Experiments in blueberry culture


Material Information

Experiments in blueberry culture
Physical Description:
Coville, Frederick V ( Frederick Vernon ), 1867-1937
United States -- Bureau of Plant Industry
G.P.O. ( Washington )
Publication Date:

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Resource Identifier:
aleph - 29631473
oclc - 37307478
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    List of Illustrations
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Peculiarities of growth in the blueberry plant
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 24a
        Page 24b
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 26a
        Page 26b
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 34a
        Page 34b
        Page 34c
        Page 34d
        Page 34e
        Page 34f
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    A method of pot culture
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 52a
        Page 52b
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 60a
        Page 60b
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 68a
        Page 68b
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 70a
        Page 70b
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 72a
        Page 72b
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 74a
        Page 74b
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 76a
        Page 76b
        Page 76c
        Page 76d
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 78a
        Page 78b
        Page 79
    Improvement and propagation
        Page 80
        Page 80a
        Page 80b
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 84a
        Page 84b
        Page 85
    Field culture
        Page 86
        Page 86a
        Page 86b
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 88a
        Page 88b
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

B. T. GtALL>WAY, Chill %f l;rriit.

EXlIpII \iI',1T' IN 1I/1 iEIRI I Y (/l'l'!n llP.


BorANIS.r IN C(hii,,: OF TAXONOMI AND RAN U E Il\Al l \^" -.

I ~

t -- c.Ipz -

O yVl,]l' M ENT P11INT1NOI O.VI() E.
1 9 l 1.

IsslTID N.', I-kI'm n, 15, 1910.


The scientific and technical piillI['ir'i.,n-of the Ilurn'ali of Plant Indliurv, which was
organized July 1, 1901, are issued in a single series of bulletin., nI list of iirlih follows.
Attention is directed to the fact that iii. publications in ihi- serif., air nol fir g,.ueral
distribution. The ip.oi iriienlij-nt of I i...iimet',t. Government Printing Offite.. lVabhington,
1). (C., is authorized by law to sell them at cost, and to him all appi..arions for th,',s bul-
letins -,lii'iil be made, accompanied by a piotal money order for lthe r'.-iquirrd amount or
by cash. Numbers omitted from this list can not be furuislhed.
No. 2. Sp. rni.iiL. Il ,-1 .iiii I',,. uni,,ii ion of Zamia. 1901. Price. 20 cents.
:. I. ii n Ul...- Il. rii 20 cents.
4 I( In,. J[ 1".r. ". ID. 3t j .\i ll . 1 11,, l 't ... 10 ( Cn t-,.
8. .A i'-l u i.n I .r I 'ii.:-i 'il. ,ii,.i.l i..1 I 'i,i tiiiit i.u. lI.Ir P'rie 10 cents.
9. TIl N ,,I th .\ . I l .in, i^'- i. .It L'ijrrtn:! l It"-'. ri,','. Iln ,.. nt?..
10, I .,, %]- ii ,,| i I!ii.it-,.ri. t. -i,,' P'i ne. 10 cents.
11. IhiIu.,.n1 1 .-- In'.- Pi n... 10 cents.
13. 1i,,... Iil, .I... mr. ., it in -i Is I Texas. 1902. Price, 10 cents.
14. 'h, ji.., .I TIiiill.." .ln M i leid- .ini ['t, h. nitii It. 1902. Prie,. 55 cInts.
15,. l'.';i.' i *'ilil.i.11'- on Nitr'ilih i liI.ril, r ,i' q;rear Basin. 1902 I're 15 c'nuts.
17. S-.in. I'i- -.. .i the 1\' I :',,2. I'rice, 10 cents.
20. Manufacture of Semolini. and ;il ..r.i'ii, 1902. Price, 15 cents.
2'2 Tiii i,..- Effects of 1',. iiini.i I'.l tin.unri 1902. Price. 1li p ,nt
'..I. 1 i .-ii The Great I' ..i };' :i,. I S.,Iu. Crop of Nile i)ll,.. 1e,02. P'ri.c, 15

124. 1 i.-riiitj-ni ,I '; N. i" MN st. 1902. Price, 1',, 'uts.
25. Miscellaneo,- PIp. I 1903. ['rir. 17; i",nt-.
Letters on \.-i i. -lii, in the \W -l I i.i Spain, etc. 1902. Price, 1. Letnit.
1' he Effect a LI, I. I..ir on Turnips. : lii.t. Irio. 1I .,i ns.
31. Cultivated i,, 1-.1 i ps of the Northwestern S.lat.-. 1tei2 Pric. 11) '.-uts.
32.. \ l'i. -,' r ii, \ Iir.. Ash. ]1I'. ; 'ri .". Iin cents.
33. N..1 ii, \i. i. ] .S i,- t'. r I i... Ii l,.ii lI'. ; Price, 15 cents.
35. 1., iv ii r I. l^l ] l'- i. iti.i ] :i(, Pr i -% 1.5 > r i -
3<. 'Ii., I:i.,n_ ii li.. \\'. I. in I. l i.,, [IXi,. c. t 1903. i'r i'' : eo .iir- .
37. I inn., .n .4 SLiores i', ,'. r iL C;, ," i{iin; iii' NiLr.''.ii'.-. et, It' :l. I ''r ", ]i 15 r'nts.
3 8. F'(it I _, I +,in lii ,rns in ].' t' LI \\',n-lnnr_'..'-_i : r l ', i l'rh'r, .' ni .
39. 'il, li lr. li- : iii n of the Easi, i I i. L'ii]' S .%% l J I''i,.;. 'ri[:., 1i, (.1It.1.
41. 1 I,. ''C iniih i .l l I'* I iin i u1i I''.i i ;i. i1 Piice, 10 cents.
42. Tlr. Hf N... iii -11 i I\ i ,,ln. inn ri,,i .Ti,.! ii. I ii:.!. Price, 10 centn.
4}7. lh. 1 I ~.- FIiT..ri .,[ \\1,,. ,r \',,l'n l r.- l',,:: I'm ,,'.. I10 cents.
48. Tb, .Xppl,' in (',.l1 .r.. 1.2.. 10103. P1ritc, 15 -ni-.
49. i i ,l'irr .[ IlI, ( n itil .\it> ri. a ii Rubber Tree. I'.i. Priktr. 2:., crits.
50. W ild Rice : i1. Uses and i'i ..i.,i- ii,. 19403. I'n. 10 '. at-.
5 1 1 1 -1 n. . . l' ] ,. I -. 1 .m 1 i ,, 5 c e n t s .,
54. I'. i-i.llm iI Dates.. 1903. Ii 11. 1, cents.
59. i.-iar., Meadow, and I.mi.iL., t'i.,p) ii. N. br:i4la. 11,u4. Price, 10 cents.
60. A S.,[i Rot of the (C'alli Li.2?' ].i4 l'i ]I 'i ..ut
61. The Avocado in Floprida. 1904. 1l l'... .. .'it-
62. Notes on Egyptian .\.ri, 'inl iip 11114 l'rt'. .I i Cents.
67. Range Ilio.-Li: .- i'in .\Ari'l'.:i. 1iA ]'ri'c. i17. centS.
68. North .\iii ii.' Sp .... ft .(it.,!-r-1 kp'ii'7 I'rie, 10 cents'.
6 9 . rn r. i t, H i ; V i r ,T i. r 1 .t t u ',. 4'.!M 4 l i > l .' C e n t s .
70. l i. l ii.ii ni I Status of )Durum i\\ I. at. 1,14 Pri.., 10 cents.
71. S.i Iii,, li i i.,o ii l *'-iiii. 0 I'r .i 15 cents.
7 2 3 1- ,,ll .H lll, ,,nn I' ll.,, I" l'.'l 'l'lr. ', ", nl ,
73. The I). >,']..| n i'l of SN.-h-Ir l'l. i i t .l S.d ii l''.. Prifp 1(a centt.
7 4 P r i c k l 1 1 1 1n I l', I a 1 1 I 1 a I , ,0 I , 1 S i r 1 > I i i n .> I l i > -, S -n '-
75. Ii:nln-r' iin i'-., Ill. n h t in,' S i II, .,f \\1,-lli n i l I' rh'>e .'i : n 1-.
76. t "- '" i as an .l_ .i2 .ii,- I ',-ini. di.i- it in \\ tirL r S 14iiIdr,' relI;. l'rieo. ce-nts.
77. T he A avocado : \ : i .l Il 11111 'iii Ill, 'Tr'',li.'- I l'.11 I'i'c %' Q'e I .
79. \ I ..i \\ i l \ ;n ii I., i, t.*i .-i- ,l. ,. To i S,.( lt- I'1). l lrl,'. C.'ti ts.
8 0 .\ .n i in i ill l ,'l1.1 r i A l ;l 1'i ,. I'l''rI Ill L'1tllf ,
8 1. ]:'o',. lli,] ,,i l I l ll' .l r lllia l,,l' 1pm .. 5.. i 't-ll
'42 Grass Lands .,i Ih,. S.itlii i.It-II i',,,t-i. ill-7, P'rice. In cents.
S'; The VIii.il1i. of Burled Seeds. P,',i!. 'iii.,*. '., ii r.
84. T he S -. I ,2 i 1,. -l -.. : i --. Il' i i ,. 'e t .
85. i'riiniil,.1 .1- itl-ill,,nli c;r',i n- ;: dlld .Sp:n n Mu tki'.:. 11 7.10 Pi'.'.- 1]0 cents.
80. .\. i il]i2h. i l, nll Ii l'i ;ilii.i ILi i i. l ;lia. i l r- .-rt. 91115. I'rim'p, 5 1eents.
88 \\. '. l lI:''-o-rlnii .\-f.t|l umiiini 'rl ilih' 'nir' .n 'laint ]liii ]'ric_ 10 cents.
89. W li t .,'li ii;l I'1 mii,- 'l i o 'riinirod I ,'i.'. 19'0(. i 'rii.. 5 .n-ts
90. M iscellaneou- I.,iier.. 2.cih;. i'i''. 7. i ut-.
,91. Varieties of ''.i.i .. S ., .,I liiriitir.d. *.i,' uitidi Price. 5 epnta.
9)4. Farm Practit-. %iili 'iorav., c'r.p- i \\iii i'l'rwin O l'i," lI, etc. illOi. I'ric.., 111 ce ts.
95. A New Type ',I It, I t'I r,,,Ir I' t;. c I'"1ii,. lin i.
97. S.' il. 'i]l I'l ntI lniIi.ri'.il Ini eni -l.rv Nn. 11 1907. I'rir.-. 15 ',.ilts.
9 8 1.14 It. 'n \'i ii' [i, .1 7 I'ri'r'.. I. -rni".
99). c+ in,'k ., I ,, .I i I c, t i i vniiii.i n ,, M ul.,'-i iii' il i (;rin. I'si.7 Pric i5 cenlt.
101. ',,i III- .,f .illl [l, x it, Villi,'i N o.- 1 if I'll, 19117. Pr',e, 1.7- e'tnts.
102. M .-.'. II.in. ..i- I'il.'r- l:iu'7. 'ri.' I ', .--nt-.
103. Ir',. I'.ilnin.- iii ihi.. < 1i ; i I iin. 1:ci7 Price, 1i cents.
104. Til I .' if ",'hi-is'lill I. ,mk iil ", .liilt/. r4 l iu7 'rih''. crni.
105. lilaLti'in w i*'cjnl,,, li. uii 'r C .t l Ii iIn lirunin ,1' 'Litc.i 1'11 1907. I'ricse. 1Il cenls.
106. Seeds arind I'lainta lapc..rled. luv'ntorv N',. 1-. lio7. Pric., 15 cents.
IContIntied on page of cu er.]

BUREAU IF P XF I I ,l 1 11 Y 1.1 IIt II ;

EXI'IlII U II;.N is IN !IlL LlhlliltY I ITL k IL.


]HOTAM\ S' 1\ ( v1Rt;I; 4)t1 'I'AX()NOM\ ( AN) m I 1) N v I Ksl, s I(;'Vi 4 )NS.

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AV -\ S 1I1 I N (I 'T() N:
(; Vl;l:N-M1 T P'II NTIN(, 0I1'FI .


Chic f ofi urcq I1" Eh;ltrYi T. (GALLOWAY.
Asitiint (Chif of Btuiou, G. IlAi.\RL I'iEuWII,.
Editor, .T. I. )I' I [,.
Chief Clerk, J.AME.s E. JI.~s.



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S!I: I have the hoior to (mins iniut alerewit to ret m enndel tfor
l ldihati"ii ;as 1ilelmin No. 1S);' id' 4 the scrics ot llliz l Bureau ;i nl lt-
scripti lhy Mr.e. lirleri' ( ilh. Bota.ist in (' B n.in t' o(f Wte1xnt1)li4'
aitil 'i mrw.- Inxve l iiation enlittledi ". i .\ |)(q> iititn'i ill l l t oIi' 'rrY ( 'il-
ltir ." iM r. ('ox'illh ha:s l'oiiil li\ (expi'riiienhii owl I)',\ )lIl cl'rri,-i dlil'f r
frI i c i liio r iary |)I ints, in tlh'ir In1t4 i(od oi1 o if rition a;i1l in ltieir ,oil
i'hc i ruilm'uctit-., a d li IA lnw.'un- (4" (ti4s kl dImI chi,(t ie hzi i' \\( rk1d (' )il ;i
W\lvin of 4 it ('/4llI r, Iii Under \w lich l i t l'- [)l;tiit ;ltaili :1 ltc'v lopi)iHniit.i
I)4'o l aill )i '>'\i()i4s e' xpec''taltions. Tilh 're is ,2 ood prosp ct h( a li;( thll'
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.\ );irlic iarlvy i l 'rcI-tiI_" 1i1nd s-ig ilicai t feat'ui re"o (4 14-' ('xo)1'l'i-
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Stai41s. il(''4- la d- are g'ienerallv \aledt ;it a: I(w 1rirt,. :iawl ti(,
chief cxpoien-t in\vol\,el in thie) ilr ilizat ion for o dliliavy a 'rie!!lilia
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f(ertili-ill '. i a d, 'lhl u li'.il 'iitilip iilal i i. 1"1ie (tin'-ion I e'ew'-ents its K ett.
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in 2013


C() XT E X TS.

ntro uh tionl ............................... ............................. 1
I liarities ,i f rowth in the bhi berry plant .............................. I i
F* ',iI I,re111 n ts ............ ............... ..................... .-.-.-_ -
I Tili -vswanIp bliunebrry doet s lot thrive in a rih ;arM.dn miA of i .e
ord i nary I I .. .............................................. I t
(2) I 1, swamp bhel*wei'ry does not thrive in a heavily mantmild s-0il. 17
(3'} Thie swamlp bieburrv dhoes not thri e in a PAil made s\vw(. hiV
lira (' ...................................................... I 19
(4'I The swamp biltueberrv doors nlot thrive in a heavyv clay sil ...... -2
(5) Thl swalllp blueberry does i! t thrive ill a`i ttoniihly d(iCo()II>>-ed
h,-f mold, iwuch as has a neutral nuartion ..................... 2-1
(6) The swamp iltnhlwrry d(os not thrive in ttoil iav ing a l-itralt or
alkaline reaction, Imt fWr vigorous r>'gr l it iluircs an aMiI
soil ........................................................ ''
(7T The favorite typr of a-id soil for the swvanii) Iluelwrry is 1;int... 31
ks) leat suitable f(or tire swaip )lblueberry may be folud either in
1- ,r in th, srf f ti ohe grin 1ul in sandy oak or pimn wo"ds. ;2
',) a"or aWt ive ro\vthli the swap hilucberryv r.is'piiis a will-acrate d
sAil. ('otnvwrst-ily, the swant> hi)hle'rrv do.es not ctaltintle in
active growth in a soil salinrat ld withi water .................. 15)
(10) A.r\ation condition s:tti-sfacitor for the swan tip httbwlrry atre
Itr v\a;tl(int iln sandy(l oils. ........... ....................... ;Si
(11) Aerationn crntliti ii satistftorv fWr thxi swaittp l ,il'uhrry arc
Wadinl in drAiMAd fiboums pat ............................... ;7
12) Aenratim condlitions satistacmrrv fw thie wanqmp tlute>.rrrx are
Arrindl in lasse of li""_, A lnst, blint nm t submnrwed, -., *..',,, .. ;avS
I'.uiiaritiet f t nut ,riti, I .................... ................. ... it )
S13) The swxtam p lue tl-erry is deviid of' rioot hairs, t-l ttinute ii r.'Lii-
thr-uogyh wlhicli tlli orilinary plants of agriculture absorl) tlh ir
oist u Fre a111.1 !,loin .......................................... *40l
(14) TIn' rothets of I eatlhv 1lanis of lte swamp 1Mhlierv are in-
ha ite x d a h'nilln!-, oft tee a t u m ii c hnicalIy as an uniih-
t o U li rrih iza .............................. ...... . 2
(15) T nlc ivw i nc;hial fungum s of the s',am" Il,l h rrv , ,,s i |ha k,.
u'i iuj riit r.i- tff lit itrtit,- a : a cneti ial .le- xt-, it I)-1 t ei
ldl erry pla .. ................... ......... .......... 4 1 .
i' ) YThe arid )wiaty s nls in Whill the sm> ml;ni[ l "lTel..rrv thrive- are
qi~i,[I !it il i I le itrol i. !" altitl -hi containingll lar et,
ai n ot *' Iill'- v ii 'lole litl ''A ii .......... ............ 45
(17) Tlie dXtii i-ex if avxA il a iluh, titrt,. n in the atid Ipeatl -o I in
v xix t I ti s a-x pti il i -Terrry glrom- best is idue t o i, inat ilitx
of the itOWix Iavteria to thrive in snth a moil l'an- of it-
a io d itv + .. .. .. .... .... .... ... ------- ----- *1


Pelculiarities of -r- Hi in the luheberry *laint-Continued.
l'PecIuliaritis oi iin utrit.it n--( 1. *. I- .:
(18) From tithe evidence at hand thie presumption is that the mycor-
rhiizal fungus of the swamp lueberry transforms the nonavail-
ablie nitrog"ein of lt'aty soils into a form of nitrogen available
fo trtli nourishment of the blueberry plant.................. 4.
(19) It is possible thliat thie my*corrhizal fungus of the swamp Itlue-
lerry transforims tlie free nitrogteln of thlie atltiosphiere into a
form i of nitrogtn suiled to the use of the blueberry plant..... 48
A Li etihodt of pot culture --.. ..- .....-- ............ ------- ...-- ...- ......... 51
20) Seetds of tlie swamp blueberry sown in August from fresh berries
ge(rmiinate in aItout 5 weeks ...-------------....----....---..-------..... 51
(21) I',. seedlings are lirst tr-ansplanted at the a>e of about 6 weeks,
wheni they are approaching anl inch in height............... --------------54
(22) Whln about 1t0 \t)ceks old anid nearly 2 inches in height tlie
seedlings begin to s-end wut basal branches ................. :-7
(23) When lthe see lings are about 4 monliths old and about 3 inches
in height lie growth of tile original stem terminates ......... .
(24) Whlin the plants are about 5 months old and 4 to 6 inclihes in
height, they are totted in 4-inch pots in thle best pIeat or piat
m mixture .........-............................ ............ 59
(25) lliueberry plants potlteil ill peat malV lie made to grow more rap-
idly if they are \watered occasionally during the gro, ina season
wfith hi iater fiti a tImanture pit.------....-...................... 62
(26) Pots containing liuebervy plants should be plunged in sand or
oltler material llhat will furnish constant moisture and g;odl
aeration ..-.-...- -- -- -.-.-.-... ...... --. ..... ...... 15
(27) Plants of the swamp lbiluterrt- sometimes lay down flowering
inb Is at tlie age if 7 ol inlths .......... ...................... 67
(2S ) In t Ilie sp ringt after tlie tlanter of frost was past lhe plants were
rtpotte-1 and placed out of doors, in half shade, plungtdt in
said ...-----------------....... -------.... -----------..------..-------..... 67
(29) BY the use of tlie cultural methliods already described, seedlings
of thle sw'anp llueberryv have i)ttenl grown into robist- plai ts
,f a ia\tximtumt helidht (if 27 inches at 12 niontlis from g-rini-
niation ll---------------- --------- -- .- -. ---- --------------------- 'I'
(:{1)) Ti iie II .. t I.- t1 ts of the l i tel' erry are prod tuce I bY tlie t lrans-
fornIatio of dlorant:1i lea f luds in the latter par1 of tlIe season. 71
(31) At, thie end of thir lirst e'car 70 lpr cent of tlin blueterry plants
hal laid IIdown t I.. eriiwg Iuls for thle next "- 1 's lohss ming. 7:
(32) Plantis ,of tlie swamp blliwltt'vrry are exceedinigly hardy anid pass
thie winter inl gtooit condition outlool'rs wlihen tie soil is covered
merely \ iti atil oak-leaf milch, lint wihen not exposed lto ount-
door conditions tiev do not tegin their growth in spring ill a
ltnormal hmaier................................-------------------------------------.....-------...... 74
( .) iDormaniit plats tmaLke t-ir tarly -pii. t\wig growth before new
rotts egin to devo ....------------.......--------..-----------..-..-..-- 7,
(;14) I'niless pollinated biv aln outside .i_ I-t ,\, such as instits, the
llouwers proi uce littIc or no fruit-------------------............................ --------76
T:;S) TIhe fruit lalt in-s about 2 tmont ths after the 11-1. 1 iln ........... 78
i;i) S atr as obseo re-t, the satiltp btliieberry wien grown in acid
soils is little subject to funtgous diseases or insect pests ........ 7- -

,, .Ihh ,*~ .tI > r t I. t+ Ii ,\ +

S t < >. !.' ; .. i
r .... ... .N
lltlhirli\ v
( 1 T he >;il'(>il [ila t i >l llr ^'. ;t )li c litl lr f m l li^ i *it r

(l a im r r .. . .. ... .. . ... . .. ... .. .. a n... ..- M

1 'S ''l r H i- ",rf 'l.l-iill <) l (' n '\ llllt t lr 1 II 'I < 1I'\ ': l NIH

ill~ i"v 'i '\ lio llll; am 4A '(*.1 ti ti [I(,,..... ..... '
l ;' ) 'tn \<. in ~ i i- --l- - - --i- - - - - - --l<' l ~ ^ a H 1 11 l \' I i'l

> 1 i in i~ i -irii~<- mc lw(u h -unl ( if i'I thcn~l field ctitin r to a i Ihlic i, r



I't 4: I. F1;. I1-R4oot growth of a 1lilu4nTrry itlat in >\ avi mulhed with
1aves, IFlo' 2. ]- ot .rTowth of a I4hl41 Iervpant in peal .... .. A1.
II 1 llu li Trr ,stedlinni s in pI at awl leaf m old. ......................... X',
III. F";, 1. l't1rtnatind i of kalinia p1 at, tol la ,t+'. I.. 2. l'ormtationI
Lt+ ka i ia pLt .-ea ttse o d layh r. .................................. :;I
IV, FIu. L.--F vr atit n of kalC i, |i at, ff, rth layv r. ................................... rl
V. Fie,. 1.- F rmation of k-alinia lo.t, iltli layer. I14K. 2 1t`4- -Fomation
of kalm ia pealt, sixth layer ..................................... 1;
VN F t1 1. l.-'4wanp ,hlieli rrIts ftoin lthi e parent 1 inih of the s4, liin s of,
HI90S. Fii. 2.-S4e(e s of tithe sxwaup lIlut rrvT .................. '
\'It. I twl >errv see ldlint lf,,nr at"l a half mno,,nths A ti ........... ......... ..O
VI 11. 011l ftamt s ,contatiLidn. o4ti-v1 ar-ohI Ie1+rv seillini s ........... i',
I X. Ilat e' omie-,eatr-ol1 se1 illilys X. I'n. 1. ll h,\erini l bI m- lh a af In -son Iut4lte 1erry t\vigs. I n;. 2.
I. I ,wi rini IW s cat a ltl4el.erry tcutfini. il(;. ;i].--Flol\\2ri ll u1d
on i)luelerr\ eT ittintrs ......... ............................... V7
XI. Y1 ar Iti liluelTerrv plant wih 41J2 l 4w-eriig 41 1s .................. 7-
XI I. Fln 1. I. lluh 1 rrv lta.nt \\ which \\1:is \iiter growth in thle sprii>g,. FliO. "-2-lliebxrry plant which was \Nin-
tered+ o ito...1rs Ioa.i tlnaii wTowti ill hit e S sl ila .................. 7'>
XIII. I ; ;. l.u- l wlnel'crry plant whih l as wintered indoors ti+ titnluimi-L
I r t th in th1, .4-t1r n 4 ln'ix I'2. P 2- I',lu t 1ivr1 14pant w- icde w\as win-
t rel ou\1 1tdoors11+ em1iti ill, *ii ro\ tli in O l ie s| in ................. 7X>
X IV. Irregular 1 tlo ihL f a 1lil4wrv lad nt 1 inteed, iidtoo rs......... 74
X V. ItiKLrv i[e 1 Oie 11 a 1l1 nle rrv .- i _1 at tlea4e o| Ihl 1111 i 9 tm .......
X V l''Fm. I.- ira4ted lhie)U rv. 4' 2. UIi-iThirv s1ee lli4n4 u111 r-rs-
fully Ius h" L ..... ... ........ .............. ...... ... ........ SAI
X V I + llh l, v Irdy l ts M at+. t .i_ .t. tilaw. .................... ......... .
X V I I 1 4lu1 rrv hTli it r ll M an I A i e ttii ..................... ..... .

X 1 i i 144 IiUe>e '11 p lan 4i 1 4 ir iAl ........................... .......t1
1. l 4, i. en 'till. i 1n VI a ide .1 >] ....... .............. ..... .. ;
;, Y+I'alKT a -.s ,e liinss in rich id il ... .. .. . . . . . ....... 17
4l. \ll'all': seed, tlin s in pealil m ix tu e . .. .. ... .. . -.. .... .... 17
++>. l;lnelKerrv -.. hi.1 in rYrh .wai nk sil .......................... I
B a'Sl Ke rrv K !i r ill pe 'at itni xt! ire .......... . .. .. ............. I
7. Ir~ll~ ciieh rr -, ', ill peat mlixtll re lilme d ':
7. V p W r% n ~i \ n i 1. .... ........... ....... . ,
y. lKvh mlH.r\v seelliii.v ill pea l!i\tire tnli] : ', ................ .. .... r:;
mi II Tl+d rry ,-eeillin ird with alkaline fnutriint so Iulin .... .. ;ln
Itr+ I. ,,,' ,., 1 eev tliw, fledl N\ith acid nutrient s-o Iut ll ... .... ........ ;;1


FiG. 11. Root of a wheat plant, showing the root hairs...................... ----------------------40
12. Portion of a wheat root, wit rot hairs. ------------.......--.---------....--....--. 40
13. Tip of the root hair of a wheat plant.............................. ------------------------------40
14. 1,Jo~t of a blueberry plant----------------------41
14, Root of a blueberry plant........................................ 41
15. Root of a blueberry plant, enlarged................................ --------------------------------41
16. Blueberry rootlet ...------------------------------------........................--......---------- 41
17. Mycorrhi/zal fungus of a blueberry plant densely crowded in two
epidermal cells of the root t-------.--- ---------------.-----.----- 43
18. Mycorrhizal fungus of Kalmia latifolia in an epidlermnal cell of the root. 44
19. S'etion of a bliueberry seed ...---.------------- ---....---. -------. 5:3
20. BlueIberry seedlings in the cotyledon stage.....------------...-------...----- 53
21. Bluelberrv seedlintg about 6 \\weeks old, with live foliage leaves-...... 54
22. Normal tip of stem in a blueberry seedling--...-----..----------....----. 57
23. Bract and young leaf at the end of the original stein in a blueberry
.. . I li h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..- -,
24. Bluelberry seedling with diffuse type of branching..------------...-------......- 59
25. Blueberry -.. t *, of the type witli few branches.... --------------- 59
26. Spores of a supposedly injurious fungus in the epidermal cells of blue-
Iberry roots ..-.---...-- .... -----.-----------------.---...----------- 64
27. Flowers of the blueberry, from 1l908 seedlings of the large-berried
New llampshire bushl of Vaccinium corymbosum --.. ...----------.........-- 77
28. Stamens of tlie bleelrry ................-----------------------...........---.----..-------- 77
29. (Compoutd pollen grain of the blueberry -...-----..----...----..--------...-.. 78
:, Pi-til anid calyx of the blueberry, showing the style andi stigma .... 78
31. Bhluelerry plant grown from a root cutting ...................----------..... 86

12\1I';R1M1;.\TS IN Bli'IiBF1K1KY LI.T' IKL


fitll (li grountds of thec SM it li-oiian 1lustiit utlnl at W washing oi ;are>
txw I 1 Ili<'I'1\ 14i-h of' laof c 1 siz4 e ;14 i l ;T'('i( :a "'. T hI tall' r i- a, i 1
fe et{, i ._',. T lhe c- -tvin I, i t n r iarly' :i inl ivslh i.n dia l ti. It K,
kiw m 11il llu'd' I ",Im \\w re ro 1 X, I1 l1 i or 1I" 1Is 1' L11 V li- lle < '-ir
ano, and aill thle (\'i~ciicp indblic t h'.llat (lhey\ \"'(l( ])loim il ;al a kniphl
eanrlier date. ''l'y atr p ol]'alily ov1 er A,' 1 ye1 \l' l I. n In tin A iin1il
A rlxircW 11111, Heaii r I .( (, -t ll_ alp m an, 1dl el.'rry' 1i l-hv- :l,,) veail.- ,,I/
to' io1'', Q1'0'o\\ii 11')14 ll1 ecI 1 ,x I tr. ,stml,',volL"o IPa):x 1 4w-o 1' 4 Iran,-
|>lari(l4 fioii, tllhir \\ild WialtaOO1ls j1Wri,' t14 Is-m).
isl 1t 4 4'< l1i4' 4itt'd' iAN'" lliat tih' IdI llu'dl 'rv (c l 14 an o tl It'aiimlai mlt'1 4r1' o c ll4i\aiti l. 'l t-s
idlva 1 44t1 on lIi '{'4"t'"'Ill l'ixs'1 ii ol' thel4 1 \\' lo 14 K o.\4' tm l 1 I4 [)
w ild 1411"1 a ,nd -ct tll,'Il i n n rii li w1I-lllniia rn'd1 2,"ardc111 -oil. I' 4-'c"
i1' 'x\' cll tlc 4'41 l l ol-1 1 I-1 x- lie\ 14 i') ll a\Q''11 4'1 l 4 '1 ril4 ri 4l4i-
l)puldicatiom. il"MOr wliichA 10!ln'rry plans Incimi, f0 4,,h ani lii|)ol -
(1h1ct ive.
o Ir a,,ricithl4 1 :r l (x|)rii i it 44il4o -. ll4i-e "rl' M ai n'I ll",o4 4 ,
Ildand. New Y orlk. awll \Ill-ii!alI. !haxvc :41114 phlt[ d /' T \row IllI' 1}1l4'-
lw r'l') a' a f1 ruit. b t i 1141' 41 tlif-W atv'ni t, hi r'4 4 l 'in4 1 i l1n I n m4 i-
0 i t']'ial t > u'4'4,-- 44f I1li4 4 'I X ItI'rr41c t '. v144 1 ll4' t 4'X'I.\|) 'riiqtll n41 -11' i
timx i I,' W I cli x l 1v ol a I li4L'i\' ,'14lri':t4 1 111.i 44lro4414' ai p i'a4r- to
have lll dix to a I[ tI'itlln h4 14a i') ,1f o 1w ,) ,'il 4,oj thil, i ol 41
I i l irrv'\. w li,4i, a>n 1 s i l la c i'l' w ';idti ll4 l \llk i 'cl i l di'ul4lt i
t lio,-,c o |+,!i' o u r l(1111)0 1 cul lt i\+;it{i d pl a iit-.

I s hf/ l- m s, 't ti l iIu\^ l s ;l ljl 4 44 I 444444444444, I i l -l^'l4. I t4 lM' 4,4'll 4!"1l
S t 4 i -. I l 41 l 4l ilt4 I l i "; ;"'44. 44
Il Ax 4 4- 1 ,Sll ;4's 1 44 4 4i 1 "4 1 1 "1'1M. 4 4441i i"'. r, 1 I 11 114w\ t' iI i ir l i t ; I1ri

r.s|4 i4 4 l1>' 44I." 11.4 41 1SIi lis 4 iii + 4'1444l4 4i 4 4i II"4 "1, 44lilV M 44 ll l 1 .t.4 ll ll4+ '; t I 1 1 1 44' ;444'I 4 l' i 4 i 1 l hl
44 4i 1 1444 il : I '< Ins .I" 4 \t 4 i i s ". [ i ]. [4 441 41 4 4444 l l ii l 4 1 4 t 441 41 s
4l-4 y ;1 o I'4 4 sri' iiiI4 ;s 44" 5 ;is 1l I \ ] i n \\14 l ir'h + r ; ill l I li t 444l ut ,! lit
1i '44>itl i;1i r i, l s \\;s i1;nic by M r..h li I >u ii l ss
19+; 1


In the Boston market there is a wide variation in the wholesale
price ()f blueberries. Shipimients begin in early June from North
Carolina. followed in the latter part of the month by blueberries from
Pennsylvania. New Jersey, and New York. In early July, or in
some Years in the last days of June, Massachusetts and New x tamp-
shire shipments begin to arrive, succeeded in late July or early
August Iy berries from Maine, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick.
Receiplts froin these last two localities ciontinule until late September.
The Iblueberries that bring the highest price are those from Massa-
chlusetts and New Hampshire. At the time when other berries are
selliiiL:, at s to) 1) cents per quart wholesale, the first shipments of
New ampl)shire berries often bring 20 to 23 cents.
The owner of a blueberry pasture in southern New Hampshire
who superintenIded the picking of his own berries and shipped
then to one of the secondary New England cities has courteously
shown his shipment records, from which the following data have
been compl)iled:

Rct((cordf f sh il nwiit.s from (a blu'bcrri/ paIIfstiure in southcru X'ui Hampshire,
I ,'. ;1909.

Total lHiglhest and Average
Year. Date of shipment. ship- vlowet price price per
llmets. I per quart ." quart.

I Quarts. C 01t1. Cents.
19') ............... .... ...... July l to Aug. 14..... 2,233 12, to 8 10.7
19 ..... ... ..... .......................... I ly 17 to Aug. 15 .... 2,75; 15) to 8 9.6
1907 ......... .... ..... I ... July 20 to, Aug. 15.... 2, 528 1 to 11 12.2
19 S. .. ....... ............... ......... J iune 29 to Aug. 15 ... 3,602 1, to 91 10.8
1909 ....... ... ...... ............ ..... ... July !5 to Aug. 16- ... 1,255 j 14 to 9 10.7
"This is tinh net price that thlie shippr)r' received after deducting express charges.

Tlie a\.r'i''' net price for the five years was 10.8 cents per quart.
The record indicates the substantial returns that are secured from
ordinary wild beIrries picked andml sent to market in rather better than
ordinary c(ontldit ion.
That the market would gladly pay a high price for a cultivated
blueberry of superior quality there can be no doubt. Fromn the
market st (andpohit the features of supleriority in a blueberry are large
size: lith-)lue 'olor. due to thi )l'e lpcs(e of a dense bloomn over the
dark-)purIrple or almost black skin ; -- dryness." or freedom fromn super-
ficial illoiiiilre, especially the fermieniting jui'e of brokeli berries;
allnd p1 il)li'pess, thalit is. freedom from iloie withered or wrinkled ap-
peiar'nlice that thle berries begin to acquire several days after p)iIikig.
WVhI ile (tlie coi ()iii Ir in biuueberries whlo picks his ownl fruit knows
tlie widelM varyvini flavors in the berries of ditierent bushes, the buyer
in le city liu market i co')nteilt to select his fruit according to its ap-
pearalice. kiln)owing tlihat the flavor will be good .iig'io i in alny event.

TillHE PICK ,INI, nI' Ill.'lKll I l .S.

lTh, Size tof the 'e'tIl gi\es tihe llixyer ill New Vi.-. iilI mairlket-, very
little concert li. ti' tIhere the linaliln, Ill 'lttirv i- rei n irlt"tl lito a t i of
thin i Vaicctwiliiln all of wlin i have -tcd- -11 >-mlall asi t, toI, iililno-
tiei. le wil heni the lW'irrv i. ettenli, while the naimiiie hi klethIrr is ap lditel
xitli neairl\ the same precision io thi' species O' tt in' h eit l (iavhls-
s;tciai. hi wX icT tihe sve(d i- s!!ro, ndetid by ;i o \ b a lit iii NO ;
mninul e 'pe ch lit. whi ich craci let betwit ttii Il l(. I i t -oinliW il ititli.
the frl it o lttii V at'l ( ini ni i alltl (1ii ;l\ liihli--itilei (ill xe l itix tll t'- t A'i t.
;iii( it is Iol);ililtae llit lh w t t 't-i iiihtil iii i6 wlhi (i eti firn, il of vat'c-
ciiniit is liti rt li h te i is lirniuI v (lidiw w lth ti ti i l' t li ti i i x'tila k p p ilai
i'a-i To i-ti tti - ll tin' t hwo w Tri tby ilniir apilt ;ilre 1 i, i- i illh
for an lvlit an xlep rt, for w hile hiedlt i'lh 'rri",s in' inilo-l!\ lI;l andil
liitlttrritis -e stly hid'ii, soni- oil the it lilur lhe miair. o l' stoii oex \' at-
viliiitni, arc lilactk, ant! oinv of tin' hi ckh'l xi'n'i a t Illn'. n, noiahl\v
(G"' f'*o"Wiit,, if,.t. 1a sp'0 i'0 otenil ;il im Ainiid ill thli(' >am[V nodil-, of
tinlt A (lit C('(;it l Ilainl. wliih liait a liri+f. lihi -inla' aI twh w mry or' a
1). lutif lll Q tnit-tlic 'olor and |I ssallv flnvtio lin( \villi 11" dlisa 'rI c-
tiblY t*racr iii.t, -(*dl pits (^iiraiK'lpri' ic l tinl Olhier true liickl' hli, rii,-.
T, w rhv ile l'l~v ditihslw iihst a lld rothe l u l triatlinc t inchidt' tni -lii|)-
ince l so I lhh It'tlttr thalia otih(oilier lhcrrii>'~ that with proper hali -
,lli x. it should always ri ach llic arket ihn iii--lia- on dietii.
But its l'o od liiippingi (|uialitit>s are Often ;il> ,sd. lild lia. friit iot
itlfri' eiiI *t v iW ex.\[)old for sale partlv tirt-/li" at l the bIprrip- ,ov--
ertedl with s-oljre.td .Ittice and made f rltiler ot llciisivc l (lie ]re'-tic of
llic'. TV iis is thle Ir vaili.-, (oIIdith"i Olf lliiMAlWri S 011d huktIh-
ble rics in ti' miarklet, Of W ashinl tlo in -trikin, ciltri-t witli tlil
dry. petlimp ol'er<" of thle Ilotoi Itlarket. T ills had condition i- din,
tlsulilly to imp|)roe(r |)ickinig.
The small >-izt. der-' the picking, of it ,XlwII-ive. 'Ilihe owin r', or litwr' v [);I-l(les
<'o1i i/onl\- ] vy two-lliirnkl lt e net |riee of' lie, lft ih e rie- lo tliir liileri, ..
lit o de lr to red e tlihe otil ofl' pilii var"io 1 detv'i '- liav, lit~ll
cmipilo d.t l i ilo>> widl.' ii-ed ai, a l: li e1 ir 'v ra]r. :i m+ o pi> -hlaped '-otl hll at liki ;t d cp 1, i il-lpali.
imi'o\'idl'd 111 fIol t Nil li ;i >' Il,>of |oiit\' Iioint lilerd of i avv \\'iro.
\'illi tin- implelh metl all "r inai p!ik r in l elie rv em;iwiuiiiL _'
dli ktficl whihli 6in reeei\be-, 11 to 2 ,eiil ['r (|Im llIrt. I[d iili rrie'- ca ln e W i1 ,ed
whhli a take at alioilt ;i a Wirth lie, o-( o|' ])i .l i ym- l wv Mli For ilii-
r'easonl Many lake. ;ind it i- tli'ct< horri't'o, v lii+l, lchrokell aInll fori nilllin--. m/;d.e
upll lihe mL'T tlr l|art or tie, Vvyin rath "t awl tlhe tnast. Blitchorric, intended for the market slimmild nevvir be
picked wit it rake.


What has been said regarding the high cost of picking ordinary
blueberries b)y hand indicates the importance of securing a berry of
large size if the plant is to be cultivated. Large size and abundance
mean a great reduction ill the cost of picking. LaiN. size means
also a higher market price, and when taken in connection with good
color ain1(1 good market condition it means a niuch higher price.
Thie writer's interest was attracted to the subject of blueberry cul-
ture in 190(). Ini the autumn of that year some experiments were
made for lhiim by Mr. George WA. Oliver to ascertain a suitable methodl
of g'erminating the seeds. In the autumn of 1907 special cultural ex-
perintenits were taken up. In l'.s experiments were 1,._mii in the
prol.-pa ition of lashes bearing berries of large size. the most satis-
factory of these being a New IHampshire bush of the swamp blueberry
(V c(inir -oiymnbtos, Im) having berries a little more than half an
inch in diameter. The l I. -I berries tried, a little more than five-
eihiths of an inch in diameter, were from Oregon bushes of Va<-
<'i/i,;' U U 7(lb'g ujh aEaf. Except where otherwise stated, the experi-
miienits described in this paper were made with Wacciu'n0 .. .:o,-
bo,,m. Thlie principal results of the experiments are given under
brief numbered statements, each followed by a detailed explanation.



Althoiglh thlie statement just made might well rest on thie direct
,observation of experiieileterss who have failed to make blueberries
g'r(w luxuriantly, or sometimes even remain alive, in rich garden
soils, neveritheless tlhe citation of one of thle writer's experiments may
serve to accentuiate the fact. The soil chosen for the plurpo'e was the
onle used at the United States D)epartmeilt of Ag'ricultiire for grow-
ig, roses. A sample of this soil, as mixed by the rose gardener, con-
ssied, :ccord1;,I- to his speciicaltio-ns,. of five shovelliuls of loam. o1e
sho(velf'll of cow mantle, alnd a handful of lime." The loami used
was a rotted grass t'f grown on a rather clayey soil. Tlhe cow
imniture was well rotted, having lain ill tlhe pile for several months,
-with almost no admixtiure of Araw. The lime was of the ordinary
air--lalked sorl.
TI'e pots wuse! in tlie experiment were of glass, slmall )-ounce driink-
ini las- es, about :2 inches in diameter at lie bottom., 2,1 at the top,
anld 2: inches deep. A small liole Iboried through l thie bottom g"avve the
Inecer-va i'draina&e to the soil iln the pot. Since the walls of these
pot:x were tira;-parent th lie normal growth of tl ihe roots and thepre-


vwiit ion of ani oll- turilig" t'reell g'ro) -O, I I I t i >iA it ,_ I tr_ ( 'f i tq l f "or ke, I.)inq II t whe li._lit ;awa '1 wn ', y. I)t ii
pli-hl d either l" I ', -i nli ui,_. (or. as trin tir,- say, "" Pli f-iiif i "', the Jot-
iearklv to th(e Ait in andtl, tio-. or soil. o)r. wlen tiht pot were nOlt
1l1miiW,'(t. lv tillinig' lKY-el to the t i ilmi" t, of ea h ; rOf)Iiovaili+ (rila, v-
it were. m ade tl' (o l it e opi e gi1"'1' bllottii' pailt'er u il in irr^-ii^
>|)'c ineni.< or" i~ ltits. '1iThe Iti of ;I !)(t w it li lp oitl,- i);il'ct,!ilt v:ill- \vni-
fW ndi t( 1 w) of \ rv )i. it i li ot piit;i lic+ ill the --lil y Of l()1 c phai ll-' for
I|) al: t+ hoid i ail in ;tI)I)(';IIivI't so far as tli a |);irs alone oromt l "e' mt
( oinciurtn -(o)l it niio r hs SllowedI t ill ()+.w t ll)ii (niiii 'td ,li ffe ml ov',ii in It '
"I "'. Ill ;ain l l)cliit vio r Of Il II ro )1 (lii''l'ric ( '- lviicli 0 411 0 "\1 i-' \\W"115
li av) ii-+t l )Ntl olw.rr ot'(l lhol. whlich were ill reality respolil-il)ic for 1lli
c()0i-picno li (li ;>, (lit later (oolk p i in tl ic rowtli o l' t(hie ro
;il"(l ]l(i's. Tilt, 1 c olV' the] of iciha-'s [loot.,. i]railu ld aind darlkciled. I-
-.troli _d' reta iiiiiK n'iidcd lt )lo p il (Ix](i''ilii tli s' \ hlio (+ poi cul t n ,-.
as (lIcii, M onl' I a I 1ans (if mifiilirni!_ e'asilv ani in i ;ite> lcii\\ !04,l20 of
(ihe givr lt 'a; iiition- in thie I"V IOI\ of t' lfl th rmdliniy (organs, tihe roo') -.
iUlid 'er olitl'trciit (o)lldithions.
()n I)rciii)l" 1!M(OS. ,-ix rliss potsi weMrc ilhlld wvihitlh the t hrdei
sodil dh 4il) o ;il)(o)v and ;i secdlinl lln'l>(u'rry' alion i ain chid in licl _, it
was transpl itedl into each. The* swed lN d frotii whlitl' til -1,,in lla'-s
wmrv waken had lbeeni allowed to O ito, piartially di\" 1ln'l'ore li(e
lrInuispldanti11^ \n a> wa ns In i tiis ( on"Wi mi thei m wvais no diliticiil(iv in
ri'llo i)iii" all oif (lieh >;idv soil m iod iACri"i o (le r a h oon id a medlii '0
tllat alfl(r it w a t rit-]oh"il t(,o it ini t deri\'e it- -(oil iilonril-iiir l
fo ii tie uew od exclusiel y. In )oItilig. tlie root- (if tle pldiii(
weF he hl aid ;niilis( (Owe 'l s v& 4 o e > hde of the loot m tlitl tlheir
l)e.lIa ior could he ol)ecrlv r'u n (li \e' r\+ lir --l.
A trailiiI.l ,ntini (-O' o ix other lah t st was (t htlie) mi le .sitiiil:tr in all
ie-,- ts tu Is tl r- lie li ex e(lt Itlint 1 l ,il "A 1" 41 w a,-- ;i |)e a/ inlltre lu"o 1i1
N on eli emlr iX+ i t i'ii! it-+ to Le prmod ilive olt \"f ._o)ml' mll- gI'rowil in
11 l t |>la+ iiit-.. 'l'th o T he exact char ctler %)f illi- -oil will lie h i-e n--tc>|
Liot r in l i li+' t n .
1' n- I-': y tklhl" rry oill i- il m 'i 1 01 t h tlie .rowtli of or!i i rv
It o1i(- A ,!nle in thlie nirdhii Q- !l)i diit\' pdl;> t miri-li luxurtinil 1' X.
In order I tDl 1 oit Ilii- t'i. ( i ll,, a 11 txji inAli t -iN x A lA n- pont-
I'(0 1 I i lt++2 tt11- I ardctl -oil wrrrrd g tinl cd 1 h eI 0i li 5ll0li -t4 1I- e(It li.
;ild -i'\ : o, e w,,ilh r'' T'()olol to ll l t e (c Ag in lide titha l
| >la) i 11' -;ikh ", tn (wr|,e -po .," iv c -I n of I mlwc i 'rv "Ail.
A\ er) me -, wi c\; l hl- ol K li gr L_'l'o lli th til l(,. W i n it c-te |iI, ti -,l-
aMY -.II+w in lili011r 1 t1)o6, "Il. "i W 0l f'ronIt dra'i+ u- 41fii'a 'ill 1\' V ilH
K nrit a attal !) wiato m+r li-. lI n ie rdhn oil (liltdie root"d roo-P i(g -
1Q w-. W, ilcli (:i- of tlhe varbit\ v k ow a- (Cri nl al. math vinimroi-
arlmv? of bollth rool und ,steit. aniid ill lI-fontir days. when (lie
I ilK


photograph was talkei, hadI about quadrupled its leaf surface. In the
b)ltel)erry soil the c.uttin" \was barely alive, the roots it had at the
linne it was potted were nearly all dead. no nlew 4s11te growtli had been
made. anil the 'leaflets it bore were only those till pr-i-iL" from
tile 1)ar'-Iit pliant.
The alfalfa seeds- began to germinate in )both soils in three days.
At tlie end of a week a distinct ditfference in thlie color of the plants
\vwa dis-cernible. In thlie blieberry soil tlie -eted leaves were darker
grlee in color, thlie midril), which shows on thlie back of the leaf, was

FIG. ls( cutlltting inll peat mix
t u re. (0Il(-lha lf nII lturl siz,. t

purple )llte -A(eI was purple.h and in some of lthe seed leaves tlhe whole
in1der s-Ial'-,ce was purple. In tlhe garhdenil soil the seed leaves were
Iligteir gree(, in color, and in only a few wre the steins, and in still
f,,lwer (t, midril)s, somewhat purplishl. At the end of forty-four days.
whlen thlie photouo-'Iraphls rleproducelIed in lig'Ires 3 and I were taken. (he
.Il' fal 'a plals ill ('e gIardehn soil were 3 inchli's in height and vi ..orous ,
wlile hie sIoil was- cr(ow )(ed with roots oIn which Initrogen tIllwIer(les
IIadl a lreadv --mgun to develop. In the blleberrv soil the plants were
-iall leav(ld amnd -ickl. about a third the l1.ilit of the others, and

I'' l 1 o)sr clutlilln in riclh nr t'den soil.
i10nw Iilf 1: t, iiI I sizna-a

INtl 141441 HOC 1114- M1A41 ~I~l GH1N 40, -. 17

1el 1 o 1144 i24i lon4j wen' -lirder ;hd ol 114'l'\\ 14' aXd'"iw w1d a ,1 ;no| j444
Sill i '1[-.
In llich toy, o l' t lh l iK, l u ,rry i lantdi, the rothe i tive a dih in thie t\\i>
Moilk Iook c\;icly t Irv 1 i p n mi-r ir'-t At (h I In "fi~ the W n l- w v iw\\n -
'roo. t 1r l 'i iad I..-iJ- 1i 11 ;ill Ili Im1: Oll illn ii'I4"' I cli' l l'ri\' -oil. \ hIil,
ill 11li1- 1itai4l iiit"' -1 'ii' ,lAlCIi -,(il iH W \\ io' t g'ir > t !l i ",li- ;lj)|)Ii''. i n o>nil
<)(an. A t ltlh e 'l ol' I',f ort v\ o r li\'- vi- n',ii.o s rootla, Io\ l li li:i| l~inknii
Illr 11i1', 11i 4 Il '411 1 1 ,rr .' o l pot- i : 111 (I -l l oI11(1l\\ 4l. l\\ iilill !:il l i4ll
i1 !1>f'rii|>lI';l ('11 l i' 1i n i' 1' Itro iii,>l;h fi lnt Ii '. \: is W14 114 ll1ihlr \\ iA ;\ 1; :ill.
Illlin II le l*; yln -4oil. lio cv \ >v1. alih I", no1 root n v"o\tli wa\ W(li .c riiili,,.
tlic o ld c i\ >- \\ere -' t ol\n ltiir|)lhi| ; >l '11iii ; hil w'io\vtlia llhall
IPAt l l'i '- iii ivcl l. illh' JilAla 'ilttion \\;;I, iI ii l| ln'- cuir lty int' l i riel-
tilh I lliliit ol' lu>()" I|f IIs m W t 't W e ilive' nninltl ion of the' t\w i- fairlY

I. o.t 'l'o 1 1 i ?,, I i
*' I' "

i!li-l ':mar", it aw.,. ill 14, M un'il h ldw t,,_i-raphi NoIenthII '2IIIH !'"_
lo onl. Nnivl lthe W ei li-adl t'lhL The. 21' ,~rhyli-,il Potl tj"Iti nllli't onlyl\
:1 ft'\v -Io;I\v a'id-l i Ii A i "k, -in11 \\ero ,it\- 2L n, e" hi-t.
T h eI n cll, J (1 0)1l iA IK l "AI )1- i(t l l y 6 \\ti A lilh ',l \\ Ith i a 1 0 n!( l a(- lo~' ( f
\ k r'. I /,

1')(I-. a: l4, l ill ti l i l l44l ii4 I Vr ,i4il l 'i .ll i w lj,,k,-

1I'-, 1'11 Im 16 1 rar: r,-1 -141 4.i 1 1- 1i1 1ri,\(, 1':i,- 11 imll'11 l, i 41 lli the14 '
1Ii' ''. ; l' ir 1 4li 4 'r -. : 4 l );114 '1l t'. Ili'I l l' 4 ,l i--4 4 1 1 44il4''i. l y

(1 4 t'elt l\i\ l' !o o(MI I nti M w N I' U' IN \ '.'Mlh 1 \ V IIYI IV") Mi\M1 h L '1 4 l'l.
''[I .I( 144 IIi, l\l' l14i -ilil v awil \VAut'1 1 i- I l 1tl 1 14rrv -,it ;l lli 11- ot1'
' 'ii2lI ;l ll'l :i 1 14:11i 41 1144' 1-111. 4lir 144|;nil h;.d lol 1n'l 4l i -ii Jilld \ln l i l lir 1'4

rse in t 4 r ii' 44 14' -l; 4 t iii \\ : i- I4ia I1" lim1 I l i 1-f1h:1A 1i t'I, t' lli ; t1l.>l -

1'I U 441 1 II 4 4i1tt r'' l ili' l I4 [tl uj 4 li 14 '.'. i ii id 11 \(4 i 141 - ''\I':tl '1ii''-..
I T# ". 1 i( I. ( l';, 1d It


The man whmo plt tlhe dluelehrrY sOedlings in I I
thle miiound, how lie r. misunderilstaniding (he
direct tionis -elt liiun. liled t i1 the hi oleO in wI i ih
lie -et the phl)it's \itli ahltelnate laevrs- of -(oil
anid well-r(tied stlable i lialliure. Thle \writer ex-
-liiwd tle I l ldants&, oil A lt t 27. 1D \N. wIhen I
t hey v-houdIIl hav e 1)elI eit her growi n vio ...1
oIuI sl (iv \vili III atII1're folia e. e ri Ipei'I I lleir
w oo(l fo(w the winter. Instead thle l]ad )lot
Iearl aIll their old ler ave tihouli still lmai- /
tuaininr a feelde1 and s]lildlinag growth at tIlie
e(ll(k of tile larg'ei stelun. Tie adjacelit old
dishes 'growiliit i l)i'ee(isely the ,alile soil. ex-
cept t1ha it halid It received tihe leavv ap li-
cation of ani:ilire. bore at the(, .amel timVe vioI*r-
0(11 dark-,rlee-l foliate and were rilpenin.' tlie
wood ( f iheir '-tout twi Lt and laying" dowwn
their f1,verin" Ihilds for tlhe foll-owin year.
The mauiI'ed 41plants when (lmg Ulp and exam-
ined Slhiowed I o new 1l)root 'rowti whatever ini
tile anuitre(d soil outside' thle old earth hall. and
mos4t o(f the roots oil thle Surface of the ha)lll
itself were dead.I /
iAn(other (experiment Imiay be cited 1to) how
(hlie injurioi-us eift'ect of hieavY niauiirinu'r. ()Oi
December 22,. 190,S. six bliieberrv -ee(dlnI s wIere
(ranisjhlaited into aus iimauy 2'las- p)ots in a (rood
1)lnheleI-v soil, a.1id -ix\
other seedlin',s wtIer ,\ VvII
potted ill the same ,
mane111, exCept (hiat to ,
eacli tw\() pits( o()f blue-
belrry so(il olne Ipart of ,"'.
wel- rnttedl h)it un- / - -
leac'lied cow m11 a111 ieW'( O
wvas ad(l(ed. At list / '.,
tlie m iiuIIre(d plants .i .-
p|)e(a'red. sl|)erlicially, \
to dohliili' betterr lhian 1
Itose Io(t liial (ired, fo i i
i t Ihe f('iii(lr thlie pr()- ,
d ueii l ()f Iew lea' ve, .... .....
S ( 1 I ll i i i I .-I- l th1 I r It iili . I;. l',lh w l.. r >. s 4, llin g
i ricl :1r1 il soil. l )i in p) :i i iixitl iri'. 1 )n) -
hI(W l ol f t lI 'le lli tit) hal1 f not1 ra1 l si Z,. half natural siz.
1 I;;

I II I .I; ;1; 1 I 1 N \ ii ; I \N I A .I ).\ I

Iere not i I tI rh + l l I (i l iti.j'. I.ilK I t1 11 0 1 lii >lTl HA i t 2 H1 1 111i 4'
t eln'I' ,w t-. ;l tilel i'V l\\ It ) I i dtlln illr -telil itng "if -in n L l'iI>\ t l Ill llirn
1Ii itl 1 I'1 v ah t t tIl I o n IV ap :i it -14 41 11i4 i\ 4 of1 1 _,O\\ 4 i i thi
ti .It 1 4 ,ii I l t 'J 144 4'- 4\ 111 t i l x, x ,' 4, it ilt 1,.4\\ t44I :l + It f ir ,. 1441 t 1 I,
annured p4i11- 1 1 oVc oU11d11 111 ill l llt'. for 1l44 1 144X\ 114 K im I'lleI1
lo 1ro ind,. tl]4 I'ni olf t1I4 t' wo1 ,1 il !liir' "io\v d W o1Iy',. '1 .p)-ilo
n'\1"]l-. IX 1i 441 i 1 t-4 \ itliiX lt Iinthtt1 ', X I \X 11 itI III l ii H cl rin X ll ;t i i 'X
dli va Ift r pi l t ',. A It tIn' X ctrl end i +'4 i I\'I. 111 1114 t in i dri n l'i ;aii l
(*xlct'I-ivm'r ]* lt -v\-tl cIn \\;In ,W'tll uindiil,.r 'i; v And l P l a nl t-l \,' r crr irly+
i'tIl\4 t* y r at lt'ii r f \1' i ,s ,l- u- nli 4 .'r4 ( t v1 lh. 1 1 h i 11t 1 i 1 1ro I >i I l 4 1.

t ,i',e r4X 1 411 hI,' IIe',, 'rr. -lh, Anvilr :1i 4l 4. 14ilotr 11. li it nor iial
ul;Ilnw 'I '.tc' o l r14otlh( > l ti "i'd141 I r41 4 tX ; iI :114l 4:t',, ,1 Aw l In, dlead oI
(lI\i4 I Sr1 I.. I ) I \ tih 41 1 of lid \XW'e'viwl- tlte ''I'\\ Il 4l Ir| thii
4loT- Wi4- \,t'\v 'hlov,. A\I411 1414 'lav- lh4t1r. M 1 l''il :rmiarv 6. ai lWii lt

XXII Iltl 41 \IX 1114' 144X/ Itl',l+ I4'IX4 4411 11114l'! I4111 X\ l 1\'41 11141 XX+/ 11311111 :
Wa~inn iav. tIII( lower ]oa;(\'f on1 thlrcc |)lainlts v\ l icrcd.q ;1 id W\'ill ;A
ret>\ xvW sl< nil six: of the iiianiiird, |)l~ ts wer dn"Id.

In its li Mttl& il i-(ti1MliGlion ltih IOIMi T Vty. lhik, nlini.-t :ill ))l nirl
of tlXi-- ;i 1 -lhi i titl 'r A1 1' hiif l a dliiv i n i nX -onitl. 'i 'liT tl'rtil.
1liino.towIu> ;:lt;i. l' 44i\'vw.1i1 N w' l orlI of ( )Ilio. ol' l t'ntii ',l,\X ;iv. Aw
o1r '1 ,l1- c14 X la,'l. th1n' l 24liM l4Tr'v l il1, li 4.i lll ,r\' t i lt' 1 l i4r4l llh I/X,'l 1 -1 ;1
41I 'i f 1 I,1iA). ;nid -4" ll railin1i, rln n.- (/ i X 1/0i>'> 11, 1' 1 is-I4 T1 .'1taiol
ol r l~il);ni~i. A M = ,hiscrilnrl ly\ ('lO;irlt"- U K' in volhumiv ol (G',Oitri-
l4ttion> front t4ei t4'litidI Stalles Nltiotal Il rliX iiXr Xii. i1 1 riv'r- l
'roIti ea-t to \v4- 14 i ilt 1 14144 ral laittith4c ofi l, nit ointllrx ,i\" a ItiIl-
of d/alk 44 ;ll'(4 l- di. :i+4 to1 ni4 lll"h' i' wIdth1,4W1 llr c l, lilal
W h l o. l ,w0hich ro 1i l"tl-t' Tn'it Wlal ririiltrllt l 11'l4t Xio < ;ll;a 'onIt- ar ',a- 4i1 4rtl4 i ni iilli of il -trip haIll in tlh ir
S' m',4 AX c114 lili 14i-tix lictiid 1',;'lli ol' 1 lt l ofl rri< at4l a d rI -,rlI', It -
htto 4l l 4I4t-, it 4 h 'lii 4i 4'IX I ,. lrlr i, 144 i -. Atw1+l 4 1 ,tiXX r .t1 .114
Int the iint,.rtlil "W it,, l ,Ii t o l' l ina .l'; 1 liinc-tmn -o il. ) l-l dc-TOiit 4ll thl
|lalwt -' ,o !4 liiclKtrv rcl v ttio i) > lj ar t l, al olhI,, \",lIolv il .
III all Wi 'l icl itith+, "" llnb o"'I Soil 0 1 IrWfl' r iiup,+ o/ ( 'Trta ini A liwi,`
aim! VO l>i| ne Plant-." M r. N1. 1. I"c\rialda di- tn-;-- l10' 1Ot ril
it(on o4 o\c,' '.'i< -jne<,it- of 1l4ant- ou ind 111 llin th old parls
of' tlirm norllIi'a- itc tii 11 00 W rlc S itl ;Anid, Ca dimi. All the Ilwdltli cl rriv.s
lt' ci+ iii <'itl -. liee -lRWrif-. avi o nid d ,06 +l 40','o i- -oWil. Aiiwl 11" othlier
plant- 4l' tli l uili>,+trv Awdl hi a limAN r I'einnI -ir ilmo-i m ltouit c\ ('p+-
l ionll i rr'd I ilr if-v o1 In l in- i i\'o ~l orinat ion-.
'l er \\iNil 0 "- OwN'Ai h<'.\j 'i iniiti/i- inc flo nii 1l l'r rikc- in hinm d
.oilk- W;IVc' iio! it i ,'occcdt "Ali tlih -aimll -Ilpiol liii a1- olw of III-
llii"cr to\))r i'il it~-, lbiitt lilte i'-u 1-. thln' _o ;iK l lia -l iWwi-lrd in liii. lihave
"l iIi W Wii i l' liccn (*\,',!LH i no4t alw. a in tlhe

:ht,+, 1. i l47. IMA ING,+ 110 IN,


direct i((ion (,rigilly colnt(empllated. aind ii tlie end have been fully
colicl usive.
()in May 26. Hi)0, six blueberry seedlings were potted in six 14-
ou11lce drinking glasses il a good peaty b)lueberry soil. in which,
however. 1 per ceit of air-slaked lime had lbeen mixed immediately
before thle i(tt (ling was done. Six other plants were similarly pot ,d,1
but wi th1ou the addition of t lime. The milimed plants grew
r11011iallv. The youllgel' leaves of the limited plants, however, beganl
to wvillt lie samie day on which they were pitted. (IOn Junie 1 all
the leaves (mo all six plants were withered, though parts of thlie stems
were still green atld plump. The leaves did not turn purplish or
yvellowxisl.h, as is usual with sickly b1)lu1eberrv plants, but either re-
tailed their green color after withering or turned 1brownl. N)No new
root growth took place inii any of the limed pots, anld by July 10 all
hlie plants were (dead.
Another series o(f six plants, also potted on May 2(6, 190)8. but in
a sterile soil containing no peat. Iyv ac'cidetnt received a very small
a11ounlt of limec. I'- ()f tlie leaves o(i thliese plants witheredrt dnriii
thle first 'few idays. but thlie plants subsequelntly recovered aInd milade
as good growth as could have been expected from thle general char-
acter of their soil.
From thliese experiments thlie writer concluded that thlie blueberry
WXX excee(diin'lv selisitive to lime a:d that the slighte(-t admiixltire
of it, in the soil would be immediately fatal to the life o( at least
Slile liehli of a blueherrv p)lhlt. Thi conlcilsioln. however, was
erroineois, NS slh(sequelt experience IluXX ed. Thils first experiment
mI'ia h therefore be dislmiissed Xith the exlplanation that in all prob)l)a-
b)ilitYV the immi(,diate (' colllpe )of the p)lalts waXs due to a causlti' effect
of the lime used. II olite of thi later 6imie (xperimientsli did tiis
immediate collapse (ci'Cur aIild in n1o0n' Was the( lie so :appl)l)lied that
it caame iI() contact with i hite bluebelrryv roots hil i a calustie
till laI!)or .iL', und 'r :IaII erroneou, s c'(Incep)tiol of the slutpersensi-
liXveless of tlihe b)lueberry l)lait to 1iiullte' qtliantitites of lime, tlhe
wViter. desiriig to podt'ce fiesl examples of is pieo(iteioII III
No-Xeilber. 1O()S, placed la very ,mall quamtity, a few miilliigrams, of
air-slaked lime i ()i the surl'ace ()f the soil in each of three 2-inch
,(tl ro'itlaini a small bIuilwhlerrv plat. No() effect was produced
(either at first or for several weeks. ()in I)'December 19. I.'". a large
s'-raoce applict ioll of calbo'aite() of liiie' Was Made to the Same three
Jla ls. a gram to each po(. a:nd the lilme wX;s washed dowl with
atNvtr. The expected collapse did not (cc'tur. The limed plants co()n-
tiililed to :It, ash lulxliliti nv asth (h'ir bullied neighbors. The como-
11 (' i 'iplcd 111 Ilit' dry weight ofd tlie sjij.

. iW- o,,o. mis roiadi tlli( ihat W e asow vw h t-h eI qe '.lth of IN, plant had
not Ienvi al tl' cted w;is Iecaus e 6li"> had l[lo pulletra ted ,, ittlv
into the -oil. Another and miore dwastic ,xperime t \%i- tetefore
determined upon.
(hi a l>ilt K I {iO'. nix blieberry plants in I itcli Ip oln oit itningii
:; g'ood bi+ebcrrv1 sod" wetv etl a|i)al O'l'oin their fellow,- ;ild watt ed
with o di r lo v \ewtater. at satllralt sollution of* valc.idi" ,xhl. 1./-
g+raii,- per liter o)f water. Tth ;aIpluicattion- i ll \\ma('de" or t,'oI Nl il
ain tolint I lit thlie soil in till oot "-as( IN)=lo il l \' A I tv wetled Paul l Kimn, aNO
Iii.-ially at nilall m ixccss qulant ity ran tlhroil,,h the{ l eIol in llIIt c ottti ti
of llc

lor iii r tlrIe 1 e\+nven Ij olltli>, until ( clto xer "2-", l) 1. tlh '-, Dolt-
M Y A I")d o othlter water tlhanil linw ,walt r. l i!intr t l,']..d li- i t l tilt'
[Ilani, colilinlil& to a'row in a iorinal mnanner their a ivra e lnwi ah]t
itlcrenin^ f'ronti t lo I 1 indih s. 6 4"" TV, liI a))) deter ietI Ell',ct hwliae\t'e r otI lie th MIo o e plaVI. A cotntll" ,nia o
loa'ed o(i thie total anilt{ll ol" linivwitt t tl"er n hW \+o that ncad ptli
litt lhave r\ eei\'ed al o t 1no 1 'Igrain, (of lime. .\it Nnal vn-i of tlhe -oil
in oie l tl e pnf ts after tile hiewwt\ t aIpliehations hall cca-ed i+a\'e
It grranins. Tliis innnt t was elorniotl ( 4,ts. 0 1111ide ld f lit -tand-
loiint of a -rictiltniral /iragc. "'Iv' soil. whihi had altot one-tlird
lthe \ iirhi of ain oirlinar*iv soil. was< (o\ver p | r cei n lite. Tlliii- I thie
equiv\"ialent olf out -2il ") (oni- (if liuie lowr at"r "ixed i "to ll{e upper
(> indies of the moil.
Now. it was .alred v known f'roin (l experiinent (h-vri!dl o, paie
23., tihat it thiasmoi l (jontit ii g 1 1u ii s i as I peI'r r il or InlPIK
lti{lwrr'nr )Itants Kho Al eOither div or barelW r* main ;ili\ve. K ai
Illitter of fact tIhese IiIItVner plati s wc>re ima.king exelhnt +,i'r)\m thl.
A, e reil ciexamtination of tlie teit- A w n a on or the lpo- \\;- tieti
iiade. ThVlie stllfar of Hlie -oil was (overed with o iai'd 2*ri\" crust
or' lime. Immedialvi\ iniderieth for a dep10 of Amont hall i' Ai Kii
tlihe oil was bla- k and oni t ained no i 1 e Ibluebc'r Iol-t. There, was
ai zoae or llie 4inip bo dlc rmoole-- soil ai N:i'( wI ood n [ wla l lliat
readiedl ti ni t oipt to t" hie ottlio of tll(e pot. InI :ll o+ lier parts
of I e, dark brown valytt -oil tiere t ;i a ho"e-, II1- ol' if i tltli\"
r'oot". \Nhich reaI hed do n\\l :1-1" itllo Ilfe ople -pai'e- A11I0l1 fliN,
l)l'oleii crock- in ilc lotto m omlithe pot. T'l lie li :l t appeared w liave
peimerawItd o v into il illie erlidvivl po ti(on- ot' the -Ail. A chemii al
t,-t -i ,ted llitha tlie A b ;lc irool|e-- la vcr was d( eti dl\ ini[)erip oa ed
Aitl linii. whi lelN 1 1io\\ln ]eat\ lportio l eontainifil (li ithe t-ri v gi
root-+ -till _+avc tille acid rl o iin 10at was characmhi-ttie olr INe whole
titt il or -. il e o ti l ,ii t\ r low pli t ion le,-aill.
Sbinle all the water t llit lie I tnlih-le tool' a-Imi 'i ])ortiotn olf lWle
soil ad rec ni\ d (41 riii i' dlv ( t lieiu we\v'en lnoiitlli"- liad co+lil M'oil
tihe liiewa tl" applieioni, it ; was ,eident that tlh lime coitaino:d1

SIOW I' N It )L+A FH)N (W} .[ I MAME Vill!(H'(;l! PEATI.


in tle limew1i v atihad Iacnl dep)o-ited in tlie upper layers of the -oil.
The following laboratory experiment contirme(Id this. A siiall quat-ii
lity of tli acid )ealy moil li-ed in growiii l bltieberrie \vwas a placed
in a ;,a-? ve-s-el ;indi mnioistened. Then dilute liimewater reddenled lv
the atdditimn of phenolplhthaleill. ai substanctite gkivinig a delicate color
it f(or :alklali'es mich a-s lime. :i stiriied into the -oil aild the mixture-
Ip)(urdl into in (rdiniary i1)aper filter. The \\water caine through the
tillei witIont a trace of red color. showed none after boiling, to drive
olff any" possible ca'irolnic acid, andi when te-tetd with aininmmonia and
amliio)ii ii oxablate showed not a trace tof lime. The precipitation
of the ie limli beaen (mipllete anlid practicallv instalntanlelus. ()ily
ten secoltds hlad elap-ed between tilhe time whlien thlle limiewater w s
addedI to tlie ,oil a;nd the tine when thle liquid entirely free fromu lime
bejali to (trq) through tli ile ilter.
I borderr to as-ertaiil whether a large part of thle lime ii lthe lime-
water u-ed on llie plants may not have pa-s -ed throuilh the pot- by
running down ithe partially open channel along the label, some lime-
water wat : polled 11tpon the surface of oiie of thle plots. The excess
water that -ool I)ir-ln to drip tIhrouia-h tlie bottom of thi ])pot wa-,
tested for liuie. It was fomid that whliile the liimewvater poured into
th(e pt tnitainedl 0.1014 per (cenit of lime. thle water that caine
throighi c(titaiedl only 0.()0411 p)er ceit. In other words a pot of' -oi!
lihal for ttr setvei ioiitlhs hlad atbeen it-ed essentially as a liainewxater
filter ,-till continued to extract ox"er 9)5 per cent of the lime coitaieil
in the limewaltr illithat xwas passed through it. nolwilli-la:iidinii, the
fact that there was a partially opell channel down one -ide of tile
lM. It is believed that had the -oil lbeen eveInly comilacted in lite
Ipot no lime whatever \ouil ldiave been aide to nass tliroiinl. bnt tiat
all wto)id ldave been piecipitatedl in llte uhel)l)tio( t laiter-.
\hile (the experietii ias no important lreing (li e -ibject (of
iluebterri culture it is of vei'y i'eat s-igniic;nnce in its beiariii, on the
Wetood Af applying litlne (o acid l-ois ill ()r(linarv a -oric(illtnal prmc-
tice. A s-iirfiace a:pplication of limie Xwould have iit a)prcliailde Ill'eCt
in, neilralizinlli the acidity of a soil nless (be moil was o sand V ()or
-ra-velly mr otherwi-e open tliat llte rain wael r ')nt Kiig,: lthe dis-
-ol\,(d lime could rull do' wn throiiili it prw:it'ti:llv withliout t)li-tri -
(iol. A suirfiac'e dre-sinii of lim ,o(il lid have little ,fiect in niulratliz-
i1 the-li aciditv of aii tIt old ieado w l tu I i.-tle. T e-tcur'e, ftll at'lion
of (t- liei,. a- now gt(n-rially ireco,.inizd in lthe be-t agricultural
prmim ac(.1, piplis ('d bl v (,thor i'h h mli mrrowing. especially after puilng tlle
liiim e l i-ilh lit -i, tirfacei with a tdr'ill. A full dic-ii--ion of the Il ihys-
ai]l ireia--n ftr iie' dlepoition or (ef liilite ini llthe pper la'er- oi (Ithe
'(il. \N liwn noi) \w('oed I o it enichin ially, is g"ivtn in IBulletini 52" of
iQ Ioiareai "f So ilspu lis-hed in 1;)()S.

nliixdin- -t~~irln" (ini I )k wadwrln 02'. It.Ios. wAi' Innc I1 \ll i NN\ I& ;iix ~ ln ~
\\ 'trc "ql i ,n A ,- I )I" i tn 1"1 "'I; tirol *l, it'iil ani(\ I t ll
I, )., r( '+ ;l >( t l l l iti !' l l H Hrt. mI li- ",l li- lr i I ll l h im l IH i. I hl ,
l m n ll ln M lw o d A w ~l l llKh d |il l llt I1 i ll illo- ~;lllo. -,It Nl l ; 1 li no'llllr f l
l-"A 01"1 1 41^i\l f 110K Il l' h l )l~ l lilln T ld I VA- 1` 1"' M 1W ~~ f ll \\r V ; OH li l lll

," i *l t Itlt 'u m, A |\)liI w i 1 t1 11" Ia -l >\\ I l ll ',do:un q la I l t- < +,lt l 'r + i-r t
;li,\< i aliiiit n 'prlmr bi v li at"-tig t 7 ti l "-. "I l ITil'r | IIl, ',+h-e lIi' 4 ln -


n^ r ~ "r" iil r j ti hew o- r
H the|~ I -OD MI I f 111C I "|"II li
I w aln I Hl ll in NN l l OI w I> l

I,\ 0- y I l) I ;- IQ
*- '. I 2 ,I ,I + II I I ,f l

-.,, 16 I ,0. 11 k ti"

* i ill ] i lI II 1 !11
li i+lI, ) M ,r l l-. l i +l l ,+ l L-ll ,r :
H, l I -tti ra in ti+a++l I ,

;>t i> i i l l + i l +;

I l l l l I + l ll t

" I' l lil

)r ili ni
t i( V li ,
210 1-t+ ,+

~I\ *,,t I!2 t I ~+

ii OI i
i l ( i i' i
1 ;in l ~ (
itcil p l it-

llr Wilwi -Im
'At, Idnl +t-

Illl- ll V ii ti I

\ i \ '. it + < 11i i

)l i N n ,,*

> 1 j l; i l x -

6 100T 1 1
1w i "'l l .
I!, k i +

nay, I a
1)" 1u ir n!

l ; +

IV + I; m + ..


InII its natural geographic distribution the blueberry shows an
aversionl to clav soils. Its favorite situati ons are swamp-.s, sandy
laids, or porous,. often gravellyy loarms. When a blueberry plant
grows uipon a clay soil it is usually found that its finer feedigll roots
rest in a layer of half-rotted vegetable matter overlyiving the clay.
Often in such situations the denlse covering of interwoven rootlets
anld dark peatlike soil lmay be ripped from thle surface in a layer
little thicker than a door mat and of much the same texture. The
roots of the bluelberrv do not penetrate freely into thle n .de1 i -L clay.
In greenhous-e cultur'es the blueberry shi ows thle same a\ rsionl to
clay soils. Various series of 1)lueberry seedlings were potted on May
2C(. 1i90s. in different soils in ordinary large drinking g.lasses. For
(me set of six plants a stiff clayer soil was used. such ais is common
in the noiighborhood of Washington. 1). C. The soil in the glass was
mulched to tlhe depth of nearly an i inch with half-rotted leaves. In
another six ,lasses were set six similar plants in a peat soil. the sur-
face mulched in tlie same way as the others.
In other expleriments with this clay soil in earthen pots. thle growth
of the plants had always been poor. The present experiment was no
exception. But the feature of greatest interest was the behavior of
the roots. 1Plate I, from photographs taken October 5"). 19)0s, shows
the root svystemsi of typical plants in the two soils. In thle ('lay soil
almost no root development took pla'e, and in the illustration no
roots are visible. The interruiipted lack lines in the ch'lay are tmuinnels
made by larva;e or other animals. In thlie moist leaf mulch -.1,i riII-,
thlie clay. however, thlie plant ( developed its roots extensiv\ely. Some of
the plants, probably v because they were set too deeply in thIe clay
when the potting was done, failed( to send their roots up into the
mulch, and such plhints were much inferior inII their growth to those
that found thle rotted leaves. In thle olier glass is shownii the normal
ro()t growth of a blueberry in a -oil s-lited to it.
It liad been found in earlier experimielits that certain soils coin-
posed in part of im perfectly roltted (oak leaves were g(iood for growing
leberriies. ()n tlhesulippositionI hat tile more thoroughly rotted this
limaterial wAas lt lie better suited it would le for blueberrv growing, a
q(1lantity of old leaf mold was curedd for an experiment. Tle mold
was lack. milellowv, and (f tilie textilure. Thlie mixed oak and maple
leaves ('1romi which it was derived had been rottling for aboul five
\y(:Iears. until all evidences of leaf structure hiad (Iisal)lpeared. It had
tlie sale a))(ppearance as the black v1.e-,,.iblae mold that forms in rich
wvoo(s where triillilums. spi in, beauty, and bloodroot delighlt to grow.




IN.JIIlti(lt' EI.' c f OF] i I \lF l M I .I1).

(In Fel ruary '(O. I)(). *_'. l)l242 Iitl 'irr\m m(i('(lligm's wTer pmoted in :nh.i iwh
IartheInware pItia in h la i Xlit' a mixte>1'i 1 it t o ii i ll i nitl- ]y lbilk of, i
ti' leaf iol(hl just d ,r milt'tl. it one l);ir l fl l l tI and, awd 'l otn lu-t of
chlav\.v Wo ini dVrived from rolled era in-(lrf. Fifll other p"lat"- N i'rc
i tted ini t ian manneti r ex(i e that in ilam oi f it til),l hi lta Inuit
mwat u tstcd kli lo\\i fomit e arlie tir exp ietlts to liti well nuittd tn him i-
lierri v "_ ..11,*' i1'. Thin phii ts i etre keptt in tulhe ;nil ilo ls> i t til "anti
weather w e (JUT h'v we e, pla d (outdho r-. All \-ere 'itvell tihe -"inii
trilti' nt. a triaiitlil t fh l\avorl'ti t o' to g'i lrowttl.
It al d liha in axlpetid that tl' l-iilai t in tt li n h i+ J oili wolul hso\ :1
vi'torou'- \rowtl. a- ld it was- lohi t ll I th t 10 l l iniihtliit ht lotvh iAWii i
-ls p rit r t to tlle i)cat tOnr (ti)trrii soil miixtutres. Thli, xil(,riut)l-n asI
it i)oi i-s-ct l. t i\t m il li -h thliat ( Tih X was i i it i tli ; i h i -,. l i lttP ii ifa
nold4) )i ov d to he not inanely wo(it a l l S'.s il for l)Ili+v)^!-i'le, lullt all
extre'ime'ly ))oor oIne. ;i> the" followh inig^ )airticillars will sh\ow.
X 'inh h li )lits were ]ottd thltey a\1' itad al(ott "21 iMieit in
lW tIlit. L On M ai y :.)i thet ]) iai(- .il I)vltt hplni a \as lii ll ai t th t of T71
ilicii ,1. whliil thI leahf-it'old p 'lalt,- averig'ct d 11 i li .c. At A ll i tin i
!i lowish, a coloration which theyv had taken (o sOii) alte'r thi, v wmt
lottd ;idl frt i wltih they\+ niever fill!\ r i(m'e)\+r'nd(l. A\t Ill( mid of the1
s.asonr nftt'er 1iI l iaves- W"(r Ahm'!. liN, plIt-so-il ]llU)a i- av\' a''i l I:""
icHi i'- nin hoiaht awl th' hl f- ol(dh pilants7t,1 itliwho,. ()n Novcelu r-.':).
1)()0), live average [lant,- from cadi lol were cut oflf at tile surface of
th(l gr, ntdiwl nd \eilg( edln( The, \\ ci+.li of t(he -tu'tis fromn tw lha f-tl(old
plants was- les tlimit ( -li-lMth ant mro the il )Iant in the, gio) Wiue-
lvrryv Wil.
\\ hell these lants were removed) froi4Sn their original seed bed to
lbe trir i hlis anted, to thle 3-inch pot+s. "cih of Ilie (o ilinal -oil a" ,lintg+
t(, tliir r oit- \\a- wit -haik n "IL It i4 lelievel thiat tlie f l af-mold
iplats fI' in part 111 til the lla i] Q I in niakh I N_ nei git\ th.
;ItlI thlatt witlimmi it they \v ,,i Ii:v"A -lown "till les- inate -a c it
li+iialit thlin thn'v (It|l. ThO eovemi IM Pereti Vo"T. v, I)dly ill
Ineed oif relol ttnit even ifn :arl\*v -uinme., awli hid tlley bee played in
iart, r Iln)- Ill(, differ tce ill t(lte ^ tli (,t tho I planit. inl th w ",o il"
AoMld have leen ...l I)uit thatr an it wat-.
i'ln!it 1lie indlitene of lic hO:e f mold wa, dil'eetv del terions and
that thliep or i) owtn li of tl+ie tbl( \ie tr planis in it was wtit wle to thie
la0k of -ouim, e ml, ent tliat tinpl i um have lrii+ nbi-hi v thie adlition
(; a s all aamotnit of tlihe ^*ood bt l )eb r "oil i" "S lsio wn 1y ertain inter-
mediaite exlperint"ici Alonig with tlip, nllltre" deh-erild abi)oe wen,
Ca Wried two o Pthe" in1 \which thle "il fixtures c(oitained l)(h peat and
leaf ioild. In tlhe irsl in mw i (li the I l oport io was Ip alt A+. told A.
,-and 1. and, loain 1. the average height of tliS pliat" on iMay Oti .


was (; icLies, ;and at lite ei(id of the seaoion 12 1 inlhes. In the seoind
Wot. in which the Inplpot iol was peat 3. mnold A. a Il 1. and loam 1.
the aveage height onl MIayv 29) was iANhesi. and at the end of the
ea-on 11I ilies. It will he o)serve(l that these two lots of plants
are iliterinolediale ill their grow tih lbetween the hist two and that in all
foiur lots (hlie )povety of growth is ro(ughly propo)))rtional to the anliount
(f l a:if liold i d ill (I ie(, oil.
Tlat tle w:ieak growthh iof the plants inll leaf m)old was not caused )y
a ('omlipacting, of thie .-(oil iandl a lack of aeration. (due t too sill.] a
prol(o)iiont of sand in tlie lixtuire, is shown hy still another lot of 25)
plaints which were p()tted iln a soil mnixtur, liaving- thle proportion of
iiold (, sand 3. and loanli 1. These plants averaged only 4 inches in
leiilit onil i1y 29 and (]; inches at the end of the season. They grew
even less. theriefore. than thlie plants with oilV 1 pall of sand and 8
palls of mold.
Ini Miate II. from a 1 photograph made in the winliter of 1909-10. is
sAhown a flat divided into three parts and set oni Februarv 10. 1909.
witli bluel)(TVerry ee(,(liigs of ililformi size. Tie Soil in the middle
oimpiarteni(eit is a imixturie iof leaf mnold S parts, sand 1 part. and loam
1 part. I I tlie coplialtmelnmt to the left the soil is in the l)roportion
(iof kalnia peat 8. sand 1. and loalmni 1: andl in the right-hand coin-
lpartnielint. kalnia peat I. leaf mold 1, sand 1, and loan 1. It will be
obserxrveld that the greater tle amount of leaf mnold lhe poorer the
,y-rowth of the )Il)eherry iplnts.
Tlie reason for hlie u expected deleterious effect of leaf mold. as
slioxxin by these experiments, is given on page "', and further discuss' l
oin l)aie .*5.
LAI ANI. li C r ,TION. ,I F F1 ORI; VX .lilao, s (;,0\i1',,I [T li:<,>'Ii:I S xA AC Oi lL..
Thlie co(llideratioill of lli stiatemlentiil requires first all undersltandingl
of the illeanlls used to (deterlililine whether a soil is acid or alkalilie.
Tlie siin les llieanus is tlie litlillS test.
While oil(,e liaV veeoile sulli(nienly Iexpert in the use of the litnlius
te'-4 to orIli a fair jiudgmielint of tlie degree of alkalinityv or acidity in
;i soil, an exact deterinition iireiies sole ditl'elrenlt inleth(lod. It
was fonil( that foi t(le we:ak acids prevalent in thle least soils to lthe
examllilnat ionll of wh litli the )prsenlt exlpelillielits led. lie plhenoll-
pt lil Ii n e>t was tle noot satisfactory. If a few drops of ple-
iol h udliaieiIi indical orl l ( a1 l I t e sI, to Soltion. the sollution, if
alkaline. urn- instantly linkii. alndi if :aid or l"nlitral its color does
lo( c)liaiin '. Thle apill)i( tion of this p eioll(lmtewno to thIl.e del, lrinia-
toio "f (lie d(ei(e of acilityV of an acid o()illtioll is as follows: A
delinile aliunilit of tile Solultionll, llUslllly 1(() clthic cenltiiiieters, is
placed il ;I dealer. fe drops ( 111 an alcoholic Al=tion of phelinol-

,,w i i\ ./v
.j .; ,",,/ // .1 ../ ,/n'

- --- -------------- ----- -- -
( mr ^i \ 1 ~It n tEs ir

1 1 I III ( I' F TI I _-:1 I 1 0 .

l i l lm ii1 : ai1' A ''A ; 44l in t th i i 4 ili i t I I (I [ l1 ,I r q I > I .r ;t
_. l ,i ll~ lll'd ida--+ lllic |)1 ovidl I \ ll ll :l g-at + ,p ,* \. k l' n i ;l- ;n hlin ill.t
Hl H 't 4 1' i ll 21t 1 4 \ lt ll4 141 l l1 ll -ll 4 ll. l l ( + > 1 ,4 Vk lo 1| Il' l 1 .4
('O1 l4ll l< 441 1 4 ;l 4l I l ll'.,414 | 1 to" '1 nol aaI 1 l o i 44 ( to K OMI-
W-t:-. o fl' dl ll l Il r ^V ihell ;l -lhIlll l]I l : i ll l lA it fl l l i r .. ld illli
W ol lei. -,l4 l i` In4 th l;l- I 'I' l 414. I\ l 144'l i it, 1 ",4 i'WI> 16 4 5 if 10
AS -o, in toi ` lu ,,oii!`- hq pti'u l lraIizold :iol it tui't- pV Ak. A r',In n i-
111;1l t 1 I l i n' tl ll 'i 4 i -l o w' it'4 i ` '\la ;l li ltllll 4 i|l' l .. i Il l I y itt'
4l ll 441 l "44 414 44 I 1 41 44t 'C 1 14' 4 I II I '1 41 4;>1 IZ 1 I llIII. I l lll l 11 'C~ l l I -

(M(ili(min i lit" du rct, oll ;acid~ity \' r\]ir -,ll in f'ri nho- 4i ;a n ~rin~il
Huui!l -,lA n it.o X!, i",' ntt c. .t. a, nt rt, il nl l A nth-oii, t \" )",, hll n ',p ire+
' ir it,- i+ t li:'; ti' 14'; 1 0 % 1l' ( 1 ;i l -*\l 1" ini ,i 4 -I ,l i l I v,, r:o ,.
(i.'44.1. c. a4t' ;a 1 lti li or (IM('1'L 1o1in44l 4- 'i onl1111. III a 44 ( olf
o ti If Ilife r d l nutriv i >o iot i wi edl in llthe hlwhl e'i'v il ,,-.
Is.-' .4 .olt' a 41 F', i44'2 il l4''' olt44 n \I ;i- rrij tit'' 1 to.4 ii c t r i i4 :1/ l';in" ii i v
o l104' 1 t (' t1 f l l' 1 '4 I 'l dl i' l 1 4 i4 4 1 4 1 4 44. S. I' ;1 .% d .'1 i o, lo rn il
W' lnlionI ild- ( lie n i \ I lnt o( oicl"W 1 16 1 d"vcn ir i ;l;inounit. or (.'i n.c. tit
;a i'o!rin;il i41ti It. dlo' 4 It'. rtf ol' 44.if lit 4 4 oIf t 4ti- ;,'i 4l -- ,i ti, i- 1. ,1
1ii'i ;i. It If(|1,. it ;ilt '(jil4t1 XX -it'ia 4 ol' at <).( 144a O 1 )1' t 4'io ;l ;alklitiX
.-oltii ion ti Ic ttrt liz/c it.
In ;i|lll'in t in- A li, It oll linlih ii list i ) -oil- tlif -;ll"iic il iV-
41cd. A -oi I i- re4.' a '41l ;'s I4i\1 .III tmwnial n'iili l\' '. l tti :(li. 1 4l .x-
i'-ling' ill a ran 1 ot tl (I 1 4i41 if i ,\,rl it 1 i`. I ol' %attfr ,iv.,- a no'4r-
i 4M4l ViC I 44iti4L1. If :1 M14il 4c444 dcIT-' il4 4 l 4 i- It\ 11.i g ain I idit t1t'f
0.02 norttial. it \wold in ll l dlialt tlie cxtr rl' of io0 aii)- Iof it in 100
1%. vc.oft \vo tt4 wtii.1 414t'a 14 iildl a M" u- a 4i4l 4o4l'ti dlial K-' dli:t 1 0(1
%. l. oft flite -4 tit4i4 n wv4d1 414 :4 1 4 n1 c' 4 44 t a no'n' al ai r : 'idl 4 4oi 4tion.
The tiethiol olr t rAli' i 1o,'o!l ,wri ai" All (lt" -oil wo-iwlity tv t-
4i\4 tn in tiii- |aij,r 4 a- i. ollo : '441 o"l 4il a.'- lii-( aiir drind 4 l at i ,n 44i
It.4i.\ 144'44:1.11 XX'iti l+ l 4444:44, 4l i 14:4 ilt 1144 t' 4 l".14: l4 44, 14 .,i- 4:,,l 444ll 441i.;'t 11 i ll 14

'. '41 a ou XX 4 14 1ni |r a '. '1 4444 ra'' i a 4l444wi44 1u'd 4Oi4. 11.41 ken h 1 1or-
oiiL!" l.v c.f i L'4 t4 .c.o' o i4 1 4 4 '"il ''l. a.. of 4 14441 i,4 allowed 4n& (tTid nI lit.
f. l iltn Mlol ili_" lil C' C' i- 0lilt14r1 X oil' and" hIiI .l to di4' >'1. :I" I\" ;i\' V
tori'lmao1 Xlioxi |)i'-'4il. 4 i41 14 -441 X iX l i i- l:4441 lTl4 41 l<'d O\ilnli 4 4 ith;a o 4i1410r
4n4al -,441 1)44 o4 '-t,,41 4 t l>\'irac'1'. 4I-1l he' I4 liot+l liplit alfin a' : an in li
i` l or,. A ll il l' I -t- wviv4 I444iadt h .Mr F1 1' ,4' 1 i 4 !4; '. o1' tl4 PII '';Ii
of ( 1 'liii-tl v. I" X'l44 4ii lilt' \% 4 'tl i- k i'ail l\i i4i wip'i a+lim .)0++!+q ,l_ ll u t l w. It+i lic il -i+1,. ,of 111A t %W w H IMi -.
'I'1",' Uy\ >r'-- i i 4i(> n l lato l -I 1 1"'d in 1 1 6- l lta 'r. it "Ok- i
4l4 l'-!.w44 4. 4- 44 t i 44 llo w or>\ | l ll ll lllt l4 l 4 ll 4 '4-ol4 I,'1 or 4 drl'; i'' 44
44.4. 4 1 1-l 4144' 11l4' \j I '-- ilt 4 4IH IH l -'111 4 Ito t "" 4 414 t4 4 l 4 :i w'r'
.l;>i! 'ali' -l int ni '16 'l4ill i -A l l Ini 'in44l }1 : I 4- t41 l i4 '

-1t11:1i t i ll' i lla li 'd 1 l44,1. l lO, o1112 1II l 44141 4ition. l0 >';i-d o \ lI
n lliltl+f t ,f r \( ilW'll l o Iit l IC -tl'+-Il I 1t< 11+ ,lcr ct T'Ai t l ioll, U ri nal u--in -
4i14 4 444 441 444 4++~ ~ i 4> tIi\' Il 4444l 'l t .t +it ++l- 4ltl 44 4 l + ,l +!i41 t 444 4 i
4441 414 X4414 4 14 4 4{' 11' 44 44 4 ) 444444 44


tions of tile various acidas have thlie same degree of acidity. Normal
solutions of a:lkalinie sIbstamnces ire equ(ial to each other in alkalinity.
A measured a mount of a norl111i solution of an acid will exactly
neutralize anll equal amount of a normal solution of an alkaline sub-
III considering lie degree of acidity from the standpoint of the
selse of taste it is (onveuient to remmnuilber that the juice of an ordi-
ar1v lemon is very clearly a Inormal solution of citric acid. The juice
of the leon(,)l contains iu sa llv from (C to 7 per cent of citric eacid. A
normal solution od' citric acid is ;.4 per cent. When the juice of a
lenion is d(iluted to about ten times its original bulk. as ili a large
dr(ikinki glass. one ihas approximately a 0.1 normal ac(id solution.
When diluted to 100 times, making al)out a 0.01 normal solution,
there remains only a faint taste of acidity. The acidity of water
after standing a l ili contact with peat in a barrel sometimes reached
0.00(.) mrnoml. BIog water, or peat water, is sometimes aplprecialbly
acid to the taste.
Returnig"-i now to a consideration of the statement that thie swamp
Ibuieblerrv des not thrive e in a neutral or alkaline soil an experiment
in this direction miav first Ibe cited. The experiment was made with
twelve small ,lass pots, each contaiininig a blue erry seedling. The
soil in the pots waxs a clean river sand. The plants had been in these
pots for eight weeks. wateredl with tap water. The amount of
nourishment they had received during this time was therefore very
small, especially since, when transplanted into tlhe pots, all thie soil
of the original seed bed had been carefully removed from the roots.
Nevertheless duilnlgi these eillolit weeks 1all thlie plants had made exten-
sive. exen luxuriant, root growth. Tlie troops. however, liad made no
growth. There hiad been complete stagnation or withering of the
youngest leaf riulimenits, amid tie' mature leave's becamiie and remained
deeply pmrplAed.
gintuii ..g on F'Ielbr'uarmy 17. lo)9. eight weeks after the plants had
been potted inI lithe sand, as already stated, live of the pots were wa-
tered with an wacid iiutrient solution nmadce up. ii accol'dalnce with the
advice of Mlr. K-arl F. KIellhrimn. of thlie Bureau of Plant Industry, as
follo ws :
I'o nliss'ill lill.ni.e N .. .. 1. 0 I rainII.
M :iL In'sin iln siilpl nitcl ( \M -_-',).) .- _.-..... .. .... .... .. .. _-...... 0. *t l lll.' n
C;ilcitu n s lll ito ((';ISO O) 0..... .. 5. r IIIII.
{ hii l iii n iio il ilrni i e( (';i ll'r.n, I ( S I 4 (I. ,> i 1iiii.
CnIcillmi rhlorid ( N;('l) .. ...- ....... 0. 5 -r;n lI.
Si' imn cli lnhlorid ( NlM '1,) .... ''.i,',.
\W a er .. 1..... . 000 c. e.
Thi-, solution ,,ave 3ii acidity test of 0.012 norimnal.

Five otioer plants irol thie oniv twel\v cwerewale Aiti ain alka-
line nuti rit ive [o ition of tI Iw following, o I Io-i io,. si i, :

.M;i:iiesi tlIn ill>;nit e | S | I K l;r i .
('al qi 1 ii sul t 5 ';t i I > 1. 0, 0:1 I 1 .

W HOa "I W ON I5 5I
I~' t nss ii i it l i |tis i >ss I ilra.>*(1 Ii sI ..l 'it> tI -s lii.u ls sI !_'t th .

( W) t eril'-t*. hi~~-\ si\~~Is t1. 111trx1 h ~ri. c.t I~
Ii luts' addition li ia itlir. i. itl iuiantity t f -odtiui m -i l rnit Its r6 i -

a (I i X )I eI I eI f I i I I I-t XX v I sli I I X 1 i h1 1 t Is IX ~ It I I,,X s I c-iih ito I I s f sh
aitio l thnr 'r i l( ti) h lv i l llih s :t ilitn to til" s eolin f u .niti,',I

'ITo\vI ,II tih lv. e pl an tt2 s a(ttr lwto I ft a I- ,l ick' li-i. l ii," >till liva- oru l
aitli ti|> water.
( )i M arch "2.. i iirt\'- iix lday after tllit, watei riil l(ial l. l live
pla its a 'eI v\ ilit the aci i ntl rit i\, Wi l tii i t er' iwo ts-loit to ai iiarl\v
wirwnal 'Ttiic cailor, :i d all ni l ad lr ,a.t n to Imit tml laltths niehw -rtiX tli.
llise tW(1 client plant, wt aloir w Iithi t1Ia) w\ l r wItit t ill r'd--l)irlil(
iand S' i1iL Oit. ()o tite five plants watered wit i ll, alth ia liit nlntrieiit
sollttiot three \\w re s-tag lrn llnt awl ssii w. hal lI )iiJ)lli- line was 1',)0l -1.
andole was (lead.
Flth"iu 91 t mlit 101. lohint i t otit ra- ld- t va o Alem i o ril 1 21l.5 Isn)
siowii .. t Xlypical -t hia p:>lan thSi S At liadi leix I tt erd whit lit e alka-t -
line (illtitl. lAnd a itYPi Il It anit wat;t eI l ith-le arid.1 5si i shtlion which
hiad I. 2111hi l ewt i+= Towilh t'loi lli he nit iiltil of the oll lt iti and
was ].'d-, '' o lt ai vig'orous'i ne\w 'llot M' lin thli ln i-e. "i O experi-
.ent \\as l-rnis- inaltl oi l l hll .-- a IflrwalIr'-. lhit tli'ere wasXIt evX ry\ p o -h
lPect iat ladl it Ite "il nti mled tl-e aidl-fed platt woun"l d tiol have
l:adi T titti 1',li co lpir le w itli llait l iovni I lin i s" I I In :'l).
l ki. lli-- t isoward tlie a tcidit o alkaliliit' of tl ie other i-- t ltuu iire- ti lu-
far cited,. it Ial y l I le -tiiled thit tile riA li ',liuf. li -s o-iml tle-e il <
p imp ,I \hslt li s- a -1o tse iitirl 'a!t l' ,t ellh i oi' i- i lo li" i lsr -e'e lliiinn-.
"m- all;ilinie. Ti'e l ,rose ,c tlliin and lt f, alfalfa. which ,.V+rew 'o Al1
ill tati l(xtt iiiii nrei P elei a wit lit aXllal e X--lr. I WrNdee .
if a ll' va wiiiLtt lis Ttti'\\' \s ilwli an: V dereel o-fl' -tiI II.--+ in a ti -oil
eXcTI t hi wh itli an alk l'iei nratl o Iiwll i ,,h lo n in ( len- t i dtsl
vaqvnin I 'nilned Sl ;tet- lfa i wai- l rael -c ~ -ful.exce t (in ("c nnroim-
sIlX ildt-- tile inatuial ali ilv ol' llie -<,il hia- h li n 'leit rali/,-d l.%v
s' itilz a p| l!lical iolnl- of linic.
T'le l( imieod -oil. delvteriotis to dliehTri\ pla -, hnd -crilt d1 on ))aimp
'2',i. lC^ ;l a iitnti'tlir'act ,on witli grpheno nlliha leiii.
Tholi liea\ \y Ml:iy -oil deoT- rilIto] +on T |>a 2:te *1. iln w hich hliii ,errY l nitl-
Made v v lit tle Ii y+owt wa- iieiltral.
'I'lie lli artii lil! deco ii tm|>sei| leafl' oldl dc-cril-ed otn pa2l'+e- *1 io *-26'+,
whiith wa- -low'n liv vxlierini lilI to ie miark-dlY delteriou to t(tl

INJ I' A W' S l-, l 1 F1(1 ' MI & M A\ N1 Sdil l.-.


1lIe'1errYV. dwas i-tinklly Valka1ine. A chmic(1 alaalysis ,- of this m- 111old
1)o\ed thalit It contalliled *'.'iS per cent of1 calcimill oxid.
'lie g(o)o)dl I)ilcheler' -oil. iIl all thke x't ilkment- wvv' acid. thle aIciditv
It tiles' of active growth \varviying from) 0.025 .)iolili! 41d\1n to ).Ot.)'
I 10 111 1
It is of inte're-t aind -11.-, -Iive of utility in inliia'Itil, the acid cr
1,101iCid character of soil- to )record that in the case of tle alkaline
e1,If mold dilesh('i)wedl )l 1)on (,e -2-1 O1iw surfae of tile soil ii all the pots
hecamie covered Ill a tlew mlkonthsi' withl a i1rowth of a small 1k1lo0- ildel-
ti ied throll)11 the co'0rte-Y (4 Mlrs-. N. L. III-ittolo as PA 'in iv
_/_._//4UI CP.N i ()in the sur-
face ofe acid kaliiiia-peal
(i ( ^ soils the clia ractetristic
.....1 l('' l. I .(l "clik h consiL' lsted4 of
i =--= ="-"""'" i n icnoscoplic na gav. acconi-
S .... 1\ aliid <>t' lhv fllb I'r l)l'po-
., I I, I I 11: t lllia and other mosses.
1) 1 t 1t e ve l'r hvsco)mi-

', *'.*le kt-..w- -- I Tte I Itral idst ribu-
t liollIn o I vleh rries- andi
Sthelir rel tives indi'd ate(s
SI (wiV ('rcloe adh(LerenIkce 1)
1Wid soil-. Theyv occul.' ill
al)11a, a ndace throu(lghout)l the
i-, I sadyv Coas4:al Plai1 (of' the
SAtlantic s'aola:ld. The Iv
4()o 111u l 'e 1'10 ll 1 1 iv throu'(diih
S1 h'e cool () 1 d11111 h i hill la ds
4 (/i41 (4' Nvw :i1ng-in,1. Thke v
"-''-~ -^ -, t ('occ'll ill sila d pille bJ:1-
Ft'.. I. llil4,hIcr4 y .'.ili4h4 l'i \\ 1 willi : k:ilii ,n lltrik iil I' ill" 1 (I1 1) a I hol-iS
SOll \ot- iNt 1':4 14 1 SIZC. Ij 1 t i e '-ekl
h IN:t ral iz,,i 1 lr ull ]oit tihe a "stern
1111i'ud -hlate '. The] v re114 a se1nt, ()11 li 'olltral-y'V, from 1' 11lilie tlole
ol- rici otto ) l)l an 1 1ds11, aIknid iic1h Xvool1-. where lh si'o-l ale l elutl':il
o1 :ilka:liik'. Ill lite lower ('eleval Io s (it' lthe w1like1 -111'i bar ', W es. lIwhere'
:a(il -oi11 ae11' a:lmlo-'t IllikilownX liwi-'e phillts- do not occur. WVithin
rel(': i o) li 1t -S :111o s a d ela\vY iailln o: (lII e111' P c:l ic coa' st ): l o i ) lo ie
1g1 4'ier lioIlll:iin s- of th(e itll'i'or. where' 'co)diiitiois i favor) the devel-
(jli'plme t )of aci 'I s ilk, l' I id IO'I'ie ocu'4'II aialill Inl char'act'ristic aib)uni-

From a:ii exainallltlaltli of the reports of tfio-e who have attempted
a 1i( ;LIe4i'icililiraIl 'xi'ir'i eli'li statio)Il- tlo d4) ti l ihit' l111(1 i i)'mprove
tie' bI ui 'lbr'v. it i evident ik lhie iglt of t) it' li ''pre-'i exper)'l'i lie ts,
thai i le pri ay' eaow'itk forI'a'l ewl t4',i li :-' t1:11 41- \,:)- tla they did ilot i.. g -

"61 ; Wit i jlt \ ; ti A ii iunt I i iin l I I i I t of K IM tt l~u l
' I; i l ilp i, l t o give I ,! l mliir lwjT lt lir ;I I-nn'i- yioill m h
i; ItI r4 'ven. il ll a~ 1 111 th 'rd ihl l Vi 2',l l i'll q qvl, H01 t [1,11,1 1 :I .;,, ,,,
l l timi l -, n.t irt i l o lw Aulir ill -t ti ;i 0 1i l i, l b i l i, trI l t -

t1p (toi t i l l l(1y o fi>1 ,l lry r o.,, w ill) tlicitl irt ilirtil tiI

; i ;li
llltt I Yiu ltu. ill t 1 tt A
'\' ln' ( l i li u l i( l > l lt r \' i-l iti il \il l lit -'lj tU 1 l tt i t ii 1

0, t y hji ';ll imil; it;l t. A- in Ila.l; i l>lic"-. iS ill -w aulpll l ,r hlog,2,-. 'I tr
' T l Iatl l v. i I i i i 'll
i l8l tt i-. 1 \ ii lt lt;l Vl
' hitt ie itt- ,- t.I.i
I liN c .l\rilll'i ci" v la il 1>1> e'{
l { { /I ru ':l 1" i-1 >.. .t.. *' ,/.'

!j );i ilt \' till (Il' It ithi ,.it ..- th
of~lil~ lT}l~lH ,I~lrH' fl ot 1 ll '+ "'.. ..

;ii t1 I l i l tl i l / --.C..ti ... t o
1 1tllip t t lltt" di.r It
rild, arp ;ulo\a.' to i%,-
I l iA h it lilc" i'roili l. l ii y -

t,} *n i I 1'\'in'l t oii tl- -lioiV i ^t, '^s-- -<> .. -^ ^ ^ "'
a itI tl'a', 1 lpil'>. .ll[ I 1
de'velop nl. o rolast |)l;>I l-
M A'Illi ocfiij)\' o\1I1 t 1w 1 v H
I" tir great iiin iiur" ol f s

i iii ot t illd w ;ir11 1 1 -0 .

oft n uil T 'il l i v1 i atiil l hor- \
-lcr- of rl'd;1I I T i r L :'". \/
POAil 1>()2-, ill lhit ,i oll-
* V\ ^/
ilh'ik c l j i o' ro 'll I I I n- / '
t rI ii "t'tiiriiiH t io n c:it ^ --- "'
Il l + } li )C(l l[l \ .'\'\ ,+ fo r'u l a t ... *' I Il w o f Iw al

iiuilhlioii, ol' of ';ir-. h'irt l i- in;iil, il1) c 'i. ilv 4i ve 4lzplailh 111ll r.
(l ip (loiw l lh ;i\lv -10lmi ; i1 i'oot -, o f1 l lo l;llll> \\w ic'll Arl t )lilt \
|m Q V >l l l r i \'rI. V' ir ful l ,1lrrnyiv i- ,icl'UV\'ill | rimi-arii 1 \ k\v
llio |N<'ci-oic ol \" V ;IIcr. \\ttln li ktep- Ai\\aV tila' air. 'F'tl' l;i '!{cri;j.

iBr N[FHA> IJMAI. K~'n* rI'A'r.


fungi. andi ( other oraianiss 1) which ordinary dhc(omposition pro-
'gresses' can not live unidler this condition and decay is suspended.
The acidis develol)Ied by this vegetable matter in the early stages of
its dec'omposition are also dlestructive to some of thlie organiislls of
decay. espleciall lv Iacteria. These acids act therefore as preserva-
tives andi greatly assist in pre ventilt.'i decomlposition. So effective
are lhese c nditions of acidlity and lack of oxygen. assisted in north-
ernl latitudes Iby low temperature, which is also inimical to the organ-
isms of lecay,. that bogs sometimes 1)'eserve for thousands of years
tihe mol(st delicate s'trucl lres of ferns and losses.
Tests have been made of thle acidity of typical peat bogs in New
England where swamp blueberrieN are vglowming. These peats were
always fomid to be acid and thle degree of acidity was within the
range foundI satisfactory for luebeiry plants in pIot cultures.
The reason why peat is a particularly satisfactory type of acid soil
for blueberries is. apparently, because the acidity of peat is of a mihld
type. yet continually maintained.
Not all peals are acid. About the larger alkaline (but not destruc-
tively alkaline) springs of our southwestern desert region are
1decp deposits of rather well-decayeI veetalhe matter that miust
be classed as peat. The characteristic vegetation, growing onh liese
oeat i tiule ('S'ih"/ .' i ( iOh tUlis and S. ,dni,). The water of
one of the great lule swnipsl) of thle \Vest (Lo)wer Klanmath Lake in
-.ultheri ()regon) whllicl contains thick beds of let forimied chielh y
from .S'irit, K//ls b/,h "/t//Wk. has been examined recently y Iy Mr. J. F.
lreaz/eale, at tlhe request of Mr. C. S. Sc(oiel. It Xwas fKiiind to col-
tain isodiumn caroniate, and thle peat gave a disltinctly alkaline reaction.
Tle lpeat formed albollt nlmarl ponds ill the eastern' limited States
is also. in all plroalbility, alkaline unless formed at a suillicient dis-
talnce f'romi th ie liile-laden water to b beyond tile reach of its acid-
neiilt ralizing influence.
Sul'h alkaline' pets, while not actually tried, are believed from
othlier experiilelts to be quite useless, for growing blleberries'. (C'er-
lain it is that neither Iuluieerries nori any of their imunilediate relatlives
an, fo ind o( these soils in a wild state. In tilhe eastern LUnited
Stat,. howeverr. -iicll alkaline peats ame comlilart ively rare, and the
lse of thle wvo(rd peat conveys ordinarily tIe idea of acidity. All
lie IOils usedI )y lv gardenhers under thle nanme of peat are acid.
N, I's i M A siITAIB.i I FOR Til' SWAMP 1311111)EuY MAY BI\ E Y.O NO 1- lllll" IN 11O(;S O1
ON Ti ,1 S ii ACJ( liOF T H C 'NI) 1N D\ 58NIY OAK OR I'Nl W \OOD)S.
Iii tle vicinitio Wt shinton deposits of lbog peat are few and of
liiileI exteil. anI lithe peat is thin. As ia mater of fact no Iog l)eat
of local origin is ise, i t lthie ga:rdellers and Ilohrists of \VWashingmton.
lor growingX ocrlids, fem'ns, azaleas, and other peat-lovwi_' plants.
eithir peal shipped from New Jersey is used or a local product some-
I in

1'0,IA\ I I I MN 01' IKAI.MI A I 'AT.I

tinit's knoi n s" t;a\'Vl iinl peal.- Thisl material i-s not ;I hot pent;i at
alL. alil sii'ce it i- of very g greatt itilert'- in oi ecti 'ioin with X l th lse ilue-
berr y experiieni ts for it was th li|>rinci|>;il inLrelitiil in ;I liia o ity
tf tile siicccsftiil soil mixtures used. it is dWsirable (hat IN h reader
have' ai comprehensiveI'h iX iIdea of it- chara' 'tler'.
AIaI -yla I peat1. I 1414ast a 271I 1 Io t t,> the reenl4 I 1I-e- o ) 1 14 ) f (I l1e I tI S 1ato:
I i4'\'IiC" I l( t'k l. :144 lll't l44 i 1481ti8 i 1 444 411144'4'lii 4l1' 1 \4't iti 14' 1I1e'll < X1 itthi
I Depairli 'elnt of A. riculture. c.Qi.i-ls of darkl-bown lurkf or imiat.. "2 ")
I inches t I hick, ii de up of martin l 4 41 ii bi'- 1m1i l ' < iI Ille ve- inli 1ai1i'1 wit t
lille rots(!. It is fo nil ine f t o the American I;l a r l (K1\l /l ini,
1ta fl A t, ) \vl l't h lilt' oira c of thi> slirl'l liislall\ linixel \\ \i{ thots' of
variouss specie's oi f oa1 k. ihav' h tlodgted year after y\'rl 111 ltin' :ac-
mi' lii 8'atedi lal'e's have li' ll par'tlI d e'4a \ ed.
The liaturet of tihe deplsit liay lhe eaily icopeiihedled by eanls
lllIX 44 t':-I 411
of ti 1 iaccollipai vin ill4iStral Tio ph trli |ili ;i)l s l i i, \\ tI l (iet i
illusl';itions 1 4 'were in l1' we'e' 'e4'led t'1 tll l'lli ili4' 4co4 lt'1-X ill4l A- ill
of M r. (G. N. Collinis, of the l ie'eal of 1'] antl Ili iIr '1'li T e )lilloo-
g*villh were made in lite month ot' April. l.9lrs. in a lairel thicket at
1liii i.ham 1. \L t'I' A m li otograph was liaile. the In er of1' lt'eaves
l'j,)pre',nted l 1 \ it XwaX 1'eiio\4 l and allltliler phot14 11ograph was.i ta lve
:.sl i i tli e l' layer immediaiel1 u 1i tXl'ii14n)t lt i: I.
In I'li4t' It l. t ti're 1. i4 Oi \wn thle (op layer if th ie le t f dhpo-it ai'
it aip)peared^! ill April. I90'.S, conlsstitiig" ol f oak leaves; of vario s specie,,
which fI ll to tt(i, aroundound i1 lit4e al lill i I'I 1Of T. T e nei' under-
lying layer'' is ,)iklel X il Plat1 II1h.e 2ti 1 1 lThe iiure' l 'le'ave' herei '
shown aire' t ose t h lial t ft'll in the slmier of 4'T)7. l uei'l l']) li i an
(.\i r_, its leaves eiv mot shed in the aii li n i like tliose of the toks.
Tli1ev remain on1li thle s 1 linliu til tli new leaves of t ll(' follhowing- slprl'li
'are fully 4d elo iel a.i d i lieth t1he (h1 lei vets bIt' gin toi) fall. It i4 G Ois-
circumi stance (if tlhe faill of (le oak ar id laurel hlves at difler,lit
perio ds of th(e year Hint enables oni e to 1 1,' -210i4e' tlie dilnol'idt lay'e'rs
:ndl kno1 w their exact aX t 4The lhi 'd laIn er. sil\ii4 ishln l i' 1 \ I ilitre
1. c11nsists of oak l leaves' Of tlhe autu n of 190G. This lav:er wIas o':11 1 isl
aMndl 16 '1l il ito4In was wet l stlaltd'X. Tile 1' 1r'e i'c of f1i8i1ouls growtlh4 :
is evideit, as is ai m) (lhe exc e eni t of varitois -liall anii al Al iia-
illod, or" thou-iainl-lc-iiged wViilis. andt thle larva,' of in ds must Ili a y :1
very i, y h lmpioint ailt under smie conditions in hiaslenit _ii tli e de-
(com11position of leaves. The follrth lavyl. Plate IV. Hiurite, 2. ,,o sist-
inl iof airel leaves AM'lied in thie niinmlr (of JAW WiH, in it alht tlhe samle
condition as (he pIeedilinig layer. In the fifthl layer. Plate V. li ilrre 1.
ill slown 1 lire leW es of l in)), b t the liver orf oak lea eTs is no ll eadilv
separabl, firom the larel. Thl, rottel leaves uru le IVAN ;iil\ lnd
decorpli)sition las so far poil Fessed that a few oak ioo 1tls are fonid
spread "r l eween (lhe Hlatk ted leave. Plate V. iIlur "2. slows the
I ltted leaf layers Af 1901 interlaeld wit h tlie i oot let- of la e tl ;ild oak.
It i, thiis roott- earili layer. 2 inclines or more in thiicness, of which
5- 170s- Bill. i I I i -1(l-


AMar land peat is coinposed. The lower portions of it reach 1a some-
what -'rearer degree (df ecoimposition than is here shown.
In a rich Xwoolds of lie trilliulnI-producing type, such as a fertile
s, II--ma1ple forest, olle may ol>bserve that tile leaves in rotting,. sel-
dom11 retain their t'oi lnhge itaI t t wo yea sl's and that the line of de-
ilarcatioln between li thin leaf litter of thle forest and the indirl\ iL,
wAood-' ImolI is shliarpI and clear.
In ithe 'ugar-nmala v wools ltlh dec onlposiion of the have s rapid.
In the 31aryland or kalmia peat. as it may be called with more exact-
ness. 1 lie decomllpoitioln io slow. Tlie cause of this difference in thie
ralte of decoi.,lpo-ition i" the difference of acidity inll the two eases, and
this in uiirn is dependent on lile, nature of thle leaves and of theli under-
lyingg soil. particularly whether tIle soil is acid or alkalile. A slight
alkalility in a oil greatly favors the decomposition of thle leaves
overlying it. An acidity as. -ti,,1 as that shown to occur in newly
fallen oak leaves see p. ll () can not help having a pronounced effect
in maintainlllng tlie acidlity of tlhe lower leaf layers: for it mINIst be
renmieiibeled that these acils are soluble in rain water', and are there-
fore continuallv leaclhing down front tile upper through the lower
layeis of ottinuig leaves.
The le lupland leaf deposlits. ill which decomposition is retarded for
lal'V tear, lle \\rliter regard:ls as essentially peat. and to distinguish
theil from hoi, peas lie w' would call thiemn upland peats. All upland
peat nmay he described as a nionplaludose deposit of organic iialter.
chit efl leaves, inl a condition oIf suspended and imperfect decompo-
sitiol ad1 -till siho\\ in2, its original leaf structure, the suspl)ension of
decomposition being ii ldue to thlie devclol)ilment and nmiintenanice of an
acid coalition whicli is inimical to the growth of the nlicrl-orianisinls
of decav.
Thlie use of thle nlanie leaf ilold." somnetilnes apllied to this uplaml
peat. should be res-tricted to the advanced st.i'- in thlie decompositionll
of leaves, in with leaf strulctlure hlas disapi)eared. True leaf mold,
fiurtlieriore, is lneltral or alkaline, so far as tested.
\VWhin k:lnia ipeat is to Ie used for growing blIueherries it should
le piled alnd rotted for several motlihs. An experience which eimpha-
sizes llie need of this trIeatimnilt is given on pape L0. If stacked
aS ""M1 as it is dug it uuilallyV retains sufficient moisture to carryV the
rotting, forward. even if lthe stack is under cover.
alia peat li has pi rovedl to be a highly successful soil for g,,ii'^,_
tdlh rriv,. Ii lhias h'' tried 'l Iothl pure' and in man i mixtures, as
will lie dlescrlibld ill lthe paragraphs belinniing, o1 pi ,)' *51.
An uplain i' l jt fornled of lhe lea ves of scrlubl pine (;I';i v ''i.ri-
0W/u)as also leln tried for Ihlebelrry seellings. Tliey i ,w well in it.
(a lei havis, its believed. rotted for on(e or two years would make a
(rood hlllilelrrv soil. Ill the Arlington National (Cemetery is a ravine
j'I ;;

( IIi. t'l~ t t[ lh ,I''!t tl L' II I1 1111 {) l lI I

K. i l! h'ij 1, iavc of t I I i I 'r C l l I !T *'. I.I' IlTi i- I' *, :


()ak ],avc, 2 vcur- ohI. Na! It it~ t I/ iz

kii Imi lt'uvc, "2 y'-'r uh ,i. Niilurai -ir ,

Bu 1 1 ) 3 !!i j ..u liot I' u "

Bu! F


g r* V^"em. 7-IR,- gi~ am -es-
\I I I i I 1] I 1


'.'y Ij '' I I "- 11 1 t'.

.Xi t ('J f\ 1(W ( ;S NI > N\ iN 1ANDl'l X N I>-.

inl which lai'" li antitaie ,' hle \,c chilly talk. have ibn dliulmll
for ninany year.. Sample, taken thenr late No"ember. loiok. t"ho
aln acidity int t(he 'as of freshly fat Helhle a have, 1' i(.1 1 i,1or il : in1 leave-
aplpIarentltt 1 -year ALd. ().UHT(: a dlt in lea"e" tl tlt a y at'- old,. AM W").2'.
A Condition ol' 1wcl inltqre-l was fo"n in (one (or li~e-e pla,. of,
leaif mnold which \\;as neveral \y~r Adold. It was m melo a w! Ilank. and
thIn evidhen e o l' lo af N tl'lrnci nr iiw n ,dih-all | (';r t. a,\wt -nlWtn uhmlitiotl
tll,' lpli itio lp lithalit lc- il iii' \, o W alkaline'. awdl il,,) ,t ,li<'ii a
e'xam in at ioi l it A,- \ 'fonitd t1,) c itAin ii :'".:),+ 1)(I. cent ol1' [iAp p, ';i()).
In this ('"-ct |('conqmi[ it o lmiil i rd *I' 'qc--e, ., faI'. it i- -,i_-1_,,' dtd. tllal
tlie likn, ill t6 n' O In, v -. h'm tin tin *lon-la it ill a iinilt ;1ind iro ahldv
r 0l aillili'- aidi Y >lia\ii;'c l1 m atei r c ^oia ll lct icl.lilg" :1 l; i aliltt. h d I ll c

rccIcd to d ,coinlpi, ,c \\ ith "i gn al a idit .. ,;until ;d rea l nioll, I Id I,'Iwel

l'l ,, litiottm lhere o sl>-Tvrv'd is do thl) --:..; thle' a--^ne :, t alit lnl
(I 'l~rs in lip, drained Iho.g, or -(,-callcd "- ninuc]," laids of Mi.hli-iuai.
Mw!ict lir- A ldh11 =41 thI," will uro\ idlv <'w'atin aviil-ro-iOtlnt 'ro|I)s.
sirli as linclkwv iiat or l|x at['irs.
tlit'yv comeK to ;ttlnin :i very hig']h ,. _A l .... of felrtility. It i- lrol' al, ly :1
p ,nlionoI ol '-innl;ir (hlam 't('r "W eli li i> t ill ngii plidac in the draid l
swamp) Wlkn- or the lower Sacramncito River ill California, lovhcrc (Ihe
soil. wliilt iis already in a staot of r,,narkableI fertilitY. i> l'e.ontiiiin
inereaisigl\y alkaline.
ILbre ;illhioi Ina\' loe made to amolher pheilnovmeno tlmia or the
occlurrence of tlIe swa pil n Id therry :Intl cert ai oit (lter plt nt,. +uoi?
;t- t t l|) rpled ` l.d.\-m -slil%,Sh r ( 'yl .i, // i1/i -',,iI i i ) ;Y) /dl tll ,6 -\anll|)
lion=e\t silvl e (.:11"0< 1' "M MO/ii ,, 'f r in two 1iinds of siti olti o01e ;:1
peHait lm)oi tile the'"r a -aip,*v. well- raitin ,t and ,l'l i v dry uIlail. TheA
f;i\oilet ex|dla action (i f t his t pllnniclioii tii on hoitiia" l>o la i-t- i- lt;it tliee-
I[li an ,l'a li itt ally atlin ot l to, t(ie drier iiti tlioi aipl tihat inli the I llo' -
tileV fi d v -ililtii/ id i pa s- ,!,,'_' icai] rl ..\ti oIr \vicc \'l'sa.
\\l iih c xi-twen' l' r )liy-iolwoai ;i] 1 lry "e'- in peat I iImp- i{ not
wlllc-Wllt ed. l l, ith l liti| t at a Iho,, p alit linl 1 an i pl and" it" i n tioll
c(t1,21 1i1il liecWin v- il is dlry cetq ainIl will Indt an'we ti Or lie lipid -
herlr'. Itl occn+ eiTCH ill i la+-c \\to tilntl t, i> delp'ldelde t oni the
acidi ty of ,th itlations. .- "Mye'- tri;til ia\ hav 'e i "A-lio i (ntthat no
almol iil or tll'dr\'ine. will linialk ai l rliieMl"ei'\+ tloi!rMi in an ul andl soil
itf tha;t -moil i> I1ot atidl.
I19 I F% I PO tl,\1 1 I" I In S \MP11' M IA/ M +Y RI Il A HIS kI" I I1' ; \l ,A I RA.,A I i lI 1> S"l Il.
(10%e1\ U I All~l I 11 S ,,M I"11 St %MP M 11 It l oi t !1 NO I l\ 1 I NA I IN \ IA 1\ I;lio\\ I'l I
I\N \ SO I, ? \ I '1 l t \ I I 1> \\ lf) I \I A I I t.
In its niai al di't rilis i tili the sw\iilp lstwie lerrv dow, mot aN')o in
the lower. \\w ,tt typl 1' 1or In a ty lical lealtliatherlvaf I',{'C iikjin -
AtiDv A < br, ) i "ll. n". ,t'Xiibo th1o e.\+ijli.|le Swamp tdnluc rry i+ W'tiind
I t03


either a4bou4t lthe I44rltii of thte hoq) or on Illlilockus. IIIn Ioth these
situations moit of tithe roots of the I, lleherr\ tv hes ,stadl alcove the
u11mmier level of tilhe water. When a bog has liee1 built ulp w tithe
'rot1 i 1 1of ve-'"etalt iot and thie accuii la:tito of t (he d(1 '-ris until (ie
silr'faie is a)ove e tie Ilnier water level, tile swamp hbleberry will
,occuli r 1%e: Iflly v over tlile 1o ,.
.\All examlilination of Ilueleberry plaits occurri i ol hImIIimoIIIII-cks alnd
Io" mrw ins lias sliown that .-mIl4 roots aI- extendl beneath the l'per-
malienlt sllmmiler water level bear few feeding rootlet0 or nole at all.
In olle experillmeli it was :Ittemlpted to IoroVw bluelerrv seedliIL:-
in water tultlures conitainlin," variousl disl-\olel nlltrielnts. It v was
foind t1 hat the roots mlle nto new I'row\th. that tlle new leaves were
few\ and small, a11nd1 that tie eeral health of tlie 1plnts was nIot
fp440d. XXlltever ile characters of the nutrient s-Il)stance in thle solu-
lions. It Xas frequently observed also ill the vaXrious soil cultures.
part iclIrlv tlilo-e illi drained ylasi phots. that thle conltilnued satu-
raniltion of tile soil with water reduced tlhe root rowXtlhi amnd elnfeebled
tlie whole pl'nt. ('onthilled excessive NvaterlnI of potted Iblleberry
plallts was alwXas tfouid iinjuriotus.
Thie ohl-ervat ion|s ju>t recorded muslI hot le understood to Illea111
that sblllcmr-elece of the root-s is alw:IhvaY illnjrio st t lie swap) blue-
lIerrv. In wiliter and early spiri i the water level of bohsont. oiit ,-
bluebehIie. oI1en4l reImains llihl e(n-o1 h for several iloniths to com1-
pletelY mliiler'.e thie whliole root vs-tel of the plaints. ()In the lower
etld of t1(te \Vanlkiii(o crallleriyV bog ieail' Wal''hali. Mass., a' ae Som1e
nlative bl,-le-,s oi hlle s-w \ llll) Ilelerr tli 1l4)1- i)eof which have been
subllleredI it ;e feet of later froml 1 )ecemliber o May eac'lh vear for
alboult 1welitv \ears. These )lhes wXXhen obi,.'el(d1 in Septellber,' lS)i"'
:Xe eV Ier evilechie of 6i-or. Their IwiiM* -rowlh was o 1'- oo id liiLlll
ald tlickiess. tleir I'tliayl e was de s','-e an:l 1 of a; heallliv c( 'l llieirl
llowe X rilil 1bdls ',for le 4 ext X'eazr were fairly nmillwroii-. a1d the bushes
wXere 'said to 1e a.- productive of fruit as neihiglboriil" 111s1hes. onl higher
41'1o 4d.
It Xwouldlt appear l'roi lltiese fact s that. while s-llibmlerence dlr'inlg
lie 4 ol mlait 1wp riod1 is 1ot1 iljilloills to (lte swa ii bllueluerrv, its roots
dlul'ilr lteir aIe tivelv trowi" ll period must hbe kept above tile waitr
level so 1as to he well a'aeated.
( I1) A 1 AT ION COND )ITION S SA1VI IS- 'fTOI( Y l O 1 TI 1iS\ A Ml' 4l;l 44Wll KY (RI'A I'l4IA-
1,1NJ IN. \ SANDI SO;( .S.
'I'lie expelriment cited alovXe o' t4his 1t L,- slowed 1tha1t bluleberlv
s5e4llil,,- liah il their roots4 s-uspeided illn nutrienit solutions t ailed to
11;1lo, a Inolrial r'owthli even tlholili the solut11ions were sulitabl av lIIu-
Iated4 'lThis failure was ascr'i)ed to lack of a el'atliol. Illn lothler
\1'hhelxeienlt. ltdscribehd onl la.m' s 2S andi '. it wX:s -4shown that a sillilar
1411trienlt s-olutio X whell used to) waXter a ldlleboelrrv plant potted inll sailed
pr1odu1edl ; a liorm1:al I owmtll of both roolts and steiis. The sand fur-

nidhcil no apW ir ii+>irili'n'him l ;nnoi n- 10 nl\ U -niM l1 riI Vl liR TIVI'O
i n t in the o ,:i "l". t Nh oplac ;i, li> rititHA D & W ;i Il i +i',I I+v t> ln -he Will
cII Iti I IV. Sandi ia-I V 'IV Warded r,'Ii --liO\,H a'\|n'ri
lin iltm al ,v to I r'lir .li co, 1diith 'io n-:ii el flh -oil :, tit l011.
In a ll thel 'm i ct h i l li,+t IVrr,, 1 11t2 \A'w iT +_'I ro\\ Ill
naht ll +iltil l I 1 ". o ril al l\ (i' 11 H;1i-l d kIrl r t 11 110,1,t 1i l ,"aI W, 1,vl ,1
;I \\c lv ; dici tlul xlil 1-01 Qli11 1 And M OM 1it4h \\At wal>t i>, -tnd l l
n maklyt ;",l nuirii a nohohm : ltx t'~i to k+ h l.+m+t i\ t tc IIi.0 0 4
1) InIIt n al I a\ 1v- ar l ; i vl~ iri~iiit rIx)o '-*I'4\\ lli.
In l li'ir Il 'k il l n+-- t eIt ica lilii,,l,,'r i,' a l, l t ,,t| iily
owinl s lII o\ Atlai111 ,* (Q'0:1-t1:l *l' i nOt. ;a- \\i+l n-i onii m ]l, I\ ldnii ;- aiwil 10111 ,
hmlrtri- 111 tlin inlet'rio,. I'Inc ,rai' in:' of -it']n h -1if- i- i',oo l andl dicir
a Ier'ti o ion i o. c' ll,] ii .
(Il Al I\Ai Al I N tON i10 HI vNS S11111 + l.l\ v IN NA\in.i 11 1 tl inoit S 1 I T', .
I,;alnn:in |) ilt \, ln in 111 t rit ii ri na'iii l tlurfl'- to, in il- i- fil O I f mall
r11" t- of oilv. I.:;) Inn ., i lind Oilhier |>l; it.-. Ill thialt <'olm ,iii ,I o it i- r itia"rk-.
;ilwly |)riilon'- ;nim| N'1en 1 iic t' lr m l c'i ol' o lr l -'c tirt'- ,vvv ii-r" l W \ll l
""I'c'aIt 11ce- inilh w o I p it. 111 place o,,tI m imkV to a,, r,, 111 i'(rtin t
;,4'. For a plm lindq -&oil. how ve,, .altm icit r at tnot Iln, I -vd
mt ild tih -oil lu-- lWt't1 'i i -lirt, li' i thin' 111:1-- ol m u,,t~ or ltot- Iccr
riilt)hkd tlriiio' |i :i >i'rctiib. IN+i, 1 1t it l t oii< l il 10t 1 l l fic Irao netl '- o>f
iavct'n and rtotlct- il vc ll. c whole i niai -- pxoro, i-. A |ol o+ i tilt;li ii v'"
pure alltiliia peatl lorcpar'o hl lv', -ticli *iilll~ili v l'i, t.'iii n- 111ii -1 \', '.
wel\l ;acrainte f'or da\- tt a tllin w lti t \, it riI+ '. +I'lli- iiioi-tilr, conl -
d( hit i-ilne to t wo rII 'i W1.' i ln" kal l>lin i'q m i o|' lp itl. i- ;:l vil i l l a
iar al mouni l *if l" inii+ and ilk, mined v witl w\ libir i it N i'non to it.
Ib lili+iia pi'at talkei v oin (li he inwl r w'i+ o' a +lack afit r it It:i- emiail d'd
n-ivcral inoiitir. I l o ol\lii)- IonV lp T V'n' t Of'
wVat r. in [ti t<1111 'l oil tlhe I i,\ \ \,f ol lWK [P;it I't ] ',a t i N\, l l l t v lhi,_l wvviit r ,o tititm i a |ntal Q !i l i- in a leawtil b m' t I' id hion of W lill,
iiie lhw]i< .. '>, 'll acrialft aindi t it' t t Ih lii a it lad m ichli ;i lp]) i't'iioly mIl\on
lim icraiol l\ % iln i-l. (h)l'+ ilna V ]I>;tllt ili aI - o411\' v 11"'111 K' p r rr il (if w :ii r. :n il -;vid ii liouit 1* | i - tl a lt'l l w il" l \Xwa 'r the min i- D Im III ,nic oll f kai li nitl iK';!l al"iilt
,:01t) per milo of' An d 1 ,e alil vI + o Or pcit 1" 1t110il it o Il i-l III dh lp'ici<- il ]piart olt thle'
u'lm h al < ,If''II f t ht l l T I W r' tp ;l INI;\Pr mt tol til> (`(Ull i-i>|i 'ril lo n iM l iot
(t' a if ilcli. Imlit >io t ili i il \, i f n'inlr l onWt ( i a ytrt liii pli\d --
iral adlii l v lliat lp al |>o-t-W- +'- |or Go ater1+. '1I li lo i ttilra i\ i -tl +iv .ln 1>
or lIn- thin t'lipo]id nii" jAo\r l' ini

  • nlh-
    Itfrtin^' Illti iin to :! |>iiw crtnlttl ren~tl ri I it'!1 "l tlorrc. w h+{'ic l(' l -,] loi llitru\\'
    vi li l III e I oI i Ii t ol (I I tr'o il. I I ]i t ;t i l a III'Il llil 't 'l I l i t\\ hle', A -ci,

    l ;a lt lioti-i i hn I(liWe'' t inii t i',r ol V o ravi l The I tperlcogitai',tv of i ino i nl/rc
    1I ;

    Q I:'lA Ii I(N ( WuNW| I W Ni.S I N %Ni %N 1\ 1 |i I l 'l


    reiliniil ini inll the soil after this treatment is known as the moisture
    equivalent of that soil. A te-st of kalmnia peat made by I )r. Lyman
    I. Bii s, of tihe Bureau of Plant Industry,. the originllator of (his
    m11ethod of measlrmlent, showed a moisture equivalent of 142 per
    ceiit. as compared with alboul ) per centit for clay. 18 per cent for
    loam. ald( 2 to 4 per cenit for sand.
    From what lihas (been said it is evideiit that filwbrous kalmia peat
    has physical characteristics that allow the soil to be amply aerated.
    while at t(he salle time liholini abundant moisture for th(e support ini
    of plant growth.
    In this coilnnection reference mayV be made to tlie influencee of earth-
    worm01111s on poitted bllueberry plants. Latie in the winter of 1'.i ,-9
    it was noted that alnoni th(e bllueb)errv seedlings of 1!907. wjiich had
    I(,el brohtllhi into hlie -reeilhouse. were several ill which the growth
    was feeble, although others of the same lot were growing vigorously.
    It was noted also that the soil ill thle pots in which thle feeble plants
    were g*rowving contained earthworms, as evidenced by thlie excre-
    mlelt or casts deposited by them onl tlie surface. The Vwormls
    themselves were easily found by klnockiin tlie earth ball out of the
    piot. and tlie soil was seen to have been thoroughly worked over bv
    the worms.
    It was supposed at first that thle soil (a mixture of peat 8. sand 1.
    loam 1) in the process of digestion to which it had been subjected
    ill assign throul"hl thle aliilentarv canal of the earthliworis mialiht
    have become alkaline and for this reason injurious to the blueherry
    platls. When tested witli plhenolplihthlialeiIn, however, (the soil in the
    pots containing earthworils and feeble plants was found to be of lthe
    smile acidityv as thliat illn (the pots containing no() earthworims anid with
    vi ()orol usly "Irowiug" p lants. Furthermore tlie(, fresh easts thenmselves
    were of a similar degree of acidityi.
    The texture of tihe soil. however, in (the )pots conltaininlg wormls was
    very (lifl'erent from tllhal ill (the others. It was plastic, very fine
    graile(ld. ali1ost clavevy, (ti(e organi( portion havinil been very finely
    r)ounid evident( ill passi, (throu'. tl ile Iizzard and(l other digestive
    app)ara(is of tlie eartlhworlmi. Thlie aeration of llie ',oil ill this colldi-
    tion must have been far poorer than ill (liet coarser soil colitlaininm a
    lar1:e aiimounit o af le fragmients not worked over by wIorils, and it
    uiav lw that (lh(e difflerenice ill gr1owh00 of the blueberry plants was due
    (o the difl'ern(ice ini aeration. It is not l)v anlly meals certain, however.
    that tlie planlts ill the l)t(s contlaiiiiii earthwormls mayv not have been
    injured directly through (the eating of (heir rootlets by thle worms.
    (12) .\ i, IiATION CONDITIONSS S~ATISIFACTOI Y 1FOR Till' SWAMP lt '[1':1I:IlY Ai.: FO1 'NI
    IN XMASS S O1 LIV:, MOIST. !1', T SNO I'5XMt 1:(;1) SI' A(i N.XIM.
    1)I sOlue swamlps (ite walter level re'ilailns permanientlv above tlhe
    genea surface ()iof (hlie ground. When tlie swamp) b)lueberry occurs

    n11 -I"x 'l 11 il oll4'- 1 it ro,' oi, llllllll 'l+- t lie ll 4 1hl- f' hi ic'x -1:11 ld
    al4411 th,' \A, ter1u1i\ 1' : t1ni n44 t e-,'J t-,ni.I I F hlr-- th wII il tr Ilvl'\
    i-' extIm eni v \arialh'e or 10li 11n' 4 1nd 1 is- th'w-'l4y -a del'. illt-e l1hunt
    o1c14-. are u-n1all\ 1 cove e md4 l \\ith l 4(1'-l!' o4f liv' -41II;I 1' 4II1 Il,!- '. I4
    is ;a peleiiaritv \ ,f thin into- ill;it it al-, i- water v, illi gn,, ;" W Aid Yit\ :
    indeed,. splinagnui n i o1 XI 1 ie I o ( ;1It al>.I- 1rl i i' 1 l> l:t1 Ya1 kce4' 4 I I 41
    lin1e ('il'4ol' MY or a n 1arl4 1 l1liN v v])II;I"IIIII or1 1411 14 'll 1i1iii ini,()11
    \\i lt a lilt]( \,: 't 1(er lil \tlt n I, 4l r 4 1ii 'l'I 1 'lT' ',,114) t' ;x l' 1t1 -I ll; 1 1 t1 .
    The 4 at1r r-il r'4i|i lit\' tlr l' i tlt c411 Il-
    o1' li4 [ll ll hI1 l1 p<>|l ' ot 'erl yll )]inI ltoll\'t's. 1I1' w hitl. ;air -]|;icc'- latc\\ ci i (In t lht lf ';i\-'-
    tlal; l 441 x,' o xnitltii) D1n4 ;i i'l= i4t' ( i t 4litr lilx t i2 'Itli(lt. hlin it- in :I ,1t o11,;1'
    w\inl. T!'1' o .*niiw ;li1it\ to al,-url, \\matelr in chu racl<'ltri.tic of "fil t-'- (it"
    tllni |l mtl 1 t1n1' If i l 4ow \ r part of ;1 141l:ii, ol' -oI, '1xiti1 i n> i" 11' Al Io 4 ,4 t
    w ith free water the tlliin l is c'onv\ei t'rOmni "tIvi" t) wnaimcli aind f'ront
    ld]:nt to plant in x ux li itllil h4ntmnt1 to rnithI r thell wlo llm --1 ;n- t1 :Ia''
    ;1 nl' l-'e. 41 Vll<1 o1:e 4(ll'4'/.\ ;4 l.sqll: ] IhIIndf l of tlt2 t1o44- lax l l4 i i rll4ij>-
    fl 1oot ot' o 1114l'o14 l: ht mmn41 o1f 4 x l't' it rt tl' wa14r riI i' outl in
    -AtiValns. A ainlipl of live slidta 'liinit with I,,>s iiio'Mlinri llih n n tnal
    l it still W\ itll x Ix il 'l i to 1 1 iinlilait it-xlf il a 11 'rII \illa 'i' 4 l4 1ioill =V4 <
    oii', tl to o'l nta: i 1 M4 |)(r cIl' ilt of \'waterll2 :1 'I' 4, t'1 (14111 li; t id1' thlI s|lih ;'t11 1ni t i, wh4 le saturat:l live 1 .l4' : 't4iin'l xar'1 1 'I tl I.AWA: lW r
    'ent ofl wate\ r. <()hi tI lh asis of' its dryv wvip'lo. lwI i ',rlor -lihiapiiinin
    (c nItails alitmil ten lili-its an Huntl water a sl peal, whlichl it-Vlf collllill>i
    K mout six titbin sod s ailoh :t =, r Y l an t l a IA mt tliirly dii, linn's
    ;us inucli as sand".
    The iihi11 11cr1al le 14 'X: t'acall illar\" :ir slpace1 lei twei'x x li,' I ltfa I ''l'c f'
    s'-ll,.,_'" itiin plant- and letwee v lh t plaints.-+ tlh nt- l\t' l'v i 'rnii-lh --ood
    aeratinl, 'V \ll W icn llh intliiv nl al lbranrliih art. *+a trtltl \\illi +Atiq'.
    \VlN M I tllh< ino l iut't is I-- tlie av rationt i. till lotlt,. TIh nIllion of
    "-l Il, 'IIIH, on a h I tniii ,ii lr t ( n l- tto lI" ild il-tlol' up b, th, I ';lliiad al
    lProct',-, ,ol 'ro t\\lh and,1 h det.v (o the mtI nmillIH lnM'i".lil to \\li l it tolta
    i(lm\c'v tilt r ] -c' lla oull t l ll water f + rc irrdl for it- -'ro .ill. atld an
    i II1cr ia-' i 1l' h '- l''t, Ii o 4of la l ior I i ,, t x 44"" d 14' n ll IV w 'n IV l 1 He up' w IrI .
    Ii tlx 1 4ldia 'mIllm i c" lhi Vol' a i n4li4 Trrv liumin o ]?< i- 1xaiii n1 1 I In'
    \\l+Iol ma-+s will lIV t i "!i d mw itt rl, .tl i the Wmi pni ,,ll"t tdf lolt'
    lilMnl.rrry fa bvrlt v ll, l, l ,,l' (le nrTV h lvin. -oi!. o il, J ititol--
    ot jim'rIn;nimir l ninti-tlire and Nlo'=ii all avration found in tll -v -dlial g-
    1111111 t'u-hlion- -'ci llt, le alino-1 ideal l'l.r tln, dh'veloliilnlt ,|' 1iuclni'-r v

    It HnIMl not lIv va-.-ln"'l that tlim vi or"r i-- aro lili lolr ttIlxTrrv
    rot sX in '-pI ,'._ uit is due tI any lv lid l ll rll'ti+c (ite y i t\ oIr ti Ir-
    ,"in, iln'Ifr. no n *t concll -iti \\,,>i Ill lld k I'i' o ,,ilj<. "\\'lii ol ouit
    il IIIn 'piiiii andl watered1 w itl a|p waler. blim rgl-r )l~ibit- remains
    lialtliv and develop u very lar,.-e root -\v-lein. ilmt tilt steilln- dto Ilt)

    AF.IKATIoN C<)NDIlTOiN;S IN S1>11 A(l Nl'M.


    gro() as luxuriantly ais when ithe plants are in a peat soil. From
    experiments with titie growing of blueberries inll sand watered with
    pea water it is known that such water furnishes the food materials
    lnecessarv for vigormis growth. It is reasonal)le to conclude, there-
    f(. re, that tlie (chief nourishment of a blueiberrv plant growing on a
    p11re splhagimn hiuminmock comes fromII the bog water sucked up1) by
    ill(e spalhagIIInuI and nol from tle splIagnIni itself.


    The structure of the rootlets of ordinary aariciiltiiral plants may
    b) i understood by reference to figures 11 to 1:. which illustrate these
    organIs as they occur in a wheat seedling geminated between layers
    of moist blotting paper. Attention is directed particularly to the

    11 12. 13.
    F1,;. 11. tootl of a wheat plant, showing the root hairs. (Natural size.)
    I ;.. 12. I'P rtion of a \whonat rot. ith root hairs. (l:nlarged 10 diameters.)
    I :n;. l:.--:Tip of tlhe root bhair of a \wheat plant. t It largl .tll ,(o (llameti'trs.l

    root hairs. It \will be o,1served that tlhe wall of the root hair is very
    tliili, al))ppearing ill optical sectioll as a mere line with barely measulr-
    able thicke:s, even wlien ihigihly imaniftied. Furthermore, tlie sur-
    a'ce area of till(e root hairs- is 1anv1 times greater than that of the root
    itself '. Tle chief funllction o)f tliese root hairs is to altbsorb for lhe
    use of tile plant thle soil mioistulre and thlie plant-food materials dis-
    sol ve(d in it. a fuilctio0 whi tlie root hairst are enabled to perform
    witll 1 great eficiency( 1becaulse of tille two c(hhara1cteristiics just men-
    ti oned-their large .surface area andl the thiite-'s of their walls.
    Thie rootlets of thle bluelmberrv are remarkable in lihaviiig no root
    hairs whatever, as may be ,seelln b)v reference to figures 1-1 to 16. Tlie
    walls (f tlie superficial, or epidlerlil,. ellss of tlhe rootlets are thick,
    IeasIl im.- 0.0000().5 to (0.0001 of an inch (1.3 to 2..5 /A). while the walls
    of tile( root liairs of wheat are one-fourth to one-sixth as thick,
    so thin. inll fact, that they' could be measured only with diflichiulty

    ( ev ent I he itvI I(k I I ( IIz --( .'.I O (I I i'll] It, 4,1-. \ (0 \\ it i1-ta ld Iiii -- I lit, J';><*c
    thlerefore, lii1:1 (int b wh e r'H n'ity 4-- ilu li. ;il i [l IIIIIIWFWtoIi tln'iF
    ;ictiial ;ib)S)i'it i\ lf c.aip:i itv \' ouhld ;i~ l|>c:ir ^ ^ ^ ^ ^

    (if nrout I I II '1-.

    \\lit;>l i- (.**rt in l l \- l i ( lt m r tl (l a n ;i iiii titrl tr i-' ii;. 11 n~if,, if :i i.;ii.''.rrry
    tiitil in (lie I l l i lc r \. I torl icrlii rr. l: lI I I i I
    lliltleiM i'rvy ro ihlet "i'
    l';i\ll'o;il+lc 'oiinlil ionsl. \vlih lnl(>w \\ lic;ll l i~lit l tl tt1 ;is fast. In all (liis t p rovi'io i l'or r1t|>il t'ood :il,- ,' >t'|> i 1 1 11 t:i I
    1,iotn l)le iit ;:Irl I'lt] 0l(;+i'h)! 1011 inl tin ( i tilr w, lid ;i ', uii 1'ic1

    it' I;

    tlw (v %iiiptir titm l\ ve y -l ow *i;ite of (J -((,III o, 1ll lii( 1 *li;i>IAt'l t ri,.[
    tihe bIlKlf, errY [l iti(. Ti h lit ) pi i lll a ()fiirc o tl w rotial >o |) iof ita I dIII-
    th I d .1 n.-:cr to whiich I (I ws( p)|;i l wouIIld I~ In tcc c IIf I I IV ( to )I.
    aIl >oirtit'll wat(r I\;ipidlac ;II lY t+ a Iv 1 I > ,,l diid o I jIa c t

    itt tittitt, 1

    R DId CIW ; 1) ()Il! T I IM', Ir :ii ]-U l: il. ; '1:;-1 ; l k$ Ii i -.


    The young rootlets of the blueberry before they branch are ex-
    ceedingly sleInder, varying from 11.1i1,i_ to 0.003 of an inch (50 to 75 p)
    in diamnieter. This makes then very susceptible to actual drying and
    llie' are easily killed by it. This characteristic has an important
    bearing, oi the treatment of these plants when in pots. The matter
    is discussed oni pages (;5 to (67.
    As alrea Iinie. their diameter v'arvying- from 0.002 to 0.003 of an inch (50 to 75 p).
    In i')ot lets of thlie smaller size about three rows of epidermal cells are
    visilde in a lateral view, iiin lie larger rootlets about five rows. In a
    nI' ewly g'roWin rootlet not col)tamilated with soil particles these epi-
    dermial cells, and, indeed, all thlie underlying cells- as well. are as trans-
    parient a:is glass. and were it not for the difficulties due to the refrac-
    t ion of liglit the examination of thlie conmitents of thlie cells would not be
    difficult. As a matter of fact the study of the contents of the live
    cells is difficult, their iintelhiit examination requiring the use of an
    oil iimmersion objective and miicroscol)ic enla,_i iii S of 1,000) to
    10.50 diamieters. The darkened window installation for a llicroscope,
    devised by IDr). N. A. ('obb. of the Bureau of IPlant Industry. and
    used in his laboratory, has been found almost indispensable in this
    (C'lean rootlets miay le procured readily from active blueberry
    plants i& the open spaces between half-rotted leaf blades, in clean
    saild, in live sphagn11Ium, or at the outer surface of the ball of soil in
    earlhen pots. Root lets taken from live splmhagnumi are especially clean.
    They are conveniently studied when simply placed in water on a
    microscoqpe slide under a thin cover glass held in place by a ring of
    ()diinarily the only thing visilde in one of thIe live epidermial cells is
    thlie miniute cell mWcleus lying close to the cell wall. Thie protoplasmic
    mneliibraiie linig, tlhe cell is very thlini and is invisible except where it
    is thickened to envelop the nucleus. Thlie remainder of the cell is
    tilled witl the colorless cell sap. An examination with mnediumn en-
    largelienits will shlow somie of thle ellis faintly clouded in appearance.
    A higher po\ver. such as is afftl'orded by a 2-ium. oil immersion objec-
    live :nid a 12-miii. eyepiece, witli proper illumination, will resolve the
    cohidinless into a iiass of funigous threads, or hylphaw. Tliese may be
    icw. m kiii "i o*nlv two or three irregular turns about thle interior of
    tlie cell. as occasionally found, or they inmay be minore iinuerouIs, even
    WCUlpyinig tlie w iole sap space, as shown in figure 17, in a dense knot
    "'FThe s5J4lli li ( oiut 'or i: S is lso ill Z4)ood Snlllil a iing ii is used in many Giermaii,
    1nght i, xl .\:md An ric+ i Iwt-mic'K'l works.
    l IM

    1of int w oI vl-)\ n (1anld ir iule-- 1 -nu1: l. lik l u ils. I u 8e.e h :lu ax e ;il,, l
    0.0000C i tx (i0i0 121a (o m Inch in -lllu ii lc .
    ()n lic miter surfa rce ()f Ilw l-A ci ui:i1 lli e-- l ii, t hI-( ,1111 l1re:a -1,
    olthter- i+ >ifs i hr ,or :i little I -reawler I h ickne- in a \ I" ol>-, r\ c Shl, od
    lI s t(- l1 \,e\ arte tria l-PAIiretit M od t ir dt hl *(-lio r 111ii 1'- the -:nie li _li
    ltr tl tInw Ill i('1 To .I do> t -W I ii t) e i t io o |I Il lI ,Ill-.i
    Someti e ) w ve r. II(\I cx t r i r IIII t read lt ae ;i |;1t):I Itl, ri()w l (,h r
    a11 n re ilril rcI(idil sc1n.. TIlle-r I fi lt'i i- -111)(tl,. dh. ,iI ,,t ii)i ',v-
    li i :Ilx I I;ic Ix i I ( )rI, n it ril\ ll i I.
    thr11tiix u~li ., tl o S(,v I uldIl,'- I teaIl j1
    l'; t '()( l' t l t > r o o t, ^ i v i ni 2 o l a n ( )c c a \ \' \ .. -.. .... .. .. i

    l I ~ Ii -iici it i- it I run iS I II I h I~ le ~
    Sii x a 1 s -il)ti/n. illy n lt ili. ln ''si' h ()I
    ,'tha id xuhi:ict, lli,' .,tii it'+U ,\Iay 1'" "-' 'L J I
    a nl o |H~'n l w o r ;I' \ t i, lxt)ii( llin- roo(tl(ct. .v ..s v* r /
    I i I I I \o I\ ) t I I I / I 'I I t I ~ I < I

    liI m ut l ix' ie e 1'oriii ad! s -lix l i ol hint/ < <..
    cmx) li i ;i s ii ,+liia tri rist ic f thu \ t t iu..i
    I\V"orrhizla )f h(,' l )ak. -5 2,, "
    'l'le cmii mottio) lhetwt\ i( the rxtcr- I '._ \ s- <<"
    ,ulu aiin l ti l' itit2 l a u l liyt li ,il i- ,; ot wi ti i
    e: I v to1) se 1 :a 1 ;i sil e'h' (o1sq)r\ I'at1ioM. \
    foil. the [nlia, '!e ()f Oilw< liyl >;r through t K . .... f
    li c ll w 1ll is x ii rel (.ailxilt it Tio u--u
    iicail -cctli ll. :li(I exveli h( l i I t1c:11.
    ()uh-r\ ( iomlu is n-i- ali l ih re idereid utitli
    icru-.hux xu xx m- ni^" -cfxcui ii 1
    ili l tec:iivt, (d)' d'(fr4 i u i iti i UI laii I Ii l/ i lJff/~ 1-? 1/ '
    (*l';ir casex i ever i ., wa s observed l il :1 C
    roo')ltlet ()1" I\la 'tel (A ] i+ hn n+ i !,,,f'!f,,ltii}. +a Y v A /
    shlrul) which ha1-, :1 iiivcorttiix f111i- v\a h
    2i -s -i< iiitlar t hat (i f the iii uui x -.-...___. V
    .\ (:ix ildi ,f thit s|)e iltie'll is shii xli i
    in IiilcF 1 1 I
    li e' ji-'! il N liV f IIu l siri tI I hvIw )l) iT I\an! dll-, i lh Y1%
    s- rv i t tI 1IiIlI) rrv l)v lirst f6 )iiis- 1i hp'id*erwiii I 1 1 ,,. t+i x:x.
    iiir o11 Ilie n-\irliil hivphia ni( i F,)itit
    x lW it i jpe I al's It) IIve h i I i I I l hi ilii or I 1 1 a vex \'r -di(il l)i';iilli. ali]
    tlie ii -I ,It' slo wI doix i ix Inw xI\ rI. I ii tIh WxV (o )liu I i -- l' I(o ii lit
    externa11 il I t I li t i1i(ernil 11 |)art 1of" (hie fi.i i vI, lia\'ini, li i : so Ie)il pot)I ioI i
    ( ft llie c iil rveI IIiin li v hI coi Ili iltiiino l I I il v Ie\vw. The ix I ii x : i Iw IY
    aippe'iil- liilali u i- it l i ie iui it xxiire le \,vuu tlir tiull i tlie
    eetll wa,:ll.
    'I'lii- I'I[ii -- i of1 to l e th|e Y nam1 lled I)Y VFr: IlI ik I I T ai vhiid t rro [iie
    i i Y ( i)'lii t i iii t IxIii i, li i i t i'l )II a 1 ec' l(lra( li" I I y I I I li' iirI. ,IIii li

    Kiut)l l 'l' (;l'S ( 1) l > 'lE 1;1-:1;1;V .


    ;i- ocClr- on(I tihet' roots of oaks. in the latter type of inycorrhiza the
    iiyphla of 1h it' liiirs forn :i dense sheath around the rootlet, coni-
    pletely shuttling it ol ffioi di'e't tcollntact wxvith tle slTurrounlingl soil.
    'Ie hloo(' I l hyp on (ithe outside of the sheath re.senllble root hairs
    ;ntI it is .-lupposetl to be a part of their function ito alsorti soil niiois-
    ture aid tiranslliit it to ite oa:k rootlet just as root hairs dio.
    It las inot yett bien possible, for want of time. to study thie life
    ii-torv of ihi- nmycorrhiizal funlgus of the b)liel)erry. There is. how-
    ever. a hclew to its identity in the wvork
    | 1 ^ ,of Miss (harlolte Ternetz. Ph. I).,
    ... \ y^ ) described on iwire )19.
    L]U Tth, experiltiits thums far malnde do
    h liinot warrant a ;-i lsppositionl that lily
    ;vmlt il \at soil r1equlires ilouilation,
    "V' ^yQ d nwith II(, Inl'(ycrrhizal l.211-; before
    ,*' i Z- ^ \!1ulic-errv plants will < vm] well in it.
    S'-N/, Thie fiiiuimis ip'ears eil(her to he al-
    : Ireadv in the soil ort" to acci o lmpany the
    ('I l 1setds- whenI they are Sown iiin it.
    'A1 _ (l-) TIII MY(OiKtIIZI.X IMl UNMI'lS "iF TlHE
    S l\\WAMI' lilr l','tI tt"t A11 ''111 it. I I It 1 1A I
    \\ A \ K\--T^ rNo IN.*'riioUS IEIFIF :CT. BUT iATrin.ii A
    \ 1 ^\'leu I!I;X 'I1AL or"I':It o).iON T ill lil'E-
    \ \M AR/ PlIltKY I'LANT.

    "l The e ll<'r al cells in whitc I tIe
    li ninViorlhizial fil 'il"ls o('irs aire Iot
    f\. Q swollen nor ldistorted1 1or do their
    contents collapse or show all v ofi tihe
    a other effects ilruall" prodtiuedl by
    \ pathological t'1111i. They appeal' to
    1.' ) ,.. it. iizTi x. i Of W ,,l l dlif fer in IIo ri'es)evt t ie nll o hiier ti-
    11m i'l l ttifoliti ill jtid 'evlla;l coll of
    ii ,. ri n t : 1. 'etll allis: ti,. ,xtrnll i delrimai l cei ls of it' e il uelerl \ rootlets.A
    titvil,).,,r l., u y,,vrli-i" i unx Ins; olit ,i l y ;i't owilig i- rootlets lie fxn-
    c", ililt<'nrii l h3"]ll~r : d/, plo il lrliitmn ofiHo, ,c, 11 woll 1,y tih, "'is Seems iot to lhe alble to keep pace
    my-',rilizoI (fK l-ni Kgvd with (lie roo(let itself and may not
    occuir for i considerable distance back
    frot ille growing tip. T"la ftiinl is-lillh'l cells ordinarily are mi ostt
    ilulm1eous'lll oll certalill siiall. short. a dl" cotoked lateral rootlets the
    girow\\l of which is slow. Whel root ,i'owth of a vigoT'roils plant is
    ieliM'dh ol- eomieis evei stag"nated, the liellgs may invade hthe epi-
    dlerimal (Alls to tlhe very apex. Soetimiies half lile cells in snchii a
    rootlle are gorgel willi fnlg'i. yet the delicate cell walls show no
    dli-lplacmienit oy distortion. ThIeire is nio indication whatever, that
    tlhe riiiliuls causes any imthologicai distriaince or is in ;my way
    obnoxio\iis to ilie, plant. ()i the contrary, thle unifornitiy witl
    I 1;

    w i th i ,:, ha n, r""wi f u to iK'riir am Ihaajthv |ia;ii- awdil o- crrqiiaiit
    1ahs1i c 'it 1' 4sca1 r iy (Ii t i' l\ pI l nt ;>r tiviail iin liviniac The nratur of this l0i1010+li 11 iiilt lmi'n i~ W H-c-'4
    OiH pJi4 r- Ii, to )'0(I.
    Ml4Si T ill A(iD II> Y I l I S1 111 I.N IIH iH 41 m x k lP "it 111 i;ii:\ 15. \70 = % 1 I.1
    II IINI' IN "' %\ %1A B11.I NI 1;)114 N, A1. l4 l 41 i l oNl Tl i N 4. t I \I\l,. \ 1 .
    Wr NONAVA, 11.\I 1 NI 1I ,1 IN.
    ()r l i iii '\I ,._;'i4l ilt Iti l |l ani it ;til).4t'!)rl l ii n i n i ,l d c'ii 'i2' ii i w ,! il
    in tile fol'ilml r t iil \\'littl '" tlr ;an v :are ideI i t itili/z. :!iractl \
    ttiii'i" fi~llill> l'- tiit l1l4.i' xii, t4411it 4l'ti]i'\ 4l4llllli44l44i 44iil'44i2 ti. 144l 4 +,t 1141'
    oti r j t' or'ti of nit'h roge |>;'ill t'l icil r, ii ti'lin-" i nil r4 t ii\ haii4 4,4-1 4 l 11

    \l I rii tilt'II .. i il. 1 / l. 1] 1 111i4i( 'i l 'i i+(114111110 11 p;i i &! I :1244 o lt;i' 'l '
    !,is XXIII in -_ll 1'i I I'4. 14)1imveve ilia 111w'l c1141111' 144 n'or4 111 14 iuni'
    w\lwn~ their other "I o l cIq iircivincit'' arc a n ii''lanlr\ a ir m v W lyllri
    Ir1m t in1 ilir i 1pr4p1 io" li lit ir al4 i lil \v t1 o 1 4 t ire' thli ri *i i' ..1
    in lti' t1 t'A ii of ihtra'ite !)'' r 1 1I4) r arelft ] i l 4' 11'. 4l 14tt'/ to ht1 cI'4 'Ii'.4 I il411 1 lSiiii4 aw ll4 41 1 4ftili1 4.ion-.
    ( iil A1 )ll l -l' i ,i' ail>oiult it (l lr il r-l'o1iiL ii oi id 4' 4iii\:4 ii4 4i4' nil l', '1i
    iNto nitrate Soil, \\lnw h li lhi> c'ain l ] I(lhe doll \\itlit l grecit
    1tl'xl lwtli1 i4n 4[1oi41i 4 to t11it' u 1r - ihi' l |)(iir.
    'Tli aid Soils in hich il d l>iid lcrri-i tliri\ve are a! ;i4 V ,OIc l
    1ii14 ;a:- i lnf r' til, lI their 11 ill4dil -Il awidl 4'itr-- ilia"m, Q -o l a rll
    I'xt \ sivn ly\ i ima iiipul awilc cIlthi\tiiX 1 j4d| l4t do o, \1l ill i Ill ii.
    \lVt ltwlr o" not 4 c a lirl td this inilt 't ilit\V i> d e, to i li>a d irr,, I\r id iiiirki-
    1IS t't114'1't ot cid or o4r 41 t1i1l. ) ))o )oiiolsI -II -litl44'4'-, i! i ,- I in X I\\ ln t1.1i ti
    4'4IIl ithliia l"xi' til j' ill tll''-i.' '4, l-S are di ix'etlv anIil11 i'.4l4ic ti, lic' A1 --
    i Nation of ni ii ratese. (Se' 1. 7IT.)
    T i1 W4O 1 tiii 4 4t,44 l. 1 ie s4d W itiun i lin 1 i c' 4141111i,~ 1 It,1 I. 11 -, ; 4i44
    ca-sftl fl or l)linit'lc r V'. i- hl hl hi iit in ni i lit -. zililitm iir f*+ltai ilnliil;- ;il
    ;ili' liid l iv 4 o f n il4 ro vt ii i44 'lt.im f4in i 1i 1li, 1 lli Q\ Ili l'0,!llo \inI, _1
    lilt l'o,2''1i 4lt'4'l' tiiti it ioil

    101 Al N 'li44i4n i 4 N IN K \I I \I I I i \ .

    I I h mi'tT linllkll id s nlllil liy Air. 'I'. I' T r- 1 Fn m
    4j4,'I4I4 414 1 4,41 r, n t
    441 4 *' .

    "' 1 .4I;
    I I 1 :,
    I1. .1
    1 I I 4

    +\X a l' It4T, 1 4t, I4! 4itn,41 'li

    U~T M -1t 1K t (I N 1 1X TA\TPl IN I1 1 ,1111FIS N ~ l



    SlDerlit'iiatiolls made by Mr. Karl I'. Kellernianii.)
    Snup[' Pe'r clit.
    7 ... .. ... .. ... -.. . .-. .- ... ... .... O_ 0 00(12
    S ... ... .. ... .. .... .. ..... .. .... ... ... . ... _. .. . . ....... ._ O)0 l_)
    --)- .0 0 22.. . . . ..... -.. .... .... _. . ._.. _. ... . . . . . (o1 )S
    10! .. . .. .. ... _ .._ . . .. .... .. ..._ ... .. _. .. .. .. 0 0t 1 ";
    11 . ...... . .. . .. . (.00 02
    12 .. ...... .. . ... .... . .. O O S

    A v'elage of llitlatle nitl ()gell .---- -- -- -- .)I)17
    (171 T )it: I l IINi ( ltl A\.IAILIAII NI'II)(lI:N IN THII ACID I A'IA'Y SOIi IN WHI CHiI
    111il, S\AMI' l;I'.LlIi'LI Y (;L ).O N Is WISTI IS IDIUE1 I TO) T1H INAIII.TY OF, Till- NITIlI-
    Ill OiiC l 1 ito i [i(lersit iil tihe co(iditiois aitnla (lnis-t ic I() 'itriticaiti(il
    wliicli exist ill dll l)liel)ebrI Y soils it is nee-ssarV tirst to discusss tile
    sOIc'( a Illd traiisflori'al ion o(f nitrov(eil iln orliiiry soils.
    The ;vailalile liitri,: '. ii i the soil. s lich ;ais is ail)s)orb)ed ) v III ordi-
    101'W )lint. is c(ilni)lV derived(l, unlless fertilizers have ibeen( ap-
    !pliedl. 1'(ri tle ('(dec(mlp)sition (of tilie iiunnis- containedl iIIn the soil,
    anl lithe lliii. is itselIf a prodluct o)f tlie deco(milposi ion of plant Iandl
    animl relialis. These remains consi-t ()rdinarilv and chiefly of tlie
    pla( ially rIotted leaves, stellms,. and ro(ots ofI plants.
    In tile olderr aricuIltlural liltelatlilr,' the name IIIIInIIs was applied
    to a partic'lart ] klind (if soil which is moe pr(operHly covered by the
    te'Irms ve(etablle mold,. leaf m(oldh. ;and(l wod(( mold. (See p. 24.)
    Liter ill(e applicat ionll of thie wo1r1d hn1s was restricted It that por-
    tii)in o(f a siml coinsisi'tiig of thle plant and animal remins, iII whatever
    sta'e of dlecomllosit io(n. Tlie properly designation o(f tlihese r(ellains is,
    hloxever,. organic Iialtter. In lite(' sense just dhescribedl tle word himiiis
    is still lreuiiently sed, hult nlot with corectlniess ail lprecision.
    I Iiiiiis. as now ulliderstood by a:lricIlitllral chelnilts, represelnts a
    stlaIe il thle hdecoipositlion O(f I,.2111.c matter ini which the cetlhlarI
    st rt.'t lire Iris wholly dl isaippearedl and the origi1al sullbstanlice is (r at
    soile slae lhas bee enlitirely v dissol(Ived.
    Since it i o(fltell ncessavy to allude to organlic Inattler illn lthe earlier
    st -;e. Ias dis.ttiigiish(ed fl'omi organic matter as a whole. which il-
    cludes (the Ilnilis st:l,' : a- well. (tle termi cellularr ()riani(c mailtte, r. .
    o111011 -.Ilplly s-till. cellularl nmitter, is sL,, ,-led as a oonvelielnt d -i._
    Iiat inl. In ce(llula1 matter lite( cellular stru'ctlre (,if tle animals Mi
    phla)ts still r-emains and :may bI d(etectedl either by li(' eve or bY the

    II1111.-. whi ilch is a complex mixt(iie of diverse substn111ces, does not(,
    ,'diaril exis. in (lite s()il it a ldissolved condition, blut is us -ally
    comhllned w.cI il)it lime or mInanlesilll). Thle resultanlt c('omll)()uillIs. telll
    in lisii Pillm (,lt1i X lvlanl

    hltni tc, ar" InI so lble il l water. but fot ;, n-ually Ma k dtpre lpitIte.
    which ,I,'ive-s :i dark tohlr to hli' soil.
    To 1 ich the 1lime. I,, iL,'te ( 11 n il. or otilier h4 nit -k lrecilitatnin4- -1t l4 tan1o i-
    diss-olved and leached, away. The hllmts itself i- t(hIll lI-i 4emo ed 1 tr1)l1
    th4 soil 1)y lonIc'ontintued washiin:g with :1 weak -ltit-o co1, lm ,111,*n v
    I piei etil. olf aml onia. pI' n tI e applia tinon "f thin, trvlain'lt t I(1
    ka< ltnii |H';at ain iniky-hlahvk etrxtnct is secuit'ed. W hen tlii. i- c\;>p
    ratidl to dr v'ni' thie residthi is ;i llack stlnitlstan c \\ li'l when l crap il
    flt'rom thei disI renelmbles 'oall Wd 1>t oWr. (\tii IIml '4 (los, lV. it'1ll4 sugaill.
    Thiis -ist-c-ttli' is 4m1 o tlic foh'mlln- (if blunI".. It :;I)-4(1l),- w att t14l
    ilX an it-- liintg tllhe t' xt i rl' olf tliin jfll\. It li s ;i n > s cn "tal\\ t --4 t\m 4,4 4r'
    itld taste. It dissoldv's in water. ti' .,lutiton lheint aid 1 ill ;ic ioll.
    A\ liter 1of wXater in whicX hau d loon'I4 dis-1l- X',l a 1ra2 u o|' i 1111i1 4i .\
    tractcd V'tonii kalni;t |x'a I it h cvd Whlen 1tVOtN a 0.002 normal acililv.
    S'luch a solution is Mla ti unless viewed in a thit lIn vm andl wliii
    dilut'ed to 14 .t000l c. c. it has a lr'4own colr 1 similar to that f io lit o ar I
    1idei'r vineg':tar. If line i a;dd d to( t ( -le so tio i1 lthe I1- 11 u itee- wXX iti
    it and is thrown domn as a blak pre''ciplitate. hea\'hit 14' laing, il O N leIr.
    A, stt'd in (tl'e preceding p rag'rapdh, it i is in4 s-,c :M i a precipitatedi a4nd
    neutral '- alkl alie fut'n tlhat humust. ,o rdinaHlv ,,' ic i ie (l i4 rain.
    eristic 'rown olor oh" f the witer in I)("o, inlicate- al- acid condition.
    the pre-nclce ()f 111 i wnus in solution, and the absence of solutle tim,.
    Thle plr ess tof de lo lpo4,siti Io4 by which cellular atte i- l'n;ti n--
    forine into hIlint in which tll e cellular ml r: li4re haw entirely Oni-1
    appeared, is knlowvin as hum iiicationi.
    llunmus contains nitrogen. Wlt the nitrogen is not in ;li<> fi't olf
    nitrates and therev or can no41t Ibe assimilate1 I\ oyrlin-arv pdaI nt-.
    iThe tr'ans-f'rn1 atin (1f Ihunmus nitrogen into nitatls occul-- 44d4i4ng, a1
    'trthier plrme-s of dehntpomntition known a- nitrificatiom.
    live nhi lio t i on of ttlitnns is l)tottnA tl a!)ol l \t cert ain bateiria
    w inlI. 1t4owing in tl-e huni sl:ad.h4 soil under sn ;itl:le/h clollili o jo -.
    iplducl lit t 1 :11. tia. -tl-en nitrites, and: thI en ntra-tle- Inl arti- icial
    cl( tures, is additi, I lo rolet" coi nditions of temnperan;lt e. 0i6Istum
    1and 1 aeration, tliese nitrifyitng alcte1ria reilnir Xo:lr l' lig"or1nt -
    1r4 t, 11 : neutral ,or slightly tll -alkl e n i'lintn1 In ;a lditinc'lyl acid
    edhiun thle nitric fvin l );I etia g'rom little or not at all.
    Itn oI'er to a'Vertin tle d, ,. Io' nit riflia t1ion, if any. takling+ place
    in 1 l.4 ia pe'at. a -eiet "f nitrilitlion le-i "f thin material w411- 1made
    1). Mr. lt l Ia Kellermani Thle, l(<-s A.lio''l a neilher in V' -l1
    p at no iin leial rotted for three mont hs was nitrilicnt'mio ill prt' -.I. -.
    but when tlhe asoid itv of the peal wan neutralized ly lte athlition idf
    Hiae nitl icafr ion le.a.il.

    [I 'MUs.r, THIE tS" A.i S(W-t CI ()F NITILVI'ITS.


    I.IMI N OF THE lu l .lEn i ninRY PLANT.
    It is a weAl-established princilde of plant lhy-,1-\' that (with tile
    po-silch, exception of a few bacteria) those plants which contain no
    cliloioldiyll. tlihe <-reei coloring iiatter of leaves, are unable to grow
    xxWitih mineral nutrielnts alone, since they are nlliable to imanuifacture
    tliie' own carI)olh*vdrates. Plants without chlorophylll. including the
    lin'i are dependiei for thlie fiumdamendal part of their nourilshment
    on tile -stacli or oth(lIr Ilated carlnohvdrates ori,,inally elaborated
    tlroili carloil)i di)xid and water !y tile chlorophyll-bearing plants.
    Tlhe al-o dlill'er froiii tll hither i)lanls in i)eing al)le to supply their
    nlitro^"en req(uirllenlst directly from orignic niltrogen conmItpounds.
    iiiliii iay It direeltly paivsitic (Ion a chlorophyll-b)earing plant, a
    im ll ca11e (e-c 4 l lie mildew fiunguls of rose leaves, or they imay grow on
    ,sI.ul-ltances derivedl from clhorol]hyll-bearing plants such as bread
    ior jelly'.
    linhgi are particularly a!l)ldant in tlie decay ing, vegetable minatter
    i'oiinlii' tlie leaf litter of a forest, even though thiis litter may b)e
    diliinct ll acid id i its clemical reaction. They are known, indeed,
    Io goow liuxiriantly on vegetable remains conitaininiig no nitrates and
    of MiH i acidlitY tha lil ritiication, or tlhe conversion of the humnus
    nit r-oPni into nitrates Inv nans of bacteria, ican not take place.
    T'llat tlue iVx'orrihizal fiiiiii. like other funig'i,. are able to extract
    liul( ro)noIus food fKlnii tle Inonnitritied organic matter with which
    their externail tIortions are in contactt is a reasonable suplosition. It
    i- furthelrori(eie a rV:eaisoialel supposition that the blueberry plant is
    aidle to ailo inlitrogenous material tfroi tlhe internal portion of its
    iiiuv.iiliiza : for we k now that the clover plant is able toi absorb nitro-
    ",u i I lder eiss it liallv tlie salie conilitioni s froin lle t nitr('L.', i\iiiLi
    bactei i:I T wih i" ill its i 'toot tulbercles.
    'TI e satlist 1)iv direct explerimenit thle ability of the mycorrhiizal
    tiiol-,,s of I the lludee'rV to act i. :a411dance with the SU)position
    0ii lined alnove. tlie f'igus i lnmill ie separatedI from the plant and
    2gi ii luv it elf in -uitaile inutrielit media. IPreliminary trials were
    Madile o isndlate thle fIunius. biut without success, and a lack of time
    lia-, lrvevteld thlius fai thle 1lmrsilit of that branch of the experiments.

    l 11 IT Ius (SSII .1Ii THAT Tiii MYCOIHiili I IA FUN(I;'S O1' THi: SWAMI' BLIrEBERIiRY
    NIT1(0(;I N SCI1TI'D1 To Till': I'USE F0 TIllE I A.I'I IRY PILAN IT,
    Tie faclt of the fixation ii' aiinosl)ilieri' nil i,,_,i l)y thle bacteria
    ilnialit iin lie lroot tubercles of clovel's is I1ow\ well known, and we
    arlie il to ulnde'rstandl how lthe abuiiindant nitrogeni of thie air. unavail-

    aidhe for ( vli direri inillrit 1011 (i r o iiinari llant s. is n ic available for
    (lim use of c ,' l ilt]i iii ous- Crops.-
    I I i i W n 1l s 'o'geiit ra 1v k[ owi n t I ll I i there atin, 111 mi1Q- owe i t sln n spe ci-
    or loa"teria not connected willh the rotot Olre l !';ililtv of taking "|) the nilrol'en ol, !t e -lh ;ii l la iiii ll A (over
    into |)Ih;lit food. T11 ex tei I of' lil' (list million ofl :t[' hce i'7iUi-lii> and
    ti' a moutl of "biito,,, i, tixati"i etlly'ec vte l lthe / are i4l fullv knwini ,
    lvill thei fil (lirit t .',1o;d i oaction (hoIo take |)licc ;ii~l plceil thit the l t*I; ri;
    <.i'i-bjll- it occll occul in IllaiiV l kocllitiv'S hliti I 'cll w ell ('(;l/l ilic('l li\v Ihe
    vxpxerhi'niiicti f I- \ nv" i, iti\nv'-(i r" AOl v lll \.("1l r_ i t ,l l v llt'ia ( 'l. I P 11f4/ llrn lill. .1Ii I' t 1 t11
    \crail other spxecics olf (hIns laitter ^' cnlns.
    1I hia IW'q'll SlO\\i l also t iat (r i't iil fill)'Li. i- ;is f\ ii; ,
    h1 n llII l st- t-s this 1 1) [l it r ,'- I,
    mlv'r the ll writer hail dlisove 4Id the' ii ri'orr'liZi;l flilitIs of thn'
    swVa p bl/l x tIqTrv in )rN, iilx'r. IN T, ;iiid \\lih, lie hew\vai iiii!aint ohi'r-
    valioit (in ( it. wia cttemini il 'alled l to thi' wcirk or' !iis (valinlotec
    T'I'l'tie1 o= (lie li m"VlOr lii/al f ,i,'_" of (*'*rl;till relatedA I'olil KO|'; i|lants.
    AN O rl'liztx lnllishlK- in 190l a pialper" ili which shle iimla h e Ivre-
    li iiin 'try ai iti iioi i iirci lit tliat a fllli i l-n isolatcil froni tli I'l r ol ol' o lit e
    ]'lirope' an (, rali cll rryI' ( .rjci., .<-it.M f ., I /,x) lhad deve'\'('lo|)ed pyciidii
    ndi t ah11 tin"11ce111 Iit]odi Kti ced/ fr n sports O nn'roi tfl isl i )l-\" iiidia w ilien
    grown in;i n a iiir o ,,ii- l'r n rimlriti\f s liilion. lW tl W i ll N i acce.-s t air,
    s"lo\\w'd upoill ai l 'iv-i thait it liad assil iiiated free atlinoplwioi i b ilo-
    gvnli to lte cxlSh of .116 I'lp r cent of tle (I rv dry i weght of tihe i ylve iiiwt.
    T he f cc,",i- onl;yio-lllltl oiily o c-ei 'lilli ais linicll i dextrose' ili is-inii-
    lltin i l a ivl i o i1 ,l it itrogen ;rl w as, Coirsiiiiid 1\Y t '.<.' 'il'iiiin
    /f'I ", ,iiiiiii. S in tilar lI ( noit ii llo tioll lli'n i ii w re iso la edl Iri' l l
    Wiliwr relilted pla ts.
    In 19!>(7, ii i 1or d heailed alu(n/ t of he'r invest li 'M ions.'" Alins
    WI'Ilet tZ .hd scriloed. ai- ilw specis of t' P livie, ti\(' py''c i ia-loearlilin
    rluiiii W el rcd iin tlhe Iwoo f thi( le Fnivoopeai (risildri'r\ w xyc""Yi O1//<. ri II, (l tle mni 'si r en1ro1 v I { I "i lN 't y O'Will / i/il'/!'t) I species
    14 heatier ( /;',*/' f t, l. and 1 7'.'. < iinn ,nd A%1 ), 1. aim! Ie irIl !tltitt ill a i ii lerid qTr
    ( INA:, it-i t'tf f<1l:i i). Shie \Va' Ili i taldl t(o d tithnislratt alimsol tell'
    tliat these 1'l1w1i i were ARM & w i et ev l oilv o iijo l ic n Vic rrhiza of
    lim' lio-i plant he aiii- ( I ) it wau- extre elyv dititlh il to oh)-erve ltil
    fNiow_., Kli meids ot flie internal iii\'eorrliiza i row tiiroug'Ii thle cell
    wall ol' o ifhe rio lets intoi the cultui i hediui ,itho t. and (Q ) lov-
    TcriH~q ]z, ll'l:;n lltr. I]ll. ]I >. l'i'iii hcs ;iil nl is7 i~h ilriscllieli St ri stdf~s
    (l/lu 'l'i *ih cti t~il'lln'\\ 'i~lri lcn I'ilx. Ih'rilihlle ilerl 1 h ltc 'htsc lici ]lolt nisf'h lii
    <;esellsclh;ift. ol I. ''2, 1ii .l I 6 2(;7 771.
    h i' irlxn (0lilr ll 1 a IT I" l ih r d1i Assiiiil;(ion des at osili ]ilisclieii
    Sti|stIT>>s T lirvh 'ilz e. .Ililirliii<-lie fiiM r \V'ieiisroliaftlic, lie, h lt lik, vol. 4+I,
    lif)07. Iqr. l;-.'>; -HIS .
    19 7, lsullI h i. 1( I

    'I'll F ATM SPI I iF:LE AS, \ -snWI'i( -1 f 0, No ITI!( ii(;I .N .


    aill- wlheil slihe propol)sed to inoculahte ixn corrhiliza-free s-edlig-.s of
    lhelic ]ost plants| with spores- froni tle p)y'nilidia that formed in her
    ciiltures '-lie was nailble to vrow aniy !-eedlings that were free from

    Not withslitanlini tlhe lack of ali bsoluitt denlioinslt ration that the
    [itroege-fixin funlgi growII by) Miss 'Ternetz were identical withi
    tihe li 'v(rlorrliiznl funigi or their hosts. it is regarded as quite possible
    (hat the i 'corrliizal fung'i that ociiur in lperlhals all Iplants of the
    hleatlir and blliieberry" tvfamilies, inclldinig the swaplll) blileberrv. aIre
    Initrogeli lixers. anlI tlall tLhe host plants alibsorbl this nlilrogieli giving"
    inll exlchatlle. for the iste of the ftiiiun-. sui2rar or sonie other c;irbo-
    The exp)eriiients tinhs ar desritedl in lThe present paper, and the
    acco]mpaly inlio disc-ssions. alqear to warrant (liN follhwina' theorY
    of tlhe itiitol of nutritioii of the sxwailp Idiide*x :
    (a) Tlih -\vai|) Is)]tel)hetry irows ill )ellty soils whiih contaliln
    acitid or (thier sIilstanlies loistmion(- to phllis.
    (b) As :I lIrotetion against lthe absorption of o lriountsi of these
    ltpoisons greealt enough to )rowe ftadIl, thi, planlit. like iianiv other bog
    and acidt-soil plantit, is devoid of root liirs and cons'equentlv has a
    restrictedl capacity for iabsorbilig soil liioisture. Tliis low l/absolptive
    capacity is correlated wxitli a low late or transpiration. Many 1) "
    -hrliNs, altioiigh liv'iing Wxitl li ;ian al nillt -pply of |noistlire at their
    roots, have lheell reconiiZedl as lshowio' i aidaptations for retarded
    irvinspidathmio similar to desertl plani-.
    ( IV reason of is M lo i tlsiiiIatiol iiiandl its corT-ie "iliiL: reducedl
    alipaity i :i aOslptio ii- ilsiilhicieiit n nutrition. The diangeri of
    ilitrogeni starvation is particularly 'ieat silence thli'ese little nit rat es.
    ((/) Some hogi plans silmilarly lhi'trelle d \\t wilt ii ulllicicil niiullri
    Iioii, sucli as the siiivundews ( D)roserai ). llie bladderwiorl (I't riclaria).
    and (lte pitclier plants (Sarraceiiia)., iisess ias of seciiing the
    requisite niroven 1I, maolhiingi insists and dipestingr and absiorb'll,,
    ltieir nulitrit ive parts.
    (c) In tlhe samiilp blierrv lhe rqluiired nitrogenli is secured ill
    n di tlerent wayV. Tlhe plant aistotiates willhi itself ai iiivyorri'hizal
    funli ,us whihl i- able to assimilate iitli'. f-i troiii tlie surroiinliiig
    origanlic miattl er. ail trliialps 'rolli the atmosphere also, alndl to convey
    it into thie pllanlit without taking ailohni with it a lari'e anoiunt of
    lie poisonouis soil iiloist lire.
    \Whiether this. theory of lite nutrition of' thle swax ili iNebery is- or
    is not suiih-lt itidilt, iii all its details 1I futulire invest ig'ation. it liis
    affordtled a usefiil basis for cuiltur;lal exIe)rinilietat ion. ais will be evident
    froiii llid ie iults alonit tol lbe d(escriiel.
    i!Ki '


    I'4I I -.4 44 l" I 1 i ll l ] J \ lx \ II I I l'l; Ii > i tu \ l N \ 1 1 ,I li l ;l I I;, i
    01R IN \ IN I I \1; 1 1 1 X 1
    AI rc expwrinment- in u11 1 r iii1 -in:4 O1 f 4 Ir41v l4 I4 \ii2s. IGI\"',4\ I
    Hclh a ;-1'rte l dli\ r-il, v of il iinixl tu l irtik-,od- or polling iin nnin'w
    o4f \\:411'l'1il.. amoii 4n t ol' >4 1 .l'. ; lo an d v at1 d, 11 nim i l t.t4l n11- ltihat
    :ai ac'4Cotu t or ail l .l ll""i l- t orl i,' f It. ion4 i. T in' 4 l4o'r 1i4po4
    tanl rI't4 lt o" tin-," t'\p', acC'4)ilill of lIlnt t'4' ,ulllL.. ,f or I.io". 16t l. -I I ll;ll t l;\< II:rll4 41"4o' ,
    for t411 ;l Ill irc \vca'; w ith lt :l|4llil i o- 10 l,' IN ,x 'iwl4')iinv' ltl < t4f o4l \ ri r-
    w\\hIi4'1 r A1illili 4 Alo I\ i-'c tn lt. 'Ti1 pa1ire'nit planii1t of IlI,' -ccdI4''41t ,,4
    1; t, i. I'"' i W ,,41 J I, s
    TIl -lll i( l f1ollo w\\cdl ill .- ct'l44 l l4414 llid li' -cr>1, \'l\ \4 1'; l tl 14 h'\ '"l [ 1 i ,l
    I 4 ), iM r ( :r.(1') 1 ( lln' W; i\'.'ll off1 la6 1h4t Of 1lu r\. 1 n4 l4l" W IW.
    All tIlhvr t+xpitvA 'i`I1lt'lv >. a|l)lin;ll'Ihl ltmt\(> oi-iKTl Acr it viccc -ir\
    Ito I1<( l| the li -c t I hd- lrm ilt I, 1>41"-1 p Iatillh tion or 1 OI 1111V tjli\+;ilI "UiW( 4 11'-
    niutil lat \viniT o, r (>larl\ niriin. andl (lifii to "i'c lh ll'' '.;t nlli
    li(,+t'>+^ ,;ii \ 1oI+ l'l* i ttii tion. Ih M r. (I)li\vr ni 'tliol. lio\\ t\ lint
    't-c I t arc -O\ 1 il1l .\ ti4'1 -l. A.,li 1 futr tli' tnj ( ul ril v of lln4 l -,rr 4-1: tINv
    1hv'114'II ) eo >'1'i i:1itt in al4 tl : i\+t \\Hl'v 1. and- l 1t)\ P 1 rop' r la44ndli '," ill
    lil4 '_' 4, ii 4t-4 I t lt 4 a robitit4 p1 4 lit' 1I\ Il t' ]4 ,'iiiii1 ii4I4 o. f -ul iilii1n1 r
    illi->l(';id o I lillv *c, l lIl, -.
    I1' I' n 4ill14 l jli: eth llo O 1n' detaiil1l li4'lv 'il r\i \\('4'4 Ai lIolh \\I 4
    ''l+ It4 'ri' i I P I. V\ I. li4-. 14 1 4) 'li'1 full l 'v iin tlrtd ; d 1-li4 lil v l i 4 'r
    int 1tedt \\tcrc' iti:iltl t o14 ;i |1i4l[> 444l 4 iir l l l loroi4i'( lil\ tivi der N ottr
    '" I'l n, and 4114 1 ii 4 4 1ii,- 1pJlp w4r4 \inI.I"i ( ;. 'ia ;1 liti t li(n he a' I \ v1 4 "'4L .
    44lii4 li 1a l llc l4 t i ottolii \\>i2 ( la4l4 l onut alld their ili(rli'.4ia! l 11 i-
    tulnv drirdoil A lt q ct niirc l o Illi atr for a ii re houi'". \i'ii ljlin-
    ])lo ];i l t and pla d(A in a w'1 i1 !m)liho c tll|ifl'irrv -co'l'- w\ill r!+ wliiil
    their vitatlit v lfor 'r vral \\c l-. pro d)ill v for se'\,rvdi] llit!" +
    1'+roin lliv 2 (piiart- or ItcinIrh" AN\Vi -n jl-r, d 12..', '1;1 1ii o dr ncd,-.
    '111V -1441- litlliilt'vrto m i l ail iit 1w.(> r t 11rain. Of w hic Ali oit l ll ii+.rc
    t'oiirlhi \\oor, lnaill and "OnlilaW d lo tiinl)\ l. \ A lioit I I *riIi-+ "\plc
    1i-t 4 l I Iai \ 4'' I 44i l 1', cI"li4i iil44 to 1lal 1iii il'oil 7,.4! 1 1ii 12iiial l <4i4 '
    '44<' I f4 ir ii'--icd a14ll 441 4 llnd iil alli4 'iil III 1for 441 di: i lol4 4lr ordinarvi, '
    ; 4'.hi ir," l l-. a nd'i tli ll i < \ l l -, d i *_ i ,i, i ll ]\+
    Inrili-plh, ril, and a- iuian 'i"iior>" li"hl u a-il\ ]iai r Ix'tii Ylili 'cdl
    l'llc Inatil't tccd' ( PI. V 1. 1it" I.O;ll ai ,oi iild\ orlhii'altir t0 liar
    row I\ I olhiong, in o iutl mi w -'( t ) Ai\ i 'iattvitl. wll:i a deep iv ilttld nsedt
    o;il. t l T h \ ar\ in I. i,-.tll i '(11 .(fil !| t >i Win; of "I imin li I t I.5

    Thio -cod, \\ilrl( -o, ll\ ill 1- ;llh,1" woodriigh, 1fi l 1 >) J ;31 I W 3 ingl'-l .
    hnidh "vis-!l tiirn ip t. Af\t r ciock-h li owd ph+vAi over All, drain
    ,---e Indc'- (lie, ho] thl i \wa~ vovcI'id 1"t o dlth of ;ldoiil an inch "All

    I I 1P. l ;\ lN to ii IWAI I .I 1 K1 )


    kalhnia peat in filwrousl fori to insui-re good drainage. (O)ver this was
    placed lihe finelyV sifted soil of the seed bed(. trodden down with the
    whole weight of the b)odyv. the total thickness of the soil and drain-
    age beitg "2.." inches.
    IThe soil of tlhe seed bed in this instance was a minixtiure of the
    following' each rubbed lhr-,,..li a wire -sieve with I',-inchi square
    Kalliiial pea"t . .. ............. S pa ls by hulk.
    Saind .. .. ..... .... . ....... .. ... .. i s y bulk.
    Li e s ai ni .. ... ....... ......... .. 2 pa2 rtsI by ulk.
    Lon i _- ........ ..... .. . . 1 part liy bulk.
    While ltis mixture gave gnoud re-lils. cerltailn modifications in the
    direct ion of simlplicity have been found equally satisfactory so far
    as growth is concerned, 'nd more satisfactory with regard to the ease
    of transplantingz. These changes involve the omission of the loam,
    \vwhicl fromni other experiments is now regarded as never advanta-
    geous and somIetimes actually inju riousi and the omission of the sphag-
    ium, which, although a good moistIIre-holding and aerating me-
    dium. appears to be superfluous in a peat and sand mixtiure. The
    spha aglnum also interferes somewhat with tie clean pricking out of
    the seedlilgs in the first tranFp].iiil'. From experience with vari-
    ouls other seedlings of 1)bluebl)erries a mixture of 2 parts of finely
    siftedl kalmiia peat to 1 part of sand is reg:arded ,as satisfactory and
    pirefei'ab1le. The peat should be well rotted and tlhe sand clean and
    free .froil lime. Thuis mattel is more fully discussed on p 1" CO.
    After thlie seed 1bed had been l)rel)aredl. as already described, tlhe dry
    seeds were scattered u11pol it and covered with about an eighth of an
    inch (of tlie same soil lightly sifted over it. The surface was then
    sprinkled with water from a sprinkling 1pot provided with a very
    fine rose.
    So far as lmoistulre is concerned th(i ideal condition of the seed bed
    is that the soil should be just (lail) enough so that it shall not be-
    ('tome d(ry on thlie surface. Thle drying (of thiis peat is indicated Iby a
    (onlspic(uouls (11ohr change, from dark brown to) light brown. If ex-
    posed d(irectlv to an ordinary greenhouse atmiosplheire, thlie tendency
    of (tie s(eed-Ibed surface to Ibecolme dry will necessitate frequent ap-
    plications (of water, and the bed will be in danger of rel)eated periods
    of ... ie-ss. These col(di11tions may be very much impl)roved by cov-
    eliii" the flat with panes of glass. An ol)pe(1i ,. about an inch wide
    shouhlld be left at either end to permit the circulation of air over the
    seed bed. This ventilation will prevent thlie excessive accumulation
    of mtoistlure in a st ai:iil atmosphere and will also prevent over-
    heatilg on siuniny days, Ibotih of which conditions are injurious to
    s'eedling S-. A flat thus covered may not require wat.'i-ilr for inter-
    vals of several days-. The advantages of the glass covering Are par-

    P AT: VI






    I \h- l[IL1, 1I!, tTWt -T T1- 3ril II u T I -

    A ~-aJ

    Fi ,. 2 S

    ,:)S F T'' \M B.

    t;l I IN \'l It>N (I I lI I I ;I .1 1; lil; \ I '- 1 I 1 .

    th bi ill'v evident when g*crnim tht Io l" _wims row i;iix iol li]" -md
    have Iht'II w1 i-lid to tie 11 1 s +trface ill the | >roc'c-+ t of l 'iii' ;>ing l lia d u,
    ,,r ki ,t itcd withio ;in -oil anyrs i ill' It l i\ I "+ c l t day- lIwlfit-(
    (lt> root peinit' rat'e then od. btut the moi-tl l r iinlainl v 1i l lin th ie A
    "itdl t "rNitlh iltc gd ^ keep, t'-< naked -ofdl/iticmuin'=A m hni dihili drh
    inip+ Atft'r (Teininalionath has proi '.-('d -o l tir loi; ;ithat a > i NtAd
    of' st'cdlkim's is ii-ilrtd Ilie ^1 as- -11 t t litI 1)( ,AM h
    ,,i.idiiually i iitvci. "/ +v,
    1s'lio tf its .- 1ei l l \n"ii-t lr J. 1-.2, ^ \ 'rte '
    kept il ;i a l't t'iiill ow :;i o(il ais i'ii OlWit;>l!lr | |
    aili" Allded O' miit tlo -linli"lol. W him ^,' ++ ;'^
    Sti ritcil in winitr.,m ll:i- t l 1I., lSvl Hast \\ heJi 0
    ;at ai templiitetl'rn lm l i l il i'-s llIll .ta 0t o lo t l |". '*"" /
    at in "i ll iind alolIt 1 hi degree' lii,;li'r ill ill
    d l ;a ft liin e I i ~t r >l ith+ ou ii i t h i o l l iin l i l t Vt 1 ". i ,( i
    1dlViva tl'i whole t y seems lllil t-" I
    ( 't r ii, t ;h ( h ell l i; n thirtli-m("v lmn days aflter nI 'lin ;and .0ii-
    (liilt fo mom! tlihan lt\o m- n doll I n (i the/ r -vedin us ol this an if",
    Mlosel tcliI1t 1 l hbilcl rri- 4 k o n ;^ilth a I litii 1t'.itit tii iiirt i d I'.
    i.t!l;,i..11 um,, lnliniiiit lo imi has h llii in ain> s.liol ;i period a;>,l tw ent \'-li\v,
    davi\s. 'l'hiis \ iown fs t' '_', Ill i l ioi it io iiiO'liil IlW C i-'idCrcd 1iin,1 fr tilli o f ( "lil '_', i,, i >li,-"_'.-]'l -> olf +ro\\ tli ill lic'-r plall t-. It i-
    in1 I't hoW'wtver, dm' too a i a i blu h Iill i raiii-t'e. 'lihe f'ood slored
    in the scmd for tO e noirishlnih i t rto (lih p iltl is iol m lo<' i |t i, tlie
    cot vhl 'do'l -. a- in t licl),;I ii +,or | ;i.:i
    (T <~ZN<^~) t' i" 'r lllple. hIut it lic- in at Inn-
    uCilled the li lldo pcrnl. (illil onl-itidc
    : *lit+~the ( ld lrVm ( V' a Ii+. M ) ) It 11,
    (|illrc- >c'M ral \\'cl<- 'orw lt lic iiiin it
    \ <'!nlir'\+n'ot. f't><'dilby' o tilt lt re .' i t mn ,
    of .,,ilrro, in" Il!t (' Irro-jnldrl ti. to l it
    FI<;. +-'+ l~lii ,ri< rr srri.lll hiii th? in ,,K' -t<)l\ i 'I l < i t il li* t 1l t'Vi !ll+
    hrilitl +.1 :1 -<- : 11 0I1' ll lllr l [ 1 illle itf
    tiI ... i+'++ ihqm,, i. ,11 thir iir-.i iiii:,z,, iii' lla i d s -iA 4 lth t'la l tl e q I ll,,'vtI A
    Im I > I i|o- lel for t ill -eed to gr'crt
    W hen llie -cctlling- iidll -traiiylillclwd l li-clv"^ owlt the vli i N\ ('1T
    about 42ii to (I, 3' o l an in e '> to 5 s initi. ) hi it and the wwlt v + i' and oll
    llt h' Oh n" viitlamo t W.("'; ol' ;ir ) it" l? 1 |.:0 li ill i lol,0g-, I( -oo li,-, *J( )
    W within a few\ dav- tilth lirmt foliag+'e hl fiH' te to appel r l 'lt e (li the
    tol \vidoti- ;ilol( t. i A M of an inch ( 11t1lni.) lHM ii" I See ti. *J mu
    i inc t 10 to I A7* iiil.) lim li. tlte erett ithlii tl'ilnelieteni lt caring O uriiif
    or il\e foliage, h i\v,-. and 1 Vthe l\ lc i- tt i havi jj 111,1pa llded to :t leimiirti
    oti' (i. l- oil' ;tli ilic i ( n I .t oS < > lit, 2J1.)


    Although the leaves of thie pareit plant had entire margins, the
    haves of lite vonii' seeldlin,'-s were inviriably serrulate. It was only
    afler (l e ilaint were s(eral moiitlihs old that any of the branches
    began to prodIuce leaves wXith entire marginss. anid soice of thle setedliii,-
    i'romn til-s iarenlt give promise of idpermanently retaining the serrulate
    leaf character. (See p. S2.)
    21 1 'i Tll: l N (IINi,S; AKi- IE I u Ts iiA\NSL'iLANT'ri) A" IIIlE A(.E (o AltOUT sIX \VIEK..
    n () clother 24 thlie first transplanting \vwa done front In l>e eel ials
    of 190S. A new flat was tilled to a depth (of *2 in'hies. trodden down
    harId. with thie following mixtlire:
    K; Ili0 i:i pel r1'(l t('( for several niolltli s ;11i(1
    'rubbted thirouin g iiaehhii eb'rhl sieven... ...... i rls by bulk.
    1iiiid, c(()mi se. \X;iished_ 1 ii l1 biy builh.
    L,)amll. L,;iv ey. finely sifted_ ..p.. ... irt by builk.
    'This soil mnixtuar' was used as tlie result of ex)erien'li of the two
    i)receding years. FIrom a few experiilnents made in the winliter of
    k"i "4;-7 it hlad been found that a miixtiure of
    (' (equal parts, by bulk. of tpeat. sand. and
    K1.', loa was decidedly superior to loam and
    /, -< Im:anlre or to sand.l spna(, and loali.
    I Il tlie winter of 1907-s8 it was found that
    f)i- the amlloullt of sand anda loall could I)be re-
    diiueed with distinct aldvaiinta:e, and as a
    result of the experiments then made imai.\
    of ie ci('iltIII'es of llwis-9 were grolwii in
    the liixture desc'rihbed above (pieat S, sand
    _. P 1. loaii 1 ). ThIe retetlion of tihe loami was
    - /! furniish sole ilecessar 'V ineileral nutrient
    Snot finished byv lhe pealt. Froni an ex-
    l)e'riilil miiade in h lie sumnler of lI'u!),
    Slhowever (1p. (6). i \a foundlliI that under
    1ihe syV4elm of hIlandlingl7 the i)ots described
    ,li, t ulsix weok; 0,,hi. wiih five ) o inl^-,, 67 largi e plants reloited in a peal
    rlini,_u Iciv-. i ;i-:ii. 'i "_2 soil witli no loail whliatev'er made a better
    (lniiws. I Orowtlh lhnli those [potted in a peal (,oil-

    In lilig a tenth part of loaml. There is o1l(' 're'asonh. therefore, to
    usec't thial ]oalii. evlen inll sucii(hl a small quantityi, illay let slightly
    ilijli'ioiios, aindl 111o I'e easoH to suspect that it may be supe'rfluouis.
    x\r'iliie'iits iniitended to throw light oil his liquestion ar'e now ii

    In lie milo (le llHit. ap i lepl aredI it p crild abovo)'e. SO ptlanlts were
    set -2 inches apart. Thiev were pricked out of the seed bed a1,d set

    iin h n aew s il I,> u a"l of : -r all dii lbbble. e-' plai et.r. lb;lll'
    to thrc-alAt irl of an e l l) inchillili Hot il lian l three t" Ax trim, leave,.
    It is hAW 4lv (ll.l ;it .lmc&'ii,- of 2.0 itclv- in1 Ili, Ilat i- lbelte" that,
    ' inichl-, aill ite lalis lave a 1i 5 vt lilll it Imo e l Ioo ;id lIe _., iill -ij iari,
    olf tertrh is ai \ver ,onveniev n n xtsize M ien tlw trati-l'tr is man dh
    into 1-ninch pol-.
    lFroni tWil- tinm ol hl riin (iw winter theli pit lants \ere kl.pl ill i cola
    greenhlouse ill \\lncb 11m, nilyilt (vitiijxratlire, "a;- AS" to to() F'. andl
    hliichli \\;Is i\ .iv : lar L r 'c ; iii ti er e re cill (l <)rliiiril 'l.V t; TO I'. It \\7 l'11 a iiiii l lian t a lia o l-,
    witl a nia htl hilntel rilrat ire of 10 V. anntl a day t Ieip'll t ltire oI ,;( I0 F
    wvas tioo tihll folr s- ih nctlliin'-. a-, tlo\v miaile alum nit ,no aro\\tli it
    all. In texta \at e i i ta lO tat ni-'lit ai;t l a- iii t;n I I in liti
    daVtii e, Iil rriti glrow fairly well. Na ilvl ylie ilitu .h 'silije to
    inj ii-r hy red id'l (tli 'l i, in cltul lin, l ji l it iei,,. and tIliir li\Vw
    troe vlli s\ih' l-., i. ntl\v .xt eniisic thdio ot i alq|p tar si rol ist a, in thle
    ,." to TO V. hlio se.
    Flor thue lirst f'ew davs the nwllv Iranliitiihil la seli llngt were l .-ial
    (tv -l'ed toiii r et lieletli euli lt. Ie lter. hlowteivr, tliev were given ;i ll itlm
    -,,illi,"ht po-s-ild It was found thlat durin -+ tli,, winter% whlen wpll
    establishedl ill a suitable soil and under proper lloist.lre conditions,
    ihte plants grew better Avhien they reeived the lullest siittlig-li! tlat
    th( e i*renlioeiiue all'ordhd. Thin sInltalivlt applies to tle ldlall ill all
    stagt'es whether ini seed l)eedW or after the liHro t rapln-lliloing+ ow in
    lai ,i pots.
    In watering, tlhe plants Wiholu lie lepilt "on tie dIrx side,." a- ,rar-
    denera say. Water toay advatltageousl lyhe withheld until tihe nurfl'nce
    of the sil is dry. bllt thin- olnditioit shol idtl ot N alhlved a) eixtetid
    it, a hdeltllh or norli thian al it anl eighth if ain ileli. Tlhewn a riher
    thl"II.Il \\aterillg h ulhl lll ie givell. wlic h h will (-art.\ tloitture l tlHie
    loittimi of tile soil. Ilt oltl ruii through i. Siieli a \Vaterit.-, at infei -
    ul< ilt ii tert \ als is prelferle ilh o l'rtN quellnt light s[ilnkdlini"s that lnuio ten
    the suriaie unlv Ixt,1ip lrir tlhe hbrier l peri l ifi" ler lat ll t i lnnie-
    ldiatelx after wa\teriinli the miiu\ eliiemt o' \vailelr ill tle sill -AI"uldl le a
    40;i lap ir\v oie. andl v'ron thleIitcto Wil])ward. Uindhr ni"ll cnditions.
    if ithe 0oil i I' of lti'er texlur, ..w',"l ae;ratiun nli- in u, l.
    The -t c'l .k of It r -.llactn i'L' c l me llie +row li o lli -eedlli,..: for
    '10 'ral l \dal. 'Tli- chtul ie ofil ( igrow til Lia \ tn iilil'e-I i-ellf inl o ine or
    itHrT o (I llilee w;a\-: tl} T ei- wVitherliiil tof l -teli til>: K,) thle
    "' S l;l t l ioti. I l or-sop "' of ex-jiianiu i t' I li ii p l uperl o-i leautf idi
    Iiellit : anllidl (, ) tlie I iilr)lin of the olh r lia '-. A- ti -i llep iliioiiae
    wilie" lit1 -i-tnt liivi' luluie lin li t1 ilized, ill tileue experilentilt ;a
    \walli '=i If tlie existelie of il' litioiil al .it1-- Il-tic to gruowtli anid
    an, tlie\ t ia\v lie of -illiilar assi--itan e to o tlier exl[ r'iiilnters, a de-
    scr lit inl of tf ilim will lin, iven.

    TlBlVAT.MUIVNT M >''T ll:V IN ; SI`IE HAi.X';.


    The withering of the lip includes the uppermost leaf rudiment and
    lie(, growing point of tlie stemli inclosed within its folded base. The
    tissues tiurnil brown and become dry, and the growth of that axis is
    terminated. TheI resumption of growth from such a stem, if it
    occurs, takes place th': ,ih tlie format io and expansion of a bud in
    thie axil of the leaf next below the withered one. This wvitliri,2 of
    tlie tip is readily distinguiishable )by its color from a partial blacken-
    inig of the upplerimost tender leaves whIich sometimes oce(Curs, appar-
    elitly i a pathol ._' ical dist uirbance of a templ)orary character and usually
    not alffecting, tlie growing point of thie stemi itself. The brown wither-
    ing of tlie tip seldoin takes place when the leaf rudiment involved in
    tlie withering is more than 0.1 iinch (2'.5 Dmi.) in length. When longer
    than that it usually keeps (on expanding. This withering of thlie tips
    has 1b(len almost wholly prevented when the shock of tr;Paiaul-thiii,
    was rendered as light as p)os-sible )byv suIitable precautions, it,-liiiiing
    (ef) a soil in perfect condition for tlie nutrition of the plants, espe-
    cially that in which tlie peat is well rotted (p. (1) : () thlie transfer
    of lie plants to their new bed without injury, especially without
    destroyvii.- anay part of tile roots, (e) the -1ii 11 of tile plants
    from direct sullight for two weeks or lore, until their lCnew root
    gro(wthl is well e-tablislied, and their subsequent gradual adju lstment
    to full sunlight: and (d/) tile holding of the transplanteId plants in
    a warmer, mioister atmoslipherc, about Ci), at nig'lit and SO F. in
    tle daytime. Whether or not this last cond(lition lad a real influence
    oll tlie prevention of tile tip withering is not delinitelyv known.
    Tle sta|gnatioli of the Ullpperillmost leaf ucldimenit does not attract the
    inexperienced observer's attention so readily as its withering. Withil
    a little experience, however, it is easily detected. ()dinarilv tlie
    leaves of a growing stem follow eachi other at a rather clos i nterval,
    so that by tlie time a half-,wn leal' is readyv t(o flatten oiut. from its
    boat-shaped folding in thle youniiger stage, the su'cceedilng leaf is coln-
    nioiily a third or Ilmore thle length of tle one thal is flatteningr, (fi,.
    22). Wlien stagnation ollccur|s, hiw(,ever, hlie ullppetriost leaf Iruudiment
    prompt Iy stops growing. usually at a length of 0.04 inch (1 min.) or
    less. while tile Young leaf next bellow it goes on flattening andi grow-
    ing to nlearlv its normal size. Thle elld of tlie stem. therefore, shows a
    nearly v full-grown Hlat rleaih witlh a uminlute leaf rumdiment at its base
    seldom more than a fifthli and often not more than a tenth its own
    The l cpurpling- of leave-, to which allusion has been made, does not
    refer to thle (reddlishl translu'cenlit alppearanl'ice of tile gnm it'' twig tips.
    That is (lie normal coloration in thie bluetberrv. as it is, for example,
    in t(lie rose. Tile purplilig now nthder ( consideration occurs in the
    mature leaves, which are ntorimally greenn. and is of a dark shade. It
    is (.olmlloily accompanied bIv a conspicuous reddening of the leaf

    veinl. This purplingt of tilt ', l"4 avesI is evidle c. ol' a SevI r \+ tort -
    ion'" of g'r\yth amd in thems experienwt- has lbeet o-erme it) Qe
    caitIseI 1>\ W lo ite p tratlr. a oul l) 1. ,0 R low \er. (r Il\ lQck of
    nttritiom from any ca""iM or. appiairetlyt. I,y poi- ouiti
    If tIn sil into whici y\+ n a" ld Ai, rrt s- e ldlii,_ Ar> ( (re ui, p1 ;i cl
    is uits d t their growtlh. purlplinig of" t-, ,lIl led e-+ seldonu occur",
    (he vvidihnc rf theinsok ,ior tran-laintium" Neina, m um"llied t ho t l ito.
    Sihle f aith i l ;i ew of tli >st, 1 ) an to M ariath iil ir\ ~t~lnln~i
    (ion otf others. InI some, trainislantint_- il no with l'ii, ti[)s t r.vull
    ),1ri,..' Iht period oi m tl f -.tv ion of stem ,,'growth afl'tcfr (itrin-p!; (ntiif.
    ll' plIant i- lv no nkl'an> idle. i'or illh. rootst. An Shown ill *pot
    culltill'Onrc COntinl e to I nak w ,,I'rrovth. aind whl l (I\ h s li as l l -.li,.t'll I\A
    l*rolivreF CSld Stein growt, h in rl u'+ll d.
    I= A I A\111: ,litl | TI|N \\ 1M :KS 1)1 YID AN ) D .\iAIU TW\O INCIll S IN [0EN1;111 Il
    sViE:IA:i ~x S H Ir IN To, .s t) ( 'r I ND .r ASA I \ Rn; CF s.
    An iual mil nt |)lia-se in the dev,\ olpmm, t of ill. -toedlin + ol' Iso I
    bleganolt \ol +N v(\ lnbetri+ 2.'). wli iut ol o fthe plant'.; tonlliincN, to sci ii
    cul ;i l ail? t'h f ii thle axil of ;i ca tleidon.
    At thli +xpirntimi of Anotlher l"Il tll T.t prr /T-"
    t silllar b n.ial lb atl rllchts. ind ttillli inilm' //-C \r
    20, iwr lit ultim at Vl did (he silile. (IN (n n ..... '.
    Thelicse I a I .lionts hiANr of thle hilit'li< i"n- '* { "- . '*
    l)(il'(;tliic in tl'win'lli\+ il (In+ Iwn!I x' rry f theii,+ .. . .'
    |)lant. for ll'the sootll fir f o tl-tri|) tin lil' s I,,A. f^/ *
    Wln't ald IAnd 'co tbo i principal Seat of 2"-\'.'' ^/,//
    -rowfEi. until thley tliciiinlv ,. Are over- :.'1;
    s Itlao\vtNd h\ nll q, hind -till niolc v\ia+, om in
    hlasal sootM s. "lihe original sti of the need- ,+ ^ iNuriirrr -*i, ir-
    lii ,, never devlop into al ultim ate aini : 'l:>ill'.'r, :
    stem or trunk, tumL a will he seen later .,,/,,
    (Ip. .,)) stlops ,'rowix\ i while (tlt, l]ant is
    still \omnll ali aif tVrwai divn. It in thlin haltit of s-*in linig U|) up ba-;Il
    iootl- tiihat m ],;d e tlhe s\vani|) l miil wit y ;i nl;li -.'- til cd Inisli. Ili it
    miniatilire vtre w ith a -inl_,e tinilk.
    'i1li devl l itimein of i -Ail -li W t.- 1,, iln whllti IlNe weellilh ir- liad
    almoil( 1'2 leave- And we\ re abo t l ."I to *2 inclw.S lhiai. lit thlin lir-t
    l)i.lnal "laira linii N, liet w oirliil~el o l iew \l;ii ied fromn t( o A. (A)n( 0f
    o;f tiiiili- (Ili ili tlie l lrira chlii l w is eco ded41 0 4 'V.4) litil 1 hral"ii 0)
    hiall 2-J lratcilie-. And i liaid ;i :1 i') l k ic -. T it, lbraT hes occ rr'd it ,
    tlh AMxils of llw cio hledois or of oeiv of tIti first four kleave. or tQw
    .'!, pliait- with 1 trancli.t 1 I liad t e bralht in (lit axil of a coit 'ledon.
    17 i flite ;ixil 44f tit Ir-.t lVaL s tlievo l'tc "2 ltlie iliirdl itd 1 lie
    fourth. Of Ow e l .' llints willi *2 bran' lin. 11 Iliad both branches] i,


    EXl':IH.IMINTS, IN BII,u:I;Hxl Y (xI'ITUIiE.

    the axils of lie cotyledons. 13 hadI neither branch so situated, and (;
    had 1 brallnch I'loll i1 cotvledoh axil and 1 fromi a leaf axil. Of
    the 4 plants with :i 8lranches. 3 l had all 3 branclles in the axils of the
    co(t dons and thie first leaf, 1 hlad a branch in the axil of a cot vledon
    and of the first and second leaf. (Of the total 111 branches 46 were
    in thlie axil of one of thle two cotvledons, an average of to each.
    in the axil of the first leaf. 20 the second. 7 the third, and "2 the
    fourth. In thei order of thlie freiquency Iof production of a basal shoot.
    therefore, tlhe first leaf stands first, a cotyledon next. then the second.
    third, and fourth leaves, in order.
    While thle exact location of the basal branches appears to have no
    special significance, the number of the branchlies does, for the habit of
    prod(,ilii- two or more branchlies is a persistent otie and such -,liigs
    tenid to produce diffuse plants withli many and small stems and small
    stature, while the plants with the sing'le-lbranch tendency are taller
    and have fewer anid more robust stems. The differences in general
    lppea ranlice caused by tlie two tyl)pes o(if b)ranching are well illustrated
    in figures 24 and 25, from photographs of two seedlings of 1907 made
    at tlhe age of 10 months.
    ()n January 5. 1,'.ii', thle growing tip on the original stemi of one of tille
    plants withered. At that time this stem was about 2.5 inches high. had
    14 leaves, and had 2 vi6 0 ,,1ii, basal shoots about
    / anl inch ini length. This withering differed in
    / one important respect from the withering due
    to shock, des-cribed on page 51). In that case it
    wa's an ordinary leaf rudiment that withered.
    In the present case thie vwithering was forec
    shadowed by the development of a dmilute bracts
    (fig. 23). This differed from thle ordinary leaf
    rudimient in the absence of thie glandular hairs
    l/ characteristic of' yv.-iiii leaves, and it remained
    S small until the leaf next below it haid become
    more than1 teln tflies as Ionv.. Then thlie bract
    FIc; '1. 2 iBract aindm 01 .
    ,ar at (ie cll of the withered alld the grOWthl of tlie original st iem
    oriinai slml in a hMi- wvas per:anet llv terminated. Thle same de-
    brry srrdllingi. (En-1
    iirged I dia:ilte'r's: thi velolimient went (ion illn tie other plialits until
    smallei igir i iu, 11.,,-111 It th end of a 1m1onth (;.) per cent and inll two
    months 9).5) per cent oif (ie plants had terminated
    the growth of their original stems.
    In tile individual plant the termination of growth onil thie olriliI;il
    stem look plach('e after the basal shoot or slioots had reached a siag, of

    l;I~N~ 1JN~~ I II 'jI ) Ia \a-

    ,i..- .I- A(,\' ) l IImIc iI (O n! rt' Ii ty, n Ia i i a t af)( I+I-ahI I r tl |l>vrI0 1
    lo ( >c(h)( tr:l i-|1 ) l titi i '>1' tIll d.'' 1hlii tl,- tl'I h It Ilal I ll,' i 1,1
    h- io l. ,ti le hoi,'_' -t of tl ,ll,. ;Ml I Ilw 1111 w f
    termiii oiitioli o f _.i ,',+tl on (he (Ilfl t I+ I vttri d \o'rt iill I > +itl, :t IIK ]II liI
    h I .i.. t r .", iallnve a". Io wLm li~l ;~i |>];tp ;i tliilt tllO

    N 7
    ^ */


    .+ .

    ~. INN
    *1 -~ II


    -a *"%* C.-.

    -. a!'


    1i'ti A- l. I'.i ,p 'ii+ s, 't liln -: vith tlilT++>,
    t l^ | s 1" lf I tlls ttrli'i. 'Ilh i*- w ill lH +i'otlli<- a
    a I it at a t ait alit htaThi i i tl l ii+ h
    i 1 iair a al xii Iaia





    N l.a a
    II a a- ai ha ..ai

    aIHl eiIdi ol;lI' hil I I' til I i i' ll ti I zItI l I I 'I I w l i al ltila t1,1 -ItIlo i lic
    dliva'-ionh oft ifood ii iiiciai-- ihlto theit (\' li.a\\i~!aaaaI-' frit\\ ti.i
    a 4 Ia \ 1111 vi \N N \m la \e i / I I I \ I a N I a. L \ \tn in It 1 x i \\ I i IN
    SI It II 'a l a \ i I'r ln Im tit I I I a Ia I I1 i M I II \I I I< i \ I

    ( I i I'cliriiiir\ 1T. \w hollI ilt |ltit(- \\ti'tr I I n c; hiiil '- Il +i. llt'Xv \'ore'
    trilli n| litf'tl i nto itcli pah- ill tlift >-;llia -til liiii xtIIr ;i \v;aI- Il-(t, ill
    Ilti Iuuii-1ihliil iii otl' ( )


    in the discussion of that transplanting, the plants would probably
    have done somewhat better without the loam. In addition to the
    crock over thie dr:iiiii.,, hole. a minass of fibrous kalmia peat was placed
    inll thle bottom (if the pot. filling it. when pressed down. to the depth
    of in inch or more. After ,iliii"- the soil ill the flats into rect:aIgIIlarlr
    cakes, thle plants were lifted and transferred to the pots within the least
    possible distliurlamce of the roots.
    Several experiments had I been made earlier to ascertain whether
    at thle first trai,-pl.iii u." from the seed bed it is better to set tlhe
    plants in flats or to iput them in 2-inch pots. or tthmnb pots as they
    are more commonly calledI. It was found thlat when the plants inll
    thumb pots were set on a greeiinhoiise bench they tended to dry out
    so rapidly that it was impracticable to kee1) them in tilhe ri-i.it con-
    dition of moisture. They became so frequently too wet or too dry
    that their .,,'(hi was interrupted and they were much inferior
    to thle plants in the flats'. Other plants ill thumib )potls (PI. VII),
    plunged in either sand. peat,. or sphagnum, made about the same
    growth ias tlie plants ill tile flats, but showed no uniform adv:iIla,_,,
    over liemi, either while they were in tlie thuiiinib) pots or after a
    secMld tlransplanting. Thle labor of translplantin and of maintain-
    ing. umil'ori moiistuire is somewhat ,_reater inll thle case of thle potted
    pilants. All tliii,_. considered, in thle original transpli:tii,- lthe
    use of flats is r.'.,ded as preferable to 2J-ilch pots.
    It is desirable to consider at ttlis time thle exact qualities of tlhe
    soils i-eed in tihe pottiia' nixtures. As already stated, it i. i,.:irdcd
    :is pret'eralle to omit (thle lom.
    T''lie sand shulol(ld be 're", from lime. as miiost sand is, it fact. II
    shoulldl als() be as clean as possible. If the oily sand obtainable is
    ImIixed( with clay. this -lollhd be removed by rel)eated washin" inll
    wa tter.
    T'hie condition of thle peat slihouild also be carefully considered, as
    shown bv thle following experience diirini, tlie pr<,I *-- of these
    exp)erilments. From Ili he seedllilg.s of 190IS : maly series of tranlls-
    pilantiIl's were ilmde on vatrioils days in (O)ctober. November. and
    DIecember. In lhe latter Imrt oIf DIecember it \was noticed that wlile
    in sonme of thle transplaitiints thle seedlilg's w\vere growing vigoroilsly.
    other culutires werx'e nol di l1_ well at all. I.111Ny of tlie tips were
    witlihered, over 2.) per' celit in somc of (lie cultures: the rest became
    sta.mnated( and dark purple., and reiminied so for nearly two m()iniths.
    .All poss'ibl)h clauses (if tile trouble having been eliminated except
    th(iose(, d(ue (o thle soil. thle chlaracterist'ics of the various soils used
    w erel' i ('onsi(dere'l with care. At this time (tlie writer was possessed
    of tlie erroneous idea (llhat limeM in lie iminutest quantities was very
    injIIriii to the ll)lielberrl (l). 2*0). and consequently it was sus-

    F' Il~ p li! IIn th 1 0' 1l gF'O I. molt lit I tuc i c A I I..%t '


    TII, w .r

    I,, I

    pvvied thant the sandl wai^ inmprm ;in(l contained linic. Anl examni-
    nat ion olf the sourtce or (Ie di 0411 l lt kind, u ro ml san ',e o thowvd
    lhf it lintIN could nti have cated (l-t li troubl e. Finally, however., 0"
    various cultb roes were a lrran ed bv tl e dates ol' povlin or i it wa,
    the fW ild dlinit thle pIrpled plaltls lad all Ieenl potteld a tler :;
    certain date, oil which a new hot of lot had Well rvceived1 a(t tle
    --I., ,i.,onises. Thtv pmat in the te rlier t' tlllire' had leen reveivei
    in ,k iine anild at the elie or' illn lir-t titai-plaiit l,--, lin ad been rottiiiy
    flor I' l ont;t ( ;i rltl Itiiin r trlinpt'r tt li 'I'aIt a--r*rdlili,_t,'--Ws
    tr-'lli-I|)lul"t(d into tlln-. p al il0 nolt los, their tipl-, allld ',o,\ lh w'a,
    rsnni 'd nlinist init ailitcly\. 'T1w peat tw'd alir A m 1 inihll ,i' or
    November wi ; i s 'rcsll q ,+t drctd. and it was in t(ins t'watdi ix'lt hiat
    lilt scctlliii 's suillorcd as alrcdI v dv>c ril4Lt l t should l t' w(ttd
    WlIVr l .wv\vcr, that \ tlt en+d of t\\-() n i cth- the se d In -(,liil -,- whlich
    lfiili\iW iilc liad Ilw'cli i kil i, oo.- root ,rowtlh. I 'aii to ti( n ke
    rapid i to irot\\t also and later ovrloot ; their onl ltttH i'S.
    Aciditv tests of ]pen;tl f oinii tihe \l'a i sl~i", of' dect'coiiilo ti) lii s+ho \cd ;a 'tr'i tiv i/h t' corrtlatiotictt cm till
    icvilit h of lliit aind thle twhavior of lie siell dlin s. In the fresh
    deleterloioi pI at tlit ;edi~t was excessive. V\i\'V -ioi_ frotii 0.0) to) ().010)
    intrilnil. I l tlie old(qr lip it in which the plants _irev well tih' aridit'itN
    w;1s U uavllllo i excess of (0.0-2 noriial. in one catt 0t.02!1. Ilres4li
    lim';it M OMbed thIoigi'll a1 (i/lilvi+-i eli c ?-ie'e and showing ailn atidily\ of
    1.tl; ri"ol'iiail liad le'- iued its ability to O ).t2 iio nial after reiiaitii i g;
    in a noist well-aerated ti lndition fotr lhreve 1wee s in the W ritIi air of
    ai lteciilionSe. In oiew or thlese 1 fae t. h (le concluSiot was iien liteo liat
    the deletteriols ett't of' l' li i oipent is dte to its xcesvisve aidv it\*.
    In tine n olki-t lir peat (of a tal' hi.;: ni iekil will tl l!d r \ hid nit
    aire often fout d inin ro iiid., liixnriaint Il +\fter thiis I tti i- strilpp d
    fOtn tlhe t TroIidI it lieicom-s l iliriou iS, as lIas Ne shown, to 1l, e-
    bwrr Iplanis Ahnt are poittedl in it. this iiinlriou:-s quality t eint i cor-
    relntoi \willi an excessive acitiiv. Tilte (tie-tion ari'-s. W hat catises
    thlis incrva-e' e ci it a d n a i v niil in wha> )it pavirlii+lar ipar( of the >oil doe's
    it rei tdeI It was at lit el in the less W de omlpoed il)))r lav rs ofl' leaves which tle tioots
    or the ,inetwrrv pltsi ;in n wll state do itot reach, NOt whicl, when
    tiet' peat is r-utblbed t ulli h a A'\ive, gn> into (lile rveslilll!i;7 Imixture. The
    heat lay f \\vers+ to MO ter e i> is e lir male are mot thle nppliermost,
    neirlit v d layers a y iar or less 1l1. for these are remioved ili 'aitlier-
    in,.= tlike p0t, ut (lie 1 : pa illly rotted layers o~e to V W ) years old, such
    us tliose shown in Plite IV. An examitioini of sth imatei~al sMoved
    flint it was not excess\ively' : acid, lbnt tline Well within li the inn'/ of
    aciditl beh oliet ial to lliielerr\v plaints.
    An aciditv detl rmitini ioii wias that nimat orthl' e rools in t e peat.
    Tlhese are the roots, clhiely of otk and 1, ilini.i. that interithe tihc

    L Xc' ISS IV E A( C I'l () l 1 I I I LA I .

    partly decomposed portions of the Ipeat ilo nmatsl or Iturfs. Their
    apperlaie in the nupler part of these turfs is i uhown in P'late V.
    figure I2. Taking sonme of Ilese tlirfs, freshly gathered, the soil was
    :ll shnken froii them. leaving only tihe filer." conlsistingi entirely of
    1lhese line live roots. This fiber was allowed to rot for a few davs.
    :anld alln acidity test was tl-he made. It proved to be 0.07 normal, anl
    acidiivty far in excess of that which hlad pIroved injurious to the iblue-
    Iherr 'v seedlings. The excessive temporary acidity oI' freshly nt he'.-ed
    kalnia-peat turf and iits conieqi ent lemporiar inijlriousiess to blue-
    bierrv ldainis arei therefore attirilUtedl to the diflfiision through the
    peat of t1., acids ori'inalti, in the roots killed in (he process of
    gatihering the turfs.
    It -liouild be added Ihere that tie acidity or thie uipperi ot layer
    of ini ,composed leave '1 a veahr or les old es very 'Prent. aind that
    care liould conlequ,((tllIv he exercised to keep these out of the soil
    used. A test of (dry. brown. newly fallen i'J.Ir-iiaple h:laves ihowedl
    ani acidity of 0.'2 normal. and a inixture of tlie leaves of various
    species of oak in n c-iinilar condition. 0. InIicidentallv. attention
    mav be called to thle l'resumable ,.lli iV-, of a mulch of su* h leaves
    in maintaiinng. by mealns of its leanln ii.s. uimnder the influence of the
    natural raiinfnill. tie 'acidit v of hlie uiiderlvinig more fully decom-l
    powed layers, which wiiitlot the aldditioi of fresh organic matter
    would ultimately become alkaline. ISe the account of an alkaline
    oak-leaf mold on 1p. :;".)
    (25') InI'U I Hi Y I.AX rl\ I'I['S 1 I'I AT I IN PiE M MADEi TO (G10I \V l MOtl i AIl'll'l IF
    T All' R Ai' \VA I]!I) O" \' ( ) IONX.lLY !W IM; Till' (;RO\VIN N S ASON \I I i
    In the winter of 1907 -S plotl il's of seedlings lluelberries fromin seeds
    SOwV i in AIugusti, 1907. were ')rowni in vario(lls 'reellioullses,, of thlie
    I)e)arlment. Thlie most successful of these pott)in's consisted of ",'.
    )lhilits in a mixture of peat, saild. and loaii iln 3-inch pots. Two of
    these plants are illustrlyated in li'inires 21 anld 2;,. It liad been sup-
    posed that tlhe superior growth of these plants was (lie result of
    specially favorableh conditions of light. lemlperaiture, and waterin., as
    indeed it wias in part : int inl thle following winter, duriin i al inquiry
    about certain details of the h:tlili of thi- culture. llie girdeiler
    inll cliharge of the "'eeihoi e ill which the plants, were grown adiimitted
    that hirinigi :a portion of thle p)ringi. without consiiultation, lie had
    gi ven tie' pots alii occ :a-ionil wxaterin x g with li miianulre water. As
    Milanurile whe l used with loaIi in lle winter of 19i)(0-7 had proved
    positivielv injurious to liilieerry pI llntns, its Iposile' 1enefiiial effect(
    wxlien used in colinjunction with peat 'eemited 'vorth testing further.
    I lin (I -priiinr of 1M' '.I, therefore. varioills mciltu1es were watered xwiti
    ilmanure water one ;a week. hitl amoilunlllit appl)ieil iiii" the samle as
    that given in an ordinary wateriiing witli tap water. about 50 c. c. for

    KXI'IF.IIM IN'ITS IN I;IU +'!t;I-:V IlY C ITm iE.

    vatTcl Kintllid ot. 11v aplqdvl ial lol :w!, mlade lI" Ax\ cildli w m olil~illi
    ii,-- ilt,.-o. Iler i ; *'>(> l il-. exac'tl Iv ro parahild w itih :i .-iililar intit ki r
    A |)lim rplainit, no tiinini i't' nIti'r no liea wlleal in '1rt ", dwlo
    in Alril aimi! Ma\l v anld variedl in u nlKit r Mr'on livv lo & Pi_,+lii.
    l l ;lll six t Ill tt ll'c l +l ll plano- It hi ll.'h man w naTe hIioil Ilo i.r
    ia l ird made ;I ,fItn -.' i t-' l o t tvivi w ar a ril Ii \-r W' .ll in
    Ihosec that eeie none~.
    siiiiiher result. wcro "wrc iirc tv lim, u-c >)1 onlo-tentli ro\\ mainn-,
    freisll ol N d il l t. c peat iiiiii .i o it) N ichltithl plant- wl re )ip l tt>l.
    11 W avl, s aft er ti.'ll iv i (li Itl. e et of tIh' l i]iliit irini' (hlin l l t 1nt ll .
    i olx iht ln lI :.a w attnl i o ,,riin l ii li r rc .+ lnlt ( rl \' ;i l vin,; Wil, .
    in their ctl ret i of h! t' h-h ( n;ii c t l 'o \h e wril('r', ;i vilt tio] .i 1 I l Mi'i<'iin
    tai it" linh> tl)il\ i\n a' blold \y M llM I M AIY> r ili hlcl -A Titril v oi n 11 the
    lmo['.m*i n 101. t ni tionl1 1. ;iin w wa ic rii lrval it1"Qi of Ca ;Ipc IIt I l Il v,"."
    |) lliX l lnl in \I '.SM2. TItll ori +ill;l i l ii now rli!.e hut l : ;i rer|) il \\ai pol' l
    MltlMll in It S A' Now'- f rom ( In Koh vlil 11 tio lic 6 (i. iitlln. Tliinh ri o' 11.
    v inwil 3. l ayit '' 30i1 to 3i L / W AY ). Xcmtilhe wl i l ;I iV -i lppriiil!ritIlit
    ot h'lle h d inburI h II -t'l ni is front 1.S1 to lI Sl ;i^ l.i iloi hll ide( (Ill('
    io-ttt'l ll lliui i" 1'\ mivi hsiful 1'1yn w1r "l I api Kli M at (In, ll iil
    oif lhe ir Iam ItcI t plo [i lhirit\i llM tlrl ni)c i- orii 'illl aliI
    ait" di'llgilt" I ll\. \1 riltci III& i vm+v;ll ,,f hiicc lo t tld ip ini ring of heaths

    I iih ;>r nh i i, liil l i l i I hl avI :> so(ill :t sm all t utia iililv tilof ii ; in in llh< IV J lw t !iii
    rr4i>m l p io i l >il\ efcll 1" !o!i c \ iom-N y 1> m irtl "f i W HO Tl h i : 0liis 3lh il 3
    bi i\\'>ll rtl'i +>i lliefore it is used. Thi n way t hait I hlltii alhwa +ys Irp rrl Ill s I,
    dlung lnlith shiir i0 is htoo ike a lI'- ilw Klidl is i all;n ] |id > <] idln it in it lay rtr'
    110INVO-el la3yrrS 4d' |Wiral rth. aowl .ol'vor it hias lain Air soHni Himr. ruioqi 1l5
    wll <]| I",! | b Ml J'lV a nd Ilm i trn l <> rr t l i a I r \ 'al ls h ll "l jllj li di i-'I t |'| n:i ..r- :i t+i

    Wh[ v l t ii's isn ips li n, -d ;h l xtil ;an t|u l '|uitillqhy < !s;i < si xild Id t loo M IN
    il tit is ;l Il i > ill lhit! harniol' i n \vii l i l !l il. Ymbvilbi 10n in ", l dtsa d 11: l h1
    vto; t ort n'imun etim as w mixed Ill "il l, t vril 'lis. I Iim+v. -ani IW1
    [IM'd "Ithi M 'ry I;i l 0 14 l1t, lh lI l hW all or i Vliry ]>ur oI' isrs 1 "izzy+ illdi* it (1111m
    linii<' tIhe arrHII)MI- i INd M t1 l hat is qim+; < ") 1 1y allIrdl l' r lllr'them, w ilit HIll" n lnilmist t\+lhi
    I ilJ"nV U 6, 11 i HrW ll+i+ 1 il nIr, I o ell menxril i tcu ii l s I lr il! o iis I kuni il k a +i
    is- #It* I ,itii. >il' !'nmo l hlt lNi l I i \ i} ii llkh .. 1 litam nY adde t!b lh 1

    |i>;t *'ll' t h lll !+ ll rl i I+,'' lry ; Irc ll l l' illrwilin.q 1. I t t l i v ++ + +f'+'
    II li<> nIm i'i frai'r of l moln willh i 1+ah.r thllian I lu l iw11l i: Ih t, as 1 i hvc alr lady 1i11i i li'Td,

    vvilis lv\ it, 1 11,'> lnoJld; I n l' & l'f~c ihv vM ., r" lby iH, an a Milei rx<-rss n v'lllilllf is Slirv InI
    injnrv thl lic|lnts, l'cThia~s liurid niniionrv mis~lot li (for t_,rl'\\+i_- srim %OAn S Kf W OWli Imi I a~im iniallrl- Ito W o any' (>;i lhir r dif<--
    tniols ij \\1 i li +n | lri>| ll i lm 1 l !lh lir usied, ;is. frIl it \+ l l;it lr ials I hWa e.> wImAl I
    Can lot 114. l!, :- ano ITr l ihl !qnn'I iisi l IWn1 !liis n ilml i I k nwV. M elt \vli ',wislic' 1tr il s -photld i i at lird o a-ilAM h grait cauti oi willh <)iitt< i as nill i ais
    it1 "tiSii an1 W \<>ss olt IAtai" M Mi Wi i in II iI.S so 1 1tc
    I >,

    rsr 1 M \1 N \J n :.


    M,.Nab's conclusion that manure, while beneficial in small quat-
    tities. should be used with caution or not at all agrees with tlihe
    conclusion reached fr'omn these bluheberry experiments. On page 1S
    of this laper is described the disastrous results of the heavy manur-
    ing of bhiieberry plants, and in view of the fact that the blueberry
    makes satisfactory growth without manure and that we are not
    sufliciently informed of the exact conditions under which manure
    may bIecome injurious, thle use of even small amounts for blueberries
    is nlot Inow recolmmended.
    A si.iL'.- iol may be made, however, as to a possible reason for the
    ii iju'y of blueberry plants by manure. In thle glass-pot experiment
    described on page IS, in which plants grown in a mixture cmitnailiin,-r
    half as much manure as peat made exceptionally .i growth at first
    but soon died, the death of the plants was preceded by a Ir,,t(lilig of
    tlhie rots. Now, manure is alive with myriads of bacteria, while peat
    coitain1s few. An examination of thie two made by Mir. Karl F. Kel-
    lerman, from samples taken from the kalhnia peat and the cow manure
    used in these experiments, showed 2.500 bacteria per plate in the

    I'l';. 2G.--Slpon,' of a supposedly injurious ftlnlgn s in the epidermal cels of lueberry roots.
    I lEnlsirg OO ( I0
    manure and 70 to 150 in the rotted peat, each plate r,.l,.,i liL,,
    0.0001 of a gram of material. Thlie bacteria inII the peat were chiefly
    of two species, while the manure contained manyiv. It is a reasonable
    supposition that the rotting of thle blueberry roots may have been
    caused or aided by the I bacteria in tlie manure or by some of the
    fungi wih i which manure is also albuim dantlv charged. In mixtures
    like thosee recommended by McNab, however, containing niu(ch peat
    and lilt 1.i manure, lhei illjuriots bacteria and fungi inl the manure may
    have been killed or held in check by tlie acids that exist in the peat
    and keep1) such organislms iIIn control. If experiments show this theory
    o l)e ('correct,. tlie application of manure to blueberries may then be
    made iIntelligent ly.
    In this co('(nne('ction it may be well to call attention to a peculiar spore
    found in tlie roots of feeble blueberry plants grown in unfavorable
    soils, such as tlie limed peat and the clayey loam described on p.i'"e
    '23 and 24. andI miixtures containing a lar ge 1)proportion of manure. In
    some of tie epidermal cells of the rootlets were found la rg. spherical
    bodies, as illustrated in figure 26. They usually occurred singly,

    th ylli occau-ion"'llY I"*'" andl ralil' thin, 1% i" er oloi idlo el r 111 W hi in I
    l\ IC Meli T w the 1111101 it) (H( tie I U of Ni11 il "l l I l" Itn) '2 1 p I 111
    dianmetr. at"d in qptbul vilicin -honed ;il otuier Nie;nild :11 innert
    t,\ii _. \ 'h 6. 7T. .'. 9. ()r I11) inu 'rt W q n 5 l p^ 11 IV It Nh\ ( a zc/. iclw >c(
    1"een lliclii. the( space Within thnc ilnncr riing bellig, -rann~lov. I i-
    ;>r*e evidently .-pore- with H;i ery thick waIl l. arked \wnl ;o f'i.\\ lar_--
    |its or htlp re>sion'-. ;iil g'rNiiiil[ir (r )iilll' l> i11 lli th e 11 i\ l In, n \ liti1
    ;> |)[)'il't'(l I lIt' lw h l r slai .' or ,h'vc l t'nl otlr lli ~- -_jpu r,.. tInv ili;>in-
    ivr 111101 It li' il lv largo'r. ll va il ;ii- ii. lliWr pi/i l iail -li-;i[>|piiti-'ll.
    ;i l i tl hi n i rT li lll r ( *i tii l c l i(- l i" r- p i 'r
    ical lN OiW( ;i pp:! i mlil iV IHC I| 'lll -\ 11i ;ll l 'l('r>. ;ll n tlll OI H l Q 1 ;oll
    il"hl Q2p) iltn diamieler. a;pl i'oxi in tcla olle-hIt'llli iii' poin't ifsell'. S[)(r '- ha i nl (til t o l :i
    shliorl ert!iiiiial 1ion liit :iltnd lols i their cotl itcn lli<, Spore rol, i'iiaiiiinli"
    rillirolk' li';line Hlid, cllply.
    t \\1 s (lir ,ilil a1t lirt i th ll t thitc i h int lit e r toprodic kil i\e todio'K-
    ort tie un iivcorrliiz;il t'liin +ii- of l l it l t "l'l lc v. Ill ai (*ir, 'ill Serarchl
    filed to i lio\v ;it\v connect it'l l 1)((\vl cci (lie "ito. li \v a1 oh-crvcil.
    tlio\ \c rr. tlhilt in1 the rootl' ll con aiiiing' li c Sit, llv'- ilt, inl 'rior co ls
    (iInill\ w pn'rM'ilcd a dli d'iinvase n l 'ti irointi 1im, "'ole romothl'l oinltliinlvS
    'lovivlg :1 hrow\ Il s re~ll down it,> ididhlh due to the duhtwiiipotilion ot
    the i vessel- andl \""ood 'ells. e i(ltiir\ into the nature (f rthe -.porei
    was1 nlot pur-lied i rther, 0 6 ilt lNiO 11W il ions AIrn ii,,lv -Til '.-ledl tIhat
    tAl sp irte w re 1 tliov'. of a p;llasilic oIIXI'ii 'is llhe rooIts andl (a sig.' or assoi ciatedl witli. their deilh anti dpcmiponi
    (ion. The siporesi wli wisl v- lWear a troilij re.eiiilaii., to tlhe re-tiiing+
    lpoi s' .of yx/l"s S 11 /1, 1A.. n I|ayi'Aitiv f 'll oll i e f;>iiil\A ('l\'trid
    (: i, llie rooq.- or' v\ i;Nw- plaint.
    par ih-ul l'rl flax. in wliici iA i- lli a se o f ;i a --i'i- di-ea- '
    If anl expdlanaioi n is inlatil for (lle injlirin iis ele l ol' or linc "i
    tlhe g \owtlli of (lie ltliihit err'v. ihe ohb-er\altion- already adev n i iiiW'at
    lhe Imiq hl ,\' or ai c ret'inl slindi \' ot" (rIns laiif'e,-|)ored fill -, \vi(!i
    special rel'rence to thle etIte, ( linn 111 s(iin ilatini" it- g'rotltlii and
    (hle gr'ow\tli olr (lie other olW aiUMI ln- ot dec viv as 1 1( l Pin s oxNl.M MNI N IN l I.!;I IJiNN) DINIS ir n11)1 IN I 1,1 .1'N i IN SA\N Wi!; 01 l :l;I
    \1i11;ti 1\ 1 "11A 1 \\1 1.1 I i" H;A i ti.\ 'i \UI RNl i '.1 (0 1 A \\ri 11 KO M1 \A nA;,\ i x
    Altlioi.d-1, lie |)lii ni+iii t' of earithin Ina- nearly to die riun in -oine
    liiKt l ire it !illd n liimale ial,0a. -A i A, -nili. -j i iilim "r ptj h dl liIe,
    l(>amcticd lor jarioi> poirlpo-> in > \eiail olf tlie earlieTr tilt re-.
    and ]iixl hod iwen r'"iiin 4 u-- hniil ( lawsta tl on p. m(t) I 'M or Y inili |ot
    ' i 'tlle- i1' rajiill a tl tnd 1 1 'iif o Tl- owl h \va- to lie -e(i'tel. nevertholes--
    ilie 11 ir1 |o'(allic o>| app ji[ >1\Iling, -ti lt iN n practice to large ,r Dots \vH- not

    '' Ai/l'rll:i I. io nih I&Wl h Mlln'r s ItiB l, sii i| 's sllr nIllne ('In l id I'r :l sil e
    du 1 in+ Io lllnlhtin ihr 1'A\ rirlllnlrl', H mll'llSSc sl \ i|. 1i. 1HIi [>|i ly All Al.I .
    A" ITlto IBHT, "lN', I"1 7

    ,\ .^ ( I 'I I I Itis I'.] i1 I, N I .)I I I 1; l 1 S F' I N ( i I :-.

    appreciated until (Ie best culture from the 01N,' Y..,l-lingg had re-
    niniic< almost stagnant ii 1-inch p)ots for over a month. The c(o-
    dition of thle plants was irnst aittrilted to in excess of acidityv ill
    some (of the peat u'edl for po1)tting. and next to thile necessity of a
    period of vest fomW active growth. Neither of these reasons, how-
    ever. it was ascerlailned romn (oservation (of olher cultures., culd
    account except in part for the distressed condition that tiese plants
    tinall' reacl ed( .
    When one of tlie plants was kInocked o(lt o(if its pot it was in-
    variably foumd that a large i)art of the roots at the sides of I lie
    earth ball were leanedd. It was at tlihe period of tle year. April anti
    May, when the advent of war mn sunny da*s made thle control of
    le('l)peral lire in tile go'eeilhlmuse sIonewhlat, dillitlilt. and this. together
    with the previous rapid1 growth o(f 4 e1 plants and hti on'seIqueilnt
    increase (of their water eonslmilption, had brought about considerable
    irregularity in thle mloistlre 'tnlltelt of tile potts. The c'c'lusion was
    reached that tile walls o4' lthe (pots had become dry (on one or Imore
    occasions, an(i that this hat killed tile deliate rt)oots that camlie in
    contact wit them. Tle roots of tlhe b1)ueberv. as described (,n
    paI'e 12. are exceedingly sleller. the smallest Ibeil g about two-
    thousandtlhs of anll inch in diameter. They are very quickly killed
    byt drying.
    ()n li te basis of (his conclusiolln ill(' general practice of lplilgin,,
    bliebeliy'v 1))ts xwa- adopted. If til'i plants are to be exposed to a
    very waril. (Irv atlmospilhere thle pluiniging should be (iolle before any
    'onlsihderable (ja iiity o(f rloots has gn'twnto thrOigh tlile soil tot thle wall
    of lthe pot. It is ptob)a)bly still better te do tlie pliii i"in, imme-
    diately after tlie potting,,, fomr th(ell u|ifo(wn moisture conditiolns can
    le s'cu'red thr(lmroudillo t tl soil ill tile plot.
    Besides tile a\oilan'e of injuiur to lte pllants byV tlie dlryin,,i- of' their
    toots, (lht pIractice of I)lunI,,,inII hIas anoI()(er |harked advantages, tlIe
    maintenance (of Ioertelo ut aNonde(quale and evenl olptilimu degree of
    Iloilst rll' ill lilt' s()il \il inft 'l'uent wxxaterinl s. A series oft potl'
    pl|ng ed ill live .-la,.,ni| ina a cool greenhou-e during tIe winter (if
    1I9OS 91 fre(quently went foiw a wvv, at a time(c withwoul re(luirinl water
    anld hlien most (of tlit' water was apidiedl between instead ofi ill tile )t)s.
    The misture evidently moves freely in or ow Imt lo'h tlithe wall ()f
    tle plot, which is ()f I cmr,-( no()t ,'laned. and an excess (r deficiency in
    ally l' )e place'(' is smoll adjusted.
    Sanid hlas )'been 'oiind t la c(velnient and -atistactory Ilngpilii'ii!I ma-
    terial. lihi' sia. e of ( tlihe san shue liid ome -to the same level as the
    s()il il tlie pot. oil. a little ablove it. A little sand (in thl,, surface ()f the
    sQil dhos n) harm, and indeed is plolably advantageous. WIhen a
    single po1t is to be plunged it may-l e Idne mby placing it within another

    XI'IlIlMIN-Ts, IN CULTURE.I'. I Y ( T II .

    i 1 I t W(1 l *1 ( I I)H i) I: ( I, II I N t j1:n

    pl(ot l* 2 Iinehe- larger it ilnl tier. Illlr -pact, hel ne (ell I he' \\ all- ')I lliw
    tIWO pl 14111iai llin lilh l ",ith \ 1 -and, ( P l'l. X \'I1I.)
    T he' plactie. f lti ni' ha- t)ro ed Io IW ,ld 1l11 2W'1c 10-1 111
    I l rt*iel ll'l H laiw in i,',,n lh n a a >l in t l O l l l |)l~m l-. ;i-
    \ iWll t a" l)l[0'ee0iale l'`11l 1 1 de-, l oi t" ,,1 d the+' de loph el lt ll;Ilcl
    llnder'i c eive c ii itni, i (+it <,1 do)r i11( in t '1 -!iuner 4>1 IQ.io'l ( S41c |>.
    ",.+ l)l It I th t (b( crildti()ii -pl eia ;illla d Wil l is dr wn,, t( ( he -uilwrriH)r
    ond+litio si olf aelralio in I l l u ,,d i.

    A I I It 11 MI "1 > ,1 I\ I l>\ I Tin
    T hllei \'ni L; o of llo c,, 4 imyril Iiy l- i.n iti-w cin ", in ,l'l;til on |liag'>
    71 to 7;L'. "'l ,,'r, a (lt.a-.ri|;l io n VNi\ ,li ll, thie' t_, lc'r ';l )c u.liri*iC I ol ()f t hi-
    1 l ic ioluw li )ii ill \iL r'on I'O I |lailtt 0l11" \,(,;>t, ill. Tl' I lir'nt llo s,'r iin ,,
    1)t1l1, l ),To ,',, ;|)|,;>n'vl a i u n 'li twirlin'. T hev',' ,T' i+, (,I-cqWrv, d o( Al iril
    S. I "n, oil I|ld i li \> ",hl li wl rc 1) da! v?, he,-n tlimi 7 i ti-o io | (*1l(1 o4 tille 7 llio lllnth -i I !:llll o)i o|' 2.'1. p,, Illm t t vr 5s. whillclh -m.t\. ,ll (iof
    tilt, ino- ;nl',i ,l t.dil-ittirtc< II'srn ii t li n j-,,(* lin ol. Ir i >i> haild laidl 0I m 11
    lhowcri gii" liilds. A .invill l iuicrccil o,;t+; f ( if i' i -'c l iviin + ol' 1 r )7 liN idl ;al- ,
    hliI tlo ,,t llh vcril t d>;iml. ;at a t) tllt tilt' llt 'e'. 'Tlhe plictmi eOi'iio l
    innY\ ltirrt'vlore l f r,;;i rdl 'dh, as> iot r +ar; i) i .%'* i plants (,' tlhi ;ig',.
    !'1',l 11owcrtilL,_, Ing d-.. W llichl (',ltin ita t utllaicld ll ll- )t' hliow r mu;l'li, arc not adapltd to d& \ Vbopmllq into) dlintn'i olf llw,',r-
    ii td ll \ i li a hu Ilweii suilo l )> t o' o a p]fl ll o f (li('r'l'oq >, lW 1nii iin ji- ani \',;irii \\ ,al le t 'r w an al>l)ro(a,.liitll-. \\ il hlere'd
    ;nd dl d ot lt' Im n'-. & W t; the A f\\ lhe,, nrd ill P ii and in P10)+i9. almi ill
    till lattel'r \,'; ir M laW t l l i r il,, Vpi il ()o t A n\ i -ln _.'),. at tlit- a-i d' :l
    little IIi'(0 lhian I 1 ii no l li+i
    t i tl i i \l ll.\ i l )\\ i~ri; o l till n i-1I \ \ I'\1 : \111 I% 00 1 \\i 1 :1
    U11`411I111 ,. 1 + \Nl` "A T1 1W iT "F~ lHti OM M !!\ 11 I SH ,l q (Nh I I D 1\( I1 X \ND,.
    IfIn M av 19) tlo g_ l2 i()!>. tlie -(w(dIli ,n,- of 19' 0s won, vr cil ttl i i in in'l
    p ast<. in 3 liixtd rc ill 111)-- 4314' "lf p al S. andll 1. aId atil 1. anti
    lplar l ,o tdoor-. Vi'lne lian, t in t pic lori ipal c lilntnr lia l at thin tin,
    all avtqrai lup i ,lit ,,f a ol i !) nih ,-, ,,, il) 9 i W ixtihii n ofi 1.' ilin'liQ',..
    T h lie, )()t-. w ,e lohn ._... it, -aid. T hI ,v \ ,r, in a -iltali,") \ licr' ili<'\
    W ,\, + ,x,\ 1-,, l o I" s nl. h il f1`11 i0 1 l)(1 1 1-, ( lo o t hoKA in the a fivintoio aWd I(, prote t tli iin l'roi+ tI(M ,*Tr t lh'inl tlhey
    " iT i i tidJly -dicllien d yl ;i -lat Vl('. "i'l i' -l tit> ,w( e "2 iv li2 h io
    hinlc. \ iti -ini) (q)lv-n l i ,"- loctwt mn. V- tilt' slut -1 ck lli([ -lla -
    "l)i ii ai l hi L."linllv an tli < y h e ry lim alf ai iil(i llh"? 00 .: c iln 1 ildtv
    whien 11o\V14'r'1 1> I h I lliSide- r eiv( dl a lilllr' h"--- tlih in hal f -. nirli lt.
    (hi c 'le r d, v- llih -hadl wvrv l r|)t (oVcr the lant- fldti l v iiiI o ')
    it I o(A I< l +At )lle liv- :iir- aim o elo)titd\ v ia\i the -hades were
    rie imo e L ()Ii A ,-,"-I 2 (l)e liiine, o)f -h diil.,', \ --lio inite n) tlie

    teilol Iwqleen 10 ;iml t ol lock. andlt after september 12 the shades
    wxere left ofI altog'etler..
    The pIlants were watered with i a swift -pray fronti a hose. the water
    Weing allied l tionly \vhen nieces--ary to keep thlie soil from actually
    dryinii o.il The sally betweenll the pots w's .seldom allowed to become
    dIV V t (lie ItlVlh Iof mvore than hIalf an i l A sand miiilli of alout
    a qluarler of aln incli on lthe top of the oil in the po was found uso-eful
    in prevent ing thlie rapid drying, of the soil by direct evaporation.
    S'2 I l *1 11ii I'm : s i 1 Tll. II'.T RAI, M TII OIID)S .I.I,IADY I )1 SCIIIII,:1), SEEMIDL N ,8 O.'
    I111 SW\AMP i' lil.I,:l H0 IIAVI; 1Ii N (M1OWN INT ( iOI R 'BST 'PLANTS OF1 A MAXI-
    MUM I i OFi;ii ol \w VNrIY-s:I:N 1 N INII I I II, I I I I M NTH i OM I;IORMINA-
    TIhe row, \th of Ilie plat. o(t of1 doors ldurinll thle summelillr was
    etnViIrkn:lily vigiurou,. lithelrto experimentelers with seedling bilue-
    terrie- liave Ibeen able to produce ouly conipiaratively small plants at
    I hlie enld of t hlie til'st s-oi. as sliown b v I (lie following citation front a
    Iutblication of thlie est-knlown experimenterr"
    lThe iltliieherr'y I; htes nli lih less growth lie l irlh's Iwo yeaIrs froi seed ( ltin!
    the Iliuklelerr', blt .hut giws ftasler afterw;irl'd. 'T'he tliiid yenr I have liad 1hein
    Iin1ke a growl hi Gt to S iiehis. 'The Iow lilIiIerry anid iicklebeirry begili to
    Iearl :t 3 or I years. Whlihe the lliih-liush hllueherry requires I to Gu yenrs.
    Fn'roin I to 3 imlirs urowXii Ilhc tirsil yeII is iii i ll eou mil exi11cl.
    UIlder thie systemm of treatment deserilwed in the l)presepd bulletin
    slii t- bee dlins haeI t o he eight of 27 inches at twelve months
    front geriiiatlion. Out of tlie seedlings of 1!I'1, 2,(1x were carried
    tlir uiigl to I lie clo'e of tlie eason of 19I0M) in -inchl pots. ( )f tlese. 1.
    were stltled plants. 11e reiainilng 20.5 had ia average heighlit at
    tihe eVId of the sea;ol of exactly" l'S inlihes. The larger stems were
    oftel a uiiarter of all inchl in thickness, and the niain ll rt.1k. half sub-
    loergedl ilt llie ,ground, sometimes reached a diaimeter of half all inch.
    'Thlie g'Tneral alppearaih e of these plants is shliow in Plate VIII.
    Thlie principal featuIes of cuIltural treatmeint Xlwhicl have otributled
    to this development :are (et) the autumnn geyrination of Ume seeds,
    (/Q) the ilse of stittable acid soils. (Q ) the plung'ingi of the pot-s. and
    (d) tlie Iprtial shalading of the 1pIl:is during ilie heat of summer,. the
    apldical ion of these culitural mehods havilgr beenl guided throughout
    Ay t1, dli-coxevry of hlie t'xi-tlce' of a lmycorrhizal tfunlgus il these
    plants atd its tleatllmenit a- e'-tlil t to heir lnutrition. The system
    ol g'erminatl ion :n1 lie hlia ractier of t lie soil useimld have already been
    descriledl in dletail. Thlie exact elects of the ptlungijng and tlhe shading
    'tleaihl 1t le considered.
    I lhas ale ad* y eein shomw (pI. 6) th-at wlieu a plant is not
    pitngedl, (lie mlillute rootlets that lie ;lainlst lihe i tles oft llie pot
    1);iws~ i ..!; '* "nlixtth ; 11111 C )llll'tr ( lentl 1i11mi \ol. -2), IN1,S .. (L 60.

    I:XPI'1'.KIMI:N S 1 IN H>LU Wi-:;Il| iV CCIIiTVIE.




    I I p t 1 I P \I I1I

    ret> T\ li;t W i It' d, att h l'o4 llI dr\ nll< +. \\h ,it' ti 1, UiI p I I 1
    -;Itl ;ll d th e ll ld i- 4':l) 4l li 1i Irt till I -I]. .hllt 4 kill t'l l V I it ,,i l J_, \ In H til ill 'it ', It 4' \ I j i p laI.n

    44 -., i4Ulit i I 4 i tilt', : lt + l : l t.l + l; +i l '; ,I+ l it I 4 I. hit .. .... 1,: + + ,+ + i
    U vn l t h 'l l i' li i tlIll ll I'- kim i t I l' ,l lh ell i 4 | t n i l 41 X t l I no -411 ,
    lw i,' 1 1:.. tqo f III d. nl- ,C t W el 11l "lC oo il l linel ti fl Ip A -nowl r
    itll'c I 1 ' 4 f'tooi- ma- V n1 '4\ intIt aj H'< tItt i tI 11 -
    441i l4T4' O U ': 4414 l44 ,)l U .' 't l I1 t'l 1<' ii *1 m lii f'-:111 i ll X| iliiiii;' iX I'+ l ii I i "ll V"I" t 'n li li m is iirit, 'i l i t in4'. I )Mo n i +

    ( th.l'\ l lhc lr ^ l c thlY o +, ldt.I ltl( ]'\I it '1 v li l tlh ll r n l';> |i 1 | i1 l ll A .
    a 1\ 'l l"'4' %% l jt ii t' II ':c XX:!-. litt l I. a t lt1'tI itX lil l 1 41l iOn >lt \r \ -;il l-
    It. 4to rv f I' v til i (4(\ (t )|l lvlvt )u m \ ,i 'I t l I IhItt' I-' it' tl'(C; 1 1' 1 1 iIt' 1 1t11. 11

    (lie tI'i it :4i' 1:14 i 'tlIlt41. It41ltI: i: X:!! 41 it t I X i'
    it- i l gl'I vI t ll' tll" '111 I I A4ll ll 4ll' t i of lt]ngu' 1i0I ) 'l t 4t~ 4 tI ( [ i-
    jl4': i ll "Ait ii r il oitt"l'tI i ihht \4 l' n- 4 ll\' l 1 i t- l :f t i' 4tm : 1 it;t 41 i '
    ( I +I .. ( In iii)(~., l;>,T'( ^ t l i t i' j':ll ,,l :I c l l,+ ',+li t < >Ii l lr +t,i( l, t+ l;i( \ r I ni

    1444 t+lt~, ti Ii 141 I! >til- ++\ll" tl l f.lt tt it'- I ti- XXII tlt, I~ I tt I -, i 14 lit' + :
    4It" i 1 I4 I- I ;t *l 't I at fvith I I 144" I, 111 4 I A41 tilt' -'t 44 ti wH I 2w m vn Ii'
    (MI C,. ll i i [l l ll l > < l 111 t. liS lrtl | W) (II| \\in- j.ii <'"
    i()ttc.l W HO:l lii t ['t r4li lid il :! i(i i, ia' ( i r b" t -crvi 'Iq I 61-t
    l)t tltlIlU in. I I 'll [ ,il, t ', .l- I loll oll "_' ) I lil+. \\'a'- d o| ) )l I+ 21 l lc
    in1 (1iW n l lmdpt-. "\ is-+ (W vlo ont I\" _'*_2 l'.illN in l li t s -;il lni+l o|+ -oil.
    ( Ii T' co+ r-ci *\ fl+li' ll lo: l llia lcall. I l'lt "-'o lt ll- 'l '\ I. I l he l i",
    lIn'i;'>- ul' ai \ ,*f ll.' -r fl*l nit f o orl" IN)m- lltvici r ;i V(T;IL;'t liv+lt ;AI l lnlnW
    ,fhlov of tile ca-;l in lu'ln^ 2 llatel IX all v\cr *_AI iic'lho- il !i,t ,lwtil andl ni <, f t+f l 2n i *7 inilic-.
    \\ vre I'r n thin- riilluiv.
    TI I ,' Ike of loirn >(';, l ,\:> ;i- no l; \ oc:il (* I 1 >\ lilth IIn t old t'Wl l 2t'ml\\t r>.
    ;ICOW ) 1`0401Atltl t'lHM I,011 l :1 lii nx l v I of I 01 "itp' t- of lp:it(. 1>\V ln I t,
    I of ;illa t. andtoi ;i t r tq Inil s'vi'r l|>ro|,(i ttion ,I -a iml. v |);n'l out or :,.
    li. lmrcii t+I't', ii it 'tr hc l lI\ lr);i v, -oii lor li"itl twric-. \\W lien litO po -l
    :tc nv Hid )liiing'r l ;nit l doh ot tli rc ` lHd\ tltli :>dc\ ;iilt:i r ,pth or Ils
    ,"I lnd ) ;c ol( t it 1> i ld1 iont b'ttl i at lile \\m ill ol i ln ) l \\he' li -ilr
    ro"Il tlh l In n ,i-t in k it i I[rol)>ll tic that tihl ]i! r t-irc r iio of roin ,h'icr
    W+Ile -m ,d i'i tile Soil 4,! i < ; l e, -ar\ !o( -tel 'lr. a l.eiriq lc ;ola interior i ol thie' :'lll l;ill. ll. for in ,-- th l ot i- I|) nw, l HOW, I t of tlihe
    viltthlc t(ll:l< lie j ),i an. it le t" tIn p 4t "\ ill he l. lihld ; II t10,
    plid n( tnii-t i 'Ii\- I'vA ir il- ;I iv'f iioiiri-lv+itin vn t, 1 lit noo, in 11 l iiaelql Ir
    ofI the hawll
    Vll:it l0l", invuc* -ilt\ tor inlt riom ; rnorl iin in the lic ia, i- y*n':at 1i 11th
    0 "-, of li ;t.li>. i" l lI)" im urd' 11 01t plint "< I ,o arc uot l'lrr plicl 1 l\

    I...,._ tri W A R ,11 iiiiin hd ,l | v \l N :il., l'l' i- pr:ict +irc k-
    tlei di-th+riloitini "If ot ll crockI- Or 4)fi,+, o| -;. nilm lto hl' tlhroll--li tlhe
    -.+ i lll t IIP l H l' att lht|l)^- i Iin>c of+l 1 \>\' 11v W H'lO 10lc+ 11i tlha t l [)1;1
    (hw m a, ;i- n illv ;idv'intil "oti- (, t" ic,. ipll -. ;>n d ;i lt i llo b i Kh did nlot
    dilt'<.ll. v, p\I) till InI- -M 11c .- 1K1 -li li : \\ l\. ll hYltO'l I i- liltl t l ,d llle M i lloth l
    nW >


    ih ins 'mthlo. Xlwshih may Ie i rgarnhd e:is a ;isubstitute for lpI nging, wvas
    idvantXiitt'o irs ls aecase it giave large araltion sti'fat's about the stones
    in ithe interior'i of thie earth Ilill al"d pIovided a place' there for a large
    dievelsloplmiiet of' iots which ('oltid not 1 alike Iace(' at the wall of the
    lpot. Mc'Nl's des,'crip)tion of his method of rep)ottitg is as follows:
    Il shiftl't g ]heaths I never" lldte theold hall (if earth mllore thlia lby lulbing
    ithe sides ais' il h b Iot io \with It hl hailed,. s,) a,,s to ]olss >)i he outside i libie s :i lill l'
    I l;)\ o'lte 'i shiftotd h'ia lt,.s lt is'. W iia d e\e'll it'hree tilim's. in hlie 'coslli' of thie'
    spl'ring ald lsiumilli''r. wlith tip' gl's'teti l s, ccs's' Ii its. hlsvst'Per', qiilt' i tiiis'sssi ryV
    lo shinI a s t' h nii il tie yos' g x i il i' libe's ii' thro g' the fresh earth giv ll
    in. it ait its previous shifting, ,ilid hegull 14 +\ lll themselves. roun ld lte inner
    IMP' 1 Mif 1ti t i t oo nl : i l ll as soonli as., this lak's jill'ac. lit'y iiily lioi ibi shtiiifttdl
    w ilh atd\a;lll;1g Allis i p int lil sliifling, lhowev ter, is it iit lllllle(' ss:iary, nilitess, ii
    lhe to cip+is'oigt a fiavlorile sp, iijej iii: for in all ordinarily 'y cases' partlict llr lly
    wh lii thi platiii is h 1r I onsl" idsh oni st osi shliiliLi in l\o o= llirn e pi'rs siilt'
    i- l ,, 11 i ll. ; 1 +
    loshiiss' thio compliost and draiiiniig \vhilch I hal\v alrei'ttdy lilnt ioniid. \1hint I
    1begii lo shift li'tllihs I hi;i\ave al]\ y ai 1 hiland ta Witititity ol' ose's i'w'. iofl fret'-
    >lone. tbrol' ien ints pies's fiK'sni ani ii'ih to 1 or 5 ilinches' in diaiit'pr. If tli'st'
    I ;alw ys intrlust eis' a quanHtity atiloii tile fresl athea i a1s it is litl into tlle pot or
    till), roundlildIl(, oh .ll of iincrlh aibot IN pIlant. am! ipes Moth, wvll down
    illiion frlsih eartiih as it is Put il. lThis I considerr of 1realt advaintiaie to aill
    sol its h! i'attlits. liut iiwe l' a 1artislaht'Iiarly si li t Iiose that i il:I y IliXszIve Ileei shifteid
    ihto ;i ltcis'i l 'argetr pot1 lo tib at oils'e thI;in w atil it hld 1i'ien grownX i ill tefore't', lor
    ill what I woulld call iiienniaiill tr tr'iteniiia I shift ling. Tlihese piec'st of stfollte 11m y
    il'e til i|n as lal e as 1 lis o' ning will Aidii liIit i'txx'''ii the i t liall aii t li t'gl o
    ol" tlhi pot. Ill sole ls of 411ll" liia'gest lulis this openingii is full 4 inches'lit wide. ailtd
    w nii 't li ii1s'hi sall] it s requisiie'ds s 1sto lii ii ile lbottolii over l 1hel diraiiii i'beforet'
    lite Ilinti is plit iA. ai qlittiti y of hoi'se stores should be mixeit d within tie iartlli
    t lso. I liilXewise us' oss'aisioially l argt' Iie'es of soft s turlit ibroe'lli pols, pliut
    a1tiong1 tlie earth in ii e s e w y t al wa as ti stosis: iti I ptrl' rt' stseis' wi'tl I etai
    'procl'ei thet'ii so it an i fl'' of ir'sli. Thei q entityy of i stoilises wV which I introdiwte'
    .long w\ith a ii ils'rg -sized heath ait shifting will, l in sl 'is's. if lit'siboei Axn dowi
    iDoo s .t aill i addei to lle sai tii l viols y it jatli o xx wli essis it w lh"li'ien sitones a i odlitd si ts ioii tig Il I''rth in ll tli
    way I isav 't'o'smsniildeds, IIs aTlis will viXt'r suffer so itii'h in lit smliiimeri fromi
    occaisioiial negirct'l to waeo' toho as toey wold dto if tiet( sllptos weenot intro-
    du(ced, because lfhese stonles retainll Il(, i lloisture ]olnge"r than the earth, and ill
    ltpe wiliter the' y allow\v as fe' er circulation"t of ally ll'peral'lillisi liii l loisturtt, which
    itiay lit giventI through tt l lieil s .

    Thei' il''ct ol' the I llf shad is ed over lli' t ie hllxti'ries drilling! tihe
    suniilinil'r of liMi was to mittke itle ir'owl) of tlie plants 'continuilous
    instead oft contiliiiitio' it o (a lIi(' lleI'iodl in the' eal' part ilof the season.
    In a: wild stalite Ilhs twi''s of bltlt'eberr''y lplanits sto) rowing in eai'ly
    summer i(he sIoppage be.l,,- indicated hy v lhe wi6' Ni'i of the uplper-
    iiimost leaf rt'ludliiitei. Th'Ie le \i vigrotloiis twi''s Stl opl first, thlie iore
    vigtloro's ioies i'xl, anlid the s-hoots liast. Stolpl.a:_'' of growth is has-
    tened iil lv hot dri'\' weather' aindi is dflelr'ed lyv Clodiiyl hiiiid wet'thier.
    Ilise' latitude of Washington stoppage of ordinary tvwio irowltl in
    xwild plasI sl of ['sit M ui'#imii s(t'o'o('sccu s Is,..is in Mayv iand is usually



    ( A

    9 V

    I I I 1 ,.. , ,i , ll m i ll "l- C 'n ll l u l '.'l i Ir l l'l :i, i .l i l, / -" 1 1 11
    All th-.. Ians c^~ ^ ^ ^ '' ^ J' its buth^ gr.,)% it ri. v.l, r,L.>-~. l ...~m ~n, /.

    tvat i. i Ipant, w hll -. oit t"li 1w i I tlliti t tm a- -i titiltar tIl o I i l \
    (li sA vton of hoi mcilnth In llhe plant- umhTi' thre A t~ -had",. him
    ti, i \ IClli iten Ih ,tiidld not w th1 r Ol i i 1i II txtlil th ir no mali
    y:il"'_ i h):d rI n in cimrs-4 and a- niw -, I l- "e c oii l 11 11 Irti
    111-, there \\;I no) jyjeneral Iloqqmgv 4l gi -tow h umiil Svptwieilrr. and
    aIII ( tf i v oo tiPl tt iIItt l i" 'o\, n t lir i,,l h tlh ait i tiIill
    T'I'llh -hiiI lt ",',l i It anI( .ixtl ii +li to "lx li'a. ll6 l l-: th t i -.
    to I ak i t he.t' l. ir+ gn m'.ili, -lhimillitn tlhron--hl :I -Irl' ch 'intg ill for li+t .
    It wa'is it' n l tt(Ilt Ic iiili to prevent viili tx i h lx'. it ;lt ilt' Il ii i \ I
    1 ItiiC] t i i i ix It.
    K N I IV Il |I +\II" 11 NO+ Int 1"+' 01 1ll "1 t 1 t U1 ]t 1"1+ lHUIil W 0 It I nI I I I lK\NmI:M,+] k
    l t I li iW i i' i \ I i Ai i l I i In I: ti I1 1 \ x i i'ii'tx i lU M 1 1 x i \'\ .i 1 t
    'I'llt' i lt t ,' r-. all l Itil-i -- a, I llt' I 't i iiil) l lt' 4iIriii''\ ar I lr dI im't tl ill
    ilt+ -lriin) 'r i W >o t r t >i l-. andt tln '-d t e Imd- a hI' ot ic 11 i t e
    pireceling, ,"cfir. 'I i \'i lp 11w l)-kindsl o f ud- ar roi- 'i tii< >l\r uilly.rtiti t.
    a;- Illatv lbe -ecn l t1 lt, ;11", oiniia"iI.ying illti-t ralii n. ( 1 +1. X 1i '. 1.)
    V ",hc ha'f Kmidls oc'upi lit lo\\", 'r rl oft' (If l \th to', "I'liw, :rn, mia;>ll.
    conical. abloit (0<.'( to 0.12 of nl' in hli (2 1" :'1 mni.) Ionti-. \villi It,- lo I
    ,c\it m all s 10 111i Ctji iali 111,' ,o no, oticr ill ICilt tl and tch t c ,diri
    in+ a -lijr, Im,i~L. 11wt 1"40iI ,,ij v or thet inwfio~',r "m Yh'> ",.Il+It :in',
    olf simili r IcliC't/i. ire Ioi,illc. \\'liel a lentf bul dt deh\ lop ill tlhe
    l-prillg it produllrce a lent '*v twi"'.
    T e'limt llovcriil ud 1,r ou t, Ia ore ic hihea l ongthe upper Part of theli I iv, i-.
    Th'n are fat. ",oid >t iltvit't-e. (oiiiiiioIIIv i.+ to (I.:; id' "f an imcli
    ( '.3 to "7 iili. ) iOn)'.. -ex tral ti llieit- --retr llilin ,t ;it II iidt.- T hle\v
    -A (\low o inwril\ l) o 11) e- vti'tl al. liroad. overlappini g 'ilc-. V.iclh
    tllo\\ ritl",, bud f oii1 A n (liI+ rl l diment- (If :i race ie of' ui-uillv 7 1to 1'2
    tlowers, tli t m lid ol' o af li of' illn-v Ilta v'r lyil\nn in lln, axil of a blrac't
    ;itd lic i; 1(o Iraci Id tl hlo\v tNlt inidhl/f tdl ii- -lorl't pc!di cvl.
    \W he'n i flo,\ criii,, t)iid] dhro lo[l) it lim'm ii ;I rIr i'io lli>\\c'r n N it
    lit ;i0t'0 irllpalili ii t\\'ig" or lor i\ ,-.
    laf tbuld, an, al\\wa\V aXi!ltar\t ;""I H" ,iqlli ilmdl< aliot-I alwa\'-
    lto. 'Ill WI ol t tin' >lliiniiil olt' a lw i_ i- it a i a, ili s t/ilna l ill ic,
    axil of (li upp iitiol lWar. I xc,! inl tle rari'r cam- in ,h ih tlh< twi',
    lipi tdo,- nl~ O t A nlie i \\ he iA l-o it.- i rt, i li. In -!ch (;i-tch r a l1 ltpirr-
    m riiii l 1Nod i- torwiiH', -uiirr~o wiiii l I>\, ;a ol ]lao i'ral Ittbud- in whe
    i\i- or !lraf(-. o far a.- ;bl- vwI ` W e llic-r Iiid- are ;O va -' p l =T rini
    IN d- ;ild ;i't+ [ii'od i l ol tht cud- ol' \ iw-orol -lih oo l-.
    11",I a iin wlli,'it lltr |)l~ lt- hae dowi lMy: "i tl,'ir li Ti rii la id-.
    thiroImu i lli, t + I lra -t'foriiatlion ot l t00t I d- i- \TV inl ri -linl. a dt" it
    Imay proc to li;i\'c h a I owriiii oi i' im ortlatm olt the i lIme stho and
    line of Iriiiiinu ihe Im ,ltc. T'lo' t'nl lci I' Iv h -u lias ailreadv
    ltiven d sc-ribed. Tlt'y aplp ar >ind',l ill the axil- of the' lt'iva s ;dino-(

    P'Al I l V F]A S I I \01 AI I|. V.\ N I\l;). r .

    ;>,0o11 as die leaf is I fll1 developed. After a few weeks tlhe external
    scales, of the lId tllin brown iaii(] the bud then goes into a condition
    of dormancyv. uitless it is forced into -rowthi tin ...''11 :in injury to thei
    twi -\ or solme otler Itnlusual circu('lllsltIlce. fit l most of the buds this
    dorirmant conditions otioulles tlirim,'h the sulinner. fall. and winter.
    If tIle plant is in condition to lay down ti Hlowerin uds, however, a
    iew\ sort (of activity appears in the late suniller or antiinim. One or
    niore (of thle leaf Imls. near the elnd of a twig start to grOw. The two)
    brown scales are spread alpar t. iinew '(rreeltI scales appear bietweel tlhen.
    ;nd a laI'ne. fat, fliweri.i4 bid is formed. Thlie 1)bud does not. how-
    'ev.er, .ontinulle its i'r(owth at this time. )but its green new scales turn
    brownl and tlie coinlitiol of dormancytl is at'aill resnlue(d before eohld
    weather collies oil.
    Tli'e lo( verinugy budIs thus develop out of bluds which are in no way
    diisinguishable froli leaf bluds. They are, in fact. leaf Ibuds until
    bheir transforniat ion takes place, and except for suclhi trainsfortmnation
    they would remain leaf ,buds.l- Furthelimnoe. it has been found ex-
    periinenltallv that after tlie foiImationm of loweringi' biuds has been
    couilmlete( leaf. btuds still low er oin the twi' can bile roeed Iby suitable
    treatment to traonsfoiini themselves into Ihowering buds. Such an ex-
    perimient was made. as follows:
    ( )it August 21. M)9. at lWaElanI. Md..a \iorous ilbush of l'(ni/i.A.m
    ft Urocucii, was selected. which li had already laid down it- Ho'', ii,_
    iuds for tlhie siucceeding year. Two branchlies of nearly' e(|iial size.
    about I1 inches, < lo,,'. oue with 14 twi,.s and 5, iloverig hin >.ds, the
    otllher with I16 twi,'s and IS flowering l, buds. were chosen for thlie ex-
    pwerintii. ()n th lirancli containing, tie, IS flowering, lbuds each twig-
    was cut oil' at a point between its loweriimost Ilowering btud and its
    ullernil)st leaf bud. will the object of asceraiiii a. whether any of
    lie leaf budIs on lthe stillub of tlie twiuz would t ranisform themselves
    into floweriniv buds. Tlie o(liem braiili was lefIt un1ltuned as a check,
    to slIow whether thlie norml laying down of lhower budls had in reality
    been co( pldhetel on Anuoutt -I. O(n) (I)tober 1, 1!. 9)9. the two twig's were
    :iai examiledl. Tlie lprulned b ranch lihad laid down 31 new 1Vfl .' ii,"
    buls. wlichi ini all cases- were tlile transformied upper leaf uids on the
    .-tuls >of lie twigs. ()n thlie check Ibranch only I new i1' ll i nI: bud
    lhad been laidl dlon.
    'lie best inethod of pruninig, the swamp bl eberry is vet to be
    hevisedl. btt if a sulerlivial prunin(r, like that of a hedgre, proves to
    le :1 .y+ld method of st iniulatina i '.', -. ro\wvthi, it, is evident front
    tii- experintieit that tlio most adlvaiitaeoulls, time to do tlie ]Iprui-
    ing,. if a crop is to Iwe vered the next vear. is after the berries are
    gathee'l and about the timne when tie bush is forlini" its next year's
    tlo\ riIi;,' buds-. It will then lay down new flowering buds on tlhe
    ctill ths. If tilie l)run:112 were done in late autumnn, in tie winter,

    !KXI'IIKIMI S IN lHl,11.JT|.;|; lHY C/7TLAUIE.



    Fi,. 3. FLOWER BDS
    Cu i N.

    'H *1 iI~
    II I X ii i -,



    E m l l i; l 11 1 ** l<> -i\ |l.M >* );* tI nl ''r I l: I. -. I>i.~ ir~ i~ i ni T rrl v r li pIm l h~ tw 1 1.r i i \ r i li

    ri, I-. \(, i n 1 l h i, Ki: F 1) I I \ I 1 1 l, I W.7

    tl 1 11 ItIllc.' -prI' l1 Iw,+ t'll' w O144 l'4 l ld, w M A I nI I4 1 .
    tIh)M* rIIu4oved 1) v\ 11(iI
    I IoI tilfl 1 n' la*viuI dowl 44 'XIX, Ii ll -11f .o1 1ll- I I i *t, 0 4+,1,t.' ;I I t!)
    tlt* leh i 4.ll, 'fi t 14 ,)4n1,iu I ,,-ont. \A lio, \IaM -li.iI I 1'1'141 ;41 I ,1,4
    ._ i- 4in 114. 1414l' I \\ 'in no t1 lbl t i -- l a N'O,1 ,'I' llld 1,11llil'l ll I r, I l o A l
    yo -1, one III wo invo a h a il a ri I 11rriC a I Ie HiM I r I. II n I 411 n '
    ilI/i+' 141 ( ''11I m, t ti ll n. taI', tt' 1 ti-llul' t, (4 I' 111rtl, J41 ,,1 i, II r,'
    tuli Il i i n l I .I 4.4,, i- < >1( ;1 1 141 t i :i t .r ( ,i t o r1t A{ l, n';i f 1 i ol 4 i. ti( >

    1In 4 'Il4 'ii il4, 4 441111 j ( li l Ii 1111 ii^ l'(>414~ t i t I I Ie, ") l 14l- i t
    Iltow'' i iii, l1tn ,l l1' 1 1' ;i. '' h11; l 1, 11 1l12 l'i>l \\ 1c444 41 1 ,hi l ,v "\ 1i -,,itr
    of' 1 thel l crI'1 c,' 1 i1 1 "till ,r'h ,,. Itn 1114 l ,i4 lti\';4 l' ton tlh ('>1rn ltion olf llG v,1 ri, lat4" I di i' (lii i Lin 1 1 4 1', ii nttil >c11
    ttel hcr. ;andl it rovltil,,ed ,,11 c ()i lt poi tu j l unt, l il co l \\(nt;ll r -o, !ppeid
    I licir priwv lh.
    Tlhe1 l,1i 1l' Iint l l hI," i'l+I 1 {1-.1 ;l, )1t dor.' ,1 ll444n 1 :, il In itul4,, .|
    local withill th( twi,,+. ('Oleull il-- o the ofv:,,ihi i lup ,,'lc wrry inih it
    New\I Ilamp hire, on `JItlv '. I1409, tra4i,-'orlt t i)r lWa. li .n1. into
    tl 1\ri '-.+ l-l ill l inI O ', tt iXN g, lied N a4f1 cl' recl hl n g1 \\';l -hil llL on. :4 I
    'how4 n ill Plate X li+,re ". l.tull whlel ther ll it4' 1ra444l1-f rl', tiou ix it it
    -A-v w'+> madh l+ ,l'(r or a ftcr Ile ,tlttmu' liad lt \\W n a- ,not h, o l,-t'r\ c+d.
    Iti ) llit r c';it. another. (lia( o l l taillor n"Q ,S: ina in New I lam, p-hl irt,
    'O1p"t ll"(t' 141. 1 ',. frin lohn4 late 1 l4ox 1 1 leailll- t 114 1 i 1f tid,-.
    (li t1ran-l'orinal' t io iEt'o lhlvo'(ri ', 4,Id. 'ic rai l o (i4oc' o l' ill Ill' 441 llin-4,
    lit1d ()'1 td l'r I m! I' was m1npl4lte 1d1 1'l' f ait\ 'l t l4a4 )(t' Ih l for'1'4 ed.'
    ( 1u 14'l. X u1 ;A.)
    (:!l' 1 'l 'i li IND (W' l '\jor''III s I i ,;S I l l I. I' l ti t I l () I i In 1 1 ii i I!;
    14 x Ntis H1 A I \I D1 >'1 IR < \114 ]ii 'iR I x4I No X 114 \SIM W I 44 No!! .
    At the end of t1l6 sa-oii of li>()if 177. or 70 per (imnt. or' 11m, 2_'0,(0
    -1441' ,'- of 11"N litat liad i t' lint i4n W.-I I' i, b>ol ad dxv'l, pvd
    lhoweri, l,, In 1 S X i 1 ll 4 I, : lI i- l ,IM Ki, (M 111f tl -', 14i,1111 |) I o-
    to,_',ra|lh d o)i, N(venil(Tr 2. IS.O'. \\h,!rit lad laid dhvown I llo,\'> 'riing
    lIdx-. (t)ite 1 l4tx t pIr'o ul, i s('Il, 1 >.' 111 'l4'4tin lxAdl At tlh e "m, "r III, 4 1
    >,rc',diiif en,-ol. a'. i t a ca-l 't |)> p r ,r',vt olr ti, -1`141ihUQ- olf 14 1(07
    llt at were St ill l;('|il in Iml h laed ,(l ,riig lWdK. 'l lcr 'o, f ,re.
    not t\it i,-tandin ti,' tl iten(tm iile rl ear'lier ,xprinmlo ter. thlat thle
    -Sedling' d' to ilf -,Specie,- do not fruit unlil l i '\+ ;awc n (V\'ril \'ar'l
    old ( p. C" l). i i- r x'garded o- c l111-1l4 l IIIlI 11r111A 16 4*i41' -V-Iollli
    \\f,'Ifd lint li' (lt >- IxlM iri Wntiit- a, -:1 lSIO tiitl la nrc'iita y, \", ill Ina '
    dowl n (lo( ,'riu, a lonls a, in' itil(l d"r tnd t irEst \Ye;ar and dil wi,.,r v',ii!
    the' c,.,.ni d \x+cal .
    Altttc ki,", liw- ;il,,ad\ l ,i, ,ai l ,p. W ed I In 67) to i6 oc, a.ioin, l lni\ ,-_
    down ( of l!o,; i',+it+ d wlil n I ,l e llit ,.v- w re ,it+ol, 7 o Illj- ,"ohi.
    l'ho w ,+\ ,d rai' l\ 1 llracii,_ ad frailling at tlhe a:,- o' >f I- thin


    During the fall. winter, andI early spring of 10iis-) a series of ilum-
    berry seedliogs of 1907 was kept outdoors on a south window sill to
    ascertain whether repeated freezing and thav lu would kill them.
    \lost of the plants were in thin glass 3-inch pots. covered at the sides
    1illt one thickness of gray blotting paper. One plant (to which
    preferencee is again made on pp. 75 and 70) was in a 5-inc(h earthen
    pot. None of the plants were millched or covered in any way. They
    were watered whenever necessary to keep the soil from ,ll ilj. In
    'old weather tile air circulated freely about tlhe pots and the soil was
    repeatedly frozen solid. (On warm l. s vI days lthe melting of the ice
    ltook place rapidly. IIard freezing followed by qi uick thawing was
    many times repeated, and thlie co(n(litions of exposure were such that
    thle plants undoubhted(ly were sujec'ted to a s'everer test for hardiness
    than they would ever receive e under cultural conditions.
    The plants pas-ed thlie winter without losing any of their twigs.
    The wo(, was plitnip andl inII excellent condition when spring came.
    as was: evidencedI Ilrther byV the remarkable uniformity within which
    every dormlant budl started 'o )row ateo'vr the first few vwarm days.
    For the roots (iof some of tlhe plants in glass- pots, however, the
    exposure was too severe. In oie o(if tihe glass pots no() root growth
    followed tlihe starting of flie twigs, and the plants finally died. In
    others tile root growth at first XXas feeble and the pIlants lost some of
    tI their ntIwl' v started twi gs iv ithering'. lost of the plants, however,
    including thle one in tlhe 5-inch(' eartlien p(ot. made normal growth of
    both twigs andl roots, notwithstandiling the extraordinartily severe
    teatiment to which they had been subjectedd. No difliculty is antici-
    pated. therefore, in wintering,_ blueherry plants 0u1S,-fully out of
    doors under any ordinary ('cultm'al co('(nditions. Thie 'seedlings of 1,90
    'overI(l with oak leaves in their outdhoor pltinioig bed of sand passed
    tlie winter of 1909 10 in good condition.
    That Itlueberrv plants must i) stulbjec(ted to some sort of exp)osur'e,
    if they are to start satisfac(torily in tile l)ring. is ini(cated ) hv the
    hellhavior of certain seedlingls of 1!107 which wXere ('carried through the
    winter of l08.s 9 in a roe lhounst'e, whet're the t(iii)eprature at night was
    ao)ut G(0 1. and during tile d(ay alout 10 degrees higher. These
    plants, although subjetehd to )most persistent coaxing. absolutely
    refuvedl to grow dui i ._ lhe thle fie months from Novemilber to M arch,
    alt ,hog ne\ly geV(rminated seedlings grew luxuriantly under exac('tly
    tie :'ale ('condit ions.
    Vie h(mpjarisoin of tIese indIoor plants with outdoor plants may
    best be made Iby an examination of thle Ibuds shown in the accomp)any-


    i ()", 1, liatinr l "c "i

    i i 4llllstl'lra liul'. )ll:i4hl le 'r W u I, th ;l iwh l aw l :41. q t14144 4'w i t -
    'I 4,,' j414()i44)'_:T[i1h- 1''~'[ )tl'4414441l 4 111 l'l.i, N i v, ',l( 144.1,I4' 4)14 ,\lIr( 414 T.
    I 1 I T iotIo [laph- 14 lt lvi ied A PIIoI I I I 1 pltr X :I, 1' X l t l' lli 44I. .

    Sepwt'I ilk,'r. 1!07T. which it4l 1 11i ) lt [ k I p in l g n11, l n11 ', .ill i- lilt' :it
    ;i tlit'i l':ra tv nulld to (lie, 11 r,4' ing ol"f rt1-1 -. IF m, i ni t A m)"1 ill
    Plate X II. li irm' 2., was W i ah,14 tial4 i. lct)4r,1 \ wtitX 4 I 4 oIl4r luitdil
    (O)ctob) 'r I20, 1 ) when' it \vI [)laclh outdoor- ;tild' : 4 1 \pi, d It 11 1t4 ,
    severely winter condition-. l \w'ais w)it, ll(, \\oil< ther, -ill Il!:il- Al,
    -'Vril)'d u)i on l:lwe' 7T1. 'r'lim, lnca\ ,s 'h()v, tl 1111 li or pi,:i o (the I i I I .
    AL, 1) aire Ilio-c forn" l ii th(e -miin nnt'r olf I'.iO",. lliil) l\v i'n- M -o)ii Qf
    tih Nvalti m f ilmmiii li)ur i olf thn' p iro',,itl,)ilon 111 !NW ?it i :' |il:J i l \\ ;i-
    \, ini ,rcd l iad i('i' l lci oil. ailthoup fIale ])lan)m( I lm id niiade H" o I"\ l li
    lalt'r tlian (I)th lolo Plu -s. N(iili -r a ()\o crilif. hin l nor) a l'at,' lei
    lhas -lari tl "it I lii- pl4ih) (. I I Xn Il he441 )1 r |1)l i1t ( I. X I l. liW,: 2 )
    tlhe I ll4owe''rii l)ii l- 7 and 1'4 lX il' lpt)it i11)' tX- th vi ter had l)o1a (I' hInI4 44 o 4 ) '.l4'4'1 dayi lxXh'[ r1 11( llik im vi4
    lPlat, X i IM t'r(oi t tii,[)loto r;i|)-li i,(a ln (iL on A p)ril "I. I'.iO )Q tlio',v ilt,
    noneX 4 W I plans 1]nX iarly a i4o4t1 lli hilcr. 11m,' [ f 1 I: id on t41 ioudoor
    plant: ( Il. X I I Il. li 2r. l' ) W e! i 11i :ro,,, i t4XIhI'ilY'v 1,i 41- aw l l, t [4,v 4r1
    ig'- l arI'I ;i'>) l (' l) l Mif 1144o ,rlll' i"441 [ ll i id )=
    p1lai ( 11. X IIIl (i'". i ) o ly t\o have -1v, 1t l, 1 1:( (441 ii 1v. (i 1 llM-(
    two new'v twi,-. one o141 n 111 1t oi1 t h) tin l,'X t. in tlh 1 ;xil o1 1 hll1 t1 iirX
    lewaf l'r in (le ( )I. lt i- has ill('., itNY lil) 4i41 [l ')Id dhvct)lp i 1 r l 4')r
    nl4aking : 1 l' ill->d i (', h[Iaf. T ('i oti1'r ) \\(, (4 1 'r. o()I the -t4i4 i) t he tl
    rirlt. deh veloped ;,til)iio)t all\ fro ti (llhe axil (if a Ini-vil l)rac(t f :i
    l]ov1 ri-i1 lbud. It I. r i ad' Io 4 1 4 x'\li and W came a m (v )viv 'i1'or
    (HIS A44)X .11 tlie ll44 '4 vril-' 1411 Ids on tin- plant dried 44) and pIwo-
    duced.'( Ino h)\v(r-'.
    11li erratic -(arlii a olr d rmailt Ilants whit? har, iot h,,ii -lo)-
    jS AW(d to Hi o.(nditio i tlls ICC-nar o li[r4i, till (41 i (ol Iii(h ir (lo' r-
    ialiiV it :i nori' all i ilii( i well .l \vi1n al-o in PlatoX X IV 'l Thi4
    1il0l14 rat iiio i i 4 'l a p <_i l i 1 i,,i4l4 l ;'i4 n IV lier1 vii 1. 1Pi tl!). T'I'l
    | tilil wasI .a t odlii ofX SX i)(cn l)cl. 1'441 oii'i l j i 41:4 lW'oTi ',li( :i44o ti[4 l
    4i(r444 iilo i i4n 1il]\ 1)' ilqub r, IM)4) rind rei4i'' li".v liri n (h
    w 'ilild 14 1 4' Fle ill-t4 ;1ral i -ii A v>- 14I i44v o ti\ 1e o' f Il li' 4 i4 l4wo1r i' i i1
    li4 l- o' l tihe iIq14 '1 I4 wi l ia: -4tar4i'l. am, If' (if lit four on the I ( lower
    t1 \ i ''. a I i 1 11) 1 l (if litn' Of"f )i< I1-.
    I c' 44 an W' ll I)(Iti-to) tlhat f:or (o dilnary V ii4'-e4-41 4 l4 XeiT' rrV
    |)lat:i -x 4lil4 d lh,4 wi ni444 m wntdoo sr-'. If it in- de-ir' ill '\[H'ri4'i i ii' l
    wvor]i 1(4 f4r4 !]l'4'rr l [l:li '4lant- (4 lilt il il :a a ... i ''i' ho1 l during (t 1'ir
    secolld inl'r. it "ill lIr m v'c--arv Wihlror l o I((l hirizv tliib orI o I ind
    4out -o-1i ll4 44l m' T n1 ol4 i4 f (,1 t'' lini iti 1 >v whiXlic it' 1 I- l 'r'h iln theiri
    twi'. 1 i a In1' trl'li[-f' il'41 into o lier a4h4': l)4v4ra:t1 :Ia iltal)l for (4 '
    l)iildlin, ll ) of new )'ilanlt i-ncst iThe writer I44'liVA'X ihat iln tio

    I XI'Kll MlN I> IN AIt 1 BI HFB Y I'I LI i i .

    hard-wooded Odecdnoliisdax-o tree~ and shrubls of cotld counties ONi
    irnl rit limiA|l on <' o tr varc, mill In, I'oiind to be caued (>,1no un ll\ lv tihe
    ,hAM" es. jrtit(ilxll\ t'Inz\ titatie. thai folkh i xposuriv to al; alieriaiition
    of Ili -I and lowv lImperatturvs rather than eximsurv to :i singer lo
    enllt) r'tt i 'le.
    i I 1)'> 1 .\N 1 I'L \N N IS A N \IS l IHE I` I NI l ".llN S ll .S(IINi I\ A It (Kot I I ;l I I luli L NI,\\
    -lI i :EtI IN I 0 Ii1 I I t)]
    TIe' root growthll of Id(lldlrry plants in early spring is 1 rv O-lna-
    .iish. in stronqr c ntrasl to ithe aeti\'i'\v of their steins. In tlhe ilant
    illutratdl in Plate XIII. ligmnv "2. o new r'oot growth hadd laken
    ipa1e "p to the tine lthe photograph xas> Illade. For their :early
    -prit.lr inr'owth Idi luerry plaint-s etm to dhepetld Il the food storied il
    I heir twi i's the year before. k inmicrolscopicaIi exaiiination has shown
    that tile pith and lntedtllary r vay of winter ttwigs- are f iorpmet with
    sla ivtl.
    It miay ke ofI intere-11 to slate here, an hearing, (om the dilliclill *v o)f
    iinikingi; -1ein g'r~iwtl exhibited byv an improperly wincteredl bl"Iiberry.
    that tlie indoor plant shown in1 tig)-re 1 of IPlats XII and XIII Ia(d
    inadte cotsijerabl'e new 1 )root growth a tle iltae st xlsown ill Plat' XII
    :at"! auIndant roo! growtl in iPlate XI II. T'1 ,e startlingof or dontmlla
    buds appears front this andl manyt 'o (Ilier similar rases not lo) he inftlu-
    ence'1,d by Ie presence or absencei or I]('\\' ro'ot V'romw ll.
    .k prati'itl slngr.-I ,e ti nI asedI, on thlie late s)l'ing rtot d \'veloIpnlienl of
    tlie tdueberry is ii a( tIranlplanIing' niav |)(Mlap)~ he doIe up to tliNe

    I ll II -I I'II ,I. 1 A l l'l) l ,Ml AN 0 1 1 SIIIIE. A : d'-( I l. 11 kS IN S.II Is. '111 1 III \V1;.S

    ri~~oprci-:il iilri.. ii o lii i
    t a'l\l I )nle'eriy. T lantse front' Seed rn a ex tr ilt in Sei)tltlel)o It.oiT.
    nwel r11 loi t'tl t into t 'tlo r in o le o l ie Department nrI en; le i oitd '' i utit-

    i -t--' tII e' iiit h e tit o x I'titi Itl et' to theiselt,4 'llv e tite M w r l:i"i
    produced NOu. TI~ iv-feniliose (iontained few pollen-carrying, in-
    setsI few* ants and Hies merely cno bees. It was fotund that tlhe
    flower- weCre s-o cOWtitcl rced as to he. Ilnable ordinarily to pollinate
    1 li e I I lv,,I\es. I'e I la;k of r lh Was evidentq l d e to ladc of pl l lina-
    1 Am. W h len pollitnaced artliticall v llie llommis usually prodited 1'rnit.
    Ill its natural position lIhe fio\VvF (fig, 27) is not erect but in-
    Vveted. (lhe narrow orifict of (lhe corolla heing-. lowermost, tilie nect:11
    sellingg2 up front tlhe suirface of' tle disk etween tlhe base of (the astyle
    a Il tIe Imse of the lilan vents. Tlhe ten stamenst' ;and(i the syivh hol"ny
    down\\ard withiin the corolla, the slt'viens !ei"nK shorter tlhun lthe
    At\'10. '11e ipdlen whell n nature drops' dowhn\ 'ronl ]le two anther
    -ACs- ihrougrh Owi two anther tubtes which ti (li stalivin' of tie'se pblants
    po),,- antld omt at tlhe terminal pores. (See fig'. 2T.)