The work of the Belle Fourche Reclamation Project Experiment Farm in 1913

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Title:
The work of the Belle Fourche Reclamation Project Experiment Farm in 1913
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Book
Creator:
Aune, Beyer
United States -- Bureau of Plant Industry
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U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry, Western Irrigation Agriculture ( Washington, D.C )
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Table of Contents
    Introduction and cooperation
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Conditions on the project
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Experiments with irrigated crops
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Time-of-breaking experiments
        Page 14
    Tree planting
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Soil-dynamiting experiment and garden vegetables
        Page 17
    Future work
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
Full Text
United States Department of Agriculture,
BiUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY,
Western Irrigation Agriculture.
WASHINGTON, 1)D, C.
THE WORK OF THE BELLE FOIRCHE RECLAMATION
PROJECT EXPERIMENT FARM IN 1913.
INTRODUCTION.
The work of the Belle FIturche Ex perimnen t Farm conists of a
inumllber of field-crop experilen, Iw it h and with il i rri. i( n
FromI 1907 tO 1911 all the eXplwrt' illllS WCre (lld lhed ,i drl :1, LAI.
irrigation water was irt hrtught t( lhe firmly ill 19112, whiell eP -
Iment uder irrigation were con1e ed ThIe work of thei firmi
includes field tests with grains, forage crops, vegetaibles, orchard
and shade trees, anlid a number of r)ittal i ain til ige expelwrillillts.
The arrangement of the liehls and the location o(f lthe expelrimentt
in 1913 are shown in figure 1.
COOPERATION.
Much of the experimental work is dlone in copernaion w itlh ot her
offices of the Bureau of Plant Ildustry and with the F"rest Service.
The nature and extent of this work is here indicated.
IBiophycal Laborty. The }iphiTal Iaboratory ,iot)eraltes
in all climatolo)gical aidl physical )bservations. This wirk iln lus;
* The lielle hounhe 1Ex+riunett i r n ti o 2 ). r+ .. l I r el t t ihe iAk.)
Re nation Proje t,of which ivr es et A. tIt E, ijI e .r.r ,:.1 ,r Ir % Ih Iran,-
fr m ety by the Iepurtrunt of the Iterin 1r u r .e A et Ii r I rre I.- r :w t, r ne- under
(utintiv n0T 0 r dryn i ant 1r ie r, trre: in i re I the rrre: f 1 t kt ]** hI try
of the Unitedta I tI I t c Ir 'ntt of .gricul re I i i h tr rri iI 0:..* \.ri
eu1+ure. X tUrii ullernten len t, iltt ld-1 i t , h c e, II L ki ii per i f 11 x'+i+ei I,
5 \ report nf the work of thti farm in 1912 w' v pulblished in tI, Iii ot Iilnt i:- ii I g.' ,
1 *re. 1,, Il l.
N ovr Th~ en .t sunal an unt o' the pro res b 1 exp. rts ith Ir field
Nrp 1 -I to santo dr -Lintd exIperunenti lt this fr r he hi 0 < ered aire p r i ti .,
in lud inr g e pl'rim e ltn hi p t rin : h a s on f li a ti 1 ci 'rn i e nr i n s '2) rire of e ; aler 1;I r
3) tim e tr te Ith d o f w i .'g .51? Ll I ) the u o f rix + a e r f r i n i tre i ni: i ion of
itflmifi. I t I v riet. te*t of- onfr' 1 7 11eld test of r* ne 1. tinll in It I i; 'n p v r r e 10) errw'rin enu in b r kin. native 's d t itferent tI I 1 ei ;* r. *n*n' itr trt* :e exL i rir nls
with veetahl+ The ril rins I I pily r .it ribtlr to e fn r r of r e I e It P :r he I s
m.attn Proje. t in order that the eior e te v i* n u-t perim nt i- pr.hores. 0 th* farm
and othenethod of prodTiini the diferen t rrie T r p
S1 14S It




2
measurements of rainfall, wind velocity, evaporation, temperature,
and soil-maisture studies.
DrI-Land Agriculture.--The Office of Dry-Land Agriculture uses
about 20 acres, divided into one-tenth-acre plats, for rotation and
tillage experiments, above the canal. These experiments include
continuous cropping by ordinary methods and moisture-conservation
methods compared with alternate cropping and summer-fallowing,
a comparison of various 3-year rotations, and crop rotations for
DRY L A/VD / RR I GA T D
OAqT G 4 T3
, P
F A L -A
MLE fOUfVE
EXP R//ENT FA
AA
l/L LET co a o L
^EinN 0 /RA f/C
T E FF I G. .
D B
_j FORESTRY
IG. 1.--Diagram of the Belle Fourche Experiment Farm, showing the arrangement of the fields and
the location of the crop experiments in 1913.
the conservation of humus. An assistant in dry-land agriculture
is detailed to the farm to supervise this work.
('rial Investigations.--This office has charge of the variety testing
of grains suited to dry-land conditions and of plant-breeding work
with the most promising varieties of grains. During the years 1912
and 1913 much time was devoted to investigations as to the best
time and method of seeding winter wheat. An assistant detailed
by the Office of Cereal Investigations has charge of these experiments.
Approximately 20 acres of land are used.




Alk -l ant! Ilrny;/t l Reistant /*/an/ G utiiati, t s. Thii alli, a nl
M l /it vi 01w
VaiN ty t t 1 ili pilit I t-bree ling w' rk wit fage r l I ri l I l*
Sfalfa, )roie-graits, w'e-tcrle w atI g i s, I IrIIllin, aI I I lil I ,
a1t c0 tI s lstldies of II 1v W:t10 Veq1vi vl nts if 1hw (it ri r nt
varieties ant trainlls test l. AIout 15 acret of 1111 are uh ,vv tld i
the work, aniil n assisNant is detailed to) super isoe th exlrillielnts
(: rn mci .stiyfltinuix oral g Iql aid l ,',tlh!,lt;o,. 'lie. ( )fliee, of
(Corn Inwestigti lS a / Sugar-latnt Il vi siatiutIlons. The Offr in of
OC il11 1 t l illl anid li lg f- illv estitaillt 000 H'i'pnhI ill OWI
Work with corn ait sugar Ieeitl, respectively each line u.ine
ahout 2 acres of hllsi. The tess Nvil l t I Iese Inp0s i.nchide v i riet \
testing aind tillage ex\periments.
FI., st Srio. Th Ie l'nited States l *fet Service c.f tIvs in
the testing of trees for wo l-lot and w inalbreak lprlPoss. .\bout 9
acres of land are used for this purpose.
(')NI)ITIONS ()N THE PROJECT.
C.UMATIC (O INDITIONS.
Thle a08 l of IJ i.r 9l3l t els farirutule i, 111111 -gmr in jr l)*
thatl average eisoll. iIIis wHas itle il paNr 1 fl 1I ltie sWiing,
no fiehl work being done until after April 15. While at that time
there was sufficientI loist ure 11 Ihe soil to b)rillg 11p tle grain, tie
later seedings cae U)) very unevenly ad some11 failed to g.rliiilte
1unti after t ie rains which tl he l attiter part of Ma\, :(, t1mI i1
Inltly instances poor sitandis were obtalied. IThlie cmi(lit ioml Werr
somewhat more favoraldle to alfalfa ad corn, l,1tl If w1ich i)r m 1i10i
higher yieds t lnl ill 1912. (n i1Jn1e 22 a lil11stor11il n te Iort iherni
partI of the project da laged all tliet crops to Somie extelit hut no
serious damiage was (lone at th le xperient farill. Th'e ninfill up ti,
1July I was very neaily Ilioilt l>,whil .1 i ug tin I 1ia th
Iirst half of sepither was very Iuchi les's tha the iintmAl. Tihe
total for the ear was 12.53 inches, which was slightly tioiliow tlh,
average for the palt six Year" Th liniti icat d)iervattiln
made d(luring the six years froiii I 19)5 ( 1to . ild 1.e, afe 111-
marized in Table I.
TABLEt I S usan+t e++r;/ atf ,/*mestterimp + ol. + ,1,, tf oo, + t + I 0, 8 / l,, 't+, /+pe'r tot+
tI rm. I 90S tol, 1J Irt J"/ 3
Year, el hi F P Ma 1 1
1ish .. .. .. + 0 it + I NT I 1* 4 **: I I' I 2+s '.' -M + "+ MI 1+ 1 1* I
l9im .. . 1 02 s l 't < )L," A+ ; 5 e + ." ;-; I :* 17 7
19145 .. .7'' I I .' i I I *i 1 2 I 1' L '
1911 0* 1 F '5 0 i I '*2 s" n I ,;
1912 .. . .. . 1 10 '1 .* .' .N. .'s <1 s+ + to+ of I 1, ;. 0+
1913 ..... I I 0 i F 1 + 2 i Ii 1 is
\A r2 .. 2 2 2 1 1 it 1 1 3 1 1
,




4
TABLE l.-'ummary of climatological obserattins at the Belle Fourche Experiment
S"arm, 1908 to 19ll, in -uire-Continued.
EVAPORATION (INClES).
Year, etc. IanJm Ieh. Mar. \ pr. May. June. Jnly. Aur Sept Ot. 1. De Total.
1908 ............... 5.53 5.92 6.82 so0 7.57 6 75 4. g
190.08.7.8. ........ *3 40.97
1 9 .. ...... . ...... 5 A(, 7 7 -0 8 ...... . .: 36.
1910 ................ ...... 41 51 8 98 10 2 7 4 4173
1911 ......... ..... 4 65 K 30 10 24 10 71 (i. ;8 11 i. 46.
1912.... .. ..... .. 4.85 6. 12 I8 13' 7 2 I6 0 1g 4
1 6. 60 371 2:2 22222: 71
1913..... ......... .. -4.71 4.30 7. 0 8. 24 b 14 4.71 ...... .. 15
Average ...... ... ... 40 1-13 85 7.47 1 5,10 40 19
DAILY WIND VELOCITY (MILES PER I OlUR).
Mean:
190 8.... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... 8.3 7.2 5.0 6.8 .5 ...........
190 .... ... .... .... .......... 9.1 10.1 ti.2 6.0 5. 6 5.7 6.3 5.5 .........
1910. ........... ...... .. ,. (. 9 '2 .2 9.3 77 6.0 t 2 7.1 .5 9.2 ...
1911 ............ 75 5.h 9. 9.2 11. 9.1 7.9 7.2 7.7 ...... 10.0 7.6 ...
1912............ C.9 7.3 G. 6 9.5 1.1 7.6 .0 .9 7 ..... ......
1913 ........... .......... .2 5.9 6.8 5.8 .1 4. .. ....
Maximum: I
1908............. ..... ...... ...... ...... 19.6 12.1 12.9 9.0 13.
19( ......... ..... .... .. .... .. 2 S -.8 21.7 12.9 11.6 11.8 9. 1 i 15.0 ...
1910................... ...... 18.9 23. 8 22.0 19.4 17.6 17.6 12.1 18.3 16.7 28.0
1911............. 11.8 II. I 19.6 1 G.* 19.4 20.7 19.4 15,2 15.9 ...... 21-7 15.0 ...
1912............. 17.5 16t.7 1S.S 24.9 25.3 17.5 10.0 12.4 26.3 ...... ...
1913 ............. .... ...... ...... 10.5 12.4 1 4 4 9.0 13. .
Ifininmin:
0 0~ m ...11.9.14... .... ..... ...... .
. ... ...... 1.7 1 2. 2. .
1911 ...... ..... 1 ..... 3 2 3. 9 4. 4 0 U ......1 ...
1910 .... ....... 1 1.7 3. 2.9 2.9 2.
2: 5 .9 8. ......
1910 ... 3 1.6.....( : 1 1 5 1 ......
1911 ............ 1.2 I2. 3A 3. 4.5 2 s 2 4) -. 13 2 1 . .
1912 ........ .S 2.1 1.8 3.0 2.9 1 3 0 2 1.5 .. ... ...... .. .
1913 ... .. ..3 1.2 2.4 1.7 1.9 .9 ...... ...... ......
MONTHLY TEMPERATURE ('F.).
Mean:
1908............. .. ... ...... 48 52 63 73 fN I4 45 37 22 ......
19(1)............. 12 23 32 3% 52 66 70 75 t1 46 21 10
1910 ........... 18I 8 46 51 52 68 76 t;8 39 51 31 25 ...
1911.. ...... 20 22 39 42 5S 73 71 15 59 43 25 20 .
1912...12 25 19 47 55 (41 70 )I8 52 45 38 2 ..
1913 ........... 13 17 23 4S 53 66 70 74 o9 42 37 23 ...
Maxinun:
190S ... ... .... .. ...... 89 79 90 100 101 103 S2 75 49 .
19()9............. 50 51 65 73 84 95 100 105 96h S4 73 49 ..
1911)............. 45 46 47 89 S1 108 109 101 97 9I 67 52
1911 ............. 59 t1 78 SS 90 101 103 ()100 94 .2 58 51
1912 ............. 44 49 70 78 S4 101 94 95 94 Lt 70 57 .
1913.-..--.---.. 49 62 54 S9 95 9s 101 104 97 61 64 51
Minimum:
190 -............. ...... -. 5 29 39 13 39 22 0 12 ....
1909............. -24 -19 12 6 22 45 11 4.5 31 11 7 -23 ....
1910............ --19 2ii 22 24 27 36 44 32 30 13 8 -13 ...
1911 ........... i 22 7 8 7 23 43 41 32 35 -,1 8 -25 ...
1912 ............. 32 12 --15 22 32 39 10 47 24 2 11 2 ...
1913 ............. -32 -14 ) 24 26 45 12 45 29 141 14 -- ......
KILLING FROSTS.
sesn 190 6-year
Season. 190s 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913
average.
Las1 spring frost ............... May 21 May 18 May 21 May 12 May 4 May 6 ..
First fAll frost.... Sept. 22 Sept. 24 Sept. 26 Oct. 4 Sept. 25 Sept. 24 .
Frost-free period ......... days.. 128 128 127 146 144 111 i3




(iO + 11( )1 D I ION NS.
The area df lal and olest to hh or, ar the licilhd 1141rvhe
r)0oject in 191 H\ a I9 w a lv al t Il Aim at'reHm i tlutn it I912, tin
iitcr'ase of aiout :12 per vt'lt. Thl iv to i'rigiahl area of lthe .O
rllnS oin t e proje0 ill 1913 :;2, 1 a 0.. ()f his ill a'e:1 oIf
a:, z,,ri, His vd evlted (i4 yvo tll alfall a a d i vis'vllarien tvi Cl')p-) in t
Ihar v.,o d, o thatl ip ill fr ) 0 which f T ps Hir' hl'(,st(ol nonl
tainled a2,5 rt act' 'IT arCi tle e0 1 alfalfa ill I91. ki ntlliilt(
to ahout L!),W()()(1 res, which i 21 imi t large i ie t area f'Ol H hichl
alfalfa was iharve-ttd in 1912. In 1913 p'orl1 anli siall g'rains wer
grown oil ahout 21,I)i acs., or aboul it1 per cent of t he l 1 oul 'rilppel
area of the project. The necage, yi'eils. alt farin vinluets of itie
crops pr)ucel on the projte(t in 19113 are stted in Iable II, 1le,
figures ieing oluaimtel froi lth, l'nittle Stats lein'litalion Strvite.
11ALI1 1 !II .(crest;* Vr i, s t d r/ r u it f.x ..,,m AK 1 t., If !,"1, /'s MrIN, tqppy l i l ;.
Ioni,.\ ;l a sts o Is es II 'Ar l t 1
('rn I.Itr t'' .) I t l 72' I It ,ti. I ir t
Alf- ..t1 I7, t01lyI . I e1t I I 2.12. '. 0
B arley .. ..... ..2... l . I t 1+1 7 o t ) I i 21 I
iorn . .. . . 9 l ol + ;1 I ) I **) ,) 't ) 2 I l i) it to,+
\~ ~ ~ I 'IW i
usr 14E 7 . T I ( :) t :1 ) S .
Corn.. i l ah1 1. s ; 9 : L s
Fl5 h I.. ..... of 19 2 I a v!h 1 0.7 7 o Ii ) l ,1r lIi 70 under
igon .. 17 d .. .d..1 I .1 x .
Natif e l~ ... .. l ,:,s5 l c ....t.. p t2 A 2 (0 i sm 4 12i. li w l t i. ) > n o
1illt sig.r e 1 loh g .... arI gro, 7 in 1 a i l 1 0 7 **
()ow..... 5,1. 0 *i .. ) I ** 7+Ti) 7 15 I0 I 7D)I. 1.11 .NK vi
lfalfa ..uga. beetsI cloer, Itax,+ o( at wheat I r'., c 5 75i 210. 1
I'ators* ha l f theihel ,o s t~a'. rwh cout*M 11 11 on Iu s
R y ...... I ... h .. "ts to no n *)0 0.1 e I, $** Il ***
W h ar I......a . f, t hl .f.....r.. Ig . .. .. o 1h I t .I.*
wt ropo ta. Io. T a.. iiee 2e
o tl1 ;
EXPERIMENTS WITH IRRIGATED (ROPS.
CHoOP ROTATIONS.
In t 1s Spring of 1912 a series d 32 rotnlhl OXl)iriients unhPr
irrigatioll WIs lcolllenced. Field A, which is 111-t for these o(Xpri-
mel ls, onlains 8 (luarfte-cre plats A l lli() f It his 6l4l(16 i h,)wl
in fil6re 2. The fOlowin crops are ', gr)wnI in vfriulls SetleultpS:
Alfalfa. sugar heets, ohver, finx, outs, wheat, harly, corn, and
potatoes. 1 Each of th1se 0.rOl)) it :lso grown contilllilsh o, ith1
saill t Inch ye r f O r tho Urpl)of Ed' o m paring vil llt i 1111 us 1r111iopplIl,
wit iro rotation. The rotation ,X)urrllimits nilicule elevll 2-yPa




6
rotations, four 4-year rotations, three 3-year rotations, and six 6-year
rotations. Table III gives the number of plats devoted to each crop
in these experiments and the minimum, maximum, and average
yields obtained in 1913.
TABLE 1II.- ilds per acre of crops grown in the irrigatln rotation erperitents at the
Belle Fourche Erperiment Farm in L913.
Yield per acre.
Number
of plats. (Imp.
Mimium. Maximum. Average.
15 Suear beets................. ... .... tons.. 4 7 10.7 7.8
18 Oats ...................... . .............. bushels.. 24.1 54.5 39.0
2 Barley. .... ...... .............. do.... 14 I1.8 14.4
5 W heat ............. ....... ...... ...... ...... do.. 13.7 31.3 19.9
13 Potatoe- ............... . .. ... ....... do .... 74 176 112.5
6 Corn .... ..... ..... .-. .. .... ...... .do ... 21.6 43 34
3 Flax .. . ...... ..... ........... .do .... 6.1 1 .6 13.4
12 A lfalfa ...... .......... .... ... .. ...... ....... tons .75 5.3 2.6
FIG. 2.-A view in field A, where the irrigated crop-rotation experiments are in progress. Thirty-
two different cropping systems are being tested.
The seed used in the first planting of beets, made on May 1, failed
to make a satisfactory stand, and the plats were all replanted on
June 17. A good stand was secured from the second planting, but
the Ilteness of this planting probably reduced the yield considerably.
The average rield per ncre of the beets was only 0.17 ton higher than
in 1912, but the percentage of sugar and the puritY were very much
higher. ne average sugar content was 19.1 per cent in 1913, as
C()lmpare(I with 14.8 per cent in 1912, and the average purity was
91.2 per cent, as onpared with S2 per cent the year before. In 1913
the best Yiehl of beets was obtained on land which produced potatoes




7
ill 1912 Tho b ti, 11 lod It) 1.3: ts 'bialiif H whv ere bect, f- Ihncu d
bI ,.
WI 11 1 pra III I o t tIit toes 111 11112, allid t lit 1,llet Yil :I1)0i 't I I ob~ lled
f T et 1 Id iI.l I ha1ll beenl 4tl I li1tu 11-I\ 1 Oopp .d ( nt. 1 10
I average ilu t lf dls i 9t h ltl l, pWr Ire I II 1 13, at cthllys3ti 4d
wvith 51.9 Ibm els per acre in 1912.
The higher I. Iheat '. iehl obi ai ne u I ;., I.: b;u helo l iu a1I,,
was o : ifi11 oil u i1d witi h I itit',l 'ets ill Ito 12. alt t i l wI I,
VI I( s II ecilred froill I 1 1 0 tl11114 11,1. l r nIt W 1 c pal.a
T'iho yihld of potatoes w.as probably reuthced b a frost. w hih
occurred( on Se)tem)er 21, when the vine-. were still green. Thei
average yield was onlvY 112.5 um-hls per iure. The lhi gl st iel
was obtained oni alfalfa nld, which prodluceill 176 bu ishll. lr acre.
The average yield of torn vnus 31 lushiels er anere, Nhi I as ,5
bushels more lhan the yiehl obt gained in 19 12. The highest yield as
obtained whre corn followed Imrlev.
The three l)lats of flax averaged 1.I b. bushels per acre, p)ractically
the same as in 1912. The best virld was oltaineiled from land vhich
produced bets ill 1912, and the t Iw- iei t As s cured from t 1e
plat which has been c(ntiuouslY cr))led to flux. From tlhe obs-er-
vations made in 191:3 it appears that the fIlax ,hould he kept in got
growing condition up) to the time of full bloom and that no irriention
water should Ile applied after that time. Late irrilion appears to
prevent the flux from ripening evenly, and it ti rt (. ie branchs
from the lower joints. This nuses some dillicultYv both in harvesting
and thrashing and also lIowers- the qui ality ,f the (1eed. The highest
yiold of alfalfa seeded in the spring of i l:, was- 2.: ton', Iper awre, and
the lowest 0(.75 t on. The a average yi1 'ht i f al the first-Iyear pi1ts
was 1.31 tons per acre. Tie hiiighiest yiehi ilr nre olbtainet from tlhe
alfalfa planted in 1912 was- 5.36 tons, tie lowet wea 2."S6 tins,. and
the average of all the plot- was 3.4t9 tons.
PAST RING; ALFALFA WITH HOCS.
In rotation 65, a i-vear rIt atit01 of c n, flax,, ats, n tI Ire years
of alfalfa, hogs were pastured tn Ihe sec',nd-\ear alfa The plan
of tilhe experiment cItilemplates that tlhe hgls will 1be pIasturted on
third-year alfalfa, blut us the experin It uns no t t tart ed un I l 1912
it WaIs necOlssarV to PIt lture sectm elnl fr Ifa fa in 113. ()I May 2(),
1913, throe ho (, faverging .158 nu0111 eaclh, wvero turn111,d I
Quarter-cE dat. A rat itoll of 2 P1l tIId of e(lia pairs ,f fgroulitn
wheat oIts, and harley per (aV for oe h 1111) Puld ,f live weilit
Was used ns I SUIlp)lefllmetry feed. The itgs were lft, Il, I he plat
for 3 davs., whe it was foull Ilecel ry t rellv, t1 Ill tom alW
the lflfa to grIow uIp. (Oin j Il 2 the ,12 wre agai1 lIlI, 'Id inll




8
the pasture. It wits found that the alfalfa was soon overgrazed, and
the hogs were removed oil August 6, after being onl the plat for 35
days. During tihe two periods, 74 days, the hiogs gained 171 pounds.
In makig this gain they' consumed 7:38 pounds of ground- feed,
which, at $1.25 it hundred, was worth $9.22. The 171 pounds of
gain, at tihe local market price of 7 cents, was worth $11.97, so that
the net value of the gain from the alfalfa was $2.75 on one-fourth
acre, or $11 ail acre.
It was thought that better results would b)e obtained if younger ii
hops were used and if the plat was divided so that half the land would
he pastured while the alfalfa was growing on the other half. Accord-
ingly, the plat was subdivided on August 7, and eight hogs, averaging
39 pounds each, were turned into the alfalfa. They were pastured
alternately on the two subdlivisions of the plat for 20 days. During
this time they were fed 335 pound,; of the ground feed, which, at $1.25
a hundred, was worth $4.19. The hogs gained 96 pounds in the 20
(lays. This gain, at 7 cents a pound, was worth $6.72. The net
gain, then, from the quarter acre of alfalfa for the 20 days was $2.53,
or $10.12 an acre. The younger hogs on the subdivided plat netted
practically as much in 20 days as &h larger hogs oil the same plat
not subdivided netted in 74 days. There can be no doubt as to the
desirability of using relatively young bogs and of subdividing the
land to be pastured if the alfalfa is to be used to the best advantage.
Wh Ile the results obtained in this work in 1913 were not as good as
might be expected, they indicate that to use the alfalfa land for hog
pasture can be made a very profitable method of disposing of the
alfalfa crop. The net value of the gains made by the hogs in this
experiment was $21.12 per acre fo)r the entire season. The average
yield of alfalfa on 13 quarter-acre plats in the same field in 1913 was
3.5 tons, per acre. Assuming that the pastured plat would have
yielded at this rate, the value of the gain made by the bogs was
equivalent to $6.03 per ton for the alfalfa consumed. The average
yield of the third crop was 1.14 tons per acre. The young hogs which
were pastured during at part of the growing period of the third crop
made it net gain of $10.12 per acre, which was equivalent to about ...
$9 at ton for the alfalfa consumed. During the season the market
price of alfalfa hay onl the project was about $5 at ton.
HOGGING CORN...
The corn plat, lit rotation 65 is to b~e harvested by hogs each year.
Inu 1913 the eight young hogs used in the alfalfa pasturing experiment
were turned into the corn plat on September 15. At the time the
hogs were put oil the corn plat they averaged 51 pounds each. They
were left in the corn for I1I days, during which time they consumed ....
all of the crop. During this period they (ralined 140 pounds from the




9
quarter atre Af nt, of 5f6) iliils, plr arm. T UiI, Wii, ~1 t1 Ih l
;illifket w)ic tf 7 t*('th, p mir I id, a r \v -m ;t Kno :n 0'. 1c
litil ty i t' ofI 2 011 0 u 1 It''l ;ficrr II HL e i l~ie I ii d 11i Ii i
)0.gv itioP h l+I A it' (l til in I I 1, i I H lie I f I .1i I1 0
of t1e 000~t1wn Ilittid et* Iti' f tl'.it'.ii r If all ear Prop Ii
b iu1hel l9 ii, v i. uii tif Ilit I i 1 I L \ I tl I.tI (Iie
fort itt h O ni c urjftl The nsil l ow l, 4 l t 0 ie i o l l i1, vt A
I n d 19 a 1.ai t eil n ,0 1;;t it d h t x 'a('- -.uilI ilt illt t 1t'I
guin o th ( 111 t ll II 1 T \hlfa la 'o W I '11 "f Ivlli I, in a l
1e d in P1l12 gw il fi t i'hel, i = 4 : ;i I tll ) Id I l heV I) lie
ros wer N\ e r lg aln ta lI 91 enl ts a I I-h l fuv! eiieHt, ,n .almt if it
i, zjs umcd thai tho h(.,.j' d plat l."IMlu,11, al, ,m,,r \ Ad,.
The es lt sevitrNI in I1412_ ut" 1!11 i~und, :it(ih t honiK i ( e
Of t1le ill It'til hh Ie hill i s of dli-p - I f the earls C1ropi,. it
should e rI *Iliellit red I h;[t I 10t igil--fcr Bl\ do110! INO W t 1i 6 to n-I
of halvefsin t ei 0 o01 n lhe II(11t im.h rI im II ti la' :silmuiit
0o0uht be idiied to l1n igu lili I I 1't rvtlurts I r acr. TI6l
fat that the manure t thl e Vi-n th n h l11 IH IweI e iiil'
is [ p .. is il ht. 10 11/ f il li'tIri nt )lu i l 1 I, tI'1.. 1 /8hih n'..
RIATE oF SE:I:I1 1 I. ,.
An >X l ein n to (ltit'f iin t e iV,11 t .ali>fact fl rate atl w h1h to
seed all'fa ,-Hl nlarte in IM)I miL la li that was suniihief-ftnvevd
during th, seasn f 1912. The alfulfa -a, swe(dha l.iun(e 5 v, it dik
drill. The r0) was ipped once du1il the year, but tiIre was not
e11oughl phil grow Ith to d ittv iilli ha vic < Ta e IV s1\N I he
rates o Ptdill it;i the s al )ldilled faixll enedh rate an oI,) dlie
percentage of ed prouing lpints. TI gnce in the last (,nhann
ame ba ed ,,n1 t1it :1- lliptill that : I nld idf t -. e,A ctntailn-
225,))) seeds.
T A IIIe; I\+ .160 .!> sway -of' ;: .1 o+r,. *, r .+ ,+.... *, t .+,,i ,!
* ..I ,t t Ai. + / . .. J
I tI
in
it .. -
12
t -+ 2
111.... 1...




10
The final results of this experiment will not be obtained until
several crops of hay have been harvested. From the results obtained
in 1913 it appears that rates varying from 8 to 15 pounds per acre are
sulficiently high, so far as satisfactory stands are concerned, but
ahlditional results must be securedt before the relative desirability of
the differentt rates can be determined.
TIME AND METHOD OF SEEDING ALFALFA.
Alfalfa can be seeded on the Belle Fourche project at any time
from early spring until midsunmmer, but the most convenient time is
just before planting potatoes, corn, and sugar beets, or else about one
month later, after these intertilled crops are planted. An experi-
ment was started in 1913 on field A-III to determine which of these
two planting periods is the better. The plantings were made on
quarter-acre plats. ()n some of the plats alfalfa was planted with a
nurse crop of wheat to determine whether that method is desirable.
The, four plats plante(I with a nurse crop are compared with those in
which alfalfa was planted alone. On two plats the nurse crop was
cut for hay, while on the other two the wheat was harvested for the
grain. On three plates the alfalfa was planted in rows 21 inches apart
and cultivated. The chief reason for planting in rows was to experi-
ment with this method of alfalfa-seed production. The yields
obtained in this experiment in 1913 are given in Table V.
T unj V. Yidds obtained from d frerent times and a thods s'e,,eding l alfalfa at the Belle
Fourche Exrperiment Form in 191,:
\v**rage yield per acre.
Num-
Method and t ime of seeding, her Alfalfa.
of :
plats. Wheat Wheat.
First Second t hay.
crop. crop.
Tons. Tons. Tons. Tons. Bushels.
H\ili ho t nurse crop, May 9 (early)........ .. 3 0. 707 0.31 1.09 ........
W without nurse crop, June 5 (late). ------ 3 .50 21 .71 ..........
W ith nurse crop, May 9, cut for hay.. ... .. 2 ...... ... .... ..........
W ith nurse crop, May 9, cut for grain ... .. 2 ........ ... ....... 2S.2
In 21-inch rows, June 5.. .................. 3 ..........
It is seen that the early-seeded alfalfa yielded somewhat more
than that seeded late. Assuming that the price of wheat hay is the
samne as that of alfalfa hay, about 85 a ton, planting with a nurse crop
and harvesting the wheat as hay gave larger returns per acre than
plant ing the alfalfa alone. When the cost of harvesting and thrashing
1he wheat for grain is considered, it is seen that this method is less
profitable than either of the two methods previously mentioned, for
the vield of 2S.2 bushels per acre is little more than sufficient to pay




01 I ,oRi i t' iilofl t )n f Irrip' tt t ,t. T 1' vi l -is Afw t10 re0
phlti n lilg4 H e e ti 1 1 4' alh.t lit h's l iL Ito *\ ol),rit!M It d l, h W .
nI I tNll) rt I I Io t 't,1 elIti le1', :I l i ) I le I'r-I \0'1 fI rWui 1
oHMy. lihc final Wlcct if tili' at"! 111'I, 1)4 4,e, lie4n call It,+! 6
lknowln u i 111 a flf x libl' t 1 10 3i fi n 10 .41ifu uit
klnown0 1111l ttalfl faP P vlti'id tf, H I), ,, f) i e, \4:,,11 t o. ,liM+ -~
nl4th luI veln ,hvicrin i I f,,r Itwo t, C ATi vl, nfa a!lw+ --awl,
of n tlfalfi l )i018 14 api p o ,iI lw l4 i fth l t t 11114' li l r i ,
vx it. 1f5 0 ,tl'l 10 ll e alfali+ 1 ,t :1 1 i + ,
THilE t. 1 .1 SR N 1 11 tM t US CIro 1- int.1 l.
A e\l)erillolt to) 4l4'tc lilIt6 e 11' \ 1h11 ti tie al n1 :1 tI1 F-<' s 4'14l) fill
alftlfai w :is tairtei itn 19 11 i ih d It' ( t a e V, u a I, t, :1lfali
at t(h1 rate of Ill )I) u:- p :r acre. wi i la\ led aT I the r'hTie i 12'
p011ounds per ov1r 4' : a1 Ilir t'' ( i A out 5)..", :wr, o'. f lanl a lj,,llil fii
thi aIs e ,I t I alf:lfa a litne, l I Ilhe r e i f 1 I l,"ifils I Her :1n .
Thle 8',lin, ,,s nife r4 :1\, M'a -7, r l aft, r ~-,P liir I 1a h'a,
rain p)ackld andl crutei l th1 ,I)il ill ti f id, tichi 1h hat lllatill--
11111ch 1111tr' proni T tly 111i11 tl l' al fal Il u i ar, d ti breal. Ithe (ru-I
and to gi%1 tihe ailalfn a )et ithi hl:ilice tl (to 1 lal th mlI O lh. aNllah':
seeded loine vil1ah 'l a t tie ra t of ).5 I4 fIr n' Ire. N, Ia1 ,+la
wa oi titled fro t tll h e 14' ml4 1 aV was I ': 4 :' 11 nl r c Op. Ilmt
tih hltx pl,)td 1ed( 1. I tIus ll1 ) f 's41 pe) r :e1r'. \ 4)t sItald ,a
obtained by oth miietli.s, but the alfalfa plPearei tI he sli l
thicker whlre il :I was i nd a nu s (1rop. ( ',uits 1ale on repr
seitative afas in tihe fall of 1. ;13 iuilk t 1 a l that wli're life i:faltl
was pli te I alone there were .lLiM)( 1 p 111 h :1 '4 t' ilas vo lireidl
with a stalnd (if 151+1)() l)ldnt"s whI l tot flax ai s xa se i t a iliFt'si
crop. ( Iollsid frin till c'st Of ('ilt ire I Ilin I t, 1 1'.ar Tie 1 et V thle
of the crop l)taine 4l Whr4 lef' I Ia1 '.il a a. !ii'ti're cr,41 wa slightly
higher than that oif the alfalfa plant,'l a nh" '. The rsdli-T scur' i:m
19131 indicat that the u c if il as litilr' e'rg 11: prove tI b)c
a profitable prtie',.
litIth. %I lf)N OF Al1ALFl.
IAn e\ riiiient va i c()i iiI(t'd in1 i(ai T o l fill1'Iit ('1 1 t fhe of
the late-fall irriwntin anl the 'irl -'j)rilg IT rI oi d 4f a lflfa a-
Comiparl t Hith irr tIilit- ill I 0i1t' 1 1 l I v l \ 1 I' 'p hI' il t va
14idiuited o five IlurttCr-aIre pla i i&'h \. THo p)lat- H 'r e
irrigated in the full of 1 1 2, one as irrigat c t'arlx ill the .)rinbl of
191:1, and t Ho \\H 'e I li t ill ti It l-.il H, ll. t10 r-! Iflhot i 1 1til
having bteen a pllieI ,hi ,e 7, 1,1, T it plat- irrint l late in thell'
fall of 1912 anitl the plat irrinat'dl varl ill tihe s4r)ig 4f 1 1). \ere'
othi'a Hie irri watc Il i tie U'iUal HAN. T i lT'''il)iTat nlull hiii (i Tl'
fall of t1912 and t11 minter (if I 1f 1 i la uitiun ll hetl \ :ai il i it'




12
soil on all the plats contained an abundance of moisture, so that
little effect was produced by irrigation in the fall and early spring.
The yields of alfalfa hay from the different I)lats indicated no im-
portant effect of late-fall or early-spring irrigation. It is probable
that in seasons having a light fall and winter precipitation fall
irrigation or early-spring irrigation would have a beneficial effect.
Whether or not this will be the case remains to be determined.
VARIETY TEST OF CORN.
In 1913 nine varieties of corn were tested, 1)both on (Idry land andi
under irrigation. The varieties all failed to produce a crop of grain
o thie dry land. The yields obtained on irrigated land are shown
in Table VI, being calculated on a basis of 12 per cent moisture.
The varieties were p)lante(l inii (lul)licate plats two rows wide and 110
feet long, the work being done in coopl)eration with the Office of Corn
Investigations.
TABLE VI.-1rrage y Ferit. 191.;.
Variety. Date of Yield per Variet v. Date of Yield per
maturity. acre. maturity, acre.
Bushel;. e Bahsel.
Marten's W ite Dent ......... Sept. 11 00. 1 Browil County Yellow .. Sept. 6 51.2
Northwestern Dent........... Sept. 5. 2 .rdmore Yellow Dent .. do..... 49.2
U. S. Sele-tion 133 ........... Sept. 13 5;. 2 Diso Flint ........... ....... Sept. 13 45.5
P'avne's White Dent ......... Sept. 11 5.3 Minnesota No. 2. ............. Sept 6 38.6
Disco Dent ....... .. Sept. 15 45.5 Average. ...................... .......... 51.8
The highest yield was produced 1) Marten's White Dent, which
averaged 60.4 bushels per acre. The lowest yield was produced by
Minnesota No. 23, which yielded 38.6 bushels per acre. The average
yield of all the varieties was 51.8 bushels per acre. Northwestern
D)ent, the second best yielder, was the earliest in maturity, but the
differences in time of maturity of the different varieties were not
great.
MANGELS.
The increasing interest in dairy farming on the project makes it
(desirable that satisfactory forage crops be found for use in supple-
mienting alfalfa in the rations fed to milk cows. Malangels are generally
considered one of the best suppl)l)lementary feeds for this class of
stock. In order to d(letermine how mnangels would behave under the
conditions on the project, a quarter-acre plat (fig. 3) in field A was
planted in rows 21 inches apart, and when the plants came up they
were thinned to 10 inches within the row. The crop was irrigated
three times and harvested on October 25. A yield of 26 tons per
acre wa> secured.




Il:
FAl.I IRI llTION ( IF FLAX.
An 11eXpwfilltll, Wits .. c 11014t ll hi l9 l ll n s, l411er-1,ff III
in hichll A to determinee th effet of fll irrigatiom of In:ld to in
p)lanIted to lhn. ()ie plat 1wa It-ail\ i ril- I ,' ll N. eiill 'r n,
1912, and the other was not irrignttal in tlihe fall. )in,.g 1111:;
llx wa gro'il botI )lat itii al given l iie treatmeWit thro'h1-
out the season. The fill-irrinate I pIlat vilel at the rate of I N
buslihels per acre antl te oth 'er lt pronuIneed iS.i Ihli.hel lur acre.
The absence of anum effect on the \ iehi of tlhe fall-irrigatei Inll t as
probably due to the tusaitillv heavy\ rainfall in the nutuIimni oP 1912,
w; previousVly Ientiloned. This experillent hta been erllir1ged alid
will be contionel in 191+I.
PASTI'RE-GRASS MIXTI IRES.
In order to determine the fea ,ibilit v of pasturing onil thle irrigated
lands of the project, ait test of pasture-grats 1Mixtures was started onil
Fio. 3.- A pLat of mnugels at the Noile iirche l [ periteti FanM i I1 lI th i tl .t th.e rt
of -6 tons per a re Mangels promie to he a .1 alt.abh,' crop for Itiry farmer ot the pritert
field K in 1913. 'it' seed used v as furnished hv the ()Ilie of Forare-
Crop InveT'stigations. Th'iree ditere it mixture ies were plante ed fi th ree
quarter-acre plats. iThese mixt1r11 which were lhte i on May 21,
contained the seed of the grasses al I leg.iines lmentioned below ainl
were planted at the rates specified in poumls per acre.
.iIture .1. This miLxture contailietl tinothy, I pounds: reitop,
4 pounds :1 Kentucky bldutra.s. I pounds';: orchard lra>,. f; pumlod:
awnless lh)lle-irass (irvmitis iiofrw fl) 2 po it : I llmeailow f'--,tit'. 2
pounds; tall fescue. 2 pounds; ltaliant ryte-.-ras. 2 pounls: western
W vheat-grass, 1) potuils : ald pereftillial r -LfT-;s. 2 ilsn.




14
Mixture B.- Mixture B was the same as mixture A, except that 2
pounds of white clover and 2 pounds of alsike clover seed were added.
Mixture '.-The same grasses and legumes were included in
mixtture C as in mixture B and 2 pounds of alfalfa seed were added.
These pasture-grass mixtures were planted on land that was
sununer-fallowed in 1912. The land was disked and harrowed in the
spring and kept free from weeds previous to planting. A disk drill
was used in planting, but there was some difficulty in getting the
drill to sow evenly, as the seed was so coarse and light that it would
not readily fall into the seed cups. For several weeks after planting
it looked very doubtful whether a stand would be secured, but after
the first irrigation, oI July 19, the plants came up rapidly and the
stand continued to improve until the end of the growing season,
at which time there was a good stand on all three plats. It was
found desirable to irrigate as frequently as every 10 days during
the hottest weather, in order to keep the plants growing continu-
ously. The crop was clipped once during the season, but there was
not enough plant growth to determine yields. It is expected that
these plats will be pastured in the summer of 1914 to determine
whether it is practicable to pasture stock on these irrigated lands
and to find out which of the mixtures gives the best results.
TIME-OF-BREAKING EXPERIMENTS.
An experiment was started in 1911 to determine the effect on
dry-land grain yields of breaking sod land at different times of the
ye-ar. This work was done on field D, which is not irrigated. A
quarter-acre plat was plowed each month from April to October,
inclusive, in 1911 and 1912, and one plut was plowed in April, 1913.
The plat plowed on April 1, 1911, was replowed, or backset, in the
fall of 1911, and the one plowed April 1, 1912, was replowed in the
fall of 1912. In 1912 the eight plats plowed in 1911 were planted
to Sixty-Day oats, but because of the severe drought of 1912 no
crop was produced and the plats were all plowed in the fall. In the
spring of 1913 these eight plats, and also eight plats which were
plowed from April to October, 1912, and one plat which was plowed
oi April 15, 1913, were all seeded to Sixty-Day oats. Plat 9, which
waIs plowed April 1, 1912, was backset in the fall of that year. Be-
tween the time of plowing and that of planting, all plats were kept
free from weeds by shallow cultivation with a disk and a harrow.
The yiehls obtained in 1913 are given in Table VII.




II *1. .
l1la V1 V / +
'Pi!
Wal orr m
4 lJ u t. I 1 : i
I. \ts. I 11*
4 .. .. .,w pt I I i,
'.... i i I -e ii t
of In un th hnl co w VIA.) cl ot t hes rac O i g
8 .. \pr I "1
Tie lait til which thi1 e\Xpfrini ll 1ieI1 H e 1 ,waed i> fairly 1ui1 ri1 but
of F0oor qulity, the d10le oui0 1v1 i ('b-' u tot le .,11fILv. ()Will
to ext renlleIy d ry coni(it ions in Juy, the rop of !11, wvas- very nearly
a failure on all the plants. There -was a slight increase in yichl, how-
ever, on the biack-et phlts and on the plates inhnwed in the early
sunnmmer. The chief imliation of the reults oltainled is that it is
not a desirableh practice to plant oats on 1ai1 dIuring the -nne spring
in which the land is broken. The exIeriment will lIe continued in
1914 on pits I-oken during the aon If 1 1: .
TREE PLANTING.
Tests of various kinds of tree, for shadeh, orlminental, and wind-
break purposes have been carried oi in cotleratin with t lhe "orest.
Service since 191). )During the first three ear- all the work wa-
done on land above thle cainil, but in 1912 -oine planting- were Illnalde
on irrigated hind.
Dryt/ lind. In the >Hin" of 1t9I abolut .3 tcre of dirv lanl HleI
planted to tihe following trees: ('tnoit011,ld, wn lite a ll oIIlell nii-
low, black hlWust, honey loCst, green ash, Sihei ian pe'a, Ru ns-ion
white olive, Scotchli pine, Black Hlills spruce, and lel redIar. The
spring of 19019 WaS very favorable, lnd all the tIrees iide a goiod
growth during the vea.i They nalue throih the winter of 190n
and 191(0 without ainy winterkilling except tie black lcu-t and tihe
Scotch pine. The black hols-t killed back lItiher adlh and iot- of
the Scotch pine killelt out entirel.
In tlhe spring of 191(0, AlIstrit plnle alld biickl)er l ti ree- w.re
added to the plalntings. iThe Aultrian pine w\ a- a total failure, Iit
about half a stand f hiikbelry was dotained. The s 4ea-o If I 10
was extremely dry, Ibut all the trees whiih tarted growth in tih.
spring mIade a good growth durillng the seaCoi, exeUpt the willowm-,




16
which suffered considerably from drought. During the winter of
1910-11 there was no wAinterki~lling of any of the species. The sum-
mer of 1911 was the driest oil record, the rainfall for the year being
only 6.64 inches. The trees made but little growth durin the sum-
niet, but none o)f the varieties was killed by the drought. They all
passed successfully through the witer of 1911-12. .All the trees
made a good growth during the summer of 1912. There was an
abundance o)f rain in the latter part so the season's growth did not ripen up well to go into the winter.
During the winter o)f 1912-13 the cottonwood and black locust were
killed to) the ground andl nearly all the other varieties were killed
back to some extent. The only varieties that came through without
any winterkilling were the green ah, Siberian pea, honey locust,
and red cedar. O)f these species the green ash and Siberian pea are
thie most hardly and desirable. While both of these are slow growing,
the fact that they withstand the severe conditions of drought and
cold on the western plains makes them valuable.
It has been found at the experiment farm that to grow trees success-
fully the land must be thoroughly cultivated until the trees shade
the around enough to keep out the weeds and native grasses. It
is best to use 1-year-old or 2-year-old stocks, a~s small trees are much
more readily started than larger ones. While the trees are small, it
is desirable to have them rather close together, as it is then much
easier to keel) them free from weeds. The trees at the experiment
farmn were planted 4 feet apart in rows 6 feet apart. After thesecond
year, thinning should begin and continue as the trees require more
sp)ac e.
Irigated/land.-About 7 acres of land are used for testing trees under
irrigation. The following, are included in the plantings made in 1912
and 1913: Cottonwood, white eln, green ash, Siberian pea, Russian
white olive, white willow, white elm, bull pine, and jack pine. Of
these, the cottonwood, white elm, white willow, and green ash were
planted in the spring of 1912. A good stand of green ash and white
eln w+as secured, but a very poor stand of cottonwood wa~s obtained,
because of the poor condition of the trees when they were received.
During the winlter of 1912-13 the white elm and cottonwood killed
back very badly, 1)ut they made a vigorous growth in 1913.
The remainder of the species mentioned were planted in the sprinLg
o)f 1 913. Good stands were secured except in the case of the re-
i)lanted cottonwoods. The work with trees under irrigation has not ..
lwrogressed far enough to warrant tiny specific recommendations
as to which species should be plantedl by farmers oil the project.




17
S)IL-I)YNAMITIN(G EXPERIMENT.
In order to deterisle IWe clbe I Of d inalitiilv on tl" e Wni, anl cl
,rinterit wt as -dta l*ti it the fall f 1 I Q 2 n to I e tc nt I itl-acre lat-
in liie BI, m hihli lie-v aboxie thie iial. Plat i \Ill I1 v.n dlinallitlc
as decrilth.l lc i ld an iflie v,1 x 1t Iil'v I 1ili liV iol aln Pi t
side of pI at I8 iII 1, were inn! eli k-'. 'I'Ihe, innitcl lht
produced oats in 191), wa s fallohv in PH I. andl prlinel millet iL
1912; andul plat VII I he ,f t le c,'lk 1lat-, a-, tr'atel in the
smle w'aY in 1911, l9l.: nl I11 'lla M thir Ahvcl pl:a It 110 1,
imis Iianured in the fall of 19 () atl tihe rate "f 2() l Il- p r itIV, ii1(a
pr)dut(cd oat-. in 111 al 1912. All three Plait-, v crc phwctl t,-
telnberi 21), 1912.
()In ()ctocber 22, 1912, plalt VIII I xxmw d of 20 per cent -tre:lth ,as iseild, the -hot-. Iivle placed 21 feet lpurt.
s holes to a Plat The hle-. xcrc :, feet dee,. :iil "ue-half Ipo.llI
of iiainite wa- w -ia t flor each -hit. Ti'.e o-t of thi- operation
i luu1 ing dyni nite, fi.e, cap.., anl laor, il- o' ir :1're. Ili
the sprin of 19131 all three plat- were Iiocm unifirtl treathclt and
seeded t' Si) tv- )a v ts.
Tl dvnamited plat. ieldledl I.SA .1 shl 1N-. acTre, anl the two
check pints i hldel 25.0 and 21.1 I)ushl iwTr nce, rl-jectively.
The average of all the drv-lnod oat pints in tiell 1 was :.:. hashels
pet acre. The cr p colit i'). w,1re fax rah up q) ,lu1 1 but after
that ill the fr -lamI crops sulfl'red frnt dr nught.
1Wie this (11e l ears result W n t warrant a tatelfilli I that
dvnatiitingl is de riuientalti it i illp .taill Iae Ihl the resi dt'
btained -tl the d namits, pIat were similar to hi 10e 1saill obt aiied
ill drY veal, antto1 e\ptrineiu faril on inl i 10 1h10 i deep tilled,
particularly here subl-sUoiling. is pnaticed. In 1911 thel, three plates
used in the dvnamitinn Cl\prienwit mill be planteIl naiii to t he snin,
crop, ti) see wh:tt th effect of l nation x ill be tx x ear-s- after the
operations.
GARI)EN VEGETABLES.
In 112 and 1913., ita ntI lumber of lil'mnt \ialeti- of gal -devII -
tables wereo grown11 un deC irriFt in at the X)er'illit farIl. Th li't
given )ehW e ilcntains tlie nane. of the vaeri ieti' l hih ha e gi( n
satisfactory result. A. view f a art ,f t 1 Oe veetable gar(dn ais it
appeared in Alugust. 1 ):1, is shlw i, in Iiclare I.
('abbhag. i)ic i Eiur'ka and l'e(iun Flat I)tth. t rTh, I r-t
named is the earlier niaturling.
Caulbifaiu'r )Warf Erfurt, ail Early Snowlball. The ir-t nailied
is preferred.




18
PIu pkin. -Small Sugar, Jap)aiese Pie, and Connecticut Field.
The last named is rather late in maturing.
S.iu (t corn. Peep o' Day, Black Mexican, and Disco Evergreen.
Wat rmo l,,n. -Sweet Heart, Cole's Early, and Fordhook Early.
Muhiskm(lon.-Emerald Gem, Rocky Ford, and Disco Gem.
('nrUmbrt. .Arlington White Spine and Improved Long Green.
Squash.--Yellow Summer Crookneck, Golden Hubbard, Mammoth,
and Deli(cious.
Tomato. Aclme, Ponderosa, and Earliana.
Ban. -Early Red Yalentine, Detroit Wax, Wardwell's Kidney
Wax, anid Seibert's Pole Lima.
Turnip.-Extra Early Milan and Purple Top Strap Leaf.
Pea.- -Stratagem and Thomas Laxton.
FIG. 4.-View in the vegetable garden at the Belle Fourche Experiment Farm in 1913. Eighteen
different kinds of vegetables have been successfully grown here.
Beet.--Crosby's Early, Detroit Dark Red, and Edmand's Blood
Turnip.
Radish.-Early Scarlet Globe, Early Scarlet Trllnipl). and French
Breakfast.
Lettuce. -Grand Rapids, May King, a(nd Prize Head.
Onion.--Yellow Globe Danvers and Large Red Globe
Parsnip.-Hollow Crown and Guernsey.
('arrot.-Oxheart, Danvers Half Long, anld Chantenay
FUTURE WORK.
Plract ically all the work conducted at the experiment farm in 1913
will be continued in 1914, and several new experiments will be started.
Among the tests recently inaugurated are extensive experiments in




19
fthi irrigtlilill HtA l' lils, I t\, la pf it at uN, Itiel, e til, Uate H 0l4m ;
al pX)lrilwili t, 1 d ttllirmti m i' I st s1" tisfat N f alate "f Jhtilli) g
for cornt; wid vtrit l t es H ih % f Ipt "d s. .Nh Iuit liI s restills rtt'
s8t011rd I I1 ill I lpuhis d folwr Ih, lwr lit ,f ile furir'ls lt li o
prjoit.
Approved:
Wa'M. A. TLkY lIo,
('bi~rf of Bureau.
JUNE Fi, 11-l.
O




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