Sudan grass, a new drought-resistant hay plant

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Title:
Sudan grass, a new drought-resistant hay plant
Physical Description:
Book
Creator:
Piper, Charles V ( Charles Vancouver ), 1867-1926
United States -- Bureau of Plant Industry
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry : ( Washington D.C. )
G.P.O.
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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aleph - 29631897
oclc - 61324976
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AA00020817:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Seeding Sudan grass
        Page 5
    Feeding value of Sudan grass and experimental trials with Sudan grass
        Page 6
    Results of tests at Chillicothe
        Page 7
    Results of tests at Arlington Farm
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Tests at miscellaneous experiment stations
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Reports of experimental trials by farmers
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
Full Text
Or
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1 \rar\
U. S. 1)I1P\lRT1N11NT ()F .\,1RI'I'l.I'lIl.
Ilil 11l l l 1l,\NT IN ID I'S'It Y ('i.la. 1... I"..
1T1 | 1 4 T 1 1 i t 1 0 a1
SUIIAN IlLWs, ,\ NEW 1)11010llT-IEIIST\NI
II AY I' IA NT.
f V III) II
setti'N I ar a ..** ne sk~h PitINTING OFFICE 100




BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY.
Chief of Bureau, WILLIAM A. TAYLOR.
Assistantl Chief of Bureau, L. C. CORBETT.
Editor, J. E. ROCK WELL.
Chief Clerk, JAMEs E. JONES.
[Cir. 125]
2




I P. I sto
SU1)A, N (G;R\SS, A Nm'w I)R()1 ';IG IT-RES ISTA NT
I I\Y 11I..\NT.
INTRODUCTION.
For setra:1 yea r*s past. lwinIIin Wilh itl 190);, illI writer anul hi1
astlMlts Il:1ade a are ful til lv of il lol grass ii h tile vivH of
fitndiil it h_11 Infkilfl t1e Ilidergratil Ifi l OSt*ocks lich 1111, .
Johnson grass o obljectionalhe. \Whihile \ariatlion in this character
were fold. no single plant was dettected which ihadil the l rootk-iok
Wholly absen'llt ('oilncident with tlse slices plmkages of Johl'on
gats. sed HPre obtaiieid from varies f oreigin slrs". Il il w ith
thel aistance of thle (Alice of Foreign t Red and Plant itrhi dution.
AmollIg those rrvi el1 are tvo) other l flfvarilel e:li i. root1*iitics like
Johnsoilil 'rilS bi di teitg inll other alilactiler ld two ver 1 distlict
varieties' that have tihe rootstocks wholly i a ient. The tir'st of tille lat-
tet was recem ved in 1909 linder t lile nane "' g:ilrawi," throligh Mr. I.
I lewison. I directorr of Agrihultiure :nild LaUnds of the SlIdaill ( iover-
ielit at Khariliil. After grOWillg till- for one asiion at ( 11ill icotie.
Tex., it was inventoried as Seedl and Plant Inlitroduction No. 25017.
InI further .orre. )indenice with Mr. llewison soille athdlitoinal ill-
foliliOli has e1n secured. Thie Siuda lbItnistsi were under t i(e
ilIpres ioni that ga iraw i is a formill of .Indlop1on / ,, ,o. /.lx. or Johin-
Sull gra .Accol'iling to Mr. Ihewison, the following note appeal's
in Broui's ('atalogue of Slllan Flowering Plants:
A lirto/p yout iip p, d I~ tut. Atder or Ai r: dra wi \:I rioty :ind GirlVwi
eulti\ ied ltI, Arab. Tall rass tulli at\tedI for f dihl'r. The seek ila' et ,al ili
times of sedIriy. W\hen twihl ii gra'lS toI a hliigt of 12 fiet niiid is found in
duip lu:alities a:loi: thel river btianis or edes of pools. IFound in Seuiar,
White Nile. and K lorlfan.
iWhether the wild plant is the sime aIs the cultivated Mr. Hlevison
iS Ilot Sil'e. Illit pironis&'d specillie lil iile 1101 o ve -'eil received. In
utllli, girati is iti ilt 8tet ollv to a Iim ited eXtelt, m11ii1i v at tile
exper1il eli 1a 11ion ild it 1 ilitr r li v farnis t o c illi li if ha v
h:iill seliretI there each sea01Oil Ulle' iorfifiati(ll. hle seet Was
brought to Itlan l roim Egypt. wherIe it I :al1o 'lltivated to oltiue
extent under thle Slle lmille. It is protl that it is tie ins that
aill writers on Egyptian hot any have cal led Ind'o:p1\o' 1/, .. pn
1Cir. 1251
3




4 SUDAN (JIASS.
The exact tativity of garaw iis still a natter of doubt, nor is it clear
th t gein11e A iIlIop/ou l/l// S#/ occurs il the saile region.
A few plants of garawi live(I over the winter of 1911-12 at Gaines-
ville. Fla., without. however. forming aniiy rootstocks.
The second variet v was received on D)ecember 2, 1909, from I)r.
L. Trabut. Algiers, Algeria, and given S. P. I. No. 26301. D)r.
Trabtit's original notes are as follows:
'Thlis gIrass is vigorous huit not stoloniferous and would he interesting for
hybridiziLation with surgh1tin. It is moderIately good forage like Johnson grass,
itI has ile( advantage of not stooling ii. e., suckering). This variety is per-
ellnialI here and produces uaILny seeds.
Under the condwlitions in the United States this variety has behaved
purely as an annual. In further correspondence with Dr. Trabut. he
writes that hlie believes this grass to be common inI Africa and that he
has received it from the arid regions l)etween Algiers and Senegal.
Thlie two varieties are quite distinct from each other and the name
" Sudan grass has been given to S. P. I. No. 25017 and Tunis
grass to S. 1). 1. No. 26301. Botanically, they are both to be con-
sidered varieties of Anidropogoi org lhum and not of Andropogon
Salpecnsi. as the three known varieties of the latter all have vigorous
underground rootstocks. Trials at ninerous places have demon-
strated that S(udan grass promises high value for hay, especially in
the semiarid regions where no perennial grass has thus far been found
suited to the conditions. Ind(leedt, it is not too much to predict that it
is there destined to become the leading grass for hay production. Un-
der more humid conditions Sudan grass has also succeeded admirably
and it will probably replace the foxtail millets to a large extent, as it
prod(luces better hay and usually larger yields. Tunis grass has not
as yet been widely tested, owing to lack of seed. It is slower in start-
ing growth and less tall than Sudan grass. As it shatters its seed
very readily it is likely to be of only limited usefulness unless this
character can be changed.
Sudan grass has been tested most carefully in Texas (fig. 1) and
at Arlington Farm, Virginia, but at least one year's trial has been
made at many places in the Great Plains and at various agricultural
experiment stations. There is still much to be learned in regard to
the crop, but the data at hand indicate approximately the best
methods of culture. Sudan grass is a sorghum and requires practi-
cally the same temperature conditions as that crop. It is, however,
(earlier than any sorghum yet known and will probably mature in
Monitania and North Dakota, as it ripened seed in 1912 at Brook-
inigs, S. )ak.
Indiilividual plants of Sudan grass under favorable conditions will
a ttain a height of 8 to 10 feet and may possess 20 or more stalks to
a plant. Thie stems seldom become larger than a lead pencil, even
Cir. 1'25]




I~ 0 \ d .\ -i
ili dht' htiigt***f t~ilil-, ll'tw ia 1iitl', ,,i 1t1lh 1 l,' ]iI t* 1 ;I l:41 12 '* 3 1t ,
tii& t 9I1 iiEol ian t ailit til w ulill ith l h i liit a It 'lla <' 'I
4id ;'d \\ ilt i 4' Ii a allmui 'i" I t' I' ; i'i lnl i'i, \lit A l it
jit li t V 0 ill, HItii 1 P 'il 1i l Tclu. i ltti ll I 1 til I
J411111,11 d ut* t'tic ol li (1 t illii i i hil io ll I & V n
SEEDING SUDAN GRASS.
ItsuX n11 In,1 Y miv *w wall1 ih mig t ini (. I'd t th i icl t" 1 1 .
hiir it 'il Ilti! lit ilulri-tillg. lif e;t-lill 41 dril ig i 'l, P li u\ -
f 1-1i tl! ntl tat i1fi 1 t i ii llll't, l Ontli dth il i ti It lsi th t*il 1- l ol h
fl 1. t bie i st e
it Tt ')Iil l X' Iio I!! 'I I It I h For : cc 11ii t'tsIkIai't!Il i t
liii ;iiltv Vuim& ii-jIici ~chViI iiat.
It ti ; -l 't i ic- ItsI ,lai i I u)lit I a i. l' I t 4 j y 'ii i 3i '
4l ti" :li lii4i- I l iaillif -l aluI t h ir 01 ti I- iulO \ 11 ;I
O 'lldcll cilll 110" Wl i K h\t> kli hi o m sir;llh i n r n.il li. lowi, d; >' iim
il h y l,i i- r ll i t t' l tl ll uh o l'iilc 1" e)\\, ;I l li' e lw I mlill
I t'O 1 1, ll l l ~1* 01l li 1 ], t1Vi t M st i ll t i t i t Wcl I,t I l l i tHilh
l t i1 \ 1 1- i 1 l l liu i i 1r I'a hel il l k I \it\\ ll I il it -
ui0 t'M'. ili fi -lh iit i t ti l 1 1Y Fll 1 1ov l 1 tl t' 1ii-. i 11,
l i it' I 11 t1-(I I e II it i l' t o f I t 1 s. *****i iu 114 l i 1
I il I llit 1o5 i lt\tid l if o1 i
Wh ilt 0 1'l1'Il lin 4 1 I t OH Ill Q "11I is w
\h t't 1. 't k !Is !(w IIt I'O ,t ,)d-'qt) I I I d( jn st(n t I( I
t*DIll 4 m111 il k11 llf ~ 'd I* t il li t do. ",*K Fi v1
tolit I1tof -vtu i t it,te ( -1011 1 it' li l-' I'll t I l o l.




6 SUDAN GRASS.
FEEDING VALUE OF SUDAN GRASS.
All rel)orts agree on the high palatability of Sudan grass, either
green or (nred. At (1hillicothe. Tex.. the farm horses even ate readily
the straw front which the seed had been thrashed. Until feeding
experinents can be conducted no definite statement of the compara-
i ve feed ing value of this grass can be made.
Table I shows the analyses of a series of hay samples cut at
various dates at Arlington Farm. Virginia, in 1912. Perhaps the
imost interesting feature shownii is the close comparison of the mature
itraw with li hay cut at earlier stages.
T".\Il.: .-An1 alysc o(if Sudan grx rown (it Arlington Farm, Virginlia, in 1912,
c(' t il ilri,ous datlc, in different x1tig(.; of maturity.
Out Aug. 7.
O ut Oct.
. . ('iut Sept I; sed
Substane. IH a -As Just he- 1 .hore was
jut a- gmnin: In full hweadilng. fully
heading. earing- to bloom., bloom. mature.
Per cenIt. Per con. Pe cent. Pr cent. Per cent. Per ceUnt.
Moisture ...... ...... ...... .. 4.13 3.54 3.46 3.51 4.92 4.38
Ash ............ ....... ....... ... 6.1l 5.5 5.02 5.04 7.12 5.59
Et her extra t ...... ........ ... 1.72 1.39 1.23 1.27 1.49 1.48
Protein .......... ...... . .... 7.75 (.06 5.16 4.o 5.63 4.19
(Crude fiber ................... ...... 30.68 31.94 33.23 35.12 34.30 34.44
Pentosans ............................. 21.82 24.01 24.70 24.51 23.38 26.70
U1nd etrmined.... ..... ....... .. 27.29 27.51 27.20 24.79 23.2i 26.70
EXPERIMENTAL TRIALS WITH SUDAN GRASS.
Owing to the fact that Sudan grass came from a dry tropical
country and that the quantity of available seed was very small, the
preliminary tests were all made inll Texas. The remarkable adapta-
lion of the grass to Texas conditions led to its being tested in 1911
at Arlington Farm. Virginia, anlid in various Southern States. At
tlihe former place it succeeded beyontid expectation, so that seed of it
was sent in the spring of 1912 to many experiment stations with the
request that it he tried, but for various reasons comparatively few
stations made a test. The reports of these trials are given later in
this circular. As milost of these tests were very small the results can
only he regarded as indications of its possible value. In most cases
the grass was seeded in cultivated rows, under which condition it is
1-4:1lly too coarse for hay of high quality. By thick planting, how-
ever, this diflicultyv is easily overcome.
PralIically every test of the grass made in the semiarid regions
from ll oItl D )akota to Texas hl givenll relarkablvy favorable results.
'Ihlre is scnrcelv rooin to doubt tllhe(, very high value of the grass for
this portion of the I ilted States. A single test ill eastern Oregon
also gave ver )ronlisilng results. so the grass is doubtless adapted
[C'ii 1:25]




St IAi\ n UV11 7
to ( f1 nl 1 I i; i f l s 111o I 1 itc, r 1 0 .1 I- i I t I9l A it I :S itn i 1' ii ti *"
orl ,r01s911 l f rdil'ail it' .':te Iof .xic l of u tili t ii t cIfu t1
iI jti jtl t ix t f litl I 11 f I lt'o sll ox li t It 1li d t 1 1 tii* .'
bA csm l vv cii" t'lId y\ t'l' i ahit i soI dA4 p i' o-
SVaiflot gIt \ 1l i t trinr 'jc a' i Ill i at 11(ii'. 'ti. Jit 10 ntla ityig
Ple0 Ill \ l; f le 1 i: lit tia" :11iv dii ti vr ihii, h t 1w i- l: d
afll ci l' e ( Irii i Ql ilit' sI hean Yni \i 2 i to 19 l t lin \\%idti ai!r
o h w ftl 0i 1 t 1r I' ti i il -Il a l o u i a r ati.e.
f ill (h hlit1 id r'i, i l it 1t 1ii1l- v ll'al t (t ifjIf l li'rtiiA n \ .il" It",l iti,
ifnrld he t'i'lX 't''t \e f.lt a jik i'.wi>ii tth ae a
f0l1'1)l \\ illlft e. nn l ( iit'i f r h r i ll* is nt il ilth .
OPIl (I 11 Hit ti 't'di itt*JIli 111' I iiix1( 1 r'll* ti a' 1i- 1: f1 P.
. fr\ liWi(214 2 of !t'e \ re also sent i 1 11 lll 1i12 tO filillMH r
or li tatilicl trials. The rI ertis of several of thslpe tralN h tre i
tasi inil t rl 1la 1 oile t't II I L, ila.ait lnit o lle of talte i iiie \ ihaiti
I R S tigg-ttitll- ri it'll ex i'pertillent.t
RESULTS OF TESTS AT CHILLICOTHE.
,u1d41 :1 s was first tW 1ted at (hilliatie. 'Tex.. in 1v!00t ai -in le
W Wllill Lolvil nt al t A 0 w :i1Yedl. I" }!i0 Ahis was
Illie. d ill :, -il iow 4ill it hsi lh of :i1o :l1'lr of ilth .
Tllttl lio t onil wa minid 11, i dlrV it grew to :I htei it or I it, In
e t. .\ itill )Oi 'ion ilt h 1 )ll, o1-f= lih f :o1f li'larl w:as e it
Slin inY ol1 tcl ehmt h two twii1 Frill ihe 'liitill Tr. 11t l ilid,
of see1 wer "ered in two pickings. which is at the rate of :1::-5
Imnild, il ni'.
I 1111 1 it- w i llntql J ime 1 ot iewl"y Ioken m i4 hn l front
iih ttli I li ;I Were l 'll-t ,:i1i lar1 -cr lhlili the olle
:illilin oIf ( Ii lil illl o wi 1i alonit il e. 1 tolil I infill frolli
.A pril 1 ti) 010i r Wil 1114' i l|ie. rhw W i light <'011 lit1 1 o t ie
tFilwall WtP '11h ithli liuth tiio i ili l 0 )ir lot 10 oily lla 0 r114l-
folilr h of ;I Ilrillid IiFili vihld.
)ilrinf thc 0i ili iof 1912 111000 4hPlaihed of ii W -,1W e el .
Foill\ ,1ii111 I( hi v 1 \ ere ob :1110ill fr i :I ilie- tI l i ;ere ilt. a rille4
o April it i110 'llie o i pid, :f )t per 110l0. TheI lilte :ln i
RIlollind oif oe itt iitle 1 :ls 1 follow -:
1 1111 f '' .. . .. 2 1 1
1i)h l" 1 1 I
.11stt-f;'




8 SUDAN GRASS.
This yield is at the rate of 4.4 tons per acre. During this period
the rainfall was as follows:
Inches.
April 26 to) 30 ------------ 0.68
M ay ------------... ..-- .52
June ..4. 69
July --------------------- 1.39
.A ugu st- ..::.....-- 3 35
Septemr .. -2.92
O ctober 1 1() 14 .-------- -----------. --------- 1.97
T o ta l __- .---- -- ------- ---------- ------- 15 .52
Two acres were also planted on April 20 in rows 36 inches apart.
This crop grew to an average height of 6 feet 4 inches and was har-
vested for seed on August 3, 96 (lays after planting. It was a little
overripe and probably 10 per cent of the seed was lost by shattering.
The actual seed saved from the 2 acres was 708 pounds. By Septem-
ber 20 the grass was again about 18 inches high and beginning to
head. when it was cut for hay in order to plow the ground. The
Yield was estimated at about 1,000 pounds per acre, but it was not
weighed, owing to rainy weather.
Two fields of Sudan grass were grown for seed under contract
with two farmers in the immediate neighborhood of Chillicothe. One
farmer planted 12 pounds of seed on 13 acres in 42-inch rows and
secured a yield of about 10 bushels per acre. The second farmer
planted 4 pounds of seed on 2 acres in 42-inch rows and harvested
1,285 pounds of clean seed, or 15.3 bushels per acre.
The seed grown on the experiment farm weighed 40 pounds to the
bushel; that grown by the first-mentioned farmer. 44 pounds, and by
the second, 42 pounds per bushel. In contrast the seed grown on the
experiment farm in 1911 weighed but 32 pounds per bushel.
RESULTS OF TESTS AT ARLINGTON FARM.
At Arlington Farm, Virginia, Sudan grass was tested in 1912, both
broadcasted and in 18-inch rows (figs. 2. 3, and 4). The broad-
vasted plats were sown on June 3 at the rate of 10 pounds of seed to
the acre. The l)roadcasted stand was not perfect, some comparatively
sterile spots being ahnost bare of Sudan grass and occupied by
pigeon grass. The crop in these plats grew to an average height of 5
feet. One twentieth-acre plat cut for hay on August 23 yielded 280
pounds or at the rate of 2.8 tons per acre. The second growth on this
plat was 30 inches high and was beginning to head on September 20.
This grew to a height of about 3 feet, hut the seed was not mature
when killed 1) frost on November 4. Nine latss of one-twentieth of
an 'Wre each were cut for seed on Sel)tember 20 and yielded, on the
[Cir. 1251




SI i\N .IASS. 9
al"PP pe ; Nlm ml ,~r 0' 3.31 6th l l;(' n cr, 1ly le fairth (of Ilh,
1ildill ily 'Pclfi d fr,iio n Iu' I :11 i1 nlo w .
Fli;. 2.-A bro adefat.d 1 1 of S!4 ln ra- ;it Arli~nton larm, Vlrhtnl, 1 512.
Eight plats of ole-t tuitilh of ai a'e ea'h ii'e planted in I1-
inh 1roxS Oil Junie i at the rate of lMis eol per 80r0 a11 cll ti-
It. 3,-Row 'If S I I Hr : t \rl iton Farm Vl rginht, 1012. Dch row 14 Jro9wn
from the s d of ingl pl nt Th' thr rows on tbo riht .r- typical Sd in r
vated(i twice. Two of these plat- .ut on Aiiugust 2: when fully hv le;de
and about 7 feet high yvihlel. respectively. il and :7 po mnd- per
plat. or at the rate of 2.- and :.5 tni- to the acre. This counlhi have




been (-ut as early as August 10 with a very slightly smaller yield.
The second growth on these two plats was over 3 feet high when
killed by frost on November 4.
The remaining 8 plats were harvested for seed on September 20
and yielded an average of 23 pounds each, or 460 pounds per acre.
Prac(tically no seed was lost by shattering. The second growth in
these plats was about 1 foot high when killed by frost on November 4.
A late seeding was made on August 7 in rows, and this was 48
inches high and fully headed when killed by frost on November 4.
There ean be no doubt that by seeding not later than June 1 two
full cuttings of Sudan grass for hay can be obtained each season in
FI;. 4.-Sudan grass at Arlington Farm, Virginia, 1912. This is another view of the
right-hand row shown in figure 3. The tall plants in the background are hybrids be-
tween Sudan gras,4s and some variety (of sor.ghllm.
Virginia. The grass has shown much stronger growth in cultivated
rows than when broadcasted. but it still remains to be determined
which method is most desirable.
The seed grown at Arlington Farm in 1912 weighed 36 pounds per
bushel.
Mixtures of Sudan grass with cowpeas and with soy beans were
als tested (fig. 5). A one-tenth acre plat was broadcasted on June
11 with 3 pounds of Early Black cowpeas and 2 pounds of Sudan
grass. This was cut for hay on September 6 when the Sudan grass
was in bloom and the first pods of the cowpeas were fully grown.
The grass was 6 to S feet high and the cowpea vines were of about an
equal length. The plat yielded 925 pounds of c.ured hay. about one-
[ Ci r. I25I




fourth 1,,wiliff(( Pt"., TIa. l1h 1, at th~l, 4a 1, .6; toll.- ,f dwl, 11, Nx urt,
Jier av'et.
l I I t*ID t,) ( I tI IIIt h a It i l t h I III ( .I all-. al l ( IV iIIl \tli *
Itc a t i li' 1 -ai(0 1 r:tll: I ~:i ill itl-m i f dl l-ii l gra-ll <' a:di 2'
80 4 t ll I10 1111' ; ()N\ d1:1( II p. ct (o SitIl 0 a il fi .,) 'ill e
posuns a f Ea:r lv ll:wk mw uvs ir' Isince of s hit aba er:s-- (i.. ). Th
ill (f the lixitur, 1 ,-u Iailli of ailI-dir lhi ,,r 2.S tois per
iit' let.
th'YP,
. sin iihi I li1X1 ill )f ll/ld :III ght 111 A 0il l1 t l 0 lli. a1 1 11
il vi rit 'tv, \\;I- lOaail the 1 1111 t 1 I d t w 11 3 1(1 i t f 44 liseil an(i
2 wililds of 'iltalit 1 A lmit tl le- f ati Ih 4)f ti iiil l lt* \:t a t
Ifall. i11 ich tI iiled alu illt tWe 4F:1i iO j 1i2ilt (of I to fi. 11Vh411
~1
F i;. '. -Plh ts at \rlii-h tl I'tr in \ o 1.L o s : 0 1 *- --: Stnllt .:.s-- I*i.1
(cut (II e Itet i'rll I ri. C) (b u1 .l 3-- ?f;u l II:. I Wl i al I<- It *l i I I
pos wer aiit half 11mvii.
TIl1is Illixtlulre ired iIll t' 'adIlv ithai t ". l liiixt i l a a-
ulperior ini )hy1'n alqsolity. The l it heli w a. piI)iltil- of eilrel hai,
OF ili i t '1e of 1. 1 oni per iltar.
Fig ift t 6 'lo 1 -l ii) of T llii- g : lt 11w iiits I lr at .\Arlilli lon
F illo for oIplll i-l 1 ii h it 1 ilt te idall g1~ -F -h(w i i I iilire 8.
TESTS AT MISCELLANEOUS EXPERIMENT STATIONS.
TEXAS.
Ti xE X.,
At the Sanll Antonio (Tex.) Field Statliin Mr. S. II. II -in,
tested Sutill gra ill 1911 :10d 1912 :ilid rej t l, I a fodllow-:
From It rowih of the phit tedI l in 19Ill this a Iperars ti I I t st I' prtin-
isiig r is th has hIt. n bI Itwl at tl e\ It'ri:tielIt f;n t ru. Twl thji v.re
It'r 1"51




12 SUDAN GRASS.
planted, one where it could be irrigatel and the other without irrigation. The
pilt not irrigated made a good growth and proved to be as drought resistant as
Johnson grass, although the plat was so small that the yield would not be
reliable. Only one cutting was secured front this planting. Both plats were
planted on March 31-sonewhat later than is necessary. The first cutting of
the irrigated plat was on July 31 and gave a yield at the rate of 3.49 tons
per aere and1l a seed yield of at least 50G pounds per acre. The second cutting
was made on October 10 and gave a yield of 3.11 tons per acre, making a total
for the season of (.60 tons per acre. At least three cuttings would have been
secured lind it been seeded earlier and the first cutting not allowed to seed,
which would have increased the yield nmaterially.
In 1912 we put inl a planting of Sudan grass March 17. without irrigation.
and the yield from two cuttings was 5.66 tons per nere. Sorghum planted under
the same conditions gave a yield of 4.6S tons.
Fi;. 6.-Rows of Tunis grass at Arlington Farm, Virginia, 1912. Note the very much
thinner apIearance of this grass as compared with the Sudan grass in figure 3.
At College Station, Tex., a test was made in 1912 by Mr. A. B.
Conner. who sent in the following report:
Planted May 15 on one-fifth acre plat in rows 3 feet apart. Germination was
fairly good, but stand not as uniform as desirable. Grass made very vigorous
growth up to July 1. On July 7 was just coming into full boot. On July 15
it was in full head at a height of 7 feet and presented a very vigorous appeIar-
nce. Oil August 8 the plat averaged 7 feet in height, and on account of the
irregular stand ea.h plant had put out a number of culns. Sone were noted
with as many as 40 to ,). Plants were very leafy to the top, showing superi-
ority in this respect to Johnson grass. Harvested August 14 for seed and gave
a yield of 57 pounds of thrashed seed. A second growth, which was produced
without any rainfall. the season being exceptionally dry and not enough rain to
produce a second growth oi sorghumus. attained a height of above 5 feet and
[Cir. 125]




IN intre. ted for ~n 1ays lUsilnli f l in I s *I \i. set tI, ili h li I lie -
Ie I t ** fl' li th e 11 1 11 1 i :I le 1' g 1\ a 1a :n a i t t1 !. 0 11 u
se l r I l I h f T
A t at l)illiat. +:i14' 1I01\ 4I4ilry l4m" l -. t1141- n w4hoft
by Mr. W. 1). 0eig :
T \14 ( itl tu, 'll 1 p:IV i" *I : l. t't 1.4'' b 4 1 + I -i IIlA "m 4" I .4 W Il*
'std od I1y 2, I112 1 i. I i 11.4 l'Imp 4t I ,n\ "a 1 ".A 4 ., and l
It \14t.14 M ay 2 II 1.4'1 h41 4' 111 1' -. I I fl\, t.'d I.,1
14i1 41 _,b Iill o in I t 1 :1 sh iIi Io :I I 1 44444 1 4.4 1 h 4 e1 led toI14 14
S41 ith leIura 7 :IIIl gie :li it l I I g 44+f4 Iti +, +e, '.1I, l stric1 + 4l4
Po S tip illis l | II i t e I I'l t ll l 11 : as U K, I ~ d1 0 1* ,,f tili Ill
ros. % 2 p t11 I 1 1s 4 of L I) -- 1r l. 1le T 144 44er 1 -f 1 I-. .41' le1
Ialtler, I I t llil + It is estilin ila I 4h4.1 l7.e I I I iI t' \s S st iIt
II r 11 I il
T"1ie follm ling is a irep rt tt a tuii:I at Ibl 1l,' t o141b1 :. on 1'ih L
Station. ('him. ('al., 1, Mr. ltlanal 1h'I ,:
TWo ',WS .f $ilii: ll ) .I 4, o e 7"."* 1 4 Ih .' :I l I i 1744 a4I'q 15 how, \ ','ep
gl'OWI it ('iteo ill I 111.. I1 WI:s4 : I'.' i 4. it nowel 4ni. t WHiO IIli4I 2." "'l t il t;tl2 .
fo tl groW it ll Wa iiitit n 4l1 4 ill Ih. s io jil 444l llin \ 1 1t (i t s 1 ti .t 1 I'ft
ftri owilli lil.t i it ii tia l im l l i ( I 14 l i hlw i: 1 I \ l t'l'rl i *iii .
Th1 W l111li litt1 w plilit 1 Ig lsi) dit II t 1 4 11 44 Is 4+ 4i.s ". Iitl ii 4'1 '4 i4ll'i4 .
I!lo Wii: Ii ilhalit II li' t tl4: 4 i ttilig Ic'll 4 iro 1:"I ll ow th 1'4 Ii ith, Ib 14 I it "4 t it5
prob lel that4 thre'~e good tittI ie 4of 14:4\ *:414 h.' 441.14 4 e of4k its, 41 u's11 ri44 ties
W1tl aflrll w'ed t prt : see1V d '1"cr fr4 nlli I I i r-I t :1: +it li-.i i wa t' r st"4'4
llte4. hilt still I gtal tisy l *'p wai s iprodllntil :If 11r 1h14 1141 Tl t he p11. llhlll li't
ilg WIN iullt for hay siui, l : ,1 r t'ip M o i l t el+ 114 4 1 \ i.t*1 ;" =l 410 h*lty Wi;tB
se 'urlled lall e liff" lh4l ii 1 + *"*'*)1 a 4 l l .w I u ll i l
The fllowin a d1t: ::ile s$4lt, igle':4 4of tie t:' it4h f 10ls Irwo :
M ly 2 Ilnw 7.5 ft'a*t mli4 s lit.l
.tly !. It f ll 1bamti :I4in Is 144 72 44 1 44'" I cl
.Itly 1.. . i'll f14r 14:i..
Alictlst ~ ~ ~ ~ !M '"heailg o t os n inches li-It
Nol t '144144r lA t 1 'fl 'ig 4f M'e''l W.11'i 1i0+
lla y 1' 1 1 41 1. 14 t 4e4t l -.,; I, t- .
July i! .. .. ... .lits falr hblan+lit ) :il d to 1 n l it .h.+ lis zh
*AtlgII) 2,4) I'" "'ed! io' *- l
Atiglio "' 74! to 0 ind e" hi4 hi
Sthe1,lill.4'r I 1 4 it f41 s'ic.n ; 1 44p 44" "i" 4ll 'r* 1 f .4h+4 .40l44
1t' he I" cr :Ile'' +! li, 4tif l *Il' h4 tw" ,t I 444t4 I.ow s%'
.44441 ::ft 1i t141 44f' "'4'041 J4e' blt1444h
1\444.,10t''' 1 ".', 44it 4 Yo l (14 4. 4 I f4'4'4 l -1
Sf I'll Iillil \.
A .Snall teo-t mul e iln i912 :it Brookiing -. I sk.. h- i n realec
Q51 110. Slutl :tt'U'I
Th ree row. !' 4 itsllit :1l4'1rt. liach l.,' s "14 1t42 114'4 l.4444 I \;.1t :4414 The
gni s<1+ grety, w lel-gV slow 1 thirile: iIIt, na rit b It <,11 *I+1 I i+i ht:li li
Oil .11140 1 l WAil s nt" 44 ilj11llft't1 lIn tillit' b 14 1i*'' ." fM:--l 1-: ..1 l .\ i s
utiit W, 11llt w ':tt e.r l4 t';i11 411 1144' 1: 1" 4''0 :-l)11X, 4i4 theil4 it. a"' ,
;t'ir 1251




14 SUDAN (;RASS.
Sent bler 1o Thle antiual amHloulIt of seed h'arvested from the three rows was
!\.O I1jolldS, which is at the rate of (;78 poII(ds per acre.
Juine 12. two rows. 3i; inches r tllt, each 5 rods long, were planted. One
coIw was cuit for lhay Septemlber 1(., when G feet high. but it should have been
urt earlier. The yield of this row was 110t.,5 pounds, or at the rate of 6.,
tnlls 0r a Acre. The second row was left ftor seed, but did not fully' nature
when killed(I Iy fro st Se It Iller 1. only 2 Ipoiuds of mature seed being secured.
OREG(N.
Regarldingo a test at the cereal station. Moro. ()reg., in 1912. Mr.
1). E. Stephens gave his experience as follows:
Of the several grasses plalt(ed this spring at this stat ion, the Sudan grass is
the only olle that gave good results. It was planted in rows 3' feet apart.
An (excellent stand resulted and it grew vigorously to a height of 41 feet. It
was cut for hay oil September 26 and yielded ;t 1lio rate of 1.A tons per acre.
A although we have hit this one year's results with this grass, it is the lmost
promuisilig one we have tried, with the possible exception of slender wheat-
gra ss. So far as lltoisture is concerned, this sea sii was a favorable one, but
if this grass canl stand thle usual dry weather of this locality there is a future
for it here.
31INNESOTA.
At the Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station Prof. A. C.
Arny reported that Sudan grass was planted in two short rows, one
8 feet long, the other 6, the rows 2 feet apart.
It was apparently sown thicker than it need be, for the grass is very thick
in tlhe rows and grew to an average height of 5S inches. There is a great
abundance of leaves at lthe bottom. The stems are not very coarse and it
looks as though the grass might make a very good q(u:lity of hay. The cattle
seem to like it green and there is apparently no reason why they should not
like it cured. It is altogether Irobable that. cutting the cr op at the right time
after planting it early in the season, two crops could lIe secured. The new
growth at the base of the roots makes me think that this would probably be
the way it would turn out.
I am not sure whether the grass will mature seed this fall or not. It
depends altogether on how the frost hohls off.
A few of the seeds were plantiled much thinner and they have reached a
height of over 100 inllches, being higher Ithain anlly of outir sOr'ghlllnll plants. Sown
thin this way the stalk is quite co;rssel and it would not do for bay; that, of
course, is not the vay it is meant to bIe grown.
WISCONSIN.
From the Wiscoiinin Agricultural Experiment Station. Prof. A. L.
Stone wrote as follows:
iThel Sudaln1 gas;Is sent us last spring for trial calne a little too late to give
us an (oppltrtunlity to get in as large a pilt of it is we would have liked to do.
W\e put illn only a single 1row of illthe(' grass. this row being bllfout 6O feet long.
'Thle grass ca(le on very nicely andil heded out illn fine shape. It will lIe iln-
Iossillle under tlhe circulistalnces to lake anly estimate of the yield per acre.
Ut1 f'tlou its apllpeatrntcf' I ai of the olilitioll this grass illight prove of value
in somie sectiolns of thie country and possibly right here ill Wisconsin. although
it wolthill u(ne s1111 exp eri lletli t oll t o tl detq(rlillne whether it call collllete with
timothy tIi I like the ah; pparan(.e of tie grass
[Cir. 12.51




I lil D N \
I I III
A t t he lim :lit1m A \ ti, llt(0 :1 '\p l l InttI Ii l luil 01:1- \\I
wt l -54v". H- iK Aolmli \ 14, to, lirt cof Mr. N1. 1. i, .
Ialyt it Iobsili it I I, Ia I aI lll thi wt le+ i
114h Ii 1 i ell i tl 11t' j I 11 *" :i w ont w on
il o l 1 t h i ru i i t 1- I*n-.il It t i+ It t '1 l* It is,
o r .il it. 1 1w ld l l1 \ 1tt, I hs l h t \* 1l + : t+h
1l ;I td Hlio r ;t *+ e tted t. 1** i 1 1 1.11.0.1 ,- i 1 ,+it++
I'll l .x .vIt' :i 1 oit+ t I t tiwiin tllt 1. ik f t*he h if lt + tt i If ti itr th I- .
:l ts s ,i llitSon I '; **li + I lillsk h + l:+Ill w **+ill not+ justli -+ ti + etl i I + II
this ca ti rm tl t (hlt| i 1 1 l1: It \jl .'l tita+tll t 111t l tli 1 I I l t .
lll*,
At the li1 Agli ll ill \I 1rxII,'it4 ro 1in itsl;ti *ra- was
(t-t d il C mlmri i \ i ilh1 .1ml s .t lu ilill-. I k w \Vii
i V :ii 11 e t te re-tilt :- f: h'ow
T l tv ie l "f litt' S ld.illi i' i i i l '\\ +ri | l **j. :1 ; 1
t 'I tls11 liit ,
pnAs h:rn ibrl 11.12
1011 llie 101401 .li,
.lAnlc 110( l 4**1 : mi1 tl .olfit i 1
1: 0 d i i ot i f :I d ll :'lt ti st -htsms i l ia- d +t +hty rbl ++*.l, i F li "o
]l ii l ll+'+l il Inlll +.1 l'll~ th i t t t I| - 1 1 i l I l i, t :1111 +, _-i+ .. l l ili.+
:Is to its ability to furt Ymis sIt\ r* ps.:ss 11iI 1\0 ,'- it 0 ar 1 fo I.-l]
".OIi, )I Net' il il cultipul's I ll +I' (;I lF:ildl' \ 1ith 1l 11111h'(*. \If h 11I 1.!01
testal it is Ito ua it iy ,r pIil It bility+
1<14 ISI \ A.
r i. lnknl- ,f In ,lli-i tu nomit F.xp rilitil btilliul.
tested Sll l ,ra-- in 191"2 intl it' 1rtd a, :1 llh v-:
Hi row h. I v'i all.' H ere le:tl it t ih i- 1e i be i t 1 l11i0 ;ht
till H otllet,. l I lif +l llii.' \\. li.;I(h* 11\ t'li l iP .!.1+ 1 H .5t + 1 001i f l l.ii.l
lh 0 " 1 : lit 4111 11 t, I it \\l1 .; 1i 'is l i lt
YiO + l O 11 0 1111li 1,0iliil+ 11 fi -1 Ti 1i+l ill +I ntii- lit! 0 *l*t ;il14 lt 1+
W E11 m. m ite m lei timt l rri :it l pi r owtil t1 et t he (1 -
Know -et4 to ItLtt m in to w1 k f til it' *r*h Ii i i, lI ''. I1 a,
later relmwl te fItid l I1 eq t-'m- dtat -ll me ow sa-1v t 1 l t "n twit
go Pmlitl l? and o 11 1 n at tattlig.r"
Mil.111011 %.
For ihA0 ( h inlli .\t*TitlA l i lliA "x. l rili it oil i MI. K IL
Wright reportt'l A- follows-:
The S1111:l1 1 < l ve\ w P .ll I. t ill I 1h ** I ftoI as roar up .
lth 1 (0 1+ 4 1i O~i) ll'lI lh011.111 .1 1 o+the1l 1 1I10it TIt i Niel n1;. -
st'iz 1 ; 11




J 6 SUDAN GRASS.
in one plat covering one twenty-lifth of an acre and 6 rows in another one
twenty-lifth of anll acre. These were sown May 1 and harvested for seed
A\ugust 12. yielding. respectively. at the rate of 900 and 700 pounds of seed and
,775 and 2.525 pounds of stover per acre.
A L BA MA.
In reference to a test at the Alabama Agricultural Experiment
S tatlion, Mr. E. F. Cauthen sent the following account
The Sudan grass was planted June 15 and was mowed for hay on August 16.
We p)lallnted( it alone, in colieAlioll with cowlpeas, inl connection with Japanese
millet, and in connection with G;ernmi millet. The Japanese millet is too early
for the grass. The Germnian millet tits better with this grass for hay. The
4rdillary eowpea sees to tie a little late as a combination crop.
The hay should have been (ut about the st of August. but was left for the
farmers attending the sunnier school to inspect.
I aml inclosing a print shoitwing the grass and cowpl)eas just before they were
towed. It looks to ime that the Sudan grass will make a permanent hay crop
for this section. I have onle Il:t that I am saving for seed and will mow the
ether the second time if thbe grass gets sufficiently high.
TEN N ESSEE.
At the Tennessee Agricultural Experinmwnt Station one-tenth of
an acre was sown broadcast. Prof. C. A. Mooers wrote as follows:
Our test with Sudanl grass will not allow me to draw all the conclusions that
you wavlnt. This grass rusted rather badly this year but made a fair yield, and
under favorale conditions I feel sure that a second crop could be cut to advan-
tage. It stood the dry weather only fairly well.
(Comments by Prof. Morgan and others who saw the plats are rather unfavor-
ai ble to this grass, but I think the tonnage was greater than that of millet sown
at the same timnie. Of course, commnion sorghumn would outyield it greatly, but
the ditlieulty with which it is cured hardly enables us to make a fair comlipari-
son between the two. I my add that some Rhodes grass planted at the same
time far outyielded the Sudan grass and made a very attractive growth, indeed.
KENTUCKY.
In a small test at the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station
the grass was allowed to mature for seed. Prof. 11. Garman reported
the following results:
ILand plowved, disked, and harrowed. One-fortieth of an acre planted at rate
of 2(; pounds per a re. I)rilled rows 3 feet apart. Caine up May 27. 1912.
Stand perfect. Began to bloom July 15. li full bloon July 25. Last bloom
August 5. Cut for hay October 21. Yield, fresh. 1i) pIounds. Yield, dry. 1-4
pounds. Height of plants, 73 inclies. Seed saved for planting in 1913.
MA RY LA ND.
The rnit obtained at the Maryland Agricultural Experiment
Station ae thus ytelrertlv bY Mr. Nicholas Scilnitz:
The Suian grass was planted in rows oni Jiune 3 and July 13. The planting
lm iiade o Juhie collsisled ot ;bliout onlle-fourth of ali acre. It ca lle up well, alnd
there wvas a good stald to ltbeginll with 1I oVwinllg to variolls acidents during
le eason th here was not nore' than about one-third of a stand left to produce
ICir. 125L1




5Ni't T 11s of I. 4 ~i r mw "n il lethli'l .1104 t it II i ll s ow lie f 1, 1 1
hl N. t..lhief
11l:t tl' l i 44 l t .111 1 : 41 4 di4444.''.Id III It il e e** I ..0 **1 Ii0. sl. 0 10.1 \ **I
litthl f r 11:1% a r lll'l 41h he ab, ile .1 th ihn
T i i 1114 \ l' lt V.444ii il'. 1| 1I lht.* in'nl ."4 I l i i-m i t *I'. II4 II ih l I.l
t4c i lli4g ll ( II ler :'I :a *I i' I M1 I .1 1 ~I4.IIl I ,Il It,' I h. 4,4 ''w (114
gr1nl 4i11fr 1 i lha t ial 11:1 'rIt l ;s cI'o f 11 1 : h l year,
Ilih,'lia "lh V4,rilI'4 ih 41s ii 44 i ,+ ,' l" .1,i4 .hh *4,f lh f" :4 'l ly4 .I,44 r444 lh '44, ,,.4
p 4( IlIlat% N I Cl* I I th t 1 10. :cry. I eI fIr I I eldI o. f t hi- f..r itit 1, 1lhe \%01. o S
80%iiai NI10.
At I Virgini1 Aricilif-al ExlmpinWil Sltitiin i small 10,I g;i\
tin foll01 lih t datit :
S11 11 1 "lI'41 W' s hIlrtIA thb1*41 il a I" of Ml ffirik of :4l1 ite10. tiT l H wa'
ll>t hiar\e 1.i4 tl iil l i l, a I VI SlIe" I I. h n it H: a s fo'w IaI.
Tho pl t yielded 1 41 p* 4n l' lis of 4'r V'e, hl: r :it t it e of 5 t' m I44 'r mCmr.
The cie f criliciSIiv ofifl,reud a' lilly id 4n is iHs mIwrseV-S.
NIV J1'h 1.
From th New Jersey .\gficultira 'xli('rillitll itatittil lrevtm"
J. (L iputan witl the folloX ing, rejurl :
The Stl:It1 s gr "'4 was swelehd ill hi s rin g. in t t111h41 n s tlitl ~.s f lhoIwed by
deth ithily unt4f4tor le w athr oilC tit ion4S. We hi :4 W- m a m cr doilght itl Juile
tild .hlly. N te rte'I 'I'ss. th' cr' o ill 'tiin l 144141u f irly Sl.ali f:ilt ry gr'owihl
ild yihdld In pior 1:ttlll a crop Ill\w nt to 1 tim f ir dry in r wIr ntcre,.
Ile, hMy Inlitle fiont (h- Sudah \ lkW better ill jinl:ily th:a ill t we* .oild
hfl ', lillwd frollt litlifht growl t it a4 ill ii 4cll4 l lit nl ItI is Mi. vells
opliionII int oil i lt o hr ti4ttl I4ll l Hill l,-it sure f orai bly 'il- h millet as
to growth itulier trying clima eti anl soil C tlitia's a4 that it i 4ill |r hinC
Ia lily or h ttr pan%ity. Ii 1 m Iy ill r-cssiln that ion blier ".)il and udilr tintre
flourhle Clliuitc (ntlllitions l Sildh41 :r:I4 s-4houl bt .1 l' a qcrop s li all'n4t o)
2 of VlVil l10ur tolls of lly iver :it'v.
REPORTS OF EXPERIMENTAL TRIALS BY FARMERS.
II [ \ -.
A dietaitled 'eport of particular ilit'el wva received front Mr.
F. J. McCarthy v, Iern, Tex., mn1ter tlate f Septemlebr I. 1912:
I deftrrMl idltill he' sl. w Seeing 1o gn 'i f rainf oni April 1s and1 k11iving
Ownr, wIs liot lollt'1g li1is, ti,14 ill 1lh 4 ail I.o spr' 1 1144' 41. I (11114 it-l i b ehost
I1 plhllit ill'e se l ill othe Ill't ll i t:Ilot llly l u l -t, 11, 4 lirst lalill -p'roltilt.
the se'd. I Ia:d Id wed a pice ,of new 1:.\\ in Nowni l hr, 1!11. Tli'i :uld hadl
ro'lived 1two harrowinls; 1"one IN 1ele1r 1 1i9.11, 1he 4 lher F'1rin ry 1 I. I 912.
This lill is fy ilpilll tld i l wvIs nt'V', illh :1 1lie:1l y r wth % Iv of p1-l oIak,.
bltkjck-4k, and live-o t :Ik Ii II)her. A ril I 191 I 12. 1 '1 'en flT\I I it s. 101)
yards lonl g. I fet apart, and 2 ini"s I, leep. IIIntd-1 lh Sitola it 4r1stI set'l4
in furrows ml 4141Ctvter'l lh' s4tNl 2 i-his 41--' wilh the dry dl s AIril 2.
we had a drizzling raill which htstedi from 1 :W In. untLil 1:144 : Ii.. hat 1
thet grass :1415'4a1 'el :to grntnl, a Itlt h14 lf If :1 sta1 olA in i 'tn1 s1atin I
found tilthe o1t half of othe semd dry anid Ltl4owllusti I l l- lni44tr14,'. Mlay -I ve
had a light rnil las ing from a. m. to 7 n. In., not elouigh to slrout the
dry stci.
I'ir. 125l




18 SUDAN GRASS.
\We cultivated the Sudan grass with a 5-tooth cultivator, very shallow the first
time, May 25. Second cultivation, June 6l. Light rain, not enough to sprout
tie dry sted still in the ground. June 20, cultivated the third time with 5-tooth
cultivator, shallow. July 1. cultivated the grass the fourth and the last time.
Being anxious to save the seed of this grass and thinking that every day
would bring a rain to malture the seed I left it growing till August 18. On that
(:ate the grass was 8 feet (; inches high and so dense was the growth one could
n(ot pass be-tween the 3-foot rows.
I wish to state that on the sane (late, on the same land, and under the very
smine conditions, I planted kafir corn, milo inaize, sorghum, and corn. All of
these completely died out; they could not withstand the terrible heat and
drought. The tfhermonieter registered from June 1 to the date of this report
(September 4, 1912) 1050 to 1100 F. in the shade. All vegetation was sear and
de ad except Johnson grass, which grew from 1 foot to 18 inches high. Sudan
grass showed no effects of the drought except the seed heads, which remained
white.
I do not know how far north this grass will grow, but I am satisfied there is
no place too hot or dry for it if there is moisture enough to sprout the seed.
I as a stockman and I have been testing grasses and clovers for the last
f5 years, with the result that I had to fall back on the sorghums, the very
thing I was trying to avoid.
Additional data were supplied in a supplemental report dated Jan-
uary 24, 1913.
i herewith send you a supplemental report on the Sudan grass. The grass
was first cut on August 14, 1912. It made a large amount of feed, I would say
-it the rate of 4 tons per acre.
A few days after being cut it began to grow from the stubble. Having no
rain it grew slowly until Sepember 21, 1912. On that date we had our first rain
since June, 1912. After that date it began to grow quickly until November 6,
1912. November 1, 2, and 3 we had a severe frost which did not seem to hurt
it at ill. November 6, a dry blizzard came down on us. Being afraid I was go-
ing to lose the grass, I cut it and tied it, still green, in bundles and hauled it
to the harm, where it cured and made me plenty of fine feed, it being 4 feet high
-it the time of cutting. If I had cut this at the proper time to make good feed,
i. e.. when the seed was in the boot, I could have cut it four times instead of
twice, but I was anxious to save the seed. The terrible drought blasted the
first crop and the frost prevented the second from maturing.' I exhibited at
the Boerne fair, September 6 ind 7, 1912. a bunch of this grass that measured
10i feet high. Agents of the Agricultural Department, College Station, Tex..
who acted as judges at the Boerne fair, were astonished. They told me they had
the grass drilled just as I had drilled mine and it only grew 4 feet high for them.
Dr. WV. O. Langdon, of Hutchins, Tex., grew Sudan grass in 1911
und again in 1912. le thus reported his 1912 results, under date of
August 18:
The seed received this spring was planted in a little piece of ground in rows
about 30 inches apart. It made a fine growth of an average of 6 feet. Much of
it was nearly. 8 feet high. When seed was ripe. about August 1, I cut it. It im-
mediately Twgun a second growth and is now nearly 3 feet high. Tie ground is
covered witli young plants fromi shattered seed. I think it is the greatest for-
age plant ever introduce into this section and that it will be worth millions to
1'The blasting of the sevd referred to by 'Mr. 'McCarthy is perhaps due to the work of
the sorghum midge, which attacks Sudan grass, like other sorghum.
[Cir. 125]




hll illisert t oi i Ilf h folrall '.e i nf h II t i l 11i IiIIt lI hu Iet e ir I+ta u liis of u tu le tii
graki t itrallrl ; it 1 .*u1i l of til hl l iltlt .tit*Ie. g:ui fl e l 1 nt ti iil ulure Ith
ital 1l0181 thelll fir t altlillr+ ful ails;,' ln ..* I Ol r i'. l tr lievi it I. a u < te t l Jutll
tr 1 ill ding so I i" l .l \ w!I l ltil ;* ,nti lls bil :tit Qlife It 1 "1 :i l -il l :W
Slilt fllt eryl i I Jllt i s iuffl i t1 liII l 'lul 1401 IIll fe l tid it !i l iflfihe lllaei li til tI
g ailfilN t [qliletilll f I II itul t I lo llieat. ut lititle bo i \P(1 littl h 11 IItivl Ili
110:I " for 01w. lit ail h ilita l llitt'. i t ,i s i tok. If ilso t tin I ta :il
11. fitiy theyre i 1 I tl er f1r11, -hant forl" tIiI fo, tet11 It u n tu ri t l it-r
dI l I+, l tI d id ''iIt ti s IIt ll. 11 1: 110 : 111 ,1 I in t Itt Ali,;til 1 e*PI + iiiU sll .' h1:11
H lo h I i 1 1 11, -Iil i 111 I I 01*i[ h e, 181 it
pest .
1ri f. 11. egIl. of 1)etrill. Te\.. 8x ltle tl-l, l'litlll t lI l 1 '_'l1 i\p e
riene ass follows:
I Suwstil es l tin seed II;l l a t st in e. I il t1 h it t tii tn t rails leiil ;iiil
ttIe ,fther 1 11 I lt s:ttlI v, I hi Ii it. 'lie r'e lt ill hlt ta liu t wI xx Iilrt'fl.
I jirept a a''l :1 gut il seedl el b breakil il:':Iiati lli u lhe lfruixt i b lli X al?.
I It ( A prI il I Illitkille tht tirst enth i:n 1 \ I' i l i-* htill p te
ilw ntiil h \ o 1 r er stdt ill t r i it ..l t, 1ii J 1 il 1;lil Alil ltI. I iuli Itliit : I ltdiay
%\ iI tstII 2 I ti2). T he xi hl r I ir:. a'I l' x t ilit i: :s it I t o1olI it fl't'oi t
t I Sut. 'li piet'l il i tile l(la ttnliit I w "% el l Il l 1'iul f n a liltia l olllt if
JI hu.i0lin g'rasl I llia i'Iit I ltI h Thill et 1 1i' t> w i' il iil l t l Ih'e --l41il :'t 1 flir
It ies. St eat ittl m e tl 1 will i o tr' Irlih hi la ,6lii" g ; i haysx
1u the lettire is lot sit euiiw''. 'T1i 2 Sii l:ti :tt. i t1 tii uut+y xAt Ittfer l thli
t il t e wll a of1" liny I k% e l 511 1 IllV 1:1 1 O.5* :i *0l :11 1il A 101 lq l imwiln owl i0 .to-a ,
'but I hhe ie ti4 sall.
III i pst pt'irii)t Mr. Stegall :ighted:
I liist''ett to linllliti iin wixe lhiti liatl Il1 itt :a bnie. Iry filitie 1u uiil i ill. Not
lll th [x'ro s wetre ctllut i 'Flie 1 la1iIi t 1".n l I t'i"'ith l the si+attiilt, i the
grass lil ihe S Hutl h l llid st Stlitl: Xi 't lll il m lri rl l the *tily-l still
11 it iA tlOjli tl S u :1a 4 tur ll i lit il ll 0 g ll -en 1 f low -:
iYnlt sent Iiu 2 l t!tell s I tof *s 1. I iwve I it a tu altei'ilith lf :a t a1tl0. I ot
41M1 polnalds oif Iliiu. nla lt i ha1 at etli ttti111. ulnlli iuf IIlx liidtlhui totll Illt
I s wtix 'l it too ii thick. bit for i tttin its uiilk I ahli +tilt t :i"tith l I xxil it alieunt
riglit. \'lilt I lttli lt l t li e. 1100'. il liSr'. ili the Iiehl. i haul chiet'r.
IJtl con t l Oulib nt -. il telWy w inl li l at lity ii' thntos tillit !i0 Sttll it
grass was tinll ti'ly i'stillttll Stock late it l e rt t hrn T atytlhitim ilt lI ltixy
ra get to ett.
1 litt :1 sllall lh-c(n ei c,' J olll hill ::lsl iht livy the it oi f ltlie eil I siuwedI
ill th( bottlln. I t1I the .Ihiui s n It11'. t wice ttll t Ahe Sutlalt 1 ar" ftl" t ili .
The ouather w lis dirt ttl.1 I gut :1 ierut i e e11rxft ilute I itat. Sti n I 1ttlil eat
the S ulll giras h .efore tihey xt i -hi l theI .Julatil i ii I :r"i.'b
l rif W ol i c till Itl hi i lit. Tli., i' tl' hd 1. lii e eri onb'e -
follows":
OII April 3 I scawel 5 hill llot if S!I lttII-:t' It : st t, ilne hIil it f i ti at i rt if
light, silly ltill. 'Fillt 'it' ia hlit l :i liil if 7 fe t til tia t tll hil led GI aila 'y
fro tl i at s wn. tlit Ill lih iin e yichi ig l v tits f liay.
I('ir. 1 5]




20 SUDAN GRASS.
r The exljrieice l(f Mr. I I. N. Molitgonery, of Austin. Tex.. is thus
-j- reported:
o a We 1 lted llt(. SUdan grass bIroadlast, about like o:ts, on a rich but rather
droughlIlty piece of hand blacN.k waxy) which, however, had been well prepared
W--- C and was ill good conlditiion. Since planting, May 7, we have had one good rain,
_W June 17. The grass haid withstood the drought well and made a very rapid
zm InM up-
z growth, attaining .n average height of 5 feet. Although very similar in ap-
ponirance to Jolhnson grass, I consider it far superior as a forage crop, as it is
itllch Illore lnchy. putting out numore sterns and a great many more leaves than
Jolmson grass. The stenis are very sweet, containing a great deal of sugar, and
aIre e4tenT greedily by both cows and horses, none of it being wasted, as is so
often the case with the coarser grasses. I should judge that it would make
double the amount of hay minade by Johnson grass under the saime conditions.
The root system is very much like that of oats or crab-grass and there is no
danger of the land beonoming infested. as it is easy to kill out. I plowed across
onew end of my patch of Sudan grass with a sweep, turning the bunches up, and
there has been no sign of its reappearance.
I cut the hay after saving all the seed, and the grass is again sprouting,
although there has been no rain.
Next year I expect to plant all the seed I have, as Sudan grass has proved
itself far superior in qualityy and quantity to any of the grasses in this locality.,
I slhall also try it on land infested by Johnson grass, as I have an idea that if
I)lated thick enough it will choke out the Johnson Arass in the course of two or
three years.
KANSAS.
Mr. J. M. Gilman. of Leavenworth, Kans., made a small trial in
1912 with the following results:
I inade two plantings of Sudan grass, one early and one later. The early
planting, April 25. in 12-minch rows, was of much less growth and fell down and
shattered seed badly. The later planting, May 20, was one-fifteenth of an acre
in rows 42 inches wide and was cut twice, the first cutting yielding 346 pounds
and the second 267 pounds of cured hay. The first cutting was left a little
too long, but was cut about September 10; the next cutting was made October 14.
ALABAMA.
Mr. Charles Anderson, of Axis. Ala., grew Sudan grass in 1912
and gave his experience as follows:
I planted the Sudan grass seed May 2 and cut it twice. I am unable to give
you the amount in pounds, as I had no way of weighing. It grew very rapidly
and made a very heavy crop. which I would estimate at 14 tons to the acre per
uidting. The stock ate it greedily, but I did not have enough to demonstrate
what it did for them, though they were fond of it. I would consider it a valu-
able crop to grow.
SO(UTI CAROLINA.
MAr. RI. Bates, of Ja(ckson. S. C.. made the following report:
I culit this grass twice. It went to seed twice, once from the grain and again
from thle stullbble. The seed yield was poor, being but 10 bushels per acre for
both lharvts. It nakes a hay yield fully equal to Johnuson grass.
ICir. 1210
O