The decay of cabbage in storage

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Title:
The decay of cabbage in storage
Physical Description:
Book
Creator:
Harter, L. L ( Leonard Lee )
United States -- Bureau of Plant Industry
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry : ( Washington D.C. )
G.P.O.
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aleph - 29629468
oclc - 48872598
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Full Text




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U. i DEniPARTMmI\ N'" 01,A( o ;Il.' l li,
|HUR'AV OF PLANT INIl'ITIY -(*irwhr Nk.. W
B T. GI(ALL)WAY, Ch' if of Burtn-n.




iTHE iI)ECAY 1 )F (' \ii A(; i', N IN I ;rIL\(; lI:


ITS CAISEI AN)) 'Itl) VI'ITION.






I,. I,. I rA ITI^,I,

ASSISTANT PATII)GLuIST, COTTO'I"IN AND Tl'lI 'K DISIAsE
INVIESTIMATItONS.




^IS -< Ir, ^.* (19 A*HIGCTO* k% EN F.O ihM t NTN ^\Ji f k f :I1S


4









































BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY.



Chieff Buitnau, BITBLKI 'I. G1ALLOWAY.
Assistla h C'hi.f loff iUra'. l!, BIT F. XX4)I0S.
Editor, J. E. Roi'KWhi r.
('hitj (d rk, JXMI EI JIONi.

[Cir. :0i

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iB. 1 i


T i o O1 li :, i.\ rA IT, : CAtI
AND ITEVENTION!


INTRODUCTION.

'I l1. loss fr om W ,t' frll/ W o '. !,] A %i t w I Ite, s o a eli, n s i l to (t'U i
to such an extent in soedi~lrieAs in the, past eWI year, as, frequenQ,
10 Make tilt grow'iingo (f the tUhomsinds thle winter, Ioivin 10 to .'A() per *cvnt is host a nin allv fI de ;\ SMooll
aIhtr't'he eihbalm 'e is [Imt in Ilv sito) ...- ho, m v ofnAN tW e Ih oi, (i e lelaivc' s
of llit head- turn NIu'k anwl 'roinc soflem In ordehi I nilt(.l 0",
riu'(lli t'tcllu olll f l' t li;nltmark t it is tl"c('ssar\' li I ill + oi \vl'v m l (I th
("Her hleaves, titus reducict'ing lu tcriall\ thie siz(, (I)' li. lh Iniivestigathions into (Ihv ca ases (d|' tlli dca\ v /d cabbaw in slom'at,'
awl hint" thei nmec;anis of ilrex' ingin^ it "Pr' umitiotr lk.n lOr (IN l)iir|)o's
of dhtermi ning the Nelmrs vontrilntiiiit t11 to tills los and ovhai prac-
thcallh rem dlial entasutes (im, hes( lvc, cin )!,\+tyed t" red e i( (.0 a,
iniiinninl.
11 w-as neceess,;ir o deteiiniiic tIc exteno 0) wliici lbacteriail orga:;n-
iK l- ;ndl h'al'-l)0!_it 1 trc re -.potitih| f r tit troeb I l ;nid Iltono Lie,,v
-- ;[Icd access lt tlin ti-u'snc 'of IM, llbcll '. Tllins in + t tialion
nec(\ssitlatle ;t slul\ o|f (lie disea;se Hill'cc tin^ cadbl);bage in the fields
fl'romt llhc]i sl o ;ich stocl ',wa- ol)tl t.ie ;Mid dlling tilt cTop "lhen lNiiun lI;>r\'est((| Ind laced it s1draL;,r+ h,+tl-o s.
As till, d \-ee lopm nt of' tle l, tie erin ;indl lil, W I;Nl'-l lgilil \lib'+ are
hc _.- ',y lAes[)onsilflc lovr Ie deen;i ol' v lof l);iLte deh nlst on lle ,1perit ut'e
awl huin hiiit\. ;v A wls d \va-i ifl Ide nl' of lie c nsir -tttio 0' of Ie ho ses,-
with ai vi to tlite control of tlhec I'actors during' lihc msvt,'j >e lwrod.
lTes'e s-ndies units lt e regardedl as |rlimiiinar\,, u"tl rtht kvl n to
learn tle nature rind important e ,o tlof IS pol tem. TIl tiller 1Is
obl-,Te v(d in tIn- lieells tlive mtt hol o4 larvestini, and ctnrii'; I;'ll)'e
trii.; (wo s sons. twoExaminattion" t e-. also made of o Im s"- \I,'ce
io--," rurr'Vd a ld of tl ,' relali\-'el\ free front hos- l)biriwn/ n period
ol several monthnlli n l r. [_,. ol' td empevra tlin, and I lI" M al iv\ lininidl( Y
in i'll ]i \\ln ie ere' o t>ter'ved.
,' Tl 'h ]i ;> V '.I++ ':+ l~r<-|> rr<[ ;l t t}n+ rri iirlu thn' l;lir<-;m+ ..f l'hal I i~lil.-tr+ ul'trr a, >-n| iif c, f.[rliti lin- in th+e Sltair, X,.if Y+ V<,rt
I t 11.- rcl'rif li+'++ (**-|n'rim a lly tn lhi Hrtirrii ;an !+;nL-< ili + fi.- I'IDI +w ,>rk (1 W S tinI,
>l~l _t ...lL ~ llic >il U.Uti+i i ll l ;1 I< illl lir [l++ itlll li+r>>V. >
( 'k :, r I * Ir l 'l 11





TIlE, DECAY OF (CABBAGE IN STORAGE.


Tiie conclusion has been ri(ched that cabbage which comes to
st4,orage in good cond)I ition can be preserved if the best types of stor-
age houses are :adopted and the temperature and humidity properly
re(Aulteid t y l)V ai(reful ventilation, but this is onl' one phase of
the storage problem. Its complete solution is not likely lo be
reached until ithe lprol)iem is taken u) from thl tie iel slandli))int anil
demloiist ralions made of lhe infltence on keeping qualityy (of methods
tf culture, care in handling, time 1 elapsin betweenll harvesting and
storage, etv. "'I hil Bureau of Plant Industry has already v shown the
important influence of the,(, factors on the keeping of oralnges and
other fruits.
That a, grenat imilp)rovement can b)e mal(e in the technique of cab-
ainge storage is m)not to be (houbtet, b)ut until the time arrives when
funll(s for such work are available thlie -i_.-.tions in this circular
may assist cabbl)age growers ant xxwareihumsemen to reduce their
losses.
FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO DECAY.
It seems hardly necessary t em inplhlasize the point that no diseased
cabbI'(age sh)ouldt go into winter storage D)iseased liea ds not onlv do
not keep wxell, but they beconle tile source of infection ftor healthy
s-, ock.
FIELD INFE('TI)N5S.
All three of the dliseases causing los o' :a)bbage in storage Imay
originate in thlie field. Black-rot, so far :as known, alwa' s results
from inlections in thle field. A1n examination should he madte of' all
cal))bbages blore sto(ring, andl lieauds affected within hlack-rot rejected.
Frequently only very slight traces ai-', observable, and it is perhaps
liermissile to store such heats tor short 1)eriodls. Tieir 1, oin.i-
(ltjlity has, however, become impahir(ed and they should be marketed
earl (,a)ag( that IUas been froz(n in lie Hiehl sloulhl eithler b)e
allowed to 1 hiwv and dralv heor-,e goiii into thlie -stoi.i.-. house or he
riejecl(ed Ialtogi erie. as fIroz(el u clubbage does not keep well.
Thei soft-rts are less chImiio ni in the ield, 1)t when thex ot,1ur
BRA olten verve desthtructive. Special care should be taken to reject
cabbages whiic show t(' rame oso)t -rtlt Mihen bhrouglhit in t'mo storage.
I e:lt-b lighli is (tuil Ct tIil ) in -4sme fields, btil is uistuall confined
to th.e outer leaves, which call Ii l emovedt l beltore N stoiringt. This
diseaset is tisnuall, reg:tarded as h's ivimpwtlant tiai thlie Iwsot-rots, as
its further development ai lie pelew e'l',nted l, pIroler vnililation of
thlie storage house.
IIo)sEI: INFI:<'TION.
I' a house l:ia t ss been Ise OF oe or MIore 'Iasonstis t' stora' pu)llr-
poses anI there lias been any'nv evidence of decay' it is ;i good plan to
disiifect (thl interior 4 thlie building in the fall before new 'stock is
Intd in. Tl'e sp ui's of iimny ftungi adm bacteria ani retain their
Qi 't I qi








v 'i ';i ld 't t l [ % A l nl (|il l ;iX I I,'l 'l in i t se l ill h,1 I w it
b'een (Wis ifoulttcn d fr"o (tlin ..ine:I I s i "" I Ih\ NI l I I,&V ,' 0 N I)T ,i
exposi d 1" i ,, ,l n I ii' Hv rr I'li ratfnlirl ni o nlikl +,ni-l :i t liii \,d c

SprI t in' (tli( I ;itls ) 1, i ,' it ih li it li ; I W HO hi l it : i h df i I I r







IOl l'(- I I l is c tlqmq A lha ,r We aIIIX l'l V ok'il i iX I4 n11 MitXXI dtil
ilo itd I t l I' Lii l' \I ilh'wn< li l A lMi' x'bI) i I ln ItW ots Ii i|a \ jmI[


( \1K1IIIJ X I IHA I a;
\Ai lia rge l he a)' lii )i nu i If Al i ;i [- )t|ti rl t M I > I' l- i lt I X )i 'i "
2l XX Itio l l ( i W \ I ne W'; l lou Iha ltl i Ii l i >l l. l I i lt e-
IS IIS'< l itt ,jil lI Ii t vp t a i -ti ni l l I (tXi- | l olfl t I i'i ;,'1 l l i
A hl e hoi'(I .. 4ii if hihi, -o 1, h ave ( \ DtIpi'o t t lili ;l(,l.'' loii l+w N61i
nWit<~ 1 1t(1 iit nird l \ w lol" d i nd r i t'l l idl ii i i. ) t"' ,i,,w Ul ;+-

Icrl d h ioul d rr^ lip gli th ;nis ,K a ie tirc W 11jil vir i rn ; i\ Ilckrra 1
(dv In ("pidriii The-n sc"1 s ;miltstnrtini [ipt illt'~ dp.int ip1VI
"t lii)lc, l(+>;n ls ,ol c'it bt) !i<1( ilii\'t, I cl), )i se-e,,i ;itl lic s llt 'i T( i ,) "r ID ISI u', ltli
sc-..<+ lt' \' ;) In'iltd n ot !tltiiis d l tn o rl)in f'r,)ii .-;iirl>h,-.- ti.- ii~lliii,_.+ ( ';l})-
lI~ i _' liu )ll(I 1)(, ll\+(,)l l hI s;)tlin ;it to u t ii n liitl r .\ [)cr(, I'n iii [ t i(' .,
'i',(' to :Iip )tl(' ltlic li(';ids >lio i],! ii(c\('c 1)(> l lii'(i\Xl! n l ~ tii( In ,\';]L'' l~l
v'l'tin ti it tl ler,: I11 t Ie WiWt I (wi t hri'ivii I l' I ii t li L" ; l'lt t(tI>d u', tiu t Ii l t'; i\< l '--',s l t' n t|'ti f o iii ha d N o i lnl,.i

OR(,..\ ."s%1S, CONCERNED IN DECAY.
A ln Oxanliini i1+ tabulin 'c I ',, ,11. n drcc >\ inl l 1 r sli Slhil! lh rc( kI-iind s l', l) .:>ck )l--it ) t' l -', l ;i nd Ii,'n t" -l ii'.h i r
[irincil);lly (*o rciin(, i d, & ilt [lr ilciiL) l t ir iii ir\,.
1S I ,\ ( l<- lif 'l .

I3l6h cl-n< 1 i (" (dt IK" nio-", s l,( > ii.-(cs o ld l .t. .. in i dl"t H ip p l1
ailiJ i< resipoisi]le orm nii li o4 tlI s Ithe l'ro- ni o (*;tinscdt 1)\' u pi r): i: -.l ir" ltiri( l(>rl i /ll \t.luc<+l 'i. ," ins.- ; ccc'-. 1, to i li iu in^ ,
,..'rl'(o ,w iil!'e< j)i n iit" l lii',)ll li, t in !ro o( l < o ()1 t~l'oit l }. i t ii l'L''in ; I itil'('rl io nI ()I
till' leal'. T lit im n '|(ri'iv lu ii r ,'it in q'i n NO W ) n in,, ,o t s 5 1)r d '> 1W 'rin
gln( ptilin)g o iilcc i i ol' tdan' In'l n th le t t iim;nli tl. Miii)i \ -.,'iil; l n ni l W-.

to, I lip lic iadl. h lis 1 > h +l .-ii'ol i i l il >cll', d s ldomi ,ollim l)l ('< illie (l strile) l oel l H o1' Illlf ll(>e ld, K>11 ,;i n l);in_-,,s n11'i',l cd
l)v it ai'( r I!1 i' l li l u) ;wind, W -o1i) t l awi l(O i ;| |, I,\ W O in&
Wlit'h+ deve oip r l>pid lv Uwii l fl';I'oV cilIl(' coiiilAiiiN--. T1i4 ri ti!' rol -of
l)] i .... I W I
(h( '( I in itw)ol'it ,
I j+oll rlll t ll ;410,>s llr' .. ,1I ,lll ,- ol 1W M 'ol I t in, Ilhw f t1>;(m I',l n o l ll Im,
del( ou1i>'>l b lx l;l thel- 1ili'.? ill l lir ,\\ io \ inIIHi olA' pl (4 l -I> IIn ;nnd l n t\ lI
,lh)li|ll"nr o lti' 4'rlll. ol' l lio I lhe VlV '.


!I tll+F I)li \i W %N ( %101 Aid1. IN I 1 I1MAIit,.


14, Ft






THiE D)ECA' O(F CABBAGEi: IN STORAGE.


SO( )FT- ROT.
Soft-rot is idue to a group (of related species of bacteria rather than
to one species. The bacteria. gain access to the tissue of the leaves
o()f the cabbage l)princil)pally through wounlds minade by ('careless handling
anI by infectit n of thie stemn and( leaves previously attacked by
black-nrot. Other crops, such as carrots and( turnips, are subject to
similar injury. The soft-rot bacteria as a class are marked by their
ability to destroy plants very quickly under favorable temperature
conditions. They sehh)lni affect uninjured plants, but require a
xo(unid (r otliher injury in order 6t gain ai a'loothold.

LEA F-BLAihT.
Leaf-blight is dutie to a tii1_2.." which attacks thlie plant at any stage
of its grolvwth but is more likely to develop o()n a plant subji,, ted to
untfavworable condlitins. In tlite see b1ed and( in thle field, leaf-blight
is distinguishedd by the dark, mildewed(I spots it ptrodu(es on the
lea ves. In warmn storage houses and in tle I)r'senc('e of sufficient
moisture it spVreats very rap)idly over ilie leaves andl causes consid-
eralde d ss 'fro, decay. Tle fungus can not grow, however, at ait
temiip)(ral l' n'ear freezing, and in tilie absence of humidity.

STORAGE CONDITIONS NECESSARY FOR PREVENTING DECAY.

Thle mos1 favorable results in the )preservalionll of cabbage are
s('tu'i(ed olv ni t lie' skillful reguhla ion of tlie temperature ai1Id lhmnidity
through da ily i atentiont t1 lhe v'entilatioin o(f the houses. Temnpera-
tur' a id Immidilv are the moust ii p)ortant factors to )be considered in
c(le'ection wXith )cold storag('. If the proper temperatures, along with
dr v hoIuse.s, cothl be kept. tlhie' o(igarinisins wXhich cause til'e ('ecay of
ca'IbagIe' ul tc lo In'hd iA cLh''k. In other words, lie organisims would
"ot dve loh) if tlie t(i)n'rature toulhl be held at about one d, _'r,.,
above the fIewziiing: joint. Sicl('t' it i iin)possiblh'. ,]i' tto periods of
waritlo weather in Ie illnt('ler, to n:nitain suwch a nlifuirmi tt'perla-
t ie Iluniditv p)lays an imlolrta lt part. I)aX w=1dt bIe imucAtl less
in a lbouse witl li i teitmpilaiturt and little lniitithlv than ini a
house Xwillth higi Icllipenralur' and a relatively largeI aillunl of
hnuhm1dity.
Tenitr'at ire and h I liiitidv 1iust largvely be(' c()ntlr(olld by a well-
plaInned systei o4 vof tilatio wil tl outdoor air. MVlitu a ,U,_
peIiod o(f 'very (hold \et' le' i akes it imlpossilble to keep thlie t(np)era-
lir. at a little above fi'we/zhig. one or t o t stov(s can I piut in the
itsne., which wioll aIso' iatr'i;nily rel'du'ce tl' ie huiidii. Moisture
slioul niiot I allowveld to olnltense oni tlite cabb ige, and not very

t ( t ./k Swv.






T iF I t I OF C lA l; l I N S IM Ai l .I


Im ch oin tie' \\alls ami! (,ilin'. \V N en v,,r n, ,i-,Ir, i-, co ldencsld o, l
the cabl e tie IN house is in lbadt (ciditiom anti slkouhld e dliedl at once,
even if' a siove nm"s Ite [)it in awiil the temp oralli',e raised. After
-l ill the lIVIHI..n Iatir'e co ldh te retd'ced I' ;b l % itd illn v out-ihside iir
h()rou'.h Hin doo)rs. \\hen sieves are plut ill I Iuses are 1 1 -should be
ex rcise(, ll thtl too) mnulch s ,lmoke. dol,,s not ,scal)pe inside, as Ithis
uwhld pro Iably iojyne Ilhe sal, ,)l tlihe ca A ,_"e.
It is onl,++ in extreme( ,iss t i n, th ie pop condition ol' o the house
can not be mnaintained 1)v vetilatiom wvith m hl-o(de air. ('Aal)blua"' is
('0o st ant I\ ^.\'ni!; ojl' isi lto i runless f)rozrit. 11 ; lioiis, is | Ili, relativt\e huti n lilk \v ill incll ase iilt il T l(w air i> s;it ura ltf An\ "
I(,l('l i( ion ln toniettill tre vN'o hld t Ihen riiqjl- toi i' l i ctoistlire on ( i,1
'ab',.a_, an [d thin walls olf tile house. It is I Kl4i,,v,,d thlat 11", I')lo s(
should lbe opened l vvr\ la\ (,Xf'(!( Vl('li s\\;irll day V(x\ damp. 'I'wel
louse should 6e ,,wned for vntilalion d(hrinyu" Anirr m(A)wicr O,\!w(nt
the air is drv, ;and a ;t a; tilhni of dav licn lAiw th (' )nl 'ratunr is tii'ar tliw
freezing pointt rl'I'v t wil,, i ,tir( of Ilic(4 t he u ,uhld tleO n Imx' litll
chalnlgod, and the r'l+it i( humidity insihk would r(iodued I" that
of tll, air outside.
In it st()ry' q- hlotse olf a, calamity (if abolt I,( (A ) tots, in thv St at c
of New York. a sV\stI'lII Of V01tutilatilI has IetII insltkih1ld Wlhit' fl)i-
sists of pi.)i .s rt nnii thtro gi1 lthe miiildinl,_, thlroi(itdi whlichI the( air int
thie house is drawvin t)v ; fan rout by electric pwer. "lew poips grad-
t11llv decrease it) size as Ahey n illifv throllgh tle blil Mlhinted tlatl b\v such] a s\'slin tlie air call boe cl lan c( il ln tilt, whole
htimldi ,i in 1\ wein1 tttin .t(so Trhe owner linak s it a plnt Aice to(: chini e
tlle air once evevv tventiv-fonr Wiours unless tlie( tenimpwrai re is\,;erv
high awl thle air ]ttinhid. Ills solo, wheten s(on in inidkwinter, was in
(xcelhent condition. Not deaedl hads mow "ny mo nisture, comdensed
onl the cabaI-c were found.

CONSTRUCTION OF STORAGE HOUSES TO PREVENT DECAY.

Since tihe object in storing, (abltage is to keep tihe h()ose inat' thi
freezing, point awil as dry as possibe,, the( ro')l meition 4oth liemm elio is
imlporlta t only in so far as it cnt riitutes to tIhait end. It is probable
tlhat th(e lest tI lp of Imiose is mnade of rinck ()r stone, th(e \alls Ih('iin'
IS to 21 i lehes in thicllness. Thik wvails are essential, since, twiiin+:
less &Ii'(wl(d by varti,'_' te ,peratures, tile\ make it possible to kee)p
thie interior cool during a period of N) warm weather. Tlhe roof shot[uld
be mnade of thie usual slieatliir_,, n san id ,_tn.is. It oulld le preferalhe
to have tlne sheatihitin t rnn fro e tlm of tle r4t oof to toh(le eaves,
whili wold eale (lithew ater, if frost forms and nells )n lihe inside,
to rnn tol(l sih h of A id Ith uihlling |stevad olf drilp+ili o (i the cabbail, ,e.
I 1 ;i9)






TilE DEtAY (OF ('ABB3AGE IN' ISTOHAGE. ==
0-0)
A house 100 feet in length should have at least four ventilators on L- O
I- LL ^
tlwe comb, wliicli would permit outside air ('lnii, in from below to o 0)
Irive the warm. dam]1 ) air out through the top. A building made of i o
woodl. with tlhe walls two or three boards thick, though not as good ,,__
as a store house, hias in ma niv cases given good results. > ,
METHODS OF STORING CABBAGE.
There are tw ,)o commonly methods of storing cabbage--in bins and
on shelves. Bothi have their advantages. Most storage men prefer
to use bins, because in this way a larger tonnage of 'c;ul ;-,e can be
stored per cubic yard of space(. Others, however, store on shelves,
believing that tlie cabbage keeps better.
The aeration in bins is at best not good. and for that reason shelves,
where the heads are only two or three deep, are preferable. lWhen
stored, thlie cabbage should be placed with the stemi end upward, so
that all water dripping from tlie ceiling or any moisture that may
con1dense oi tlie leaves will more readily run off.
CONCLUSIONS.
Soft-rot and leaf-blight are the ilmme(liate causes of thlie decay of
cal)bage in storage. The organisms c;ii'-ir;: these decays gain access
to tlie tissues of the leaves through wounds made by careless liandling
andl also by following up thle fibro-vascular lbund(lles whliichli have been
previously killed by 1)lack-rot.
Diseased ()or badly bruised cabbage should not be stored. The
most important factors in tlie keeping of cabbage in storage are tem-
l)erature and humidity. "Water should not be allowed to accumu-
late in drops on tlie ca)bb)age, and if it does immediate steps should
be taken to tdry the cabbage, either by admitting air from the outside
or by thle use of stoves inside. ,Stoves sliould not be used, however,
if it is possible to obl)tain tlie same results by using cold, dry, outside
air. Houses slioil( be' ()lene(d alnd ventilated every day except
wheni thle air is damip and wairm. (')ld weather, when lthe tempera-
ture is at alboultt lhe freezing )oint, is )best for ventilation.
The ctionstrucliin of houses, thie methods of storing, etc., are impor-
tant in s)o fa as ihey cotribl)ule to tlie keeping of dry houses and the
mainlt elalnce of a un1iform tml)ierature sliglhitly above freezing.
Al)proved:"
JAMES ,WILSON,
S(cciriari if ofl, Aiv(1fItiulro9.
WASHINGTON', ). ('., ,4,'+ pf'tmh+.r 9, I909.