Dry-land grains for western North and South Dakota

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Dry-land grains for western North and South Dakota
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Creator:
Salmon, Cecil
United States -- Bureau of Plant Industry
Publisher:
G.P.O. ( Washington, D.C )
Publication Date:

Record Information

Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 29630432
oclc - 40721443
System ID:
AA00020813:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
    Soil
        Page 4
    Climate
        Page 5
    Other factors which have influenced the results
        Page 6
    Variety tests
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Rate-of-seeding tests
        Page 20
    Time of seeding winter wheat, winter wheat and summer-fallow, with particular reference to western South Dakota
        Page 21
    Milling and baking tests
        Page 22
    Summary
        Page 23
    Conclusions
        Page 24
Full Text
K4.0
Go ust 1910.
EPART NT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREA OF PLAN TRY-iruar N
B. T. ALIWAY hief ol Burevau.
%T
-IlD RAIS FOR WESTERN
NORTH AND SOUTH DAKOTA.
'Y
CEUIL SAULNI TI,
PLANT PatSIauuIT, GRAIN INVESTIHOTHONS.
N
rp1
lk~t




BUREAU OF PL.t.\'r INDUSTRY.




INTRO 1 T0IN+
~I'~~'I~22f"O 2 I'l J)Ak IotI2l
I A a1u d .
Ifi lA l S t ls in a
!i1~'r2! D iil !, i, II { l '{,. i!+. i 12' l~ li+ 2,i l Ii H
t 2'\ e I}q i m l I1-t;2 1 +; 'I I u 1 1- i i+, II 2 '' I ]);l
V I < 1 '
fItr i22 '2t I ,Il x,'-2 -'1 ,, ,, II 2 22
,2 ++ "'. ++ I' r'I+ + k'++ r ++ + + + hi xi 2' 1I+iIh' +2j'2'2Il i++ tI ; ii
, i ;Ili
h o ii + { l + + tl , ; + l , + I \ + l t
h a lu ++ + + r +w ,,++'it i+ + + +, t +- +l ++ xv + v,;iA.w l+ +++
ef+f, >+,+ L + I +iL L u ,+I ,f lr ++ + + ~ +L+; ,+.;++ I > ., + L t
l li+ +t+ ,+{ +. }+,++i +++- +++ + ++ +.+ I~p ,+.. ++, +; + ,+ ++++ +i l t h f- I




4 1)R-LAND) GRAINS FOR NORTH AND SOUTH DAKOTA.
tile subject is obtained. These results are submitted in the hope that
they will be of inunediate use to farmers, who, in many cases, come
from the Eastern States, where the rainfall is abundant, and are
unfaiihar with conditions in this area.
SOIL.
It has been the plan in locating these experiment farms to obtain,
-is far as possible, representative conditions of both soil and climate,
il order that the results may be applicable to a large area.
BELLEFOURCHE.
The soil of the Bellefourche experiment farm is a very heavy clay
Called "Pierre clay" by the Bureau of Soils; to farmers and stock-
men it is familiarly known as "gumbo." It is chiefly characterized
by its stickiness when wet and by its imperviousness to water, espe-
cially after the surface becomes wet. It contains a fair amount of
hinus and appears to be rich in the essential elements of plant food.
From a practical farmer's standpoint, its chief disadvantages are
that it is very heavy and therefore expensive to work, and that it is
necessary to work it when it contains the proper amount of moisture.
From the behavior of the crops, this soil seems to be very retentive
of moisture and is productive when properly handled.
Table I shows the results of a mechanical analysis of Pierre clay.a
Its characteristic stickiness is perhaps explained by the large percent-
age of (.lay and silt, amounting to 35 and 43.2 per cent, respectively.
TABLE I.-1'o7nposition of Pierre clay as ddermined by mechanical analysis.
Per cent.
Fine gravel .............. .......... ...................... 0.2
Co urse sand ............... ......................... .......... 1.1
M edium s and ....... ............ ........... .......... 1.4
Fine sand ........... ........ .......... 5.5
Very fine ,and.... ........... ..... ............ 13.0
S ilt ..-- -- -- ---.. -- -- -- -- -- --. ............ 43.2
c la -. -.... .. . . . . . . . . . . . ... . ... . . . . . . . . 3 5 0
The Pierre e.lay passes gradually into a clay shale, which is found
at a depth varying from a few feet to several hundred feet. This
t*ype of soil is found extensively in South Dakota west of the Mis-
souri River, and in a few areas not covered with the glacial drift
east of the river. It also extends into Montana and Wyoming.
The field in which the greater part of the experimental work herein
reported has been conducted seems to be well adapted to the purpose.
Check pilts have bieen used in all plantings when practicable to do so,
an(d in most cases it has been found that there is little variation in
differentlyl parts of t he field.
a Soil Survey of the Bellefourche Area, Advance Sheet, Field Operations, 1907,
Bureau of Soils, V. S. Dept. of Agriculture.
[Cir. 59]




DRY-I\ ND I wt(1 tlN s lroR NvurI( 1 [ AN ) so''i'i vi | . ,
I1:Y-I..\NI> ILIN- I'ul: Nuhi;IlI .\NI ~ [ii f II L ib l\. a
Thesoi of thv IIi n ore su I -initiio is, of h b il il rivin. In tiv iiur
i dlifr foll 0l, I 1 l, f 1rlv :0il in lhl it i- 1,a -o hIll aMid W-
sier to ork. It i-s stiftrti b th i lisett iln and its lopogn l.
T 1c r -i s on11 ihi llnt l i n Pw lfeli \ 1. b I k n I ii
r at W f A 10 felt i that On IP e wp illiill x\WID =0 :n tIikd
of seVel'iil \ ar'..
CLIMATE.
O ISIV IXilfN.
TIw sc il f the lickin,,n at bs atiini is not o hiivv sli lilm of
ait hr i ell ifo 1.rc ol i ii vv. I 1W e11s fron i i < i 1 \ lae ii a i y
011111. It ie io ctiv e t e l ik t\ ln i of i' \ i i r e t iei n t ill e miIIll
NOfth I aot:i. The lil in whicl vnirsk itIst ei h ig on,,,-
du le iti ltwir l t el fairl' y iili ritl. lali )l i ii vliC k t' ', it ll i
yealr qhiiV Ilc r ind q it aritlabl \ dh1ht.
CLIMATE.
T'hi climate of liclifurchiie. liig liiiTi'. und l )ickinx n i- faiiiil
ty ) iih-lof 1the 1ia'lhn li ( l Thlh i d 1 ililllil ItN ail Ivill )V'liZ.l110e
at llig nlnorc is 4 .5 l F. It is t .3 F. ait Dir inalsin. ltclords at i
Bellefourche liavet been takn fori a suiienQt aimi tn dtImviei
tin Ill ti h1 ) it is tft'tlfeldy )11(l thI saIi1 it< 11l
Iliglhnore.
Table If )ha ll lir arcl for tile -lglor o m dIH l il ti10 illllllil
alld settol nl fi ll for 080 1 i ld iritiil which N Iwlilliill; have
been comited at each of thvs, int. The ioial ainiill Air the
fill pltriod for which records are IvNaill h is l i il i e ll l 1 e P fir-
pose of Colinlflisoili.
s I i l r ipilaimn tit a t / uitrate.. /. I I. , q ,
1{1. !i I Jl It' 1 ii'
11 1 1I 1S qu 1
L P' 1
\ : l ; :I* n" 2i . ; .: 1 *
j r it hr t II
r trk', i r. I 1 .
ovrb t' i oi t




S )HY-LANID GAINS IO1 NOItTI AND dOUTIl DAKOT.
In all Ilis ussims in this mlper the seasoal inreipit atioi is under-
stod to )ie e ai l1itint(1 of 1t1oist11e which falls from March 1 to July
31. In he inotlhewrn (heat Plains lhe ilecipitation during this period
seeli,- to Ie more closely related t) crop irod(uct ion 1 taI does that
of ax otf her )riod. For >ilsall grail tili are its all of to l1>C as l itf I h (Top l1rt 1t t seSoll is COl-
('11ile1d. ()t I the (d l' liaili, Ilie M ai nli )recliltalio it *o 01S'l ([
Ilia t e 1 ,f (11si(tlr el use. :vein fo cro s v 111i(1 Jatull le late
ii tlie seas1oil, sutch as ('owt, Ie aitfa l lteviols to August is as
ilii l, itait as 1t hat i1ch Ioc lcurs :lei. In tie gr1w o ilig l f winter
H hall le 11ant11 aitd WiteI ple)ilIat l ll l ot ,lso b" considered.
The differencess in soil at! climate at BellhetAIrch(, IlighitMore, and
l)ickinson 4not laplwear to be great l(toigh to catise very difflereit
belivior of the grins. IThle e 1ilts iTet(( 1, c l)slv tlt iny of
Mhe s":amle varieties are tn((w(Illti' lt( Or t" w A ditIevivnv is t',iuml ,tweet IeMleih'ownret IIinhgire, atl 1)ickinson
a-. is tilit lrilv till 1 I 1etI W 11 1 r l wid i tr- e 11l io wl'n Great
Plai". It follows, lhet i 'o1 i at ile re-utIl l i es ented are i r bal)li
a)l)lica)le to tile greater puarlt f i 1N arait. The f ritwrl, to) inltter
where he is locateil should sim lv his tanditi s soil. rainfall, ten-
91rat t1'4', e )m)>srtion ec. By a evilNfi of 11 4W11 d111 o
m iltl i 1 4 f le (eN )e lilien t farilliln a stu id I t 1' h sl res lts. ()tain1(l
he Iliay reaelI a ve'v reliable c(mi('si m as to the grains wi\llie are
11(st likely to suc e'(ed It 1is farin.
OTHER FACTORS WHICH HAVE INFLUENCED THE RESULTS.
At all tIe exl ieni filar il 1ii er iis'ui-il1 i e grai is 1ave been
growl as nea rlv as possible I d( er ie citli iis-. The groun( has1
beel well prepared. al, Ilo g11 t() better tilai canil be (olte (I1 (very
well-regulated faril. The p lpiaratllim 1as bven uti1oril, so as to
seet110 ('11)aral)le yVields 1' all vailetles.
At )ickinsmn and Bellefotr(te thie cdolr have been( grown oI new
Inm with the exception of the barley at ikinson inii 1909, which
WIas gwn )11 on (c'll ground. Tle ustlitl lalic e has been to break
the lan in the spring of the previous year amd hckset it in ithe fall.
At 1lihijmni ite grain las 1usullv lien ,lT1 Oil ] tid o Which (1011r
or titall graili was groW-11 lie )pvi1s \ear. (CoPrn gro) 1 has be1en
1/ when lever possille. Before seet(i, in I tle sl)iing tI l grmllnd
is diskd and liorrowe sullicientlyv to 1)1 vile a good seed bed. The
grain ha been swmin wil ha d rill. ustuallv a dli'k TheI ate of siedilil hals not all ax 1 hen 1"e -aline for differentt
Years. At Bellefoulrnie1 th e duunin w(le:t lI- uustllv beeni sWil at
l 1i t1ate 1f l jeks ler aete entiiritu Srin wheat 4 peOls, and barley
and muts 3 and l pecks, respectively. In the variety test in 1908 the
1Cir. 9t.




Dt I ;\ 1.\ INSLI XIN'''X I1 l AN 1: S ,' 1 11 P k'i I .'"
i I MW l I "F ,'' 0" "i all 1 6 1 "10 "f 21 "; 1 1. 1 I I I'A0 %1 0 il
1 1 It, Ii 1 t ': t- L 1 I I r' I 1. 1 II A l
1iiii- \\L i :i f %vol IX Iw \cc I but "i~ i f I i h I "Ir w n I a
t l' I 11ll 1 t*' X f I114 I I F I 41 I A I I 1
Hia i 'ii t iI 0r X i 16 w A A If I i b
fm~~t I ', 1111 an s*iI III ''( I' l i F1 4" 111 0 1"au l Ui~ I
I'llifi t ) 1 1 1 ill I
wInfl f' 6 1h,+ ,,+ ,,+, ul tlw I n , mw "1 6Jl. "w,, wr()+ ar +, w
tiflli I Vit~f F a t Iia W tol A A I-? pr im Mirb "' i
UIth t)i ,l N (' l t (l t)I w!t I k I ,IIt A s m 4 '
1+ +it h ll : 11 i U,* IVM 1 I I \ i I+
re )O'l H 11
t i ll14, 111- t I''.1 \ 1- T h i(
(11 li \ l, : 11 t vd ill s t' e 1 ) 1!p i d Il
It o (1t thil i n't ta r~ill: 1~ **f1~'f'a--iaL a'Li ii illl ~a Xi iI
th i lut'rt.' Ican o :I** f t' i c va lcii
h Itio' l00He Itn Iw \\ l' a i ie t,i j w )F l i 1 w it I ,
11 il', hchil % 1 1 I Io 111v w 1 e vn rj~ m a ," e I1 "
d 'Vl ini th ) )i ~ t I : il \ l[,f I, n I i ,+o I a v L ,I rp i I d
hiiiii: Ifo h a ~'&' \ ,, 'i, I a' XX iif FL X+i..- LII ,sF! H ,I,+,+,, ++ +, I,, i+ t i,+ ) ... I
Ca ii V'tijll I'fX Il' an l'L'Ii 'L ~ IiL ~ iX~L In .l'aI
ia nit li I nru' \l L I I J I L 1 I II I ;
tI 1 lit) uI (ll I II1 I till XX ) i' IVi I I a I Q q i I a I T1
tlu 18 it t ll P 1 tl)H l
loin0 )hn, own t'll i +t t l In :I Q In = 1w f,-nciq, 1
HAIETY TtESTSILL0 !
lItlit i( tlI fX ILtL'IL+-f fl'X ) i', i) ,n-VX k I- LA, b' I L III il I h,
lo II 8t i i e \*** bi t 0
th rcl \ ',h ill f II ,', I-4 1 lic ', 'A K1 t,- c w iT A cl ,.,l ,
yearsI'I~fI 1 ffl lit' 1Iia tn I) (ilLl rI ,i +wi 1,, I i. L i I" l owLt ''I 114111
t d 1\1111 1 11 v ,loullt i. I
II~aII-'.tI t ff l)I+'fiX :i X I +f'hX 'I is Faa + X + hal) La'-( In.:t I+ F li-I- \FF),) ++
al i'n ,i PIL il It ,. I'IL a l L l, Iw A La4 T' i,
tiX v atl 1 '' I ll-, X I f A n I I mL l li
itlif l t l, 11 jhLLZ ,t(ii I l N li i \w I ,0i, 'aX i I g F
p l T 1 y t Iv 1 1 1 1 1 '. Ia n v v u 1 )*, W 1 1
'IIti It'" ,li, iL "' t th,- )',' -- IF IiI- XXF r( a )1 1 I I i' la I ii+ ;t'',i +. ) ,.
(L ciit ;1lnX i )t ir 1, F I) Ia 1 A 3 C Vi
  • th: st H l
    Olt 1*le w II I t l 0l II T
    (ilrl h-- 111 i l t' I' \v i \nv l + ) -+ + < ', + l i + ., I )
    I~l l:111 ,f ()P i a : ,,t
    Ie ll grow n :It th( **tt l) a t:1 .\ 11




    8 DRY-LAND GRAINS FOR NORTH AND SOUTH DAKOTA.
    at Brookings. These were tested for several years, the best being
    grown in field tests. Some were grown as early as 1902 at Mellette,
    S. D)ak., andl in 1903 at the substation at lighlinore. Later, when
    (*ol"t)rtive work was begun at the substations at Edgeley and Dick-
    inson, N. Dak., the best varieties were sent there for trial. In 1908,
    when the work at the Bellefourche experiment farm was inaugurated,
    oIly those varieties which these various tests had shown to be best
    were uIsed.
    In t hlie progress of the work at various places many varieties have
    been discarded, so that those which are being grown at present may
    be regarded as the best of their chless.
    Tables II1, IV, and V show the average and annual yields of the
    duirum and(I common heats at the three experiment farms under
    discussion. In Table IV, which shows the yields at Ilighmore, two
    ('olulnis of averages are given, as most of the common wheats were
    not grown until two years after thie (duruni wheats were introduced.
    TABLE II I.- Yield per acre of spring wheat groun at the experiment farm, Bellefourche,
    8. Iak., in 1908 and 19109.
    ID( RUM \VII lEAT.
    190S. 1909. Average.
    (1. I.Vrey
    N o. Varie .eight Weight Weight
    per Yield. per Yieldh per Yield.
    hushel bushel. bushel.
    Lbs. Bush. Lbs. Bush. Lbs. Bush.
    140 Kulhanka .... ........... ........ 62 0 24.9 62.0 a 21.4 62.0 23. 2
    1516 lo .... .......... ... .... ... 62 1 b 23 64.5 226 63.3 23.2
    1350 Pererodka .............. 62.0 22.5 64.5 23.2 63.2 22.9
    1493 Wild Goose.... ........................ 61.5 22.3 65.5 22.6 63.5 2.5
    1354 Kubanka .. - 24. 64.0 19.5 ....... 22.2
    1444 Yellow Gharnovka ... ............. 62. 0 22.7 64 .5 20.9 63.3 21,8
    1347 W ill Goose.................................. 60.0 21.3 63.5 22.0 61 .b 21.7
    COMMON WHEAT.
    .025 Powers Fife ........ ...... .......... 59.5 1. 3 61.0 17.3 60.3 17.9
    3022 I sting's Fife 0...... ...... ... 19.3 b.5 15.0 53 17.2
    >020 Haynes Pedigreedl BIluestern ...... 535 IS. 3 56.5 13. 55. 0 16.1
    2492 Manchuria................ ........ ....... 60 16.2 61.5 16.0 60. 16.1
    elI"Gika pin 5 16.2 60.0 11. 5 a.3 14.0
    ,1517 Ghirka Spring ........................... . .. .2 ..o. 0 11.7 5.3 14.0
    a Average of two check plats.
    b Average of three cheek plats
    SYwields are not strictly comparable with others, lbeeause of a difference in the size of the plals.
    [Cir. 59)




    [lY*.ANID .1tI F Ol NiICJll II 1ND Si T 11II I\llA.9
    1 r I.i
    t\t 1\ y 1 \ H 1% II
    Lvb 2 1 / 2 2 I I a1 2 l i
    1541 | U1I.lItk.1 I U 2.2~ 2. 2!+ I 1I'1 22'. I'i~ 2 I.'. +i '
    . ...h. nk..i..
    1 1h H hesr we 1,,,I I 1' 1 1 '
    to"1Nh I I I hs 1' IN 51 12wm 2 7 7
    1516 nuli fllk ....X I.I'.1 .',1! 21 Z 2 I I I I 21
    1 M I %% thl Nito ,. 1 2,, 2 1 .1 I' I ii V t 1 2i l ?
    M in lt' ll II 21 I 2 II r I
    1 M1 ein~wl lk1 I. 22" + 2I II 7 1 1:7 I
    I \rn I litk aJ 1'
    1 -6 Prwroalk s
    11II 40 .do +,) 2 2 '2 It 2! *l 7 2'.7
    11 r l lit1,k .2 I s.
    Il Kubinka |
    ShMM N H iE k T.
    l hirk .S ilc .' 11 A 1
    Il l,'r l H N, 1 I ,Illt
    Pliinogan 1 dih \ri e' 11< "t1 1 411, 1 i I, 1
    Mtinn2of1.' + I'. 1 I -71 .'t7 + 1+H+ 21 I 10 1 -1
    n ralol 11 It7 .++
    Mlnnesor~ a / 1 71 .o 22l* + 2 i. l,+ t 1
    T M :lllt' }l d l"i 1 '72 '" 'I "a 11 t l o17 /.l I .
    l lI e l .i iJ l It
    lT'I ?m K it if fir
    lTO variet y l't7 Imp".I le, \ ~
    k ilh:
    . 4 O K l ~ i l~ ... .. .1 ..................
    I Go+l Pr rerm:Ik a.+2 1 + ,I
    Y ellow+ *,|1 sun as .. + + + +
    1114T IIb It
    15 ~~~~~ .. .... ... t+ .!+ ,1
    ***1111<*N\\ Illf 11
    l5l7 C hirka li rm.:L7 '+] + +> ,
    ..... I/htle st+ I' *Io r ** liltlie ut" r"t
    I! ]em:1l I trs' \nntial I '!+or* o*L le 1+ I. ti tl |+ t+ llI11, ~l~ t ~




    10 1)DRY-LAND GRAINS FOR NORLTI AND SOUTH DAKOTA.
    BELLEF OU1R 1E.
    The highest average Yiehl of spring wheat at Beliefourlche is 23.2
    bushels per acre, as shown in Table III. This was obtained from two
    strains of the Kubanka variety, G. 1. No. 1440a (better known as
    S. P. I. No. 5639) and G. 1. No. 1516.6b Several other varieties have
    vielded nearly as much.
    ()f thile common wheats, Powers' Fife (G. 1. No. 3025) has yielded
    the most, 17.9 bushels per acre, or 5.3 bushels less than the Kubanka.
    Rysting's Fife ((G. I. No. 3022) is a close second. The Bearded Red
    Fife, which has yielded well at Highmore, has not been included( in
    these tests. Several strains of this valuable variety are being grown
    in the plant nursery. Some of these aire very promising and will be
    grown in comlparisoln with the other varieties as soon as sufficient seed
    is obtained.
    HIGHIMORL.
    The Kubanka variety (G. I. No. 15316) has produced the highest
    average yield of thle duruini wheats at Iigihmiore, 22.4 bushels per acre
    for the seven-year period from 1903 to 1909, as shown in Table IV.
    The Ghirka Spring. the only conu1non spring wheat grown for the full
    period of seven years, gave an average yield of 14.5 bushels per acre.
    The Bearded Red Fife has produced the highest average yield of the
    coImmonn wheats fort lie live years from 1905 to 1909. Three varieties,
    Pedigreed Bluesteim, Minnesota No. 169, and Okanogan Valley Velvet
    Chairff, have each produtced an average yield of about 1.5 bushels below
    that of the Bearded Red Fife.
    The common and durum wheats have been grown on similar ground,
    with the exception of the 1909 crop. A comparison of yield of the
    two groups inll 1909 can not be made for that reason. The average
    yield of the Bearded Red Fife variety for the four years from 1905 to
    1908 is 19.5 bushels per acre, or 7.5 bushels less than the yield of the
    Kubanka for the same period(. The former, however, is at present,
    1910, discriminated against by the millers, although not to the same
    extent as is the (durum wheat. Its greater Yie ld, as compared with
    other varieties of common wheat, is for that reason partly offset
    by the lower price usually received for it. The Kubanka variety
    averages niearvly 9 bushels more than the Pedigreed Bluestem, the
    seconId connomn wheat in point of yield, an increase of more than
    4S per cent.
    a Grain In ves igat n uS lumber.
    b The fillw ine strains of the Kubanka were obtained by Mr. 3M. A. Carleton: G. I.
    No. 1410 in I December, 1900, from uralsk territory. Rutissia (i. 1. No. 1516, from the
    Paris Expositili inll 1900 (originally from the Samara government, Russia); G. 1. No.
    135-4 IS. P. I.N. 6 009). fromI tIe Astrakhan government Russia. in Auiiust, 1900; and
    G. 1. No. 1'54 S 1'. 1. No. 2738 from the Samara government, Russia, in 1898.
    S4'ir. 59




    Kas u h nk \, il.I t( hos, e,, ;i, i t i, 1 ;ar e b I iNht l ti4 etnr t ialli ttc
    hIllc :11 I)lClilwall. .." 6, 0.6, III[ 0 IIPl -1- A, 10% nfi I ll
    The li tilkta i' w lp' I ta 1ItP IIa,'iW tt twle \dd I 4 l -. a\i\ l
    wo d4 I in it. efvT.e, c1 t t li ,lPI. IWP (ihirl .
    aSp ar1t i (.t> t n 1's ai -t r, I t t',IM l o. II A llHit H ,l
    vifb Ie gro t I ( ilt ll il n it, I\b \lt 1i11t i at" P Je I
    It has ~t t klmon n lI at vitlhr l 0 i r6 f b r l lilntt A bpllA l
    drilll dr t \ 1 l *hilt l Ir,,l i I-O
    average chl,.1 -lul pr:a-T ., i-1 1 I h- 11 ;til e w it I.1.
    all in feaf p t'riv t1 I1 r ,f a t t IN p! r ,m '1"1,o hirku >l it
    is a eillniar 1i w Ii ll l at 1101tIn i~ (fr ll 1 \ t i ol i ll h
    0 (1ar it h1:s hnot been xte1-1i el 1 ,, lt \ltH, .1- it. itliw~ 111lil
    has not beon tlutroughli t11t1", i i mlr ",, i 4 The I ,f t1hv
    Kub nka t ickin-,on i- 5,S 1 uhVeVI vnt, rtlh n ti, il t he
    )est Blu1st1 i ,or in ilnle ,cw t, f ilnl re !t ut 1,, c' ,ilt.
    T he )re00( 111 i-,'" 'l l 1,n 1 W I ith', t t il II
    F e at li htnor, anh tint at 1)wkin,, .\t echW
    h ho I ON)Plhillill Ofill it' t at \14 1 100111 W 1 11M ol l
    (if lillt, ( Grim(l Ofarm.s thl it'Y st ,4I h mt II U tiva 1411 10,\
    obtained I'rt111 o ne +)the +l)to \+ tn ,fOw++ l lmlu k %ari't,..
    (. 1. No. It ) ha s ivven hle1 high ,t l i,1h at )ikin., o G,. 1. No.
    1516 at ih ,hi li twl t' t in, itH s fi t mmb lH l I Ahl
    two strains. (. 1. No. I110 is sliohil, 1 allr than (G. 1. N t 151.
    alld killing anl haking teo I comnl ti Al a th ", ,t 1" )k-,t A'ri-
    cultural x plerilnlil 1S8a 1i1n illi uitle tI t it 1 1 -11arini to the
    bitter ill i11s re t Rel l l11ts ar I rep rted for ol 1 T +,1 -. aoll
    further testI in Cmmnl~ i)t1 with tile wink at lM*lhfalirle hutve
    shown im ich hc, Wli n ivch t\v,tte t f \iv -,t mraim+.
    Variety te1t1 1t ili r lmit* show 1t'tH001 th rum I e if ulhlhl
    1not he gr I) 1)lit ll inil ,m ilditiul Itv l +t lilies ,- even lss
    adapted t,) )t, s t1i0n W"w of tlh of varof tl0r 1arilti .l) A frently
    t1( aht t ) I l e', I t,, II I I )t l I f t H It Iallfe w a s at flip three
    eX)perill(iln fanill la Ofrth inv t r i tltfuc + ge 1' th+f 1 0 ariveles
    in conlltyri)H wil h thlSo Kulmnka. Thu- thi, \ariet (G. 1. No. 14 i)
    produced t he highest yichl of all the varities at lBenhfourche in
    ** lF+irst +\ntibl li+j,+rt **I lt* 1 1 km-< lIt '"lih-1 \pe 'lin, lhit '"f.sn j)(lse, ip I.
    G +lhtiletin--'s.'arol't's.'-- ush luk.,t.<.Lgroultural 1:1ple+ronent eStisn
    liI r+ ) !




    12 DRY-LAND GRAINS FOR NORTH AND SOUTH DAKOTA.
    1908 (Table III), a (Iry year, but in 1909, a season of abundant
    precipitation, it was slightly exceeded in yield by other varieties.
    At Ilighnore in 1904, the driest year during which tests have been
    conducted, three strains of the Kubanka, G. I. Nos. 1440, 1516, and
    1541, ranked in yield first, second, and third, respectively (Table
    IV). Likewise at Dickinson in 1909, with a rainfall considerably
    above the normal, the Kubanka was outyielded by other varieties,
    but in 1907, the driest year, it yielded the highest. While such
    com1parisons do not hold true for each year at each experiment farm,
    it appears that the Kubanka is better adapted than other varieties
    of durum wheat to dry climates and( dry seasons. It is very prob-
    able that for a period of years during which the precipitation
    approaches more nearly the normal than has been the case during
    the past few seasons, or when the precipitation is below normal,
    the superiority of the Kubanka variety will be more clearly shown.
    COMPARISON OF DURUM AND COMMON SPRING WHEAT.
    An important result of the variety tests is definite information
    concerning the comparative yields of durum and common spring
    wheat. It has been pointed out that the superiority in average
    yield of the best durum over the best common spring wheat has
    amounted to from 18 to 48 per cent of the vield of the common
    wheat, the smallest difference being at Dickinson. As previously
    noted, the average precipitation at each experiment farm for the
    period during which these comparisons are made is from 1 to 5
    inches above normal. This has undoubtedly resulted in a differ-
    ence less than would otherwise be the case, since it is only in dry
    years that the full value of the durum wheat becomes apparent. For
    example, at Ilighmore in 1906, with a seasonal precipitation of about
    1 inch above normal, the difference in yield between the Pedigreed
    Bluestem variety and the Kubanka was 12.2 bushels. The increase
    fromt growing the Kubanka in this case amounted to about 75 per
    cent. In 1904, with a precipitation of about 4 inches below normal,
    the difference -in yield in favor of the Kubanka amounted to nearly
    100 per cent of the vield of the Pedigreed Bluestem.
    At Dickinson the driest year since the variety tests were begun
    was 1907. The difference in vield that season between the Kubanka
    and the Ghirka Spring varieties was 9 bushels per acre, and between
    the Kubanka and the Bluestem 12.9 bushels, or a gain for the
    Kubanka in the hitter case of nearly 69 per cent. As the seasonal
    precipitation in 1907 was just about normal, it seems very probable




    ta t fI ( n it it' of }eath in mbWirl li mn eit"O liijtuNal i thoeti imrti:
    the lt ft' llC l it1 141 iotltl*1 i it' th li tlill itil d ilits ul i ti i ,ii ,prit "
    w 1e t t his IInI Mil h' liotue ba vtl e it"ng h ofs t 1 l I liNtt ,iort
    ill price .
    At 1 l011ti 1 01V 1 Ii10iA Ht l itl11Vei II I \lel I isbe ( 10i I l d til
    Its )th11 10# 11 I iD ll t I IV *\h fell htfail' l In li, lfi4.i 011 lit
    IIt ha415011 i.) hil t'r p itilul l i f t f 11 flofi lih ( V A t l d liet een tiIHOii i lI t i i lil I o ft faiunllio n mlil uHi lt1
    alll tl i ti f10 i 1 25 to 7.1 per t(t.ill. II ai- ll \ ll I lie preilpili-
    tioni is below noriial the dilt'e, is raliter. A l l lrii ily
    I ilentiolield, the value i o diU'iil H Weill is < iP I it il lit i
    IFsist drougit. Blecati~te of tliis uilili\ it mill uII~Iall1 prlute
    pro itabl yields in \'teir- oi iifisIn lie iit i that no mitli wi esatelr is
    ralilZA l front Ihe to riltioi spl 'ing H ill I. In In I'h e leilr' a-,
    itilCh and i usually inior, plr1 11 i rel)ilize I l'r7 lii i litill r i illat.
    llThe present Hitlfrenee in pri(e I,15 to 20 iits wIr I u siI s hio id
    not prevent thlie gronWig of tliiftiii H ilat ili tii ( ettii lhills, mar-
    tieularl in tl- e s(ctiolls \\hele \\ illter ieit'l ('lilt litl bi e 'grow il.
    Ev VerN fialiler S liolll iliist oli obt 1ii111 tlte k.iV \aritl uhlnika,
    and slu i then i he ver1 carefuil ito kee it pure. This is parti iularl
    iniportiant here uIUl lif iill ci 1 hin1 ni ll at ire grow II ill ie millie
    far h, s the i1 rs object to ~iurtlni Vlat contaiilliig evell ;i liiiil
    proportion of o ison VI wheat.
    It hils been fully teiimnt ratt I i bllret il an I lludie froin
    dlitll ~oil1 tat i eotlu l iII qu lt it( iti a tliid fr im conIlilltion
    spring wheat. The bread hin as igh a i t t i e vaiue, ii and tIhouighi ai
    little darker in (color is preferred by ine to t hait maide from co lilili
    wheMat. The dry- and fafiller bY 1 Iillg tilrUlill holur and thi's creatuillg
    at deniland for 1 lnd by growing o11W i the be'0t Viljet y of tirn
    wheat and keeping it e miY bring its pre i lore neliarli t lthie
    level of that of ('ti11111011 sirill g wheat
    M INTER V Hll tAT,
    Winter wheit 1WAt been il le il ich of il e t ire pe x erilli farill,
    but only at Bellefiurhe liihas it proved a de(imbled sic'cens. In bioth
    1908 and 1909) gol yiehdi were obtained. Bolti crop, ere sowni
    on land broken in the spring of P i7, that for ithw 10 c)rotp havpi ige
    been suniner-falh008 i n initi. ill). T' pni if udelit variety m ere
    sown in 19s, with it lhe except io f the ('rimniean ((n No. 143.M aai
    the Khaurkof ((. I. No. 1,S3). ()ne phit was \n 1p member 13 and
    fair. 391




    14 DRY-LAND GRAINS FOR NORTH AND SOUTH DAKOTA.
    the other October 5. The average of all the plats of each variety is
    given in the following table:
    TA.L: VI. Yield per arre of rider ihrat grown at the e4pernin/ farm, Bellfourche,
    S. 111%:., in 1908 and 1909.
    190S. 1909. Average.
    y 11eight l s ants Plants
    Yield. p 1 1. u- Yield. per ur- Yield. sur-
    bS ,' w~g ,li- rving, giving
    u bwinter.use. winter. winter.
    Bush. Pound. Per ct. Bush. Pounds. Per ct. Bu.h. Per t.
    3055 Turkey. ................... 22.3 flo.0 72. 14.5 62.0) 94.7 3 4 83.4
    111.2 Klh rko .... ................ 25.4 tit),0 69 0 40.3 tI 5 91.9 32.9 80. 5
    155S4 Turkey .......... ....... 24.1 1 7.0 .0 61.5 87.2 32.76 9.1
    1571 .... do .... ................ 25 5 60.1 0 00 39.() (.1.5 53 7 32. 3 76. 9
    1583 Kharkof ......... ......... '22.5 410.0 52.0 39.0 1.5 9.9 30.8 76.0
    14:7 ('ri nan ...... ............. 25.3 ( .0 5.0 3 0 98. 9 30. 7 77.5
    1435 .....do...................... 18.7 57.5 62 0 31.5 61.5 ....... 25.1
    The average of the two years' test at Bellefourche shows that the
    Turkey variety (G. I. No. 3055) produced the highest average yield,
    33.4 bushels per acre, having exceeded the next best, the Kharkof
    (G. 1. No. 1442), by 0.5 bushel per acre. It also has the highest
    weight per bushel and the highest percentage of winter survival.
    Results are not reported for either Ilighmore or Dickinson.
    In athlition to the varieties just discussed, which were grown on
    one-tenth acre plats, about thirty-five were grown in rows. These
    were obtained from various sections of the United States and Canada,
    and are the best varieties grown in their respective localities. Of
    these, the winter survival of all but ten was below 50 per cent. The
    winter survival of twenty-two varieties was less than 2 per cent.
    Only one variety, Turkey, survived to the extent of 90 per cent. No
    stronger proof should be needed that the farmer must exercise great
    care in the selection of varieties for his farm.
    COMPARISON OF WINTER WHEAT AND DURUI WHEAT.
    At the Bellefourche experiment farm the winter wheat has yielded
    practically the same as the durum wheat when grown under the
    saMe conditions. In 1908 the average yield of the seven best varie-
    ties of winter wheat was 23.4 bushels per acre, whereas an average
    yiehl of 2:3.2 bushels was obtained from seven varieties of durum
    wheat grown on similar ground. The difference in yield between
    the best variety of each for the season is 0.6 of a bushel in favor of
    winter wheat.
    During the season of 1909 winter wheat on summer-fallowed
    ground produced from 31.5 to 44.5 bushels per acre according to the
    variety. A plat of the Kubanka durum wheat grown in the same
    fiehl, but in a different part#of the series and on lower ground,pro-
    duced 36.8 btushels per acre. An adjoining plat of the Turkey win-
    I Cir. 591




    III;\ I \\ I, I.: l I= I \ "H ill \%N D **i" II m i a l1 ,
    (Or h 1 il, till OI t illic 0 -if t I Ito -,t i L e\ it e, t. \ Win, l *
    .7.3 hth dil IM'f lite'' 01 ofit' a olimif Il-lc lifP I ll HIi I :l111 llaik .:
    T 71 i t l tri l Ii lt I -Iii \ Ir l I 'l i t l li I-, a 1,tiL
    T h1l, 0 ill 1t1 1 i t I1 M ii it111 m il t d 11 11H t' l 14 11 i t 1 1 t41 1 4l
    HwhI i l 1 0i, 1l :1w f ill I :- I lt' i'\fltilittII .11In e I\ll. i110p
    alild hiis Ilit I rll r 1 "141" I II \ 1,ill 4 1 JliP lIiirf lii lf % ii ,h
    t I d i l i lle 11 I 1, t 1 k ,1 0,'r i 'at, I iIf 41 id to 1 :11.
    I t\ IUs
    ( its li l 1:Il :t1 J)1' li1 t 111, I i III I W 4 \ I Ilnt'l it1- it :ill ti"e
    expc)rinit'lw fhilll.. fiI'i' 1 '!- l ,11 t ;,'iI ** ifi fntml iird 1 H la iar'-
    It Belh f4 ii1t'l ', kf ifr e ai t I llf i l4 4it1 j r i'll i11 IlI1 illi, t ,.
    Tal es Vll. VI II, li 1 IX vmh w the m all 1i :ii t'irl a1 \ !. K i the
    differ ln 1 rilot ill a' i I x r\ i'nlln tlti :it fWit O h cr nl il .
    TAIuIA. \II 11' of \ 1r. 'PTO ofi1 1 'N K s A
    / f /
    . it .......l~ l .......... I ,
    4591 Kher.a..
    IT l I 1 i. 11 1 1 444
    342 ll.+w 4,4 + 4444 +7;I
    1 ... )... ....
    **re0 1 v
    T m V \ 1/.. ;' //.;'
    4;. I
    4 w
    19* I1IItI
    134 !'4"'I4"4 h t '. 44{i! + i
    .Ns th tt \/ +++# +++/++ +
    H
    1G.5 "'4\t', .144'I 7 2 4 4
    1No I b el r '
    144 '44 w4'f4, 44 ites+ I+ 1 4 -
    4 1 1014 sh' 44I. 4
    2'. 1(1 .is t n 4 l .. 4.t + 4
    ..... llxrO k . . . + .7 l '+ + 1
    l5. \ r1 i" ,I
    S19 1144.ib 44 \wt4
    441 1,4'H F .
    445 a A 4IIP ,' It |l ;t )' .. 44 4 ++7
    'N 4444l tlc i4.... .... 4.4' +I + 2 +
    1 tly'ir 514]++++ + l ; 2Z+




    16 DRY-LAND GRAINS FOR NORTH AND SOUTH DAKOTA.
    'ABLE ]X.-~- Yild pcr acre of oats grown at the experiment form, Dickinson, N. Dak.,
    from 1907 to 1909, inclustrfe.
    Variety. 1907.a 1908.a 1909. Average.
    Bushels. Bushls. Bushels. Bushdel.
    Early M ountain..... ...... ................ ...... 80.9 1 36. 90.0 fig.2
    tw ) ................ ....... ......... ...................... 79.0 47.5 79.8 ti8.8
    K herson..............1................................. 75.3 48.1 81.3 ti8.2
    366, Black Brie ..................... ... ...... 68.1 40.8 81.5 63.5
    300 W hite Tartarian ...... ..... ....... .............. 72.8 33.9 83.1 63.3
    54 .0. ................... .. .... .. . .............. 70.0 42.0 77.8 63. 3
    36s Canadian......... ........ ....... hl. 2 U33 71.6 62.0
    376 lH ine's Prolific.................... ................... ( 13. 1 40.2 75.0 59.4
    lWd) Banner .......................... ................. 46.8 41.6 89.4 59.3
    163 Am erican Beauty. ............. ................... 48. 4 41.6 ). 5 58.8
    497 Black Mogul ........ ............................. 50.9 46. 6 77.8 58.4
    344 ............ ..... ............... ................ 65. 9 34.5 73. 3 57.9
    493 Golden Rain ................... .. .. .. ... ........... 35.2 52.8 <82.2 50.7
    378 Heseler No. I ......... ...... ... ................. ta. I 32.0 69. 7 54. 9
    491 IIvilling ... _. ............. ... ...... ...... 42. 6 39.2 73.5 51.8
    51 Vhite Rtssian.... ....... ........... 62.8 28.1 (4.3 517
    * 133 Shatilovsky........ ........... ..... ............ 23.1 44.1 82. 6 49.9
    492 Ligowo ......... .... .... ....... ... 36.0 37.5 75.3 49.6
    196 Black Bell. .... ..... ........ _........ 47.8 36.6 40. 0 41.5
    1 1 Sixty-Day..... .... ........... 58.2 37.2 ..........
    134 Swedish Select ...... ..... ... ..... 46.9 ..... .. 81.3 .
    a From First Annual Report of the Dickinson Sub-Experiment Station, 1908.
    *' Average of three check plats.
    - c Average of four check plats.
    BELLEFOURCHE.
    The best yielding oat varieties at Bellefourche are the Kherson
    and the Sixty-Day. They seem to be practically identical in both
    yield and appearance. The only difference noted is that the Kherson
    is one or two days later in maturing than the Sixty-Day and is
    slightly taller. The average yields are 36.4 and 36.3 bushels per
    acre, respectively. The Swedish Select ranks third, with a yield of
    33.3 bushels per acre. Other varieties range in yield from 18.5 to
    30 bushels per acre.
    HIGHMORE.
    Only Sixtv-Dav and Swedish Select oats have been grown at High-
    more for the full period of seven years. In 1906 the former was
    grown on sorghum ground, and therefore was not comparable with the
    other varieties. A plat of the Swedish Select on sorghum ground
    )v the side of the Sixty-Day yielded 42.8 bushels per acre, or 22
    bushels less than the plat of the same variety in the regular variety
    test. The average of the Swedish Select for seven years on ground
    comparable with the Sixty-Day is 41.5 bushels. The average yield
    of the Intter for t he same period is 40.2 bushels. A four-year average
    from 1906 to 1909, inclusive, of all varieties (Table VIII) shows the
    Kherso)n in the lead, with a vield of 41.5 bushels, and the Swedish
    Select a close secondl, with a yield of 41.3 bushels. Had the Sixty-
    Day been grown on comparable ground in 1906 it wouhl undoubtedly
    have equale(I either of these in yield.
    l Cir. 59)]




    1is1 hi\ 0N
    l t' I lfl \ M l li ttti 1 I f*i tlA I i. I \ N F '.- I I AN I 1 I I I I % ,i,l' I
    1)ickin o,a v h11w in T bh.I I'( It r tnk ,l l- i1 lm l -, a l
    in lo)~} (L 1. No. .Ni rank, o, I th I lr- n third 61'r II,
    1000et 10140 T1141 hie' \vle 4 th 10 U mit 1:firll 1- W s til n
    t1 , IV Iwi0:1 that.i l Hill n. I I- )IT oili.t:, i \ I- l l
    It d0h 1 1 l)4 h \ tt: \ 11 P 1) tl l' s **lI **li t~ l i 'I\ ) ;11 ;rtile it et 1- l I)r
    aleh \ii, h av I m i W,." mw,,' rm(,, O r the. il I)nN w,)Id tlhe (,i-l
    hSelect flr t w full ptri,,dn
    4.1 \ l I; 11 | 1- t ~ l*P)
    'hic1(, l r,,t' ,e(i x tI h f a hvs lp" th t AWi' I i' x t t i, l ill I f r tn ii' l --ti -,
    lm v lv rinluml )lu S v 0 at"th I ln .r-in Int .11 l ,ullell-
    have Nihh"l the hiclet at lIlhwfaurch, the 1II(r0 ilin 1 O 1w 1Cart\ M ulitlill :1t I l, 1ii-lson 1lw -ll, wat,
    YV iragi' \lt* fr t it 1erint. lIs' lea Ia yieldf I lt' > \ l l v -I )ix
    \ he'i gf' fili tili 1'm ii\r l1t ii*ii*ii i i x I i l y I- I' l It hai I ,
    the h e ihSole s. At Ifirkhino th w wr--Ii b ad l about
    iat I) 1hl th' t Ili it I d1'lxk Mht thf lni. i d l M hf i i lii 1 t itl i' inai it \
    alt thalit l&h'e. l'l1' bitteir 1ii 1Uiall tii ll't-' i t t i la v, l~ th li
    the firiner ai th i't'fir, i t t : at 1ai: i fax t a'i ti lf a
    longer plWt in H hi1 iii I" uit "t.
    It (ei,lfi fia l\+ \ are ,tthe ir p ti, 1 the f il(, liftrii*ril
    Grl t Plain1. ()vter 1n"It if tlii- art' a l ii 1i1 raiiiifall antI
    1hig tilp ratltirf art th li k h ilt. ( tilt't nti il I t i f t llt I
    injure d 19 "il lit anid '. ig tiiiwra n at a lltr -Iif' tl 1iil
    de elopment. T Pl lix ti HI I it 1 an 16 11 h i ar \' t ar!arl
    m aturing viri et- 1 ani Will ii11iill il r t ll it li i' uthliIta l x t i l- 'T
    Sw((iih Se'lectl \-riiq ,vvhiv+li lninill- inn lIt lotl (5%i,- Im er+i than the(
    -In- D a i Ilte Khler'+i tri l ,t W-. Ihasi i1 i 1Wl 1 ll-. lirnt'x n
    I I 1l Il li t lt ll xani" f It.' an fit t t1x i xx it i t lttl "-1 it
    14 00 il ) th at11( :1 1 rv nei b n il be row ii it I0 1 win llI
    Tab e X, X. AnIl XII s~hlitxx tl' xhe lt I h f tin e xit4 nd, t ltl,
    grown in th!ll t'-st at H'lit'faureli', tf tiftee n at Iliiinirt,, uill I
    elhvtil at D l l'kin- Tihe lr i ti 1a ,tn tit, arte ctthiiii lll 1tiIl
    (iI, th 0 :li tl Illire t l' r i ni < t i- tit a d dI i t a t i liMlll t in )t' l i
    Il Yvet' 1t\ a i-
    leair '.aj




    t I11 I..\NIb PLAINSNS lO NOlt'lil AND SOUTl DAKOTA.
    ITAi.i: NX. i; I/d p~ i (W, < j ,f m u I t I ,, 1 i nu i firm, Bhilfoutrcet, S. flak.,
    in 190 ond/ 190'9.
    19N4. 190l A v ierage.
    ari t' ( 1' \
    S r Yield,. Ydu r fishi p*r ild.
    ' Ii ln ........... ... T wo-row :_, I 2. .:( a,2. 51., 26.4
    2o; ..... . o..... .I 0 *279 510 21.1 51., 24.7
    i: M hutmi ... ... .Nil-ro ... 5 2M c 4 ..0. 17. 17. 3 21.7
    1n .... tIll.l4 >.. .! 0 I. (1.0 9.4; 411.0 13.0
    \\ 1111 hullh-, ... 1. do.... : 12. 4. 9.0 A.. 10.5
    ml teo :tN o ...... i- ... .9 19. x. . . .
    1 "2 l s . 50 ( i t a t ...... .. T wko-roll. .. 1 o 0 2 1
    :I llai ihen...... li- ... do ,... .... .. . 11, 0 0.2
    A ler~tpeallworlw k i'
    TABI X I FI ,l pit" e b/ / iyot,(,, tr, l, ,p / it ),; I'H i 10 I'st h. I / ,sit
    Average.
    C4 1. \;livt v. ( 1:I l :) 1 1'),. l,,, l)' IP ,. i' Five Seven
    N o,
    No at years
    1903- (190)3-
    I'to' 19t49).
    4 11. iI. IIo W 44 1 .-1 i 9 '4 2 44.4 I :2 1 21. 2
    27 b lniiijuin it. i. : 4 1 .1 27.7 '. 4 iO.1 :0 0 27.7
    23 1 l i . .n I I 2 .; l 21.1 :1 2 1... .2.1 27.1
    44 ltina1 I7llih ll l... 1i I .) 7 .:1 7 21.1 .2 1'.1 .1.'4 2(, i
    .1 Italulnilr u . Il t4I 4 I I 51, 2 .2 7 21 4, .14,1 1 7.1 31.2 2 .l
    41 llli ... . ... 11 44 4 1 7 74I I 27) 4 21. 2'. 4 17.1t L9 2',4 2,4;
    I ori.'glllli . I I 17 '4 2 1 1'. .12 1 1t 2 27 7 24.9
    1,-- --slt (o 1. .? 6 l 1 1 '7 2 .
    -lb h olsh ni .\ t i .n .I. I 0 lo 41 t 4 1 st 2'. O1 S 2'.. 1 11.7 244t 22.ti
    l 1 IIvtu hert .. l l. 9 4 I. 27. 2 2. ( 13 '. 32.4
    4 l'inii ..,io .Ill 2-.7 k 2: 11.t 22. 2.2
    .... .lum. n. i.0 .1. 2: 4 2. R., 27.4 .
    Mi n oi ul No. .mlO .. "2 l :47 7 1. 22 7 '4 1 41 2 21.4 2;.t1
    1 n lll it, 1 NO 1. .I 2' 7 277 15. .
    12 (t ........:..... ...... do 2 1. .' ...
    TA 1 I I% X ll I -I /f e' 04 / lt ri, t r 0, 0 t / ', it fii t o i lufi,. tlt arms. mi. 7. uir'.,
    /mm 10 1 ] t 1 1',i
    Y wi . ~~ .ir ...ns.Tw:
    Tw' o Ibree
    14 IT. x $1
    li I 111 T', I1 7
    1.< I. l ],,/.ohns. li';ster's l st. Hs Butshel,
    '0., II lm l .. .. ..... .. ...... .. lwxxo-ro .'2 I _',,, 4 L ,, .14 2 10. 1
    .. I r1 1 ..... ... . . 1 2 .3 1 I
    2621 11m b** t) .:17. b L 2
    I.7 \ N8 \ (. .. 4 II.'t 42.2
    a30 r he, sin I .. It. r i ........
    520 ilw 1 .. .. .7 :' . . .
    5 .42 I lii .. ...1 . : 0 ......
    S7, .1 (i 1l 0 . ... 01 .. .1; :.1. 1 27.9 2.7 :42 14
    11m ulth im . ... l4 .'7.9 .11.2 20.2 24.9
    747 1 ,lrht is ,i ... ..io .. 22. I 0.n 24..2
    23 2 t I ll-h, 11 ll-!.-- .2. 1 17.7 14,2 1 .5 23.41
    ,al .'r n 1 I t- \nunid I 1( pon ut II., 1ih1.1,[- o sub-IE\pa rine atl ilo(nl, Paiu
    .lI4, ,, I 4 Xin at (. p(.44 .44 4,1' n'n, J.0 40 l tt 1 '
    I \x.t 444,h 14,1
    I< c .*01




    ILI 1t ~I d 's 1I 1 bLt on I1,- Im:1w IFip ydol: hiI %%
    Olt i l l i ''i" t l ', :1 x H, c t ia I ;,tiI (I' T 11+
    lit ll ] f (li v w ,i\ .I'4 1 I t*I" T IIIi i- 41 4 l i:1e'+ ,11
    tw 11 w f: (( \ 1 \m A ,dn e 0 k Wt Add %,1uti
    \** 11itr] I 1 b I l III7 i1l I 010 lnl tl i) 4na Inll ITh iii
    'IIT 11 1111. (1.~ L N" M Yu ,t iI 4 Iwo wi -tra i ptIn r" 'IT 44
    '( 'll l \d I t' 2 1tmK 1 1I 1 c I iZ l fth ~ I4' T 1i 4 IT- Pn I I *
    II IulIl 1 t I 'uI I" On IT v I I l 190S and
    ()lit ,t l"'1 11 'I I.l' T ir t ii \1 I 1 11 1\11. O rioT T i TilI '
    T|il'il~IT+t~lt 'T (I. I;1< lil ()+,'2,I h+ti-' lilt'44it,-! l i\tT r T i(, \ ;'Id
    cliti .,t illw d+ilv\ rw wwI' V,+,qytl% !moh l + 7 ')'' l l li -ta -m +i+- li i l u lp+ (1 ,+
    Nih 1 111 h -l 1 1.7 nIi-4,l' h t t h t tililt ill h4 I he ( I fnio n i
    Thelo, 1111 1-, ifs hne 11" vi-b l "- NN a, u -oveht 6*e
    l l Hitll(Y l t r h H t i l ,'llfl iti- it' li l T iioi tt(+ h iII,
    w~++i I 1,tw i I '+++t. +-'\ A n 21i aK "k ta ll 4 s N A
    11 iit i x I f' t al I it i( llvit '. thr i it, IIIll- thiTi : ll ) I il
    tho e l oT I 41. l I m ith n \l I \ vv.i iI t'tl
    W i.9 (T t h i t w. I I I ( 1 14 41l T IV11 I i'ili li il'. tin lif ll \ i I )l2iti -
    10 l i .1 7 (i 1. 1 ,. TT ). [ t 1.- tn 21,c1 ; ill n ;l lt ig i oh t \ if
    :1.9 b 1Iu-Ihet b 2 h I r- Ih I, i I Ti c m li I ni n T+I v tow
    114I 0 lHt-' 1' .43. It \IflL "kit AdT I'\21I 1i1llt
    )n 11 ('4 h II ((,. 11 h I il W nll nI T i ftX IIll 1 411 \ lh
    .......- t JM X- = 14 a iiie Aw (ilia pvrh lt(
    ItX-, dti t 1 .* I l 1l li tI n tI n. i : I'nl ill it I'1 I 1 I
    Pl- let Hfl MG Th Ha kn v ar th, w(b; 1,, al DO".* va J n \r 1
    %61 1 1 & '00 ) I () lO. U t I li trtil i< li I 1),I l a ,r l : M t
    ellI I't'IIi 11 t I 1 Unlft \I it I I& 1t II ,1 i. N a 11i .
    III 11
    0t *i \ 1 1f4of t*\ I ,' I Ht vivi x 4 nit m e leI '
    t il + iag o \ )'i' { i n 0 ,tI 4',++ lli~ ii t -- 9 0+, *.'lo t lt( v, ,)lc II -*
    tIil it ) \t il .\ 1 i. I. N I ; w, In
    ihe a~ \4 h ah xhr Add T ble huI. vu.n
    110r Nc l (In 114n 5 I II H' n-.ki
    I )1I- \1 1 I i I 1 ) \ ', 1 : it \
    \;ji, ieC- l', l ( :1(;)< "li) l II t ell(i ( n. 1 1 tn I l t'
    B \ tll )+ +c il t (:ll ,, I ll + 0,h l l \it :t+- li 1.+
    * i si l!+tt I e. L+' + M r 111r + l \i+ i *.~i 0+l .l.h 'iI)+.* P ,ri-
    l+ion+ iul son 1- . i ...\ Itu li a




    20 IRY-LAND GRATAINS FOR NOIRTII AND SOUTH DAKOTA.
    For t ihe three-year period the h ull-less barley produced only a little
    more thanii halt' as much as the best two-rowed variety, and for the
    two-year pIeriod less than half.
    GENERAL DISCUSSION.
    At each experiment farm the two-rowed varieties of barley have
    given thile best yields. Thle lianna barley (G. I. No. 24) has given
    tie hIighest average yiel at Bellefourche and Ilighmore, but has
    not been grown at D)ickinson. The Hlanna, G. 1. No. 203, a strain
    very similar to Hanna, G. I. No. 24, has given the highest yield
    at the latter place. Thle ilaueien variety (G. I. No. 531), which
    lhas l)een grown at Iighmore for five years and at Dickinson for
    two years, has given the highest average yields for those periods.
    Tle principall disadvantage of the two-rowed varieties is that they
    do not conniand as ready a market as the six-rowed varieties. For
    feeding there is no appreciable difference between the two types.
    The varieties of two-rowed barley recommended for western
    North andi South D)akota are the Hannhen and the Hanna (G. I.
    Nos. 531 and 24). The Odessa and the Minnesota No. 6 are appar-
    enlitly thle best of the six-rowed varieties.
    RATE-OF-SEEDING TESTS.
    At Dickinson rate-of-seediing tests have been conducted for
    three years with duruim wheat, two years with oats, and one year
    with common spring wheat. Tests with durum wheat, winter
    wheat, and oats were inaugurated at Bellefourche in 1909. The
    results at both experiment farms p)oinit to the conclusion that thick
    see(hing up to a certain point )rodtices a greater yield in favorable
    seasons, but in unfavorable seasons the thinner seeing does best.
    As much of thlie work has b)eeni done in favorable seasons the presen-
    tation o[ the results at this time would probably l)be misleading.
    An interesting point in connection with the test on winter wheat
    at Bellefourche is that seeding above 4 pecks per ac're has increased
    the percentage of winterkilling. The thicker seeding reduces the
    sul)lV1y of moisture available for each plant. During dry autumns
    the probable result is that the plants are weakened by the lack of
    m)ist ire and for that reason are more easily killed.
    It is reconiended that thin seeding be practiced. Not more
    than 5 pecks of durunm wheat. 4 pecks of common spring wheat,
    or 3 ()r 4 pecks of winter wheat soul be sown per acre. Barley and
    oats shloull not le sown thicker than 6 pecks per acre. Thinner
    seeding than this is often reconunmen led and is perhaps advisable
    in most hlocalities. While greater yields will be secured from thick
    I Cir. 59 I




    is 411ta ill tilo rir i Iif x 1 'i l l
    TIME OF SEEDING. WINTER WHEAT
    A t I h h iii it' 1 1 h t I ili i Ir *,ci iI' l \\f iVhl f l I mi
    hifw u t hri *lif il h" i l, rilinfilt i in I t i I 1 4 l ,, l( -; Alli
    invt&lvs suouirtg 110t, 4, the, Tlhrl,, ,,\\iWer ,,.I ,+a t i inh r,, 4 i ,,
    I6t1. s froI n t ll iw l I) to N nil, HI > p .i bi l I t t W IN I\ to Io t it'll
    st tlF i 1i state ju-i l i ll l fariir i t 11 ihto r \I I+. al I
    Se liniI : li0 Il-t r,-ilt ,. A l1i u'a i tl i i- v t 1i1-ai lk a l i til
    scV h ITlt than ( )h td 1*, It' 0 I I X41 WIl e *,,il l \ cmin ,,I
    T I ii l r. In Im I th + \ tlli il li i -it l ...l. It : i Ai i l i-i
    D If' tils, \ill pl "I a, I J k -l 4d K"i ,+~ i V~++l ++,, it l l +il, lAT
    WINTER WHEAT AND SUMMERFALLOW, WITH PARTICULAR
    REFERENCE TO WESTERN SOUTH DAKOTA.
    1 h l)Fts' lit ill Il i l i iiI i e 1ha It if ii Hr i x t I, l* I n ili' i t
    paying ct'rti) i i"'tnlii ,iti I 1i t,,ai a ii tiivl- I, rix, ii ,I n I& I
    Sti vl ig 4'0 i file I" il lw it .hi .1 : i i- i I r lin Kw tIr lita
    Mrdi lIl H le t lt iIii riiiiull -. i I Jiti n t t It ho g i t a I li,
    grali nrll k1 :l it ,ttil if i mnlx 11 mi il x iWlr. brii ii it i --
    ttgathiu ii t the It'lhti irin v\pr iiinitl tarii i1li Iat lit i I ti
    litll ill of n11 lifre in th i fil n 1 t i 1 f 1ii iiiii o ill er.
    antil 1111h, e it i 1 i f r thI ill, \,I V i1ii 1i+ l il i iT! ill
    detertiinlilag li e it\ iii lt i h l x ih>h ti l,. a tt h il l Tl Ih \
    are like, e important illn leterliiii h i ,lI
    A i l of tit T 1 urkv ili r xin :l Ir I" H:: KI ui- -*Hn I *II
    cIn gro ll in tile fall of it i iat l thnP i en r ir,,-11 n,
    ith i coril linthr,. Tl k iil Iil l ttI rile 23. i.5 I l l-, i -r
    acre, or 21 li -hli I iii I I ani ii xll tii < n -'in iinr-
    falho. A plhi w -" i i a ft r ii* i ni I hrI fl K a n Ilnii if
    dri we itltr this faili h, .rlii.tinal do -x i I -a!I i liln -, .( n
    oIl grmll i Tphi m iI t I I ilml- II ili N 1 -- ii l -n
    falkmxx lI. li I'iii Woo i I daiht on ihe ,irn r n i x\%A- mmx Kq- hioam rn
    15. ait l IN 1i it xa- l wi i ) I i t 1
    Throiui utlho i t it do ii n tri i I 1I 1 in rpi l v i ii i itfr
    A tiq~rul t i U 1ualll\ ve'ry It,v It 1.,, 11-,1 >" 'Illi tl- --.>i+,, excep' tl ti't.
    favorable Vt ,l lit i-ooisnn ti ivlrnii t tiii 1 i1rve in it i -mdiK ut l l iiiii lta
    111 1 ip rl i anili n a i ,I x\l x I- t iti tl lit Z1,6f lit
    inP ) ti m if, ti un 1 iait iim i IIllt'
    Agriu imit 1rl Exf ilntt il it "I ii Ih tl illinii i-k \ _{ i* lrt1 t x III +I
    S atfior; Iif 1' mlhti 1 1 N irht I ike raw ill I \: j n, I I '
    ri it a- u1 i.i




    22 I)HY-LANID FIAINS FOl NOTil AND SOUTil DAKOTA ,
    Figure I illtstrates the Turkey winter wheiat on stmnmier-fallow
    at 1the' olhlefurelhe experimelnt fariln in 1)09. The value of summilller-
    fallow fo(r winter wheat is that it is the surest means yet known for
    oblaitlilng a I pr) ill seasons of extireille drligt, allI at the same
    titIt a appears to give larger yields ill faivorable seaols than clan be
    obtai ilt by a vlY systein of rotation that includes intertllled crops.
    r k
    Fli. 1.-Cr p of Turkey uintcr w1heat on stnmer-fallow at tihe experiment farmt, Beliefourche,
    S. Dak., 1909. The foreground illustrates the method f tn mer-fallowi ng for the next crop.
    MILLING AND BAKING TESTS.
    Millinlg an la king tests of the principal varieties of wheat grown
    at ('Belletmchel are ting con(tu(luted illn ('oolwration with the North
    D)akot a Aricultural ('Coll ge for the 1purpose of determining the
    relative value of the different classes and different varieties of wheat
    f)or rt 1 makill. 11 coo)erativO aogreetmeit Wit Ih le iuoriu of
    ('lheminist rv I f the I united States departmentt of Agricult ure, chelmicIal
    analyvses ar, utad of all the variety es of wheat that are milled.
    I ir. 591




    Iihx I 1 I~~a N I I 'I x
    t'wid i .1* 0 hu l ix x .:I I l I l ~It
    i i10 toinr~ \' n r~ h rx la .1 i*i*'r i,
    ih lt' l t i-, 11'It i I i i i i I, hi r tItii x r'tx
    Hf l1 Ill ,1i* x \il III i' I r I j i. x i In I lI
    it~p lit 'd
    t i 1i i 1111ln xx i 1. 1lI 1 i i I '1x (1. I.
    I 1 11 a(t 1' i L f I 1 iii i ll .
    N i Ij \ a1 1 i 1i it I 14',i I 'lir .
    l0It, fYqitt"It (; ot w n.
    SUMM AR Y
    Til t'l lHIt ,~ iir ( )lt H \ ( !i i t i i I '-iii M lx it
    lIt oflt'us > if I e -**Iai i f i* xx il! l iii tb i li x **i ',r
    XI' vI rie ty ntoI t liii IIi x ix n i it sih lI llFi i
    rIc c ''j10 POff lull Ind pin I t\ elbi W,
    l1 11iiu li eat I l i 2 Ill<','* I l t i ;Wi-
    wheat.
    pt'C ill 1lr HIllltl en1 a lw ti s' 1iln i d lil tll '
    in otilier i i ll I t (Ire1t I'la in t' ii t e t1 H he .o. :IIia
    arIipc i i h ii Wr IMAOr 4 arn'r t In It an xxii ixxi 'Hot at'*ioe-;
    (,tsI i il le : 1 wfle l )I (,.II 1)l ,i Iil- I ,l IV I iillVp
    c1 iftii. gi t il I ill Iu'.e \ilr'a it x ill I i' ti I Ip. -I ttt i
    yiehns ais aell a inrtlii xx tnl:ti allotn trlllill- a i~ ht J tU !, i i t nt
    market.
    r nt .ill a I h a xitsx i l xi' ;' il ll i re i 'llil i t
    .\Ill ki I'li ic i lc \\ I I I I t;IIll it ,lA ll izld. cr Xt~ l l o icc i+ t I I,
    IM (14 .
    11YP '1PC'ul H ~ ~ ~ liKQ nqp*0 MQ i 111V I
    was fline itl e Ii t 1l.*' t t1 1a Itt 1ii, :i t ', i i
    ) 01 er1 e' 1t l w'lu I-arllie-l a ret n
    )hUIe 'in e 'rF l f1 11' n 1 i;1 xx in x a i. t A Up n
    The jw la m i- l) t 'itl Iii e 'ii. I. i r ii -' 1W It a In /ll ,Il
    II, lsre alia pI erl in rr 1" a ....., i I 'xx 'i i -fl otf tiin-, 't101 l l{6
    qlai 110tiniit I u i iv alo "
    Tax1 n -ttna '-'1 \ it a>[ hallil a 1 1t ' I, ;'',I il ,,u"l/ll- n n l I, i\tt
    fnaritiit' ,,-n-- ha'rh 1,'I: 'i n iII i In-- I x -l I .lix a. j'Iil lii Ii\
    pn rduc teithe r tar''-i'uxni 'tt *i I xx eI x lti-if ', ll n- li( it-ll,
    I w
    b u t t I w a 1,- t1 l / i l i i t s l i, i'i -
    T o\o n ., I:l ,- r.l~ lli',l %% .. ,f ,, !t, ~ i ,:i~
    s11ll l t i \\ w e e e .in l il w~ ,c \t(l i
    fiIll 't H l 'IVe 1it'l tl ,r I l - l'x ii e ~ e l l il ]




    24 DRY-LAND GRAINS FOR NORTH AN OUTH DAKOTA.
    CONCLUSIONS.
    -For the region herein discussed, western North and South
    < the following conclusions are drawn:
    !M-- (1) The success of the dry-land farmewill depend very la
    - upon the selection of varieties adapted to his conditions.
    LL O ----0
    o_ (2) Durum wheat is a more profitable crop than co on sp
    Sweat. The best variety is the Kubanka (G. I No. 1440 or
    (--- I No. 1516).
    (3) Winter N heat should be grown wherever it
    D winter. The best varieties are the Turkey (G. I. No. 305) and
    Kharkof (G. I. No. 1442).
    (4) Early or medium maturing varieties of oats, such as the St
    Day, the Kherson, and the Swedish Select, should be rown.
    (5) Two-rowed barleys yield better than the six-rowed v"e
    The best two-rowed barleys are the Ianna (G. I.
    and the Hiannehen (G. I. No. 531). The best six-rowed A
    the Odessa and the Minnesota No. 6.
    Approved:
    JAMES WILSON,
    Secretary of Agriculture.
    VW~AsHINGTON, D. C., March 31, 1910.
    LCir. 59]0