplication of the apple nimaiggot. Orchardists
having this pest to contend with should arraluge to destroy the in-
fested fruit promptly after it fall., and this may be accomplished in
whatever way is most practicable under individual conditions.
Picking up the fruit by hand will often prove feasible and can be
done by children, but great care is necessary that the work be done
thoroughly. The gitlinering-; should be made daily if possible, or at
least every two or three days. The fruit may be fed to stock, taking
[Cir. 101]




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

3 1262 09216 5447
M1icli infested fruit go,,s to market or is stored at home for future
consumption. Tic refuse from such fruit .,hould always be de-
-t r,,cd, and the barrels and I.x(,s in which the miaggot. have pupated
upon leaving- the fruit should be treated in such a way as to insure
the destruction of the piiw;.. T'I, floor of ,toreroofm., should also be
carefully swept, and the weeping, c-ollected and burned.
Approved:
JTAMES "XXILSON.
Secretary of 1 i/riculrtue.
IW \k I, -,(..I (.,. 1)\ C., archh :;, 190-.
10'J It'll
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Sanie' of vartlestf of applw ha' voe n trret. to agmree- with those gi en In No-
mNelatur of the Apple" by W. 1. Ragan Bull B. Bur. Plant IndLttry, U" S lt.
Agrie. il9 15 .


TIn'I 'i- li p iilitfy to injury of the re tpvctive varieties i.iiriil ,,I I l

as oberved in Mrii i. would not NneIetsarilv Ihe true YI f-, other i',L1i~li-.

but i list I ill serve to -Iow that all rlatseI of f'riiIt are -,1Ii,., I to
(i Ir 1 1








and second *'eguiniiLt- (fig. 2. b) and a pair on the -loping surface of
the caudal -ecgiutnt. The spiracles on the cephalic end have funnel-
shaped iiioiit illi-. the funnel being bordered with a double row of about
20 prji.ction-. The caudal spiracles each show 3 transverse slit-like
opl'nin-g; and 4 group of bristles. (See fig. 2, c.)
Pupa.-TIhe pupa is a .inall. barrel-shaped -tructiiure. pale yellow-
ish-brown in color, measuring about 4.2 to :. mm. in Length. with a
width of from 2 to 2.6 mmin. The Inarva in pupating does not shed its
skin, but simply contracts, a:.tLiniing an oval form. cau,.ing the
cephalic spiracles to p,,jvct in front as tubercles. Although the cau-
dal end also -hrink.,. the spiracles are still vi-ible. as are also the body
-L.gnCInt-l of the larva. The true pupa is formed within the larval
skin. (See fig. 1, d.)
Adult.-T], parent of the apple maggot is a two-wingred fly (fig.
1, a), somewhat smaller than the house fly, of a general black color.
with yellowish head and legs, greenish v'ye-. and dark feet. In the
male there are 3, and in the female 4 white bands across the abdomen.
Across the wing- of both sexes are 4 black bands as shown in the fig-
ure. The females are from 5 to 6 mm. in length, with a spread of
wings of about 12.15 mm. The males are somewhat smaller.

LIFE HISTORY AND HABITS.a

There is but one g.-neIration of the apple maggot each year. though
the occurrence of naiggot-4 in the fruit during the summer and
aiititiin, due to the ginat irregularity in time of appearance of the
flies, is calculated to mislead those not familiar with the insect's life
history. The time and appearance of the adults is thought to be
influenced by the date of the ripening of the fruit which they in-
fested the previous season, though this supposition has not been
established. During an ordinary season in Maine. the flies will
begin to appear and will be ovil)po-iting about *Tily 1, and earlier in
the States to the south. By the middle of July, in Rhode Island,
during an avr;,g, .-ea-oun, as -tatel by Profs. F. W. Card and A. E.
Stene, e:.r1mY varieties -ubjeet to attack will show many of the egg
punctures of the females.
Flies have lived in confinement for three week-., and out of doors
the period is doubtless somewhat longer. The female makes punc-
tures through the skin of the apple by means of her sharp ovipositor
(fig. 2, d), inserting the eggs singly into the flesh in a vertical posi-
tion. Oviposition may occur on any part of the fruit, though mostly
on the side and especially on the paler portions, where the apple has
a The apple iiinii-t was carefully investigated in Malin lby the late Professor
Harvey, ,ml his Report (1. c.) has been lhirgely the basis of the present article.
[Cir. 1011]








cavities, here and there in the fleli, and when infested with several
lia va, the pulp will be usually quilt( honevcoilbed with their burrows
and more or less broken down into a yellowish inas, merely held
together by the skin. (See fig. 1, e.)

1)1 STI BUTION AND DESTRUCTIVE I:ss.
Thr apple niiaggt is a native American speci,. it i nuturil food
beinl-g haws (Cratarsegus), and in at least one instmncc it Iha.- been bred
from crab-;ijpllh'.. Its feeding upon cultivatedl aplplc- i tlui.- an ac-
quired habit, and :ilhiigli the insect Ia-, been repTIied f'ro ml widely
separated points in the central and eastern State.-. il icating it.-, po-
sible geniurad dislri ,iitiin. for some reason it doe,, ,it at Lack thle npple
throughout its ri u, but only in certain localitie-, ;ind pirt in, of the
country. This circumstance is a fortunate one for thie apple grower.
and from a scientific standpoint is of much inteiv-et. WAli t thought
it miglit be explained on the supposition of the de elopiiient inII the
New Eiglrind State:. where its injuries to appl)-. were fir'-t noticed,
of a race of appj))le-infesting individuall, the descendafits of which,
with the acquired habit, have been gradually di-tributed to other
localities.
The apple iniaggot was described by Walsh in tlhe Aimerican Jour-
nal of Horticulture for December, 1.'i, pages a;n-3;1, nd :also in
the First Report of the Acti'ng State Ento.m,,gi.t of Illinois. from
flies from eastern apples and from Illinois haw-. Adtili ,sp)ecimliens
from this latter fruit had been secured by him s,)iiie live or .-ix years
earlier, and in July, IS7., he reared flies from InIaI ,,'t infe-tilig ap-
1les from Connecticut, M a-fachii,:etts. and New York. and conclu-
sively showed the identity of the insects infesting hliaw. in Illinois
with those infesting apples in the northeastern part of thle United
States. In the New Enghland States niuntiumeed. hiwe\iTr. tlie species.,
had been noted as an enemy of apple for some yeair- Incfore tlie time
of Walsh's description. By Isi' it was common iII tie IIeiidon River
country, at North IHenrptvad. Long I'-land, in tlie O( iila commit-
nity in New York State, at Eat Fa',l,,Ioth, Mi-s.. anid IIrolraI.,lV in
Vermni,,it. and it occurred in Connecticut.-
.11 ll.i Mediterranean fruit fly, or Bermuda In;ie.-|J magg' rt. i w\vildly distributed.
infesting a considerable variety of o,)ft fruits, as vr.i lies. vav'iilie. plumis.
pinieapples, and bananas, but fortunately has not yet I.oii iiiiiiiuiitluced into tIbe
Fl1'it,',l Sl.rt-,. In I:irrii '"l' pTI il1., ontoperdinis 'iFali. ijurrr,. veiery, and 7'T.
Iryo)i I'.',L'iit seriously infests, in portions of .\ustrali. bIau. inas, peaches.
,,raigi->s, etc., and another species of this iginis (psidi Fnuz.ait i in that country
infests ,ruavas. /,/ f1/ /'1 musa' Froggatt seriously injures bia;nias in the New
liebrides. Some of these species are very ginural fe'.dle'rs. indl tlihe greatest
<-car should be exercised, especially in the case of the Bermuda pe'ach maggot,
lithat 1h'.y be not intr,,,i ncd into the United Statos.
SFirst Itept. A.'tihi.' State Ent. Illinois, pp. 2!o-33 (1,;7).
I Cir. 1011








attack. As a general .tateiieniit, it may he said that the insect will be
most destructive to summer and fall varieties or to those varieties
which are ripe or are ;ipproaiching maturity during the period of
principal activity of the flie.-.

HOW THE INSECT .PREADS.

It is not known whether the apple maggot has spread from tlie
New Egmand Staiite.-, where its injuries were first noticed, to the sev-
eral localities where its presence has been observed-as in Ohio, Wis-
consin, Michigan. North Carolina. etc.-or whether the insect, al-
ready present on haw-. simply turned its attention to apples. The
former view, however, appears the more probable, and its spread
would have been readily brought about by the introduction of in-
fested apples. In regin,- where the insect occurs in apples, a con-
siderable amount of infested fruit will be barreled, the larvae later
deserting the fruit and forming puparia on the bottom of the barrel.
In the ordinary course of commerce the insect would thus be intro-
duced into new lcalitie oftin quite remote. In view of the extent
of apple production in the tirritory which has long been infested
with this species (i. e., the New Enilind S.qtate.), and the consequent
almost certain dissemination of the apple imiggot to various parts of
the country, it is cause for much surprise that the insect is not much
more generally and widely established as an apple pest. It is very
probable that the insect has been introduced into most of the apple-
growing regions in the United States and also into those of Europe
and the Colonie-. but for some reason has not established itself.
Thus the insect has been frequently found in applh., on the markets in
Washington, D. C., though there is no evidence to indicate that it
has become established in orchards in that vicinity.
When once established in an orchard, its spread fortunately is
usually very slow. It may confine its attack to a single tree, for two
or three years, before spreading to adjacent trees of the same or
other varieties equally subject to attack; and varieties seriously in-
fested in one orchard may be exempt in another. Tlhe -lowness of
its spread from tree to tree and from one orchard to another has been
commented upon by numerous workers.
The flies in their habits are exceedingly local, apparently confining
their attention to the trees upon which the previous generation devel-
oped-in marked distinction to the spreading habits of many other
insects. This habit is a very fortunate one for the fruit grower, and
is of much practical importance in control., permitting great re(lduc-
tion and possible exterminaition of the pests when infestation is lim-
ited to but a few trees, and especially in localities but recently
invaded.
[Cir. 101]