Origin of the Hindi cotton

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Title:
Origin of the Hindi cotton
Physical Description:
Book
Creator:
Cook, O. F ( Orator Fuller ), 1867-1949
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
United States -- Bureau of Plant Industry
United States -- Government Printing Office
Publisher:
Govt. Print. Off. ( Washington )
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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aleph - 29629620
oclc - 24568902
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~:i. /~i~>~


IU.S. I A ...ll\ I I I t ,r It1 I!. H




U' EAl ( I'l..\ INITOI Ci"rcular No, 12






IORIIN O ,F THE I1 HI1DI O





11 V

0". (10 COK.


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. -11 ,, ,,, ; '; ;I 1lf I I I I I I





































It;ll:EAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY.



dChief oif lurtilil, TEL Yl '1. <;LLo\VAY.
I4 ss) t (t ( ohi f iICIIaUll, Al.lIl:!r I]. WOODS.
ilitor, .1. l. E O,C iW LI,.
(Chief CiCri,, JAMES E. JONES.
ICir 421
2













I; I 1 :,17


()ORIGI OF Tilld IllI)I tlO ThX.


INTRODUCTION,

I I i I- (li t e 1l iiie J l 1 l''.i pt :111 i ll l i r l i P f (d. -
to ill ;Xiil t : i xt. w e tk l tll i r. lhat ii' 1 li; pl' L T;> 1'.2:ld |li;-n
\;irit iti'+ lb infl'e- tl( iln he l with liv wit-. "T lwi' dl ait liei pl e-




uIl tihe lltiii ti 'ii+it:+3 +i~iiJ L L~Llu i atil :iI,],lit'i W thi- lt u l'- d Ix eL''i~x LIit L .ilith
()I*L 'ative Vu-Yplia n l 1:11-at L-llelIi the ciportei lo li li e iiLI( li
orted l1Y lhatllL Hi their li liiiL t-li -liiii iil ii t lii li L iii l ;ia-
tion vor 1i1i:1orinit\ ll~i- lH -CeI -*ciirc l ill M liltl ()I* tIhc ll111(h :;,id111\1111re.
Ti'lt+ iiltrod~ilct~lt iu l+ o l'tin I+'.ijy[>l iiin co tlton inlti> liltc l ti~lcd+ /I/lcs
T hei i,.'s also tlie xxiltlitl lioiL-Ll lii ,i' ( I*t It F 101lie nt'l Ih lt 1lillion er
44f cl;heap i;.lo i li \ h lic I'i de t e diLt flicuii ltY to1 h t li'itill lilted ill Ix L- l.
T le l raie t iilu iih i l ehi- l li-liilit ;i -eLi t'ciiil 'i Liill ,l (, I lii E i 1i -
liin c'otloi i lit le ilLtLL Slale hi- depiLnd- hi's'ele i tiL' I l il (diii ialw Itli
of th H indi eona'taliiiLi ii i ilter lix L'iir ii L l 11! 21 Li t ii at thex '
fil 'ir I V lt' v )rodb l icedi i'll a1i -;Il ex itor\v cmidtl ioll ]i' 4 ill] f11' iiiil \. 'I lie
Ilindi c ]otton pl)] li ti i lil dt he c(miiinlr d t ttliit ol' tih ri d ric t, ha.
miixes with flit w\hllt, :111d de reii't' hate- (lite valIe ot (d, t+ ( i' crop. In it le
case of the ( i(tl()I i ( e e i- A Ietter prol (.t-pecl ltlil m dte1(Iclf al\e klnmvholed,',e
of the veireltati ve (,]):ia ~l t'rl- ili1:1 ('11ilile d li w ide-it, le- ler,11 ia1 t-lit lI wto e
removll e)Vd(t] f'roml the Heicldk wv it o tIt lot -,crjitU-Jilv ml'l'rea /-ig I" Ille ci>-t olt
product ion.
DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS OF THE HINDI COTTON.

The Iliiidi cotton ito i-willY appear- more i.'oroii. and run-I tlian
tlhe ;Ilid celi)t E -- pI ;iati |) lait- hYv l'0ea- ol ()lf l 0ie la 'e 11111111)T < \1 4 _..
(ati\'e lralleh,:- de\'elo|Hd I'r iil tlie lok\\e o i 4) l tllhe centilr:l -tail'.
TI i \,.. ., tat pi\ lltr i lie- at-o talve a: Imollle Illt hl\ -icip i lit ))oi it10llw,
reiitdteril/ i lt ] (liet)I n( imore'l *omiiiac( andi lnli-li\ il llic~ir ++,cner'il +-liaipt,
;as well as Illor denl- ltail'v\. T l!i lea\'e- ;1lre liJWII l l .ilitii e il tex-
tllre than111 tlio-c of thle [ \li ii(i ot ton and-I M 1 1 linlltt and more vel-
hlw i. ',,, ,'i' TId u tle l d if p tie i- il l tt( 1tilat4l\:1 i n k ii; ill .\ ci/,iiii,
\vlter+ tilt' 1n':,2, |)(itia tolion ,;-ially i- otl' ai very\ dlaik _i ,yi-1i orl lI,!ii-h
glm'eiti. T le lteral I-lo e- ;i,)|eai \er\' *lirt aid broad iW l 1,11ivii:,

withll hle E4'vp]tialii (wIll. o1 cV'ci \\itli lla:1Y )I' olir V tia tld \valrie.-
[Cir. 4J2] ;s





ORIGIN OF TIHE HINDI COTTON.


ties. The lateral angles of the leaf are produced so little that the
outer mnargill is left nearly straight if the middle lobe is cut off. (See
fig. 1 and compl)are with fig. 2.) The pulviinus at the base of the
leaf blade is red, as well as the adjacent part of the petiole, and es-
Ipecially the somIewhat swollen upper side of the end of the petiole,
whiIch may be looked upon as a part of the pulvinus. The involueral
,racts are nearly orbicular, very deeply cordate at base and mar-
gined with numerous long teeth. The calyx has long-pointed trian-


FI,. 1.-Leaf of Jainovitch E1 .yptian cotton (natural size).

gular lobes. Thie )letals are creamy wlhiite anmd the petal spot faint
or entirely lacking. Tie small conic bolls have three, fomr, or
live carpels or Iocls, and are oft' a piale-green color, with few and
dleellyv buried oil lahids. The lint is white and of very inferior
qotalitv. Tle seeds are longer and mIore angular than in the Egyp-
ian cottolonl. anld thlie surface is usually completely naked after the
lint is removed. In rare cases there may be fuzz at the ends of the
seeds, as inll the Elgyptian cotton, or even a :lrgir amount.
[Cir. 4-2]






() l IN M N Il l 111N I>1 ( 11 'IN .


SUPPOSED R.ELATION OF HINDI COTTON TO U: ITI I) STATES
UPLAND VARIETII.-i

Tlhe nottirc atl'l; n o t lw ll(lhle 11 ,I t cit tI l :llpp>;i"r to l1:1v(, l,,r!1 1 1w
subject (,f ;^ imIch'li l)o|)ill:11 l-peciila tt 11 III Fl'. \'])t :t-. tIln> i l r io, III
(tle l I'nited StaIat'. T h'l W nl "" l- ii li i n1 \1w A rtIr c tlmi ;tlit ,'1,
uIr wor "" India ." S,;(nw \'rili'r- ia\f (;ll.,'t tll 1 t( 1 ; tlic lil (1iw
cotton Ciiile fi'r iti 1 i ii -ld t ;t II. \\l l il( co, sidh ler t tin,+ iiaiii



./


2MI


If;I l.a" 1f l411 ili o IdtI1


11;i t 1.11 S l si I .


Hlindi no^,.ithe applip ld to :aIII t vl'oi'e i plani a dliat '111( Da l eii) )la
-i'W ilicince ;is oin indication of origin. fA tliird opinio i- 111:i1 1lii-,
fottoi i is ; ithih a 1i:i11 '(1 I111,i 11 11i "1 l lii \(ii -' I iilt i\I tI I I

ill tih cou+iliil 'rv 1(' r tlie presi' il for tlis idea i- tim t (li- <'t, tollii is' fr+rilnlntilv I'Miind it aI w il d (w spIoni-
tani ulis cll o litnilIl ill ti nciiltiv:it(cil om a ilib iladoleI laiinds.
[lCir. 4121






0111(IN OF TIIE IINDI ('OTTON.


Ti.le s'i'i_ '-_.-l io1- o1' -cieltific students of thie IHindi cotton are
]i :1,llv m1ore consistent. Sir (George Watt'- i,,iii,,raph of cotton
c('4ects1 the llindi plant with io less thall three species supposed to
heI' Ilative iI dilferent ar:lts of the world, but lie refers it most directly
to (I,'A\.jj"ii// i)on<4it bnfi, and state-s that this species grows wild ill
tlie Illt 1ed ,ttalte-. Some of our cultivated llplalnd cottons, such as
the Kil", variety, are reckoned as varieties or1 hylvbrids of (o0'syp uium
l,, ,ft/11,, 11 ald t'e M(oqui cotton of the Arizona Indians is definitely
referred to t4hi:s Spec'ies."
III reallitv there 1is no wild cotton in any of the cotton-growing re-
g11ion1" ol1' lie I'llited Stales. Ili Texas 1and other (iulf States warim
winters often allow tie roots to survive and send u1) nIew shoots ill
ille springg, lbnt ill cold years all the cotton is killed throughout the
cotton h'ell. Thie onllv ildlig.1enous.- wuild typle of (cotto)ll known ill the
I'lnited States is that found i ltlhe extreme southern part of Florida
a11 on tll I Flor'ida IKev',. unless we take into account the varieties
cultivXatled 1v the I (dians o(' Arizona. and these varieties have Ilieve'
1be4ll plalted ill other parts of (lte Inited States expelt in very re-
(c:lt ex pel'illell nt.
Watt (dwel ll in part icilar uplon thle claim that lile liltdi cotton re-
e.4111l)les .Aloqui co)ttol from Arizona; but when til li i,; plants are
compared, 1, tll' resemIiIlance between the Moquli and llHindi cottons ap-
pears o t l'ivater litan that between tlie Illndi a1d our Ipland va-
rieti es. Tle Hindili cotton ids a mu11111ch closer alliance with other
ty pes of1 cottoll I'ro1 southern \M,'xico an1 Central America. These
types eh'og to lhe "'lneral I-pland series, but they have not been
know illn tie 'llited Sta'loe; until very recently and have been planted
thlls fill ollly ill a few localities and only on an exl)eritnmental basis.

HINDI COTTON RELATED TO MEXICAN VARIETIES.
The vegl-etative characters,1 of thle 4in'di cotton Show the closest
app)roximalion lt t4 los of' sol)1e of the Mlexican varieties from the
State of (Cliapas and ill pir1ticuliar to a Iype oblained by Mr. G. N.
(Collis in 1!90; at tie ownll o' Acala. iThere ar lhe same light, yel-
lowish greenIl. !road, 0 -hor-lo(led. smooth, j1ae(d leaves and the same
stroll(ly zi,,zalg frulilil- brInaches which frequently branch a-ai
-roll l tl axilla-Y 1uds. As Ill ilte Hindi cotton, tlhe bolls are pale
gr'ee4l, tlle oil glands Iliat ,ow as (lack (dots o tlle bolls of Egyptianll
ct bon 1eing. buried deeply il ie 1-1'reen tissues. Tle' involucral bracts
:11are u01111ded an' d ve(ry d (eep)ly cord(l ait bIase, as inll the Ilindi cotton.
a l111 d argins ha8 1,I,'I'.|-.' and coarser teeth, carried down nearer

1 W:Ill. St. (corel' 4'. The Wild n1141 ('ulltivnatd 0('4o14 Plants of the World.
Lwond11 19!07. p1. 11.
[C'ir. 121





)IW I;IN l' TiHllE: IH IN D}! ITT N 7

to the base titan in our Ipla dt ton liaIs larg'e Iia I l;l'l lobe-. ;lltil lide e ;Itm t{re of iten ))ro lii i! inti o :1
lon,-, slender tilQv A,- in tn yt Mexi'an ;tnl ',at tI m l AtIA rick(a ,t varicl im.
includin't' that from .\(,alit.
Man v of tlhe lIantl, of tin, Acalli cottlon g'lrowili ;lSa Antonio
ill A\.,. i. 1 xv>!>. werer+a' t'tniar iv co-e coi tinttlerp -t ol ,oine ol tdie
llidi plant- o+ llc .f O le Jam vtI cli o in l tit -anim, (ALc l. Th, -1i44
(liHl]+{1 V'c liv in (le t'r r I'thte lilt \ A W AY of i M xicant ,oto1..,1 '" ",
(ti whiell app ar muliv of l t li va tt io in tihe IUnitedl S al"c-. Wiv'c
tle\+ have l:ir I.ea Ix, no! wi-lrtr lin illian o r Ir i,41 Statc- V hid m l
var%;eit V-. Ti Il' li a mmi co nttonrkt i- lililt] dl\+ in fia lik "r fruit VtrV lhIo .
lbut this fact maV W I>c4 W.i} l ct iith 0 i t ;+tN-\ a^ a '\ t'r+ioii. "nlttAim
tivv\ 'a ia Vt i i ,. lim n +ke ihv lili-. ;r, "rit+In inmuc or le-- *,, ilctl \ +it rile.
TIh l'E 'yptiani and tio, ('|)land tyl,- I"Ail 11:1k ,dw lln dy '-im An. li/.f
frititiii0 lhralmlic.s-. lint tile frl iilititl ]ra+ trln,1 (if l 1 ", Iliml i ,1 1toii
-Io{w a lincl{ rcnl cr itnI d ncyh v to l.c('i an noca "Aniidii I,-itiO n ;awd c .n-
lin;It their ve 'gotalive ,ro" li. (In+ yonn + 1lo"er ini Imk l ini a "fiatt
aborlet d. T he >saltlt' la"I tid \ i+ ofitell .*'oii ill ;l+'lrrailo jdilAnt-i of'
El yptian {+owton. iWoI lintl...L" ina iiy timl G -o K)" llini cluirwtrartip tiq +.
The fruitiingb IrwI' icn'h of th i d IInId hybrid- an, ii-iialI\ l'\v ia t nd lowt
and sorrie of tin, {li lil.c )ltantl arc (monIjllt{+I,' wilril' a- al nd\'Iv
Yt4ated. Thlis is it no dtaltlh c ntrat>t \vith thet Wir vio+ *d' tili l ih M Al
hi'tu'c{in tlh 1E2"'pltian aim! l'|)la d c{ttio \\ li" ili ia\i, til t'riliting
branches better dhvelohil than in teei' laiitr 1ocitsit.a

COTTON II'DIGL.JOUS IN AMERICA.

"Ile, re'se bllhaIm ,etv ee tlie Mexi ,an a dl 16 llindi ,"1,0tto t',oi
Egypt imay not alllear to Ile a s"hiil t i til p "oo f I d' (lie American origin
of thle Ili li o mtito It injii t Ile tlltio'alit im o likely v tllat ittlon
had Iete carried from EK'-ll to NOWxio llan front Mexico to F.;zlpt.
A coiUnt ini-lot lIe JabiI (dr tlie f1ii'tltvr f'acl ithnit +M xi tan awl Meotral
American varieties are e r'inlwt of a large natural gronpl. Tin,
1IllITli OUS local tylpe are apl re' iabtly diltilerit anlt vel llhev lhave I)
nian v charmer, in (coiniini that tlhe whole mirnp im-int W ItANd
upol a ll a imdi{le{ou- l)]'od, tt in tead of a reWent (Idl l t i or. TiheV i
hlitg. narrItl alttenuate lo ew, that retdler tiet lliNAi calvx H- widllv
tinny of thie Mexican ndt central l Amiericain tIvpo-. tllioti'll \verv
rIIandv fot dl in otir Un eilt State,-; Iplaml varictic-.
Ihow the Ilindi otlon Nva-- inttlm ,l hot) I'.!\I)I i- lit, I& !A- to remain
;a matter of or njett re. fotr dIe li-tory of dIe I+',t-pt ian {otton itself
is altogetlher oitsctr,. Tlhal it ca:ime 1o )ropt lo im lini i- not to he
cnsideredI impossible, for in India. as in Egypt. large fnumers of'
[ Onit' 421





ORIGIN 0F TillE IIIND COTTON.


varieties have been imported at different times for experimental pur-
poses. Some American cottons appear to have been cultivated in
India for a long l time, perhaps dating back to early Portuguese intro-
ductions froli Brazil. All that can be said at present is that none
of the cottonis from India that have been grown in the United States
show any close approximationt to the Hindi cotton.
The idea of the Iindi cotton as a wild plant in Egypt may have
been strengtheneed, if not ,-1 I, ',- I., inII the first place, by the fact that
Egyl)tian cotton situnited by dry soil or other unfavorable conditions
shows a stronger resemblance to the Ilindi. The first leaves of the
E gyptian cottonll have nearly the same shape and color as the adult
leaves of the Hlild(i, and stunlted plants continue to produ ice the juvenile
formi of leaves. The proportions of adult Ilindi plants also appear
to !be influenced by the external conditions in different plantings of the
same stock of seeds. It does not seem unreasonable to suppose that
Egyptian cotton escaped from cultivation might go over more and
more to the Hitndi type. A further reason for c,,i,-iiii ig the Hindi
cotton as a collateral relative of the Egyptian, if not a truly ancestral
fornm, miay be foliund in tlie fact that manl lv hy vbrids between the
Egyptian cotton and United States Upland varieties show Ilinldi
characteristics rather tiuan those of the parental types.
The fact that tlie affinities of thlie IHindj i cotton have been so long
misjldged would tend to show that Indian ajid Egy)ptian students of
cotton havye not been famiiliar with the .--\ican and Central Ameri-
can types. It is possilble that the Iindii contamination already
existed in tlie Egyptian cotton when it was introduilced into Egypt
and that its existence in that country resulted from reversion rather
than from local contamination. The Sea Island cotton of the United
States, that has never been in Egypt, also shows sudden variations,
tlie so-called male stalks (or "bull cotton." commonly reckoned as
hybrids, but having, a general similarity to the IHindi reversions of
the Egyptian cotton and the same tendency to sterility and inferior
fiber."
RELATIONSHIPS OF EGYPTIAN COTTON.
There are also IillV in(1igenous varieties of thie general Sea Island

type of cotton ill thie Allierical Trol)ics, aid often in the same locali-
ties withli in)digeiouis Upland varieties, so that opportunities for
(rtosses may have existed through long periods of time. Some of the
|.\;' can an1d Central Americ(ian varieties of th(e UTpland series share
the long-)ointed bolls anid some of the other characters of the Sea
"Orion, WV. A. Sea Ishilnd (ttoli l: Its ('ultture. Im lr ovement. and I)iseases.
Famertes' Builetiii ::-'2. U'. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1907, p. 29.
[ Cir. 421






Island series. ;t(l it is I int innp()s- il)le that ;i co( l lete se is of i ler-
liediiate typeins tiuy yel Ie w i-v)elm1 ill tloi a:l Altmfica.
,a tt's recent tn assigtl;ell l 4df Olw lgyptian o()ttot (to another ott at
ical species ( 6 ',Mx.,i/f1,,, a fr ,p''i, ,, ) i-tleadi i f w owl Sona l- a:Id j),
te's ("". l/ii" I l/ 11"" n) l iilhl ldot lie all),we l i ) i t, )ii'fi i0" i--i fl "r tle
two tI e not ap e ttyli hah: e w:ian es-aential (ithirIiqi'j "- l(I j ti i 0
sIclh i separation raint e 'of divesIity -.tf lf tl b '\'|l)tiat
cotl [ls (irin tii |)(rio(il of aic(lilf il aizt tiot lhav s-. Io)() l(tI th t hli t iwt v
1iV Icloselv attlliI too thle sonea It:PliRA coilfn. n t'lilr \itvr individual
l'g-yptian iplants(. Witlh lighlttir ctwhr antd narTowe ln otiv llimn ii-mal,
that sinitlate tl>e sea l-lan l c tllon Vt'l", v l ( .- ly v. \\it ll(n(t :any v ( )tbis
( lpiartiure l 'irni i t lh ius al lN.y[tlia i ht ar cleri'(i> if t I n 1)if t pro-
I1nto(ce(i d(IltIli'c'nc s thIat >-(ln llinfl i- apIpi r( 'h"i ) -icd l rat i' t iN, M() (vlp -
ne thl e (n rl r 1 f ll ((1il-t' W on the the ,lK ypltiIan fawi,,l' l tand l jiiallhr
(n(lllenc-*v (4l taxt,+ l'Eylxit n (i ) ottI tol 01 p oliuc hrtile iranclict ni tll:
low r VI art( oftilhe ll plat i oli l iiht t l arc-- ii'i fniff it' kn io t ,, ( i ti- \'
int'h c lv exteitral (i* tlitioids uaid idiviu al 4 4i0l "1i o a, &i tih'
Tj'aM)ldtyp- of co"lton.
t\, |l;ttiiibi of tiistx Island otlio a, -al 1irrias. '\'Ix.I in the- ffawo1
of 1 hI9 ."uI"i Il tVlril lh unt,- strilki].ingly -in fitr l to) I l'utian (ottoln.
inu.ihl taller andlt s fIl i t ile thanl V A ll ir I if lilH(iJ-, ;I n( Wf it lli 0",tli l'rx .
(htarker 'ollai+ an I thli < i tvlal iv ll Alorl i ill' t lint ()ftlii E l ti:f pt ian- ap-








pamfy / fin fu-t ivvi"i lu ~ll OwuI :i-iea i-ijilet.I w\~i Me Eria ll-r
I);irietle f.l)m l h 1 v frsif)t firom tl f Si t3I). I h lt( f. tih ailp r fximfal i(t o wais in I ilo- -fi--t + iasl(Y l I()
(all tor rivl titif)' (i f the o Xllexp i tri fifat t" -fll' xv n illcry i ilmilitv
o ad nixttn( of sewed. Th, sanme stok oif Swn I-lald seed1 hantlhedl
in the .s-inn way at New Braunfels. Tex.. pro)dluce(l ioe of tl4O I'I-p
tian-like plantxs liNt iai nv similar IanvI- lIavIt (Oc UT': rrW'dl w ere, dI iv'Mi
ties have alearel in sone places aid not in owltern. Iabrktr lint
accompanied (darker f(liage :tmo(nig(, lithe F'g"p, l i 1) 1 i:la1t- as well :as
a xIlin (i a Ithlas n -'le twi() seiorics- -ln jl(etil-iv o' V overlap, whether
the'v are (alpalh ol showingg the -saint, extirees o( non.
Trhe qie-t ioni- () lte liotanit l naine tliat Aliold( Q I6 atotliee (o
Ii[di co(i(-n va well Ie left open iintil orve h nlii2p .nowvle ge is
available ret'(r., ( li + 1, e l)()tanical i(lenttit v (of W ier M exican t l(vpe.
The 1indi cootto)n omay t"roe wl Nlowe to (the (oiginal of Tl'h 's
<,nssii/y1 l ph. I na iv ,a iasom) IA- (S tint l. if \Vatl is (ore,(t
in rell'e i...e oi n li. -boll (ldla d v a tie\tie s(to that specieq l',aiv',
(;+i'H//j;'il ti 1 11j';" r" in 111 is. another Mexican speiestoJ (o e o sideth,red
ill the i(iithilicali(" of tlhe 110i11i Cotn on, fo(r so)nc ()f Ol Mexican
relatives ()f the H1indi otton sho)w narr(ow-lavedu forms tllat inav
have frnirished(lt e (ori nials of To'c)daro's 'pecie-, il,, (liv AiavS
no alp arett rehatiot tI( simile of tlle vari tyles (hat Valt W lassemle,
udJer this namle.
[Cirn 4t2' |


ORIGIN OF THE il tINt)I (*)TT()N.





ORIGIN OF TIlE IIINDI COTTON.


POSSIBILITIES OF UPLAND ADMIXTURE IN EGYPT.

That, some of the so-called IlHindi contamination iln 1..3 I t may
be d1e to hIvi1lidizationl within true United States Uplamnd cottons is
not to lIe tlenmied, for it is probable that many experimental plantings
of I cplal colton hliave been made inII Egypt. affording opp)ortuliities
for cro-ssing to take place. Lecenit reports indicate that some of the
Eyptian planlitcrs ar aadoptiing the Uplaml coltoli as a I,--II ir crop,
O\Ving to a serious decline iin thie yield of the Ey'ptiani colttoni in the
last few year-. 111(1 ications of a previous contaminiiationl with Upland
cottoli appear inII tihe Ashlmiii variety of Egypltian cotton as grown
at Yumia in '",,:1 from newly imported seed. The Ashimiuni field
slo\\led numn erolol s id li planlts different from those that appeared in
other vXarieties iIIn beig istictlv hairy. InII addition to lthe hairy
litdi plants tll'erc were several small hairy individuals that lacked
oilither 1istinctive i 1imdIi characters, snch as tlie light-colored, short-
lobed lea ves, and approached iin these respects some of the forms of
Upland cotton. Tll hairy lindi plants might also be taken to indi-
cate Up1land hybridization, in view of the stroling tendency of the
Itlindli characters to come to expression in Egyptian-Upland hybrids.
These hylbrid reversions sometimes take on the complete Ilindi form
and show very few or inone of the Egyptian or Upland characters.

CONCLUSIONS.

Experimeniits with IEgyptian cotton in Arizona show that the so-
called Iindi variations which appear amogl,, plants grown from
seed imported from Egvypt are one of the principal factors of the
diversity that would diminish the commercial value of the fiber.
Comparisons within other types indicate that the IHindi cotton is
of Aimerican origin instead of a result of hybridization with a
native Egyptian or other Old World species of cotton as various
writers have assumed.
On thie other hand. the Hindi cotton does not prove to be identical
with any of our Uniiited States Upland varieties, as supposed by
Watt. It finds a much closer alliance with other types of Upland
cotton inidigenois in \I,.\ico and Central America.
As tilt Eg-yptiani aind other Sea Island types also appear to have
01 iM ili,'d in tropical America, t becomes possible to view the Hindi
variants as examples ,of revuersion to remote ancestral characters
rather than as results tof recent hivlYbridizatlion. The similarity of the
Hindi foliage to tla ol ,o' youg plants of Egvptian cotton accords
with tis interl)retat1011ion.
[Cir. 42 I






OHIlIN ()I, TIl; HINDI i I'TI N. ] 1

Allhouih ft'.eer-ino 11tlitoi cdiarali- 'r- fiivlnQ (occir- Alwn,
thin l' i|)tiiin .llcotton i- ltllii lizo l will I'l t l Slte- lp ,l va i
"ti('-, tltl', tI 14 al- 1 titI;> I I na l d iari lt tI li it klln I' or li ot' T
i tl)l) i 'r ;iii Sl l'if t l i Ilie Ili lr iT' t+'l-i t- ; :lA tllt eiIdthli l rrill i o' litalili
li oll n' l i + it |ll l l'tIIl l rottt i m l I"i tl l i,'tl.

Appriuvid:
*I \MIE iVL.So"N.





NOT', +tl'tr I < Anit++W i l"ix ",\v "Y Itt n, wi+ l .lorw;] ry i lthe lr Itl nwitn (il 4f
A+'.+ i t ) t' liinv !l(+ t' 1'a l I +l too +( lli0T V nt-iw, i lt( \V+( ( >++ : : ++ ): T w o ll~ '' ~

lislir ril l"i is iii U `Pr d in I WlS jiiii ii 1 i n' ^ m i1\ i iiiI im i o -Ms l a o s
i-csithcm i+( l -;y++i. T i ,I' llr lrsi t+ ",;is' '. r niii++ +li M r', \\+. I .:\+,\ m n-r l;I;il+:s l'iqr ilh
.fu ry ,I l nllljt'.+ iln'l iln'S to) (llr, <'lll'l+c'HI ii+; lr +;l t i l l ln" llh ui n i l l i 'n, i s ;> li t :i i't \ > l+
tI;, it :ii; nl tio 0l to (''il l I11ii-+ l1'111 "l i V H airii i 11 Haiit 11 Wi 'ii+ i s I l i' "'NI I' Il
lain't, in the N'll'l r n iand 'ir is ly +Mr. K' l''ljrl n vl itl d I&', m s
liHv, iQ India ;an ld ilic The Hindi c+ttin is sm id tn(l t') Ino t toi, \n in | im ii ,a t 1 l0 t |r s'nt lo.-+ lWit
FAhtch t staler s lh at "H it is cull itv 0 l ih+;ar I";C :d:l ld nl M O W h q tHis S. Rllt, tithl ;tlid
is sulppos d to) lmvc lh e n W it int rodii'd 1n1'i'f t'l+o'lqn Inilioi, Is its us laiquii s, g;ctl sls."
Nit c(tsidow;r tiont is given t> o thi' idh'; of 1lit IHlnli cnqtiin as nalti\ve of' I'En )I,
\\att's \i>v, of its rclattihns Ito i i i o,+tn pi ali 11111 and A uI(ri<,';Itn l'|landI
ovltto s loin)i appIrtltani tl{ y (' t! (. Th'lc ]irs~Mil- i]it -,- ;i ('lr at l A rIiran r)i-oi
onf tli(1 hidi nottni is ndtod, on tWir l~asis Wf llilnd ; hl' IN-T ari)'i specimeiint
(]atint ll ;(; lfro)n+l(>d as(': Ic csr illK as itg rinliirrd i ntri itod Io E ypl froin
('idth tAn. l 'ITtCSt'h atdds That lie he Is `011"i\'d',l i:i\ s-(lilt 's of sovil froln
(',tIn~rvl Afrria. lbull none if lolthSe ha"v yi.'i rise it, llit di plai s."
Still older spii'ecimieins fmtii I'lqpc lr' yptl ao d Al\ yssiiai. hsrtiltrid li earlyy
W Ntlth il'S illidilr tiht nlin f'iulI'>-i'<'n:i a ld Col"frc"i '" d l3 1 sll as l)p ssil)Iy li'l'-
taininii| to Iindi. alr s]ix)\v by t-h'l lcl nr o l, i rue (1 \\1 + lM d ty1 pis. t)o rM+,altlI
to tin` 1 ,,l +1* c.ittonl 0o* to Ilic l'^ypt ian. IB;a lIs also IfTl-. It lt o Gos !Ipi iii.l rtli-
f( aimi as a ('nltral .flT'nir n 'ott) ith I'l' na-ed st(dls."e I .-'l 'hO tvr dovs
not AMoo upon Q) rtil ivi, i 11 as r'la oltod t he li Hi li wo n.tto, I utn antHs it as O]he
or tlh a eslltors Or tol, I+ ownl.t. in. Sty Isl:ind as tlhe owhl r. Iltils finds lhat
a variety of 'S o Island colonli has lirto'l iti'+i l m aIt lkantil, in (l5, Menntiyrlh
district, for thirty yealWs, w\\hich may expla i ti le h'lqdi" y of lolo lgyp1tiaii
-onnti I( +xary in Ow dilir eioitn or The St y Island.
l T AIcltr also studio! at l'aris iLinar'lk's 'il-winial iyi', o(' ritif iWHO M =. sup-
IpOsed( o *oiilc froin ( 'o Io w'< llil) llgh Kllt lihu hr&lilt is doi, liltt'nl. IIN 4 "oli+lhl 's
tlat :In Egyplian sprcilin l't''fr'l t o I, n-a ,'< sAjio os I hy I)'lile otv, a
cetlury aIo \\oias c iTu r tl'y idemtiliril, a d Ki rs ilitlo.r;>.ilhs oo"f t e, original
splo i 11i ns, S w hic+h arct Inot ;a llo flltrl':f \ )ill+I(, Ilis ,'-i.clnisit- : I- t t1 con Ib
sett llhat lth( invol u +at l lia'loc s Of l. ; rti cr ks ilatl \ww'ln o" di>liiit+ly otn-
l yl~tial l+form, lth I h W on ("ttvsv ;itd a Inil al nd un t \ It lins; fart down (\\' ai'lrd
tho lo:h se Of (Ihn bracts, as in the Ilindli ndlot,. 'h'let lnr al-,o ( leWlih, iplait egrets w aillh a slrr i'init i "4 Junntl cotton sent fl')oin Eg;ypt to
l .'Jr. 412)






12 ORIGIN OF THE HIINDI COTTON.
9 __1-.
Todaro about 16S((; with a statement that it had been introduced from Ceylon o g
about forty years before. U- co
Historical accounts collected by Balls indicate that the field culture of 1,i.- o___
slaple cotton in Egypt was begun by Mlliimmini,, Ali inu 1821 at the instance of >-___
.mnl, a French engineer. 'I'li. superior type adopted by Jumel was not a new cm
introduction, 1)ut a perennial "tree cotton that was being planted as an orna- w _
> '_
mental in gardens at Cairo, and -ij.I .I-. to conicm from India. Several direct z__
introduiictions of Sea Island and I;i ili.;ii cotton appear to have been made
subsequently, tlt without displacing the variety that had been popularized by
J inel. Balls is inclined to ascribe thle brownishi color of the I:-.'.v lti.t cotton
to these IBrazilian introductions, but Fletcher believes that Jumel's cotton was
brown, like some of the Brazilian cottons.
If tle E'gyptIian (cotton came by way of India the name Hlindi that is now
given to inferior plants may be only an echo of the original introduction of the
Egyptian cotton itself. Any cotton brought from India might be called Hindi at
first, and this nam', would serve in later years for the residual stock, after
local varietil.'s within special names began to be distil- ii -hi.. Balls shows ill.it
there wxere r mieros varieties of Egyptian cotton withi distinctive names before
the, Mit Aliti lype was introduced in 1S 2. After the use of the ii pir,,.d types
becaille gel('ral tlhe old namne might still be applied to in'i rf.ir variations or
ieven to aIccidental hybrids. The origin of the nailie aIppears to have no bearing
in tlis c.ase' upon the origin of the plant. Local varieties of cotton might have
been taken to India from any part of Iropical Amlnerica, though more likely to
have come from Brazil, Xwhere (thle Portuguese ships were accustomed to stop
on their way around thle C(ape of Good Hope.
[ 'ir. 421