The horn fly

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
The horn fly (Haematobia serrata Rob.-Desv)
Series Title:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology, Circular ;
Physical Description:
13 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Marlatt, C. L
Publisher:
U.S. G. P.O.
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Horn fly -- Control   ( lcsh )
Cattle -- Diseases and pests   ( lcsh )
Insect traps   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
"Issued April 15, 1910."
Statement of Responsibility:
C. L. Marlatt.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029649177
oclc - 80084148
System ID:
AA00020850:00001

Full Text


SG- -~


CIRCULAR No. 115. / C.' --- -.'. A

United States )Departmu il .\,.rici itt, c.
BUREAU OF ErTDilui -r
L 0 HOWARD ) 1 ' i' rca ,.


't IE HORN F1, .
I, Ill ..itn *tti s rat, Ii t h I~-t ).+ .
Iy C, I,_ MARILATT, M. S.,
.l l ..l t F . h l: i l- it (i Ab r.ltii1 I) .l/f iA .'in'i i j v 'lii !
INT (I)U('TI(o ) 'N X ) SI)'EAD).
The horn ly is one o()f tihe worst (of thle Eiropean biting flies that
attack cattle, but, curiouslv ,eno.-l, it 'ailed to rea'cli ihis comt minct
until ii COil)arativielV ite date, notwit listanl Ig al)uinldaint iil)or-
tations o()f live stock frel i, Ku)rope (lurlii nearl hv lilree centuries. It












/-, -,..+
1 -. Hor





enl;+r+,(*d, (I"tOI!In' tI i1+> and+ Iilu'^ar +

was first discovered aind rel))ried to thlis BI)irau in tIhe fII o)f .ISS7
its oeCurrin 11e1r ('aml(dl. N. ,1. The I4lhuwinl y 'Ir it alpl)(earled in
MarylandI and Virginia, and tII, iI'Lt -i-I. ad rather rapidly, and
lbY 1S 1-1 ,S12 it was fomiild ()ov(r it' f lq tinimtt t'r,,n C( iii.t:i ,,A I .- ,,.. I-
1!l5(;l ir 1 15 0 i --







and from M..:i, ,ll-.etts to the Rocky Mountains. It has not been
reported as an especially injurious pest in California, but undoubtedly
occurs there, and was carried with cattle from thle western coast of
the United States to Honolulu in 1897. The following year it had
spread to all the islands of the Hawaiian group, and, under a favoring
climate which permits multiplication to go on the year ,iinI. it had
become a l)erhap)s worse pest on these islands in the middle of the
Pacific than in the United States.
Thle first appearance of the fly in New Jersey and Pennsylvania
makes it evident that it was brought to this country oni European
cattle in the early eighties. In the first publications on thle subject
it was stated that the fly was probabl-y brought in through thile port
of Philadelphia in 1'. ;, but tile records of the Bureau of Anuimal Indus-
try indicate that the importation of cattle through Philad(elphllia was
discontinued early in 1 SS5. From this fact either thle fly was
imported a year or more earlier than has hitherto been supposed, or
else the fly must have come witli cattle through some other port,
probably New York. The former supposition, from the early records
of distribution of the tlv, seems tlie more likely.

EARLY INVESTIGATIONS.
Thlie early records of thle horn fly in lSS7 and 1888 gave little indi-
cation of its future importance to stockmen, but in 1889 much ex-
citement was aroused by tle pest in New Jersey and throughout
Maryland and in Virginia by the rapid spread of the fly and the
excessive damage from it to cattle. This Bureau at once began a
thorough investigation of thle subject, largely conducted by Dr.
L. 0. Howard, assisted by the writer, and the life history and habits
of the insect were worked out with fair thoroughness during this year.,
In the same year it was being studied in New Jersey by Prof. J. B.
Smith,b and during tlie years immediately flhII wiIg it wNas thle subject
of investigation and report by most of thle official entomologists of
this country and Canada. More recently it hlias beenistudied in Hlawaii
by I). L. Van Dine and Jacob Kotinsky, and the rearing of parasites
and other natural enenumies has been undertaken in Texas by agents of
this Bureau for thlie benefit of and in cooperation with thlie Hawaiian
a authorities.
The fly was early determined as thlie European cattle-biting fly
namne~I above, as tlie result of submitting material to eminent Dip-
teiologists of this country and abroad. The insect was originally
describedd from southlien France, and its rapid spread and greater
"lInse(t Life, Vol. 11, )pp. 9!3-103; AnnR. [ti). )ept. Aor. for 1SS9, pp. 3,15-348.
b l I'l i2, N. J. A-r. Exp. Sha., ,SS!.
I i ir 11







,l:,lli.e.1, iII this com ntrv in its sout i\\ i l ii. _, \\< 1 n I| in c' ate t ihat
it is t southern Klur'opean species, This fiact 1a1 accoilunt for the
late late ('OI its iintr ductioit to Alii ii' ..I, ti!' client imll iort at ions f
cattle .t 'iiii Iroill central l lor iiort h'ern Europe.

CONIMMION NA\Mi.

'ThIe n "hortn 1ly" xvas -ivnci it ati the verv start, f'ron its halit,
especially ear -l in t e season, of settling in Ial-e Ill]ll bters atl.]o ll(I thle
l)base of thlie horns, andil it is noIt\xV erxey'xxhere knoxvl I t his naie.
For the first few years, \vlen (lie fact of its 1,i iiit. a new pest was not,
fully appreciate,. various naesi t were &ivIIen it, soeI O'f xvhichl applied
to other I)itni _jIitW sIch lia bulraht fly," "lbuil'alo gnat, and
"Texas horn l.v.' Tl'e I anie "Iorn lh)'' is st a11)l)rop)riate that tlie
others were shomrt-lived, but this nia1e0 carries a slight chance of
isuiniderstandliii, inasmuchi as tie insect, does not affect thlie horn,
but simply ch(oses tis lintin a- a restli'._! place \hlien it is inactive-
lar'2ly l)ecan'ssethe ase antd illnner curve otf the hitrin is a point whii'ch
the animal call not reach, either Iy sx)iiL'ii. tvlie lielll from side to
side m. with the tail, to dlislodlc the liIies.

TILE I\lAM;AGE OCCASION BYIi1 Ti11 HORN II.Y.

Tli. horn i lv ix ai bhdtl-sucking insect, but tle l.i]i;_, occasioned
by it is chiefly tlie result of tihe irritation to cattle which prevents
proper Fee]ii., and uilomlnal assimilation ol' f4od, and hence loss of
flesh or lessened miilk production. There is also tHlie actual loss of
,iii, I. which Imayv be considerable wlien these Ilies are abundant.
Thlie injury by tlie ly in New ,Jer*sev Maryland, anld Virginia diii,
the first year after its introduction wVas vemv coniSIderablh., aind t llis
is true 4f its first appearance in tie wide ti r tand vider areas covered
by it. After a year or txo, limoxvever, tlihe cattle pel'iap-s beiailii
More used to it, and the natural enemillies of' other Diptera, t,.'.i iinn,
to attack it, reduced it-s nulmb'ers to some exte lt, so ti at the loss
from it was, as a :rile. much lessened. Particularl v in lie Wrest and
Southwest, ll)however, thlie ,l;iiii.i-' from thlie iorn tly continues to be of
very serious iolliient.
)During the first years of lie lihrin tl v, whlien it was a new and
little iunlderstood ilienlace to cattle, the tosse.s c-casioned )bv it were
undIIl)bt11lyv much "\,i'-\ .itled. Nevetrtheless thlie loss, whlien thlie 1iv
is abundant, is still very considerable, shoit, it._ in reduced vitality,
lack of growth, or lessened vield tf miilk, tlit, pro lutction of milk often
li'..' cut down froim onie-foumirth to one-lhalf. Iiin (C'anadla ti' late
1)r. ,James Fletchlier v.estinated tlihe loss, in (O)ntario andl Quebec, at
oi(e-lialf of tlie product of meat and milk.
I Ctir. I I |"







The horn flyx exhibits a certain preference for red or other dark-
colored cattle, and that such animals are more thickly infested has
been frequently noted(l. When the insects are abundant, however,
this preference is not so strongly marked. Occasionally sores are
formed on the animals, which in the South and West may become
infested within the screw worm ((07, 1',"iii' macellaria Fab.). These
wounds or sores are, as a rule, only indirectly the result of horn-fly
attacks, but are commonly produced by the ruildbing of the cattle in
efforts to allay the irritation from the bites.
The loss occasioned by thie horn fly to other animals is, as a rule,
inconsiderable. Sometimes horses are attacked, and especially cow
ponies, and injury to -lie'p. as pointed out by Norgaard,a is compli-
cated wit hi sheep scab.
LIFE HIISTORY ANDI HABITS.
The appearance and abundance of the flies is governed by tem-
perature and rainfall. In the latitude of Washington they are first
noticed in May, and become most abundant in July, gradually
dwindling to November or until sharp, frosty nights become frequent.
Farther south they appear earlier and remain in evidence later. The
study of this insect in Texas by agents of this Biiir.i, notably Mr.
J. D). Mitchell, at Victoria, indicates that the fly reaches its first maxi-
num of abundance in M';iv. During the subsequent dry period the
flv decreases in numbers until fall rains begin, when a second maxi-
mum is reached in late September, which is checked by the frosts of
the latter part of October. Continuing on from then until March the
fly is kept down to comparatively small numbers by low tempera-
tures. The reduction of thle numbers of thle fly in Texas by a dry,
hot summer is sometimes as great as 95 per cent from the maximum
of May.
The characteristic habit of the fly in clust'iiiL- about the base of the
horn is developed only when the flies are abundant. When they
average only 100 or so to an animal, comparatively few will be found
()on the horns. Thie liorn-clusterii,, habit is more noticeable in the
spring and early summIer than in autumn. The horns are not the
only resting places, and many of thle flies cluster upon thle back, be-
tweeni the head and the fore should,.r-. where they -can be reached
by- neither head nor tail. When tlie cattle are feeding, tlie flies are
found over tlie back and flank and on the 1.-., and during a rain-
storim they flock beneath tlie belly. When the animal is lying down,
a favorite place of attack seems to be under thIe thigh and back belly
around tihe udder. The characteristic appearance of thle Ilies on the
h(rni is indicated in the acconmpanyi.-IIr illustration (fig. 2).
S elp. A i. and Forestry, Hawaii, P',"., pp. 171, 211, 212.
SH'ir. 115 ]







In I th e l 11l l st t he H l11+ w\ I I _- are slii ltlv elev tedI, aN'1 z I tI*(
held out froIl tIe Iod1 1i lt i anglt v)le I f()I fI IzI t i afl m eG ll fi It
l,._-. aure l{held out w~idely', and~ the beakiI, in-sertted( Iben(uilh tihe .'dm +,f
the a Iii al, is dir 'tedtI al I I(It perpI'ndIkliIilarl (sc lit I i ;, I) Beottre
i isert ing it> Iealtk thIe flv \oirks its a*y x Iax h)Ir I I tli e Iuir cIloIsr to) t,(
'ski- l, hut is able at lie least .i oif dian)er to rise i(s ( )antv i\ i ii .
to return a> (t1 shiox I in ti le a COm piiiaiying illuistra iti ln (Hi, 1). It is aht iii liaif tit
size o(f thie tlilse fl \ wlilich it clo(se1Y resenil)lhes, butl > Is nl)lt e I(
robust .
D)if'erin, froin oit her bit illg the. I(,, tlie lifri lltY ,rliiallv tax on t tie
cattle nihlit aind day tid when litot feeding. re'sts ()l i lie title t ia
dlreadv descrilbdI.














*'-N
Fi(, 21. -Cow-hOt i i shoinwilim ita l oif re sti ng liorn flies. KItedtl'td. i romi Rily aril IIowarid.)
The' .,-l:- Ii: lialbit of thlie insect was not easily d(liscl'overed aid is
somewhat peculiar. The _'_'- are laid -i1,:1ly and usually upon their
sides upon the surface (if wet duntilg. The iliollenit the hatter is
dropped, ait swarm o(f flies dart from thle animal to tlie l duiig and re-
main there ai few seconds, or ia minute ait tlie most, dii ill.- which
time mainy i fi_"' are dlel)posited. K-g leaving is (chielly during dahy-
lighit, between 9 ai. Ill. in(d 1 p. iIn.. and miiost abunldanit duirili-, tlhe
warnier iiiorii i-, hours. So far ias we know, t hey aire laid upon no
other subsItanice, and never uipon ol(d dung.
The larva upon liat( hiiii., (lescendI into thlie d'lii-, re.iainitii-, how-
ever, rather near thlie surface. When full groxnm they are abLout tw()-
lifths of aill inch in hllength and of tlie nornial colorr aind forin of the
related dimi' liim-"',ts. Thlie p)upariiumi is formed it the ground be-
neathi tlie dili,. Thle t ille .1. ,ii- from tlie o.- o t llie adult is front
tenll to sevenlteenl davs, andi there are prtobabivly seven (r i.lil (igenerta-
tions annually in lie latitude o(if Waslihinton), with hi tioreI in tie Southi,
t 'ir. 1 15 j








and continuous breeding in a tropical region like the Hawaiian Islands.
The winter habits as studied near Washington, I). (C'., indicate that
hibernation normally takes place either in the adult stage or as
pul)aria below the surface of the ground.
PARASITES AND NATURAL ENEMIES.
The natural enemies of the horn fly, like those of most other dung-
breeding flies, are destructive to the insect in its larval and pupal
stages. Therefore the brliliiit,_ over of the insect from Europe in the
adult stage witlhi cattle resulted necessarily in its freedom for a time
from the control )by such natural enemies. The similar enemies of
other dung flies in this country, however, undoubtedly very soon
began to exercise a certain degreee( of' control, andl this may account














FIG. 3.-Ilorn fly: a, lead of female, front view; b, head of male, front view c, head iron side Greatly
enlarged. (From Riley and howard.)
somewhat, at least, for the nmuch'greater horn fly in the first years of its occurrence in the different zones of
its spread across the continent than was the case (luring subsequent
years. Very early after the appearance of the horn fly it was noted
by Mr. F. M. Webster that in Ohio fully 20 per cent of the flies were
infested by one of the scarlet mite fly parasites (Gaminasidaw). This
mite was not determined, but was probably one of the native species
commonly seen on other flies.
The introduction of the horn fly into the IHawaiian Islands and the
heavy losses there occasioned by it led to an active inv'-tigation on
the part of the island authorities of parasites and l)redaceous enemies.
Mr. Albert Koebele imported, in 1905, from New Southl Wales, qualn-
it ies of material from which d(ung beetles were reared anid introduced
into the islands. In 1906 Mr. Koebele ciame to the United States and
made extensive collections of material in California andA Ari/. i, and
from this ninterid at least six or seven species of dung beetles were
introduced into ( lie I awaiiian Islands, alid two sl)1c(ies of true parasites.
I Cri. 1I1,I






7

The beetles in (Iluestion arc thos.\e x\ lc i n ha itu ially live i II catt I I t' i..
anlid l'fee:t ui lt li in g 11.1 -'' i.ts tl rteiii, or are 0 f (lic tmiblebit.'
variety which h disitIte irate the &l I I shortly !ofter ,hepl siltim thus
preventing (or clheckinig t(le bree. liIi_, ol the Itlies.
TheI true' paIrasites reared froiii material scut bx Mr. KNoebele' from
Arizona proved to be lt I' IIt'lly ; iptIts S' aN, st lc ''t lihe Arizo /a
Slit '-llv lirasite, and a species cl f iE Iutrias, sthl' d "I(It e I hl e lr i .i!_.
flv y parasite. These tN o) minute four-'.,.;ill_'".t lies nre u1 ho btlledly
nonnallv enemies of native d!,i,._-,rcedinf flies, but take readilY to,
thle horn llv. t lThev were reared, in considerable numbers andt d(is-
tributdl am.i,: thIe ranchmnen ol,, the islands. It is to() earlv vet to
determiiine whether these importations-f will he of much practical value
in contriOll i,:1 i the hori liv.
Two other similar minutli e IY1 menopterous parasites, b,.l,'ii-i ,._- to
tie '.._*,.tm, Spil.,i.'i.i, were rearehv Mr. Kolinskv from pupaw ol4 the
common stable ltlv (Stomorlu c(Ulcih'tia It 1., f'riI material collected
Ion the l-t.l, d otf lawaii. ()Oe of these, piloingia hirta illaliday,
confined wit horn-Ifly pupilv, promptly attackeLd tie latter, and in
three or four weeks a. brood of these pIaras-ites was successful v reared.
Later, hiorn-fly pupa' collectedI i t, the ie'hld w're found parasitized by
this species. The other parasite, S. Iai1tK niS Asln., supposed to
lbe a native species, was also :a;;iiii reared t'rii D)iptermius pupa'.
That botlh of these will ibecoime important einenlies (of tle limrn fly
seems to be established.

MNIA.NS, ()F* CO( rKN OII .
Tile simple means oflpv(ention of tll'udance odf tlite tllcs bv tIle
destructionI olf l;;rva' in tliew Itin anId tlie protection oifl animnal.s from
tlie attacks if' tie alu: lts, .ii. '.. ted ic I inI tl'e earlier iIIvestigati(n ,t t lie
suiji t by thisBureau, have remained the standard ianis of control,
witli some illimprovemients and amlipliicatiou eniablingll tiem to be
carried iout oin a larger scale and at less cost. There are twxx principals
inethods of control ---one, tlie destruction ol' the larxv;e and pupa' in
the cattle t,',_ il direct vIeasiulres' w otr bV the 'action il' inat tilral elite it'e's
already discussed ; :and the other, tllI, pocliteti (if cattle either by
the use tf repiellient titmiienits mr bY tlihe it' act al capture itand dest'rlc-
t ion of thie adult tli's.
lhcp'lb tiI..s. AIII st, an\ I rt'atsy st)bst a to e w ill \IIkeep tli' lies a Way
for fromn a few linrs to several dlxvs-. A irc;it i 4iinv ils aitd fats
hIave been experimented witt. ant ilie' cii-lt 'rei; prducltit kowtixIn 'is
fish ow train o1 il, lirst > ]--', -led. rettma ins tI ht,, bc, e >.ill v l+illbhi le (inlt-
rtgnt il. lThe prl tec' I bv tle i t le of' Itt i ixt tr ;'i-cs in di'i tteent
r'eV iolns. In t t ho v. l1it Ire;t ( fA<* Il W -e'. l l )IutI ,wv, t Ii 1,'cIIItI
lasts ()Inllv t wio or t three dha 'Xs: ill t le ii, ,i>n t ;illd Coolerh ...'kils of t he
I f i I 1 ".







East amni North, five (1r six (davs. This oil costs from 50 to 75 cents
a gallon. The addition of a little sulphur or carbolic acid is of
benefit, the latter making the application somewhat healing if any
sores have been formed. Where only a few animals are to be tIrte.,l.I
as a lihomne supply of (lairy cattle o()r a dairy herd, the application can
be made with i a common painter's brush. It may be unnecessary to
attcm1pt to protect the entire animal, but only those parts not reached
by the head or t.,il, although the more completely the animal is
covered tlie greater will be the reduction of loss.
In Virginia Prof. W. B. Alwood found that animals could be treated
with thle standard insecticide, kerosene emulsion, applied with a
small hand-spray pump. This application killed all the flies that
were actually wetted by it and gave protection to the treated animals
for two days. With ia little tobacco water added he found two appli-
cations a week sufficient, using from 1 to 2 pints for each animal.
The application was mad(le just after inilinj.r, and was only tested
on dairy animals.
Kerosene emulsion is prepare(l after the following formula. The
crude oil yields a str,,-igr and more la-ling product:
Petroleum, refined or crude ..............................gallons.. 2
Whale-oil soap (or 1 quart soft soap) ....................... pound. .
W after (soft).......................................... .. gallon.
The soap, first finely divided,. is dissolved in the water by boiling
and immediately added boiling hot, away from the fire, to the oil. The
whole mixture is then agitated violently while hot by being pumped
back upon itself with a force pump and direct ,i-,l:,rg. nozzle throw-
ing a strong stream, preferably one-eighth inch in diameter. After
from three to five minutes' pumping the emulsion should be perfect,
and the mixture will have increased from one-third to one-half in bulk
and assumed the consistency of cream. Well made, the emulsion will
keep indefinitely and should be diluted only as wanted for use.
In limestone regions, or where tlh water is very hard, some of the
soap will combine with the lime or magnesia in the water, and more
or less of the oil will be freed, especially when the emnulsion is diluted.
Before use, such water should be broken with lye, or rain water should
be employed.
It may be used pure or diluted with one part of water for local
applications with a brush, or with two or three parts of water as a
spray.
A mixture recommended by the Kansas Experiment Station,a
claimed to be as satisfactory and considerably cheaper than fish oil,
is made after thle fo1]o\\ il,, formula: Pulverized resin, 2 parts, by
"Press Bit. No. ,i, MarIlh 20, 1900.
ni t'i:. 15







meaCIsurIe; s()ap slh.iviii_'~. I pMat : waIter, \ parI fi l olh ni, 1 pairt ;1 m!
of tiar, I parlt : keosn- ie, I plrtl: xatelt. 3 palsl ilal ce It' rc.in.l
Simip slia'. III _,' 1 paIrt 'lf water mid fish i l o.1 if- he l( in I ;I 1reccopl iicie
Mid boil Itill t e Ile si 1, dissol.)vvd. Thenl ;Idd :1 parts- ()f wvat I r, lollo I
ni,.: with hi ie il () f tit m ixed wi th the kel rot sene.-.I-IiI. Sl e itl i l Iixti I ,
well a tn l tllo i t, b il f' o 9it nii l \\f(i hel ,o l liet mix.ttu1n
is .( lt|l e Iv fmr silae, ild sh ild be I ltt Irred ',lree,, till. v w i lee 'tin lpplid.
Th is lixtur, 'osits. a tl ;il l () : ,0 celtl t ',huill(n an f1m)ii on.-\it hIth C,
0on e0-ha1 f pi t i i suf ificieint l() It o 'e a u)j)lic;>t i 'Ill t i t i te l rush tli tilid
T il' )erxt liet .- jut ,'l .,(+rilx It e l i' not ; i tplit('Ule' t I t i t' _, 1'4 lrttti-,
()I c ttitlt (In tiht i \_, l
Fly" i+'*t h >1 (co l i r1iiiat i ot r t lt) 11Attc,/l W |i cllt' tii r(i n II 'l o tn t ii)i) '
(tiltl n le t ir ( st i- ( it(" dit'ppinI -\lsfut s'it i ni cil[)l\,)('e, l'm tl i h c.) n-
t'rol (of tl( (I 'tt Ile tick ()oI ,)tIbf ski- i tn pspa silit, Of the prol ehm. The oily ( ips, ls Id fIw' li le Texl .s-flever ti lck, described
ill it publicatin (I f lithe Butt xea',u ( l) Alninal I nt ulit I*v (of tilis, Delp rt ii n ilt "
ciilt t ad tbe to serve as( verfl eg tec, ia or l ut ive li r tt l ,I titg[ tlt'e lito n
oly. It wa+s e'trlv discovere(< llh t dippit cai Ilttl in tlese i ilnix-
tlIres in tlt, \\"I\'ina y W ,,\v (wIf little sI -rvice in destron in,' li- ltiornt
flies. The cattHe dips were repellent t () lit hor(nl HY I'mlv no a rv e shor())t
period, anld t(le percent e (of d tlhe flies killed bv tile o, perat))tion was.
inconsiderable. Du ri,1.4 thi( last t Iree Years, I(o)\ever, Mr. ,. ).
MIlt l.,ll, n ;,.._',.al of this Buream working %,witl Mr. \V. I). lltnte,
iT Texas, aiis, in a studif (of tlhe requit r emet(ii ntt foi- himt'n-1ly c nilrol,
found t(intl bv at verve s,,pimple tn)lifili'mti(ln of tlwe ordinary dipping
vitt a r ve lait] Perceni O,_',. of tlhe flies',. (on tlie (caIt le 1 cal be destro).yt ed( I,.
with thle consequent v vet*v notable 1, limiting of (I l o ()ss from|tilt lis JI
pest. WVith t|I)ev v it ts s o()din[a rilV co()nst"ru(cted,(l m s()t of lie, Hites IambanIt-
don the antil l ait the I t otlelnt it plu, ng1-es into the (le dp id e ,
and 1.0 to other animals, and ultitimtelh with tlie dlrv,,in (of tite dipped
anim)ial return to it. Mr. Mitcihell found, however, thatt b)v p111tting
it splahIshh)boa(mrd +ear t (" th ( p o(f th.e, vat (In either S Hide I, ab,) IuIt 41 feet
al)ove thle level ()f tlie (dip, tlit( er thr own up violently i.. tsie
alln`)imal )l' 11_.',,-, in is, :PItrl( bIY liese spla, s 1)h boardhIs Itnd I( I It s is th ow()\\n lbac(k
as at sprayt, filling tlte, ti Space above tl(e anie lal ,Id ),.,, lhif.-z and
(lest ro, ini: th(e lief s in their effort to escape. Tile few ()f tlhe l)orn
Lilies that mIay *,escape, together with thbaI mledhich aandoe tie animal
at tlhe entrance too (tle vat, were (),served to hover (o settle (In tlie
chute fen(e,. and anyti *v would .ih'._to ()it the n(ext atni al comint aloir._'.
lhe also) found tlhat wlere the ileanialsl have beel),,n heated ill cm-ralli, and
:e( tino them in(to tle chl tte tl(, lies st ick tuch ch),tlots d are much les,
apt to talke quick lligh, t, thus ins-lriig lhe apt tile ,lfi re o l' a t larger percentile,
(If theim Ibly the (lip :1n1d spray.


I Cir, l 151j


a 1%irmwirs' Bl tllrtit :7., October, 1909)!







Thlie first -i.r.c-.iii of splashiboards was not as a means of con-
trolling the horn fly but to keep the fluid from wasting over the sides
of the vat and to protect the men who were working near the vat.
When a large animal strikes the fluid the splash will fly as high as
6 feet, and the spray will scatter widely.
The accompanying detailed sketches illustrate two vats equipped
with splashliboards which have been used very successfully for a num-
ber of years in Texas. The first sketch (fig. 4) is a cross section of the
vat constructed by Mr. J. J. Welder, Victoria County, Tex. A ground
plan of the entrance is illustrated in figiii, 5. Mr. Welder's vat is a
ratlier large one, having a surface level of the dip 5 feet wide but with
an entrance chute to tlihe
vat of only 3 feet and
Inches. The splash-
i\ boards are 2 feet wide
Sandi(l 20 feet, 1iw,', ex-
tending from the terini-
nation of the entrance
\ Cw G--+ chute. In the case of
S-this d(lipping vat the ani-
rmal is confined to tlhe
.. A 0 9 midd(lle of the vat and
,,, ,, __ entirely away from the
\',__-- -i-;-_-. splashboards by the nar-
\-, ... : -. row entrance chute.
'----=-^ ^-7'Another similar vat
:J.-7"--^ is illustrated in figure
6 r.vrt, Vt as, con-
.-- .i_ -/ structed by Mr. A. P.
-i',/- Borden on the Pierce
a-:-: ~= - I ancli,Wharton County,
co,_ 'c7-y Tex. The splasihboards
IF'. 41 C loss.ss e >]li, o f diili Ii;g v> a sd Iy Mr(1,yNr. J. W e ider are 1 foot wide and cx-
)rigi"i,:lj tend the full length of
the vat, anid can be used, if necessary, as a walk in assisting cattle in
trouble. Tlie ends of tlie splasliboards next to tlie entrance are
rounded off iiin tlie case of this vait; but the entrance slides, as illus-
trated in the ground plan of the Wehler vat (fig. 5), and the height of
lie splasliboards above tlie dip level, have in thlie actual treating of
hluudre(ls of cattle prevented any difficulty of catchiing or colliding
of tlhe animals with the sp)lashlboards, and were used on a number of
v\ats in Texas juo-st successful llv during tlie years 1907 to I P.
[ 'it. 115]








With vnats equippedI like tihe albve, froin 7.5 to S) per c(i 'It () Hit'
horn Ilies (I tIlhe c'ttle are destri)ve(L."
Mr. I liintel'rexeriml(ntel l with ta simill ilodel of a clipping vat. anid
I'l ndI that i tie( sl)h Ia were rIeleL ivedl o) a t-lI_'tIZ I urve YIalvx niz4l I-
iron sheet instead ()f a board it W'as co'nsilderablYv mIlore efectI' ix '( i (is-
rihu iii, thlie bIack throw of the water in tle lri of anl eflieinot aprn a.
The a'rsenic'al (liI)s used for tlie cat t le tick wou Ild 1av e coimlparalit iv(ld
little vi alue ftr ( lie( orl fly except that v ery likIelv a 1 11u many lhies
iii I.ai l) e c i I ;I'l t an1d ( est ro yed l t IIerelY bejIin I wetted with I I( lie 1ip.
A simiilar treat-
mIInt ht s recenIItY
S 'eein thlie subject (,f
,experiment in te i...e T e
West. Aln a[)])arnits iI I
I I s 1) a e ( ) c o It -It
structedl, lrh .i.'i ,',l ,4
Ior I e partiuelarlv
for thn1 destructiom
of skin parasites of T .. _.
I it III. to suppl t-IIhil-t
the old method) of ,
dlippii'_ inl a vnt. It
lils l)been .-II'' led
that this aI))aratus I ,
will furnish a ver|i
,,d lmeallns of conl-
trol in the case f |f
the horn flv. The
p rolabi1 ilities are,. N
however, from tlie .._ t-h---
eXlperien('ce wit Ii lie 1.,4
holrn-fly traps re- ( i ii lin x l iy Mr \I r i
fe'rred to below, that most of the flies xwouhll )aii(IqhIn tIle cat tll at t I(le
moment of, entrance to the cylinder, and its eflic(ienev as I lll(allns Of
horn-fly control is very problematical.
The process consists in Idrivii._" (hle animals thro(,-'l a I n.'cvHiidhr
thliroi'.'lTi thlie sides If whic('h a powerful gas(oline pump c'ausles spravs
of the insecticidle to strike the animals from all quarters ald tho-
o(ughly wxet them. This machine is patented andl is sld at a rathler
excessive price. The liquid used is an emIlsi,)n of crude pe( rolcum
For fturlher d ,le iil.-4 l tof <'oI!-tru<'li,)i ,)f lipl 'iua .-**,* l:';> iiirr Ii 4 .-* i ;S1,
-M A lniInI l lV luslrv In C(i, c-as, >,f ih,' -;il tln'rr d (wr .'ril T ll. )'I aril il ,(' III''m>x r'1 I itl, r oa 4 t!r l Il. ll t ), t h idi, ,, l h1 ',ll I hal
l W l ) lhl ,r l- rnn I,,l ilai, *! l'







in water iII tHie proportion of 20 gallons of oil to SO gallons of water,
with the addition of 5 pounds of soap. This apparatus is claimed to
be able to take care of from 3,000 to 4,000 head of cattle per day.
With this or some similar device the control of the horn fly ou a
broader scale may prove practicable.
Horn-fig traps.-Various attempts have 1)been made to collect horn
flies from cattle by means of traps, the general plan being to pass the

..,.",. ^ -... %

,^' .~\,
... ./* ..
















I \ II, / /W"LO 'DP I I
\ \p~~~sx / "'w'/D -f *~ aa
















--- --




FIG. 6.-Cross sexftion of dipping vt usiiiedl by Mr A. P. Borden. (Original.)

cattle through a d(lark room or chamber arranged with brushes at
the exit to drive the flies from the cattle and retain them in the
chamber, where they may be attracted to a lighted cupola, captured,
and destroyed. Mr. P. J. Parrott, while cm le i ed with the Kansas
Experiment Station, conducted elaborate experiments in this direc-
S('Ir 1 1:1







titoll," but m II r sults wonre nIIv)ost III lsz.ati I fl otr*, tI I( lIvre'ai iiorit\
of the llic' Ilb ndoI( ning tI e (i tII c att Ii omet I t I o I of l'1entrawnl I, so tiif
onl\y about .I I r Ieit 0, the f lie I weve (01apttiur1(.
l) stri.lct;'a i. ,l't -irlin 11ml /Uii l Thi, det't ri.cl Io I tf t lal rvao aind
Up t il t' (it (nI by (ir'*(t III ensurtI es' ;Il co niseqtll ,unt t r 1e(ute I ie a i In
tila, numl bertn s of tie adull iIse1tIn s is a !bbssileh ia s o( d cont il"d], nott.
however. al Inv pnracti'cable, anidx it' v III+ litt llt Iilit Y iliei eas-le if
r-wli', tailals. T Io m t odII s oIf a I o lla I svtlu i nit in [lits, it iti I
it' ,: I have beetl, s I h I \n to be flairle l. l 'e ive A I;vdII tul f liIII
thro II n wI I ,) (of l ti ng ill d hstro, dl-(he l ; et I h lievil\ ir i -, :a111 i n nllztll
pastures s li treatit nix it' o itfv1.1 A especially zt olI mints where i I(t '' t' tlel
sie m o1r. e I ) t tI II loiI_ ,-,.IeI,, I IV I a IY tge feas iblei. ii s t rela entt ii s Ie pe- ciillIv uset l t iIf carried ( iout (iiri ,l' M av atn( i lttIIe iS lN tv( rI l \rvi kil le
Olf te IIl, Y broods mIleall"; :t, a Ver\y Lallge reductlioll in t(le lnumi11ber "()f
(i ll- for II i tlut I cr and hII t vr it I lie se as, i I
Prof. J. I. Sm ilt i l IoI.ii, .-Ii a x i I other a i iof c m introl, iai ly, tthe
Spread ing it I' (ti e frei 'li 'Ii ,, wil. lie it shov(,l, w it a -i(I -ut Ies Il r:1iI)id
ell' ol1 (t li1e dune Ia 1i- li ( t st altr t lioil o I' Ilitte t iptero iI lat rvl- nIt -
tainled it it. This Itll let hod al is latsilpl ol ine tIn aIe (tIse olf sin ll
Ilaistures aI i lat ple I, v tn w\at lher. Ai n I lii- isivJ, t(e mu hod, s,,i_',- t Iv(
Il ..l). i Ia [)ine, Ilf sI'Itte ino the I I ILI it Iatiri ls batei p\IIs aI d hu
titgusih:it tlotdry qlui-i' ly is to a llhw a+ nm er ot pies to re will- tlhe
cattle. In t heir ef' ort s I Itb to o 1tailn t l-'i -I ,,d pmarti cles, (olf 1( ,d lehe
i,,- h\ill e 'ecti' mally destro thle dui as I)re. edi(i,_. thle foiri thle tly,
it least 1-durini dr i periods .
A dai*irltma n- iln Texts, ais reported b)\ Mr. lluntiter, lhas followed an
ttlt- intod of control wthiht 't+ hi1 a i a ] i t l ii i tc( ,t ) o sideral e
protection fnoIn tli e hioIrn filv. IIle makes it al pract ice 1(o co( lect
dailv tilte dull"i ill and Ieal h 1111, I) artsI ;anild everv flew dayvs tis
(olle(lcted nllateriaiil is ta;kei ll t a;1 d(1 dis; 'iti te'd with 1, s eain(I, i
mn Chine( ()it ton ilit Pasture. so hIhat It (Ineronptly dies up and tlit(e breediwi;
of hirv :r ill 1 it i reveI I t .ed. W wherever this practice is t' feali!hble it is
t to -ton l e o e ded, a d(it(I lis li ( iIll] portan t allfddit ional I z) -
inent in its favor of co,),i-- i lle valtuhable ma uriail I!iaterI-i which
Iiilt oI(thIIrwIse' (r t o \vwas t i .
Ii the sanw wav, ts observed b1 Mr. Mitcliell, during tihe dry
period of JIll v anIdI(I AI ul Ist in w s\tetrn Tex z\ s t lie IoII llv iY s vCerY m111(u-h
reduced ill num1111bers bv ilh(l ralpid desiccation of t('le cow droppitl gls.
Approved:
,tMFS VI I.sox)N,

IS' X(*ff r il bf . V A S HIIN G T )N I). (.'.. .\'........ 1. ',...)),<..
IK~atii -.ti Shlte (l r (ol, IEx|), Sla Ir<-.- l i l. N .> 01 Nivfmlhr 7, S9l9.
(Cir. 1 15]1




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

3 1262 09216 5124 II
3 1262 09216 5124