Improvement of pastures in eastern New York and the New England states

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Title:
Improvement of pastures in eastern New York and the New England states
Physical Description:
Book
Creator:
Cotton, J. S
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
United States -- Bureau of Plant Industry
United States -- Government Printing Office
Publisher:
Govt. print Off. ( Washington )
Publication Date:

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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 29629881
oclc - 39115456
System ID:
AA00020803:00001

Full Text
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INIPHOVIDIENT OF I'Morrims
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Aqo TA XT AG u u i i x t u i r. ( )FV U r ( 0' 1: k U M N M 1: M V N I'




BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY.
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-1 futCo I~ i IN I N I
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INTRODUCTION,
41r Of IS& 1114S 1 )" I 1 1 41 Il (" Uni lk MO T in 15
I1'Sp a jI I II i, in va, I Pi,1 N4 (t Y A a 1 inI 1n 1, c4w K w I I,
The4 II 144 rC h 1144 I I jra m a 4 w" qp r It1 A1 I m- I W i
Cal4l~I 114 iH I 1 1 i 14 r 1t a 111 kil l\ ion, ni 1 14 1 I 11 44 a
n o1414Y I ;44I I 1 i w 4\ I 4 I w l I l:11 i\~' 4ll 104 1 CAI I 1\ Iw I I
cdo4i" I t1'4 114 1w11 up444a 14v pr il" 4 1 6 w 1 1 "" Iqw 4\41 i n,41
is olmol J 1 1l Snlaw4' Ill4 III 11 14'1 w144, i~ N N 16 44 1 Intov
W hin11 and141 16 wink11 Im411 '-jl1 mvii 14m4 I Io 1 1 d" 4 N14 411 rv
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4 W1111"V E MiNT OF uiO STULRES IN I k\-tA-FiN N[i VX X)iU. E iT(
keepjinthe \Vvcd' d Wl 1' 1- 1 1;Iiha Ite4l1 at~tempdtd. As. a ntstil mianyx of
tese postre ha11y en so ad I)441 v\ ovirg-rized that at thle pr'eent
l ino, the.\ (1 n pn)H)c ll~oa' h fc1t414 d lta') Ptay fori mainltainlinig the
fences-, It t lnv te hImldinid 4 ov "nesti'-. (See Pl. 1, fig. 1.) lit
1wo" V 4s Wilds at have t akeni (mnplvtv( e msstssio as5 is sIPwni in
Pln 11, hitv 1. In ai nflher (d ins-taiowes thet ptast ties have been
etiitioh ahandliltlwel nnd14 ae growxing, ill) to young11 tinilber.
It is~ -s o ed Ilutt this d1'epviationi h-w heeni very rapid1 during the
last IN~m N tl p arjj Tee are t xx reason,,s fo r tis: F'irst, thlo depre-
dat irni a4 pafuf asr th~de result of ov ergrazin,,- will be HIICIt-I gre'ater
dur11) in I e ltii e half w een (piarte (id th1 l o pvri t glzed thant inl
Hw Ilaiedn ypnrt4114Xers A ainj wxith. the increased deiiianid fur dairy
pn)histtl olwith UxiI ~tter facilities fotr o ns11plttioni there has ell It
deleda tleito wi1 d14 tip 41t idlie Iarijt'r to b)u) wetr gX(K('1 ra iii andI
ra6 (mI y th 1le necesso-- rougiio-- i l their places. !Mdis has etnahiet
ltt-it Ii calrr mur111lit mir st))wk. With, ti s iicrtea' iii stocl- there
I osI ion1 Wteni ItlI 't)rre.,,'pm I414 ig incras 4r'i t h size of lte pasturelas,
114)l' Iho- I lItore beeni aonY atteip t ttt increase their carrying11 capacl(ity.
DAIRY AND BEEF PASTURES CONTRASTED.
'1The doair pXIastum tit t Ihe( reg2ionI referredI to~ have dleprec-iatedt veryx
little V atieI. llt direct (yrttrafst there ore' ninilerotis bieVia" le Pus,-
itties ini Knaucky ri elitinassee. awid Ai,li a o~f the s-ump' ai.et that are
helixV m- prod))uctive a-r, eer, ntI are v alued at 10 o ( Inok litlait acre,
pat () Middlesext vi~i (lit arit, there is ani ;Men 4l rear l 300AO(l
Hint> 111 the fairrs, owing to12 1 scarcity ofu labour, have reunited to
ital gr2,aners btt fal lubig e\x)urt (aiith Alter imn-lty- yea'z
itlt c li ao )14 -c ot c 4114 41( ii1t"tvedl. ('trt i's tokethat111 these pn' tir(S
diepritiojn. stehe, s-t-li as 1tW'lig litigage' on1 te 16041 pittis duir-
are' imnWittl v ti-ii tot lt-sIwo tre hIein All weedsl- that are likelY
t" pm14p dag4 rI orll2$'l4)- Carefulllly kepjt ot.
Il i te441 ci t iei hctiXe Imi oll v 44111 la11w4 W4) 5- an1 wive and
1)I) tis l11114 so4 that ill Sm"ii livet' iteil e~ I ~ti lyasi swlh tmii $100 to
Miad I t- mi 14i' 41v14t W itl p)tilwttc-t 4)f s11om-Xin, t hat n'gltcted land can~ be0
1)m1ill Ill) Xhe uitiililizedt Its palsture~ anit feId timno w, 1 inl thert'i wXwds,
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REASONS F'OP, THE DETERIORATION OF DAIRY P'ASTUJRES,
At lirst glancl it "x (p t 1 i -101 1 1 I d i 001 "I xI e IM
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RESULTS OF TOO EARLY GRAZING

TheIi Int ca~i e I r"T itc W om-I- xt i I ht if 1 n mv wri I
lynt. v '-m1 r t la --el ;tit I 01iI -nr wx N, W a WK H 5,
snrviji am!! 1 il 2 4xi A ik q 1 -' i. 11w catl d, to K a- \ I 1
A wi'~Ii int t wit arvaix xI i r a txxl it A ni- 4t M w Kxi r i "
s tart andl m11ii' t t rw to ti kcI t ha II 11 11T M i I WI I n l t I
.tt- lim ~l- I i Ih lp I -itii Idd I "i~t tha 1" 11"
tt~~tl~~iilit'tIle \i Vitli 't aii I~tli~ [i Vtt ti 1 lii xx iT
th e'It, llt' Iil "i xi ti A IA ii xixc Ni w I A k. n I

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whom I'viridiv"l. awl van 110 IHMW ",0111 VIIII 11"l 0
in iwh as I I %%a, I "v\ A" r- W- I I ic I an It I i I it I t III-( V- -

thil diden-lice hvi"n-ti 10 dwip jul-11111- r A
p-lini-sib"criVI is in-p,1NrAvd.\ 11IMPOWIC He




6 I P] 1' ~lX M I OF 'VI IL- IN 1A1'.kSERN -NE\ YORK U~h. ETC.
c [tr 1 U) ki- : 1 milihcr 1 t'I it' a lilil ls II)IIII(dt e !( -In toe~ 1 ) 445 flesh.
Thl, Illea Il- I I b ect' piastul-4'ea ci1101 1)4 b pl(41taly 'gazed t() a
an X (Ih jIi 1lI(I- 4 isjdlt 1'1A czat(le d4'() m1)( h 4144 I well wXhere the
LXI' II ;) I~'t It is true i n't t it, ~-,ls is Ahltm edtl ) 144 ,I wie i t I nd -v~~ t
NN 4w1 Y I Ive sttw4k t14) ll)t rellsli it. 'I'le b~est'1 "tokilleli linX e learned
bY xpJ41eine tjlat wh leliier ti -ct2 s Ille(ad(l 44 the (.Itt le It is all
,'- V llkt I h qI t ) II11 m X th et tall -- is", Itl l I ngr it h e) 441 thle ('I4)ulld as a
Ilmlll Th),, 'Allm".; the ~ toS' 144 uil stild 111) at fre'sh, succuilent
stm-kl 41h) II(t (h) z4 wt ell if the L1,I,)" I t) 4( it i 1: (tInalY tnue flint
MWit v~ Nt' X I~1,iln I'iatii(w1s believe( thait b)\ cb144'-e Weedsl~ Xt('l
('01 1w kxept 41t. A,, a iiiwttei' (f fa-t, this \-(,I. ,)~ N' gv tile
1\ 0 ,( IJ b et tel sta it. I ni th e XX w cst c'1 1 p a lt l ( if 'h I 'lit ed States ,
Xhle4 Owe [-allih slll I 1 es's thnat li tit', ELat. the' Ftt flint ()ver-
OTO/i1pr t*Itti54,, XX \ ccds 1(, Lec'olie 11ml- 1mmaliiti Ias beell v erv defi-
11te- pn4X ivd 11) (alif44llt*Ia, Is n 1'estlt (i t '~lll ile ii1A'4 ogiia
rs(s,1i4(1 6inwvg I)Lml~ts XXt ('[4' i()v(v. Ilieii plwi(es XXv'e taken
bY (Ow4 [tl, phialt that wen ('4'mt I-l'l1sld lX ive t Sock, thlese phialts
aliri 4rj,()jlIj( becniaue t111 '-k4 dlid ll(t eat t hiemi )ati After
th lliwe(I \:1111ab 1h' I a' j h lint s dliaplpcatrcd t he( sIm-40k lteaiet to~
za the' plants (41 iniftiio411 chaltcl en Ihe' i I uI'iij 'e 041g'/'
a i hIpealed, their. phce'(s being t~tci) b\ lztnlts liXvfg stilt
less N4a t I IaI I(. 1In I his l)1iIihieq t le (,-,I i t (,: hi)t*it I~ \ i (ifth C li-
f1imli [I*,iges(,, has be(enl re~itlk- [mteX e (I'n ti cmiir '411f i t-) genlera-
W 1 114 41 ial() (q4I(hi i'ISi 4X';IhtX jjiel e(e Ii r(l[I seand
COV(11*1 0a1 Is te eIst' X itll thle pwsll' l o 1ll Plate 1, lionire 1, tile
soil1 41Is 4)1 XmIt v l. v~ n li) a11 11:11 vlii plalit., killed. With the(
adventli (d, I4 1114)I 41' i "Ile -e41 the wXee'ds iistialI take t heir
p~lince'. This cmidtl1 has (tculv1d III e'ei'll1 YtXX'()Ik anld tile
New'X 1';iwlimd Stitc's ld iiio titi' s ojl,, i f 1 ) 111 (1 1aa I tt It NNill
be'tXtl 111mv0 strikingly shi i it III 91) If thet w';tsmi is Ia1',ilwobl for
1)1:11 it I4 mvtI l. The wX(eedIs 1111it l iv an, bYl4)X('1L bt-us (P1. 1I,
fi''.1),an lte patstlure cv( ai[lx1, 1)e4101110,11 \WIlcs, Mamy fairmer
wit4 iimXXill"I g ( 11 011 'letiv, tlk a I' 14 ste 1( 144 eo v (lt t il, ('01iti 1(0 of
atl~Til- I I.' 4 iki' iii II ,ieu 1)1le- iX' jt ImtlwIfil
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,HOWI%(" THE kLULT- J: lVf'kof'Lf) AND flj' OIIEI,







I ~iPM WI F 2NI I IF P I' u i n N I % Q LE N Nk" Ao .
DETERIORATION MOSTLY I1) E TO (: V FV1(;n.A/IN03

pt d~li I" W WeI Lwzv !I K
Vniia I d i wn nI, A i I I!r m
S'iI 0 N I'~ ft It a tI t n Ih A -"K
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METHODS OF IMPROVING P-)STInES.
TItq Upe 1" n01 1 al In h41 Q V \ m ,
attu vik I h'll n'ilt 11"19 Iv k o m y 4(a
I htItn(J c r I ltii.N I h a l Om id ~ipwp Im I "m M an I 141k h
a *t i ne w. o ~ t N W ak h th WI I Ia -V r i a ImII a
an atlvlaill Id" o N r i v il it a it A w in a0 p K,
P, a inl l' T V'' ranItl I", am I vi I It e I'
in 4WdI I I N I" I"V II I ,) al an w c-'w i

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Z5 Pul:I~ OF 11,16TI BL IN EASTERN NEAV YORK. ETC.
TiH,' PRMA"'NTN OF'l 'FA!GP IzAzlN(;
A vel-Y csOlit Ill poiiinII III(' improveilewu of wo ril-nut pasturles is
the prev elilol of oi uer- raing. If I asture Is to b e Impro~ved it is
ah oillitvlv ilece'-Ir that the ~l~be gIven a chiance tn make ai g()d
I cI II It Ii I2X Ii I Ii t IIalt n( )l o tI Ic l a l it~ w aIi4 'we( I t o 1 prolU CC
,ecd. Thlis cani he (howe hy reducing i lie numiiber of stock or' by
"I v I I~ I li(' th attle addhit ionail iie to sup )pleliieit the past ure.
TMEL PRI,'VEN '1l( N OF TOO E ARHLY PA STURING.
011ve of the Illost pii roul ti(4ice- Ii Newx York aind the New
'n,,dlamll States Is t hat ofI I I li.111ig Ihe caittle 4(I on pat tre too ealy ill
t IIe sca,-ull. Il n -rieat 111,1i1Y i1uist '1es If' I Ile (att le XXCCkept nil' for
,1i1 a'ldditimiial Nvo ('eI i teni (]X v thle Im"'tIle wmilid produie far more
leeil ~ ~ ~ )I 1111die. woi t~IC>'i-ii iiXuld 'coiiY morei stock(. TI i c
0TW"is- ".11wild bie -Pivctl I 'mitent stnrt to) nIlolw enuiili -reen-leaf
sulwe fo Iii~lie, iii111aii ilrte ofI I tIv 11ccess-li v S(il)-4niitc(,- utilized
ill it, ]ow tll. 1I' the( g I",- not given tis. chontce i1' growth wxill
of, tIlee's'itY ho ~er v "low SIu IIi limiited.
The1 turii, nIf stock on n p~asturie A hule the giroiid Is wxet and
toeiie bu e ''mllchlv- 1,, al.,( ,I veiX hv ba practice, es-peciall *v oil a,
c hIn v u. The colitiuilus r iili e-mits ill packill", the 111uit o
lmI~d tlllt it t iffictilt for the plant root" to pellet lat between illie
Soll particles al get thle llece- air plant food. "'his picking also
prvvXcnf th le d I sorpt iol of air and1( Nvat er hY lie soP.
'ERTIIZING.
of l 1110 e.iii"i (lliedl Iwl It ilg p sli llie 1) 1 O ] it) six thtI nc0
A close ill'sp~ec jlll of msI~ I uies showsX I hili to lbe lhickiig Ill
hnt11iis. Thle besi ronied v fo I tIlls Iruble I" hIml-liX a id miaiitie. An'
\\\ell'ii vX of ii ill iPilp ai 1)Ist lre isto 11aul 1)n the field I w atevel.
supljhemlilt'in feedi Is gien thle (alt he. phichlo. "1 un1 Ile highest
P(I lit S. T]i I II t hind) I tli-i, I \\ItII I -great -Ilcce,- In tI lie coi ))(,t, and
:11o l 1111111 ii VIai haflts of thle 'SoIlli It ft I. hI w distance fromi the
p,) itlrc to Ihe hai'lins or to the fielL Mxicroe Ihe -lilpiiniiiitary
1-ed \s iu v; 011 t i c roa tI ttke t hi inil lod pliact iblhe, t he land
czll hw lop dressed wxith 111111Iti e. Mli(h helter results wxill ]w ob-
tal e Ii a Iig i i I lS11 I l IISg for1(( 11 1 1 ce orfu li r v e'l",I s i c(-
Ill) 1i '1one Sen'l-nil. l\I: iiciiewit, liaxe prov (IIed illI that rela-
tI I cav" 11111c (Ii greater X alte is ireex ed froill, i illmire whll it is
111 i( iftll andi Ill small (j1ula1lt i is thll wh elt a large ailltiuit, I's usedi
ait 4 'le t lie.




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rc~ )~ i i It l lar Iillo de i'hv, I It' t In pzt~t ltn- a I l in
th o l m it-i. liltvo r tIl mix chxw Wi 6 IV, no t Imta ~ llt ill
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1 U~i 'l~\ iuiid\[~ W 1- N E. : TLLN -Ni" 'ot(iOLK, ETC,
THE- FiADICATiiO~V~N O F 1:).
W hle vo-1, I u1 pit-i1:2l1 1'- Tillili lI iIn Il it 1111der (-III-
iIV 11l0ll, Oth ler lil 1)I s (iuai wj eedl eradicanill xvill IW W1(( ;l'V. A
eni' Iille-- 44 Ihe w(xeds (.Zli Ile destni.vedl 11 IllwX art, cut XX i1li a
l il leli~ie 1IIIev to*i -wed'' andi, it' PO. ."Ible. it their pieiod of
loxc-'I V1,1JIVi x tanlle 44i the moreV dang1Irii-; Xxe(ol-, that can not
be killed Iiii I lii~lil Ilii iei( Wd Ii ]wvc I( bie I12 kl () xx, itl I a m o u lledl
if theY' mic oie Olvil-Ili' 111'U'Ie a1 X(,l aviil '111 dotro the
SUMMARY.
(1 Thie patti l- If ea wri Ni ew Ymnk 'ndi the Newx E'luIid~
(2) lii iffiiei wo if e piLttie III ()I hier' p:1 1- (If I he colfltr'Y
oIf iiLI Zliiw a arei I~ '-ftmd e*illi litt I i 1, miitiaflv.
SIiiIle I OwI kdilx d X wOil hill Is b ilift tijI by usiflc it as a
(5 (irziicr' hivae :ilk-o hlianeu that cios-rol, L(]'(tiii Imn- it pa V.
(G) A. ,Ilt vn )f thleu i i ii'1N- Id", d tv-; ta pl~lllis musi-t bea llowe)X ~d
"111ilielit l-'eellleaf lirface it) 111,1111if"Il II*( phtilil ftwdi. If thlis I,'-
Iml (I mle the pliil \vxxill pri ce v erv littl feo L- I lidi xxill (Iie.
bec iml( c' I il.i-I d.
('0 The detelutrol Ion fd pa-(, e-iii Newx Yi lr atI( Newx Eiitdaiid "S
11l u)-.i I I la vn eli-a, 1(t I/ l wc eai-e (I ) ii- prevelt- perellillal
pla~s -inii.2 I II(' foidl i e --arli fin. -tartilig i IIpin- (2) '1 results
it) I(' ~I f i i I iimiake., thle -nild too drYx fur the
lila 1tlit 'm (i) of itnixe flo phniiis: andI (AI) it calls n c-olii--Idlerabhle
Tllc ) cmi1t'-11r cuill -ani lbe remedled 1). (1 IhIn prex eltil n (If
iX I'lL~ia/li~'2) 11 n'ili joeeiini on i itl~ eli ~i~
(]' (.11liXvatili-'r: (1-0 iiil onili (G thle craicaiimi ()I wccd'1.
A~i~niiC I'll







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 08928 9887