The necessity for new standards of hop valuation

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Title:
The necessity for new standards of hop valuation
Physical Description:
Book
Creator:
Stockberger, W. W ( Warner Webster )
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
United States -- Bureau of Plant Industry
United States -- Government Printing Office
Publisher:
G.P.O. ( Washington )
Publication Date:

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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 29629326
oclc - 25308330
System ID:
AA00020787:00001

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[U. S. lKPAt MKX:], I T F1 A\( I;RK'!I I!~ ]'1K,
1I 1AlEAC Wl- PLANT lNlH['STl;Y-(Airrvil~ r N6. A;:;.


11IIll;ll..I''AY N< ["', l, r ::( l xI il ov vvmmmv
Till'; m ~ ',;,SITV 'i M'; STAID'i\


Ol7 lIl VAI IATION.





AV. W. S ()('KBIE;I(;IEI
i~I.\I3l\MAPNXOSIST. ] )Rl';G-Pl.ANT 1IVISTUI OTIONS.


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Il Il. 1.t OF 1,. PLANT INSi1TY.




't'l int f "I B, it o I 1( a ;1 :\ Kl 'I I I ;.\1,1.< \\ A\
As', l '11 i'J1 nf ] t l it. 'I:'l: IIitr e i AF W (ol
l f,*i I. l Il -, \V l. -..
hi f Ii i I. I. I xrs

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TIllE litli IlY FOR X1lAV SA DAlS O0
IMP VAI.'ATIOAN."


INTRODUCTION.

N t) l i I landnl4 ii li iraldiW iiv If ;a dliinite t tlai di
&W jui nlgit oli. jll 1itv ol \p l Ii ho 1,a- lotl l ii n ''o lil ,Vi /.i d. 1 rtlail
ptramb c~l coInsid r;6 n- NINO th s fi';i p)revqnted in- re'aliz/ation. !lut
tho Io'. t anion* .I n a-. [ elI p, e4ir scIc c of a \\il \i l (11, of
opinion :i it) wliat von tliltute-" (]ialilty owl i> to ll" nio;!ire and de-ir-
;ill<, aino nii of ther varkio s (coiist II i u 'lit. of a tr~ictll higdli-gladr !io|>.
I'arll lI v a <, of tl >' li-val iliing l" '{'laiinv :a- 4'arl- t4 i' lth a-i- of
(|ialit\" and in part lhocalil- of i,' adlvantagre wlhic'h l;Iong e-lalhli-lhed
|)r<)dluct in oir1 locathmo nusallyv hia- omm Ow ti n aivc po ic Iruoiiium a
new 1'cegioii. Inla v 11011-11110K [pra ti <;ll \'Y la\ a-ido all ollher (,oil-
Sih tiiont- and l;iv o lt t >hie g1'e .rt'Laphica. l or,'i4 .ill
A (SArlil rxaminioiilnn or rcpnfm tiiat iv'< mqi or' liop in (IV- \'ari-
Mp- hop-g14 i.4 ngi4 ct'1 an Il lad I" lie <1o4.- 4n tliat a judg14-
m enitr a to (lnalilv hI-a ,d o)it o, i^'iii ;.loiiw' niti't in i t\anv (a"f- ir-nIl
in a disadvantage! lo) IM, rotisiinonr ami in annY oqlwnr, llivralt, I" llip,
pr(oduce oI! rari-1i- situialed olv a fe, wiill- a rl llna\ lmay Q Air Trreal+'
thian W antl !)~il wc in *rtain -chleced i;-radlr- from t \\i> or, inotrr rr'1ioli--
vhitl( -v[)arat44t4l. T h4' I i- 11111'1, 1,rI i+l f1r 1l11 opi/io- 1 iliAt inki-


<: 1llr tuiy ilt s ;n lr|{ \i ; Lh !; ill + i!-*;tl i il'-d \l ; !' l +lir i t ,t 11 "> '1 ; 11 cr lt ; *Ii i| I : n +l lclS l lir
' l i; I t [(l i li ; ",4 I tha l l'> t O 4 ; 1 | I';1 i lu- i llll ls a ;l I| 'n




only inl \lurti . l ll 4,4 :44 in -I 4 .i l ; l.<1 t > tii);ii \'-4. lil_.. I I + "+ l4il l+, li ,I
w iltl. \ - h 1 ,4 h ,4 4. a 41
IIn t. 1W W :-h ), -, 4, /, 1 1 I, '14 ti'l,- 1 '1.1 + 110. W W +t
L. I.ti r I -'l i ldlt 1 lno> m'l l ;nos I; i- i T i
ihln' lni) I t" l i t i i y ; ,i ii| iill'ii +'in m, Nol! ihlt ) Inis n "I .s<.' EN S t tn" lIm p -I ni -
il "i+. B K (;t oll ', <'liio n la.' l t.
f O+r, :;; I






NE\W 'TANIDAI)S O(F IMOP VAIIJATI)ON.


fact is well kiown to tihe hop trade. -int'e thie reported sales of liops
from certain districts hearing a favorable reputation may Ibe several
times gr'eatel"r than the production therein. Ilops which would b1,
rated of poor quality it their origin were knowi in ,i:v obtain very
'avoraIle cotsider'ation when 'eprepesented as iii, from a localitv
whli' liha a relputation for hlps of fie (quality.
Tli1roug1h lool experience Ia crtnsideraldle degree of skill niav Ii
aqired' in thile di-cerInIIentt of thie probable origin of a sample of
ihop)s. Some even laim the aitilitv to tell from an inspection of thl
samtlile the exact section or river valley in which the hops were pro-
lducedl. This theie' may sluc('eed in dloinu at times ill the ease of the
p(orer grades or when there is present a secondary factor due to
s.oe) pec'tliarityv in thle method of during or in the muatner of prepa-
irationu. uIlt they can not gretlerally succeed, as such judgment. based
mer'el v oil the marks of superfi('ial resemblance, can at the most b(e
only gu esswork. The extravagance of these claims was amiply deim-
(olstrated in a case that came under the )personal observation of the
writer. A int whio has ihad a wide experience in the hop industry
extenditing over mtany Vears made up1) i a tnliforli imilnnelr a series
of samples of liops from the principal hop)-growing sections of the
11nited States. The samlples were all of fair quality anid in their
selection markedI plhysi'al deficiencies were purposely avoided. These
samlp)les were then marke(l with a cipher and submitted in turn to a
1tn11er 1'of expert juIdges of hops. Not olie was able to identify the
staml)les correctly. Moreover, thle man who prepared these samples
coldld not place them correctly without the cip)hier. This and other
si ilari experieences indicate clearl v that too tlmuch emphasis is laid
on0 geographical origin as a crite'iiotl of quality itn lops.

PRESENT METHODS OF VALUATION.

Almost without excel)ption the producer sells hops oil thie basis of
an empirical physical examination. biut tIle ronsutmer whio lpurc'hases
Ilis s-upply from a deal or r broker imay subject his samples to chemical
as w(ell as to physical exalninatt ion. Thie poilints which are considered
itu es'-utiatint- qualityy are numerous a11d vary 'considerably according
to individual ideas. Tlie more important (of these a're: Aroma or
flavor, color.'h. amount of lupillin. iMchness or "fatness, curing,
picking" condition, freedom froilm leaves a;d(1 stems, etc.. freedom from
mold l a hl t- insects, amount of )broken hops,. quantity of seeds present,
mtatu ritv, v. softness of texture, silkiness. "tickiness or oiliness, flakiness.
size of (he co(ones-. de're of sull phuring, anid "' feel."
('Certain fleat tres, as, for ('example, thie pirese(llce of leavess land stems,
mll,. insects, lack of uipulint. broken h1ops, and iulstV eor soutr sinell.
are ge nte('ally considered as detrimental to quality and are usually to
[ *;;it' ;








eI reI a ilv (t e rI i led i i oi, I'I I relatio It )I i I\IIitt i I oi li;II
a 'lcr stliCt a1 a i color. -i/e o cni' (',ch .. lI>;Ill too (|1i:|ilY dli1pen ,d-
(H Yl' elv o I I i t d ividIIual pre'flrt'r'I c I aId't I lt] i I- o l( t I t i I I aI I I\ ,:II I I'
ti W llla "r -t 1tl1 1 '1d T I11 J| i elI l I foI rm ed, fri ( e it I ,Ii I ioII -- i ,I I-
11im i v 1 t' lei inv II aie p II m)l ip ( e II 'l e 1 4't- hi 'lIl. -ltt 'II :iI tlii Ii I Ili dxi
I li(i'c 'i\' I it i |U ;> t :l at ivc I. 1 :I-iI I'( 1 > li i a' t i l a i't i l a i- 1 ic- tt I I- II i .
I II IIv I( !Ii( ti& l' I IIt I -i I ;i )| i' (li t i hI I i I t l4 I lihI i l ti t i o I I I -, l i t I I iI l
Iv l tl t ; li)t,[ l i tI'If '-. ,l u h Ir e i ( (rtl. ( i l- v. w liIIe I I I r .l i\ ,
oi lA lie' X t o ic etailii ]; r: t tilri lic< TIlei I, ll 'i i l It c -t l l A II ii ; 1i v
v liI liU ]- v,.r r;U i l ;t Il t I > ixl i U .It x il io l it 1 ium It L'Ie lv;rli
;itl hops of IB ;l l( lli l)A I, ;i t Il A I'wiql eii t r_ in I ) ct'i)lx'.l'1 7 "


[uiae*li.[i lxr x lrrin 'll'"i juitl i i i h in l.i A Iit 2 -44 intl i. ui '
11-* .01c. AT I I










1 :liy other i -i ,itlhe r : heiii s ha xx i lt I weli propo-,d. Iltl it tll (']t)d tlhey
4;ill d !i'p id i IIi iiidividla taste or w fit'er I ce.
FIalr lves iiiiporl'il ici is I al)p ircilt v 1 tt;lil d to) chelwtuic ;il 1 il\\-is
;; Is I It'll I,," of deteh'i'i ini it- (lnlality. AV hle ihi- n ihllio i wiiilo\"IifdI
it. is; (*IIst.oiI IIViifir to d t' i'l'liniit ollv sucli' (*o l+',iis l t+'l>;illl ar Irc^'arlc'dt
it L I tI Ii('t a]v[)oFt IIt (I '. SI I II10 C1v s I I cs l' I I I hI r, Il it -, t re c>i 'l- lof,

I'i :Itcst i III|)() tatce i11 the mll asilrei of (itj l li ;i t i l* I [f I I tIhIat id I I
- ..d sample IthI s f't re t-i s lo ll be not Ic-s llmaii llwroi' tiiii> 1t': 'al: 'r
iln (]it lntity tha h tin harI resIins;: soi l ui lIlaIt' te 111( we \ ,i th t I ii II w1 t
taiitnin content It I I thtI Iv-. I'tr r : a Id tnhe p loportio s i l whi th 'Itcl IIIiIw/r;l
co I it I II>t)I(ts ;,s I )ota --iI I li I I aId ic :1 IM I ,,I I )(,(,1 i r tin I ;I-It :as
;ill iliithx to t he ,quality ,,f Ilhe hoop. It ti ll;l ppar'I tIhat llc Ilhclw illi,+l
c'>ti1:alt o()f 4 11lit\v i, int as< -T(,;It a tislate o)f Hlllt'iir< ;tilm l \v ;i- tlIh pl y.-i:al
exa iIIIIal tio o\\ ii lmv tII, lah rk oIf Ia rete I lI I a(,II t oI t l tl r1 l ti i'(I im -
I t(out ance o4 f lw liltc It l 1 '111 1it c dlI c VItr ilI dl I Iv thi- mellodl( I.

DEFI(I1;:>CIES OF EXISTING METHODS,
'TI e lt _,I'. > defech l lt i ll e mw e od ()f phllv:>ie l v\ titll i oItI6 n lie(- ill
thie fact 1that it is inca(Ipable, of Xact applications Ilie r(,hltiv( \ talm,
attached to tll var;Iio s poilL, (a f'lie i to1110 confli-idhratio will dilter
litlateriill\ with li vario ivi:idi\"d al-. .\lt(lio ,_'. so nlili impotalln e
is .ltla hetd to thle ai'tInm ;m (lIAt w ith alizyllV lp s'r>I)1- it i- thle 111111:1t,


NI-\ V STA N I ~ > I ~ \ l1,- 41F, IIt \A1 VA I 1' ,>\.





NEW STANAI)AID)S OF HOP VALVATII()N.


let of quality, yet it (a;n gixe no very accurate information a- to
ilintinsic value.
It lias 1eein definitely proved that in lmany ca-es certain subcon-
.,io-us at lors influence tlie esttimatlion of aroma and the other coin-
-..tituenits of t lie Ihop. The chief of these is geograplhical originn. to
NhiIch refelre(Ce has 1been made. Another is the presence or absence
of -somlie familii iar pvhys-ical character which lmay bear no relation to
intrisi(-c value. hut nevertheless affects the judli, iil. TW is 1onclusioil
wa forcedI utponl tlie t writer bV thlie following experiment made several
"eals ago whenll illn the ihop field- of C(alifor'nia. In this experiment
a large )ask-et was filled with hops from the dryvin f loor of a kiln
iewl v filled with live-h holps fIrom tlie field before either heat or
ilphuv iad Ieenll appl)lied. These liops were spread out on thle floor
of a room. whliere. protected from Ilhe sun. (hey were allowed to dry.
After thlie hops onil the kiln floor had been dried in tihe usual manner
1v tlie al)pplicat ion of heat and sulphur fuimes the basket was again
filled froml tlhe kiln floor, this tlime with dried hops selected from the
same part of tlie kiln that Iild furnished the first sample. These two
-amiples were, therefore, practically idelntitcal in every respect except
i ll ie miet1hodo i" of dr1i.i(r The lqultit tf resins was determined in
a portion (of each sample anid the hops which had been dried )on the
kilnl were found to coliltain less soft resin than tho-e which had dried
naturally oni t(lie floor of thie roomn. Small hand tlsamples of each lot
were also Irelpamred anid sulbmittedI to fouri expert ju dges of liops who
were ignorant of their origin anId nilethod of preparation. Two of
these juildes plronounlicedl tithe kiln-dried sample Isuperior to the 01one
dIried on tlie floor; two considered thlie floor-driied sample superior to
thlie one driedl on t(lie kiln.
The expel)rience ju-t related afortdls a splendid illustration of the
wo t1kiings of tlie pe(senit metlo(d of valalitlon andI( of tlhie great part
pllavell bYI p)re-((on(eiv(ed ideas of mleit. It is al-o of mi'ch interest
to s-(u1dy the opiinions helt witli rIegarl to (Gel mnah or Bohemian hops,
whiiclh have lti"p eljotyted thle eltutat(on of great supiper'iority over
IlioMe prtloduced in the Il'nited States because of the specially fine
aoia asc.Iiledt to (liem. It is apparently however, that tihe relation-
-lhipt tof the a1-oma to lihe other coIl-stit t lii,, has lhnevelr heen fully
detern'miled. lut diffhren(Ites in aroma have beenl assumed to be lualita-
ti ve aMdl iid(icative of wide diltfetrece. in compl)ositionl. There is evi-
dence for elievin ll" that differences in aroma are largely q(luantitative
aldl that this factor is- not necessarily a criterionl of quality in tlhe
lIIop. ThIe ch iaotie conditions of existingi". itleas with -respect tol hlop
:aroiia andl iiuality and tle neit('e-svitv for their tho)rollugh revisionll is
fluhiher illusltratetd bv the following opinionss. each from a different
-lciali-t in the ue (o] judIgment o hos.








Sa I z hops Air>e 1'st.
T|n' idh a ()tf lor tin ll,>srl" i).\h 3 ll' lie he]l*'i.ll Nmli i N ; : :1 llial i or of u p rln lliq'rN .
(.erntii n holi i AFO iw1hs i li) l lirs" .
K t li h )l) n rI 1 lh<' Iilh 'sl tlio inV 'lu ri l lia li llon ( h l'l i I .
'1'th \W iscw -ii sil hoIps ;iAl'e' is ,'< id aIs lilt (4 l ,ilt lll .

is w\v tl'lh 3 I p iil, oI An,1 rit in.
'1W1 Iho"I M OV\\ YrI hl Am' I)/i1vo kad1y1 as 0-, 0, 10 l (" ( i nal'lli.
A shr \wd dh ni f >';i ll anw d i li hill, Ih;II l,( l! itk, :; op,.
Siltict ) hops ofil' lt'l'n't"] (',ii; + ra )lir' I Drm1i ntili li N tc, tiIforn'i' i lln\nt rs, nAIilir lli

'lir(' 111-0se l 111 'l0 W 4l1 jMill'iS H liti"is is :" \ ji" dl ill) ,i ; 01 c: ijuiliricp or
t;Ilon | ylI\s (h l ielW ri 1)1tI .
I'. 'ilhic c.o isI h p,)ii Arit r /l m'<)in T in I|l)] :'is.
A lllol'icnill h l l1 It'\'l|' "AllI lle *11 fI1 e ;I l'll t 1 t1. I)111 th1"0* io n o*1 l I ly il1itw' i\o'lII.
So) O r11 Asl m. 1+ I illlmlily is m.)im.=Ml i f+t New Y' ",v r', k tioqo \Ne"\ 1' an> (w Ml+ HltQ"
pidck d nliiil liA m l l '(l ; iil lh, ltirt i liq, IW Oc (\ o iqiil~ il i;] W ti1 lin .
I)ll}'l'i, t'.n Is ln v ii .\m win"T halll. I ',_ h ii ; l ( l.(* iI Ihlps Are Aln11s1 .1 i, iirely
:I questionitit' IIAl()'r.
O(lIc nllw/i hItps liice ImiT iwiw't hlM llin Ihtlha Ow A. it'ic.ii.
T'he'lrr is :1 ,vii iio 1t 1'i< in ,' ini ll;0, 'lIJ nidlty Ai' (;k.r IiilA i lih- s. X c'\\ V Ir- ]ih ips
.growVn fl'ritnl <;('fnilal Iroo s r is l't tr1 lh ill i /h n' r h l a i lo o La'mb" or "mI o w :c l;in llih)s.
Quality ro(illy (1t<'^s [" t Ai llonlit to llln -Ih, S il'snaillishi ", r thlhir tlhii (pim liny
(c(llllIs. II [ i>s ; l'A'rt, l f leqn tly ul i ht ;lAs ; is >' = I- h d A N ilt & I s hl ;s omni liit'/.
l liK' <, Wi.l Ciops ** lliian iiiiir<> &lIiili ilii l'iM V Nimn ii ips.
IEn.lg li l lsh hnS Are Sti!,0 -io 4ll(h ( ,;r 'iii;ii li ps,. Tiln > 1]>1'ri< "r ts .l < ira ril,,l
to l li( A (h;<'ill;li h>i, is k (T hl ;,y A (i rlliii; h lps liav hlps as lilts beell irin'l'r;llly slip )i)s'-d.
"'1l'l best I'Acilib c.ot' li>]ls Olt,' Os 1-lood As ltlt (;(tnl ili (W I'lhnl'illii ho)p s.
v i., iiun ci lii it v io f tin,' l' i)(' ])liy-ic'il '-\;iiiiui;>t r;i l( lwiei
(diliciultv of eirlm'/ii ii(ii (t| h til.t in liop--I)"y i l(pcct ion lhwi- 1 'cli h1ong'
1'e'C rilizxcd in (i riiitliy. \v]lelvii m an -i;il(ti' It s'(l- linive hi' l l w(loptlol
to >"('(*111( aiulhlcliticil\ in the ,lr('[) s tl'( nliw ~i()i of llfe oirir iii of the( ir IK,)|)-.
ihat tin, lio)) I fad, 1 '11) alli o.s'> wil i 'lavi uponix pre' judices i-
sl iown lhv thle folloNN in s t: cni ,l...s of Elliinlifii l G ro's),.:- "
It is jus ly a ll ri i -il y id s insl <='il ilt d n'Owhls t hat 11H, U nicflsi fy thl,' or'ii ;ll ef' thleir
li])>s. : ' iA i iiini ilt Ipawto s s i,)>\m pl ,Id li lty lrd b i i iieI ells Asso ;iA)lin ls
l' 1r s <-(w inll a/ ],>r"|n' il ol' lA lrl- giii-ii o t1! lf ,l) I |;i rr lw t s. ( 1riaii tii loc lri ol!
I! 1ns deAlerh s |a <' h i nizl r ')'rtu ln 's lo\ of I1silira! iiii. < ,1| lli> li t i lrk'"'. \ '. liz iiyin-
sr.- I lll i(ll "Mieian i )1". of .l s y. One Su i. loi>)sK. nii\hin lli'v \\il ]dih lKrum i lllono l i' rl
lin>is front oillo' Wrl imirt- i; A&d 'llhnm lhil \the ah, s Sal;i/z lhi'.
Tl'!i<> v'+,'*^'l ^li()lls cxi- i in (iW riiil v ainl A ml & undie/r i i \\ lncl
| <]\;;i '- ,t' hl)o[)- fin, -('cll'd ;lil"l ;mi "poii )al oi In-l a vol ili v'aic it = Wi '
Alni< their or)ii i lio;>v lot, -' il ooll( ilo IP ti iiitthe'-l- win! (c lil-!llli('lr>. =il1 thue reitjli ntr i in l'. i i hia ll )- 1111-t I",
1l wi -tl i \viti llth nI ilno W nd p ;ddi'-- (of lilr l'r(l\v(" l. a])|)i'ar l(o iiiic:i
n \idh'o-prrl d ilnwd)ili(\' on tli r par( ol ('till 'l l /lo) or lli

( ; -s 1 :. 1tI -,. |1,1] :', t I. t o. I l, it f
i tri .. ;;; i


NEI-W STlANDA1).\ ;1 (IF' liti1l V.\lJ".\'l'l.X.





NE`,V STANDIlAIRlDS (I' 110IP VALUATION.


NECESSITY FOR NEW STANDARDS.
Any rnit ional plan for the iIprovement of a crop require ;a definite
standard of quality or value by which deficiencies can 1 e measured
;ild troil wiich clelr ideas res)eting tie lines along wi ili imprLove-
mient is desirable can be readily obtained. The lack of high stamnd-
i'ds hlias loo often led to specializatI ion on the feature of yield lii.
diUl the conseqluenlt neglect of other factors ha: I ended to reduce
rather tihan to improve the quality. Instead of choosing varieties
which lprodice hops of line quality, growers have selected thowe which
give li, highest yield. bel ievin g that lie lower .prie received for the
poorer quality was more than compl)ensated IbyV thle increased yield
rTeceived over tlie better varieties. There is no doubt that tile unre-
liable and inellicient methods, of judging quality largely in vogue
to-day furnish at least a partial justification for ihis as.sunmption.
Thle disastrous prices which have prevailed for several years and
the apparent gradual decline in thie world's consumption of hops
should clearly impress upon hop growers the desirability of better
methods of cultilre and necessity ['or hoigh and definite standards of
quality. Wlhen. as is thle case at present, the world's production ex-
ceeds its consliumption, colnsumers will be hard to please and they can
demand amd secure the better g-rades of hops. For the poorer grades
no market can 1e found tliat will return a profit to( the producer.
For a number of y ears the American hop crop exceeded home de-
mlands, and under these conditions the usual practice has been to
seek an outlet for the Amierican surplus abroad. In thie foreign imar-
kets Ameirican hops have come into competitionn with the hops pro-
du('ed in otliher coliluntries anid ar'e judged by thle standards of quality
which prevail there. TIhe success, therefore, which Amlerican hops
attain abroad will be conditioned bv tlhe d. -i. to which they meet
thle foi,.i-,I'n standarls of requirement. -Whether these standards are
rioIht or wrong, tlie fact remains thai t they are firimlyv establlished and
thIereftore warrant tie careful consideration of tihe Amierican grower.
()win g to iri'teased production in (ermanv and Austria there have
been hicavy exports from thliese countries to tile I'nited States dt ilifi',
tlie plw-t four years I. Thlie resulting competition has been unfavorable
to Amic'ican hops because of lilt reltation for better quality which
lli iImportedl hops enjoy. T1o miany persons tlie charactleristics of the
importedl hoIp I*'om a standard with which all olIt erhI' hopsI are com-
pamred. T'lls is an arbitrary lssump])tion, which fails to consider that
the'e re ar wide lit'eree il i lle' qua(llity of imported hops. and which
delermllines q(lality largely on the basis of geographical origin, with-
ouit ric'eiel'ce to intrinsic merit. WheI tlie varioIls local and sea-
oial fIactol'rs xxwhich ilnfluclce qualliy a:ire taken into account, it xiiil
he s'ecll tllatl Ip'eslet methods are inadequate for the determination of
ihe xvarialtion in lthe illhop coliltitlelnts.
[ i 1 I ;








It '"M K.e'-T.l i that ;a Oivft'nl ; l ;H I m lini-. "illrom rain -liiv
4f i the 1nature an! I t! ; l l i X lItIt ioi- <>1 fli : ,F I- i on_ u in 'n ik ivtil-
ic'> ; I I'la l'd [ :1l, i l. u h aL 1 ia- 1'vr4 IW ,[ n44i4 it Ith lpl vivw 4 ll -ii
i t_' ;1 d 1tii l' Ii -i- lfor ai t;ii) ld'i o "f valutolt'4 A [1rat Sio,:l of
\\ork t 1/1 In'CH 1ll4 114 'of ai n I' t lI'I i- lW' i'tii v 11 a ,"- ill t11n i1 t IIl'l liX tionl 10 -' ofe t lati n
ol' IIk ci'a-m ittlni t- ltii. t v ility tixt'X [t it, ai t'cry -,Xi'tcral \ iXy',
1ll1 !) I1i 1 l, [4 t1l4'4 4 l i n 1 rtm itti r. ,'.;, a liX' .. \ 'c-'t tl i-l I al ~1 iS A I'P i-
t .ii1loi ;Iiu l tl[ I I K)1 ia im!- iOlw' M|lrk4 t ltif4 tly 1 \ l' X t 4--I tllW t t l i i -ir line
I: ;l I 4 1 1 Call no1 IM<, U41owl\ I lV l icrc. 111' i.-a ; i 4 \ I'rr 4'd 1 I tthlio
;1itl i- 44i1 X illr t(4 th1 i n-till, -liXnn l "Aih li in41i\4 J& L-. r iuX l ivnimil
pl;llt:.. A\ f';I'l' I ot l lll l111 \ 4 '\ ( ll-llt't'' 1l I4lliii4l 114 tl'olh 11ll II "& alic
Xc4'1,1, ptihicitl I'g'IOtll Ilui- V (liil-r 1cI1 til lv 1 11'{11 11r 1 Ii 1'l44 is dlun' to ;i lnlllllqq' olf l";i>'lorn-. lW, niilr ailltlniionq ,\]l'II arc. tir?'- lt.h
variety v ull l ivaiNli. L 'r ia i \';jii ,, 1o--c-- ;i \\ rll-al il "i 1 =,1 d( l;ir-
acteri'li- t 1 a ioma. aillli ic lio, ]lilil 4f variation ii thi- clh:ir cl'>''r-
i-tit" th il- t tIlh ( 1r1- -Io6 v'in \o:1iarbtic- tapp'Iarl t,) I1w Xver tl ;:tIl.
4 t'"L th )l i -i i- ihl:liic d l v tin4- li4i o' t i4liiti4'. 1' 4li \ Wol ihe
oil to hMl thic l aromla is lairgel\ applvi ach:.h ln;tnri('t andi a, a result full ril>e 1lios>, Jut& a m~roi:v"zr.
ai nnn. t.i t h s ll /i vi('1 i n :u- i n nn t}i ;niii ,ia i. c"i i- ,io". I ,l ifi l. lln o -i-
<>f w hyli and lli ca-ilii, in, tin cooliiii-, rooin at.( lholl c'apahlel olf
ii'd' I. L: 1niodilicalioii~ il l 111Va '1'IS M, o -dr a o lo~
Wcw-nI theit ild'ia{&llt'ii i'c tml on origin as a "lawinl- o| dt erl' ining,
quality.
Such widhe dilt'crcic in lotioon- of quality av tlhose prcvioly-v
KiMc, couhil[ iot \ exist if llith re 'f ;a "Ain illlyc 0ll NOW onld\ IId I div 'imly nnl t- of tio-O' \\]io dlhpld
ulpo p sical lQ-ests- ahlon dilfr \\ id l\'. hlut tlh ihvk a widle di\'r z('i' cii
ill opinion i ased1 on c'.linhal I -ta \an ll. .MM[ro'(V it i- \,t ll V11 i i1
ila.t the opininio f" ol llio-<' thli w ho lcid ce t irely' u ,i t)Idp .ic:al ex-
amtination III nio oftvitnuajrce with the op~inion> "f tlhonc whdo 1'oiin
their jud'-mlents an a 11"uhl of cuivinical anal\'sis.
It i- (--u' iiti l thliat (hel he VnI llli ,-i'llcd i til'un nmo 11 m,1 of n lmk-
i5,-. Ildh :ips l ald ,lanikyc l exaliiiinal llls o" liof s pi -t j a lt icrvn hiave
lcoll c-talili-h'ld a;lml arccl)tcd 116it'or'i IliK-l MIo s ol' (I xaar in& ii' j and
t(-(ill ( Imany V talirr inalt ria[l-. Stalidaink of 1 alily Inu ]w C'-t:l>
li-heId al-o. for a fair co pllarat]i\' valuation can ill l 4"1 "*('l d o vl\ (I11
1I6' lhasis of' wv yllhd tin td aiml univvsially alopt dI tes-t,. N('\\ mlaid-
airds f'ounde'd uijnon all exact knowledge of l0"> imiaru aniol M'ativi>
thi ot tlir of 1i van ou- lioI, coIli" ueti' ail re a (1->;ir\ { to PrirVc'11 1-
ineriteld disrcrininvitkio IHwiIn inativ in tlhe air.kl which wok :;
hiidld-hi) (o p ina v Aiiiri,'ii l 1 ,1} ','Ip- and wdhiclh i 1po-- till-
Itl'f(' -aII'V co' l- Ill])ofl tihe co1-1llne1.
I < *i' r.;'


x tk s 1 'r\. \'I). I'S r'1r 1I 1' A A I.' \l %>N.






NEJW rTAND)ARD)S OF 1101' EVALUATION.


MOVEMENT FOR AN INTERNATIONAL STANDARD.
The great inconvenience to (hie hop) trade arising from the lack
of a reliable crop-reportin g service and from the difficuiltv of obtain-
ing authentic statistics on the acreage and aiinnal production is ap-
preciated as fully in Europe as in America. A.s a result of these
condlitionls a lmovemient was set onil foot recently in Germany haCii *
for its object the fori(lmatiol of anl international agreneilent between
the Iop-raising States of various ctmlitries, under tlhe terms of which
a reliable reporting and statistical service mighlit be secured. Pur-
suant to tliis end. at thlie Internaltional IHops and Barley v EIxhibitio(
lield at Berlin in (O)ctober, 19(0S, a conference was called of all the
representatives of 11 hop gr)wers in attendanilce for tlie purpose of
geie'al1 disclssion, aolnd to consider the establishment ()f an interna-
tional lIilreall of informiation regarding (htle l(lmdulction, consml)tion.
an1d value of 11(ops. and to formulate plans of' united action for the
mutual 1belelit of tliose engaged in thle 1hop industry y.
A committee was appointed to work out (tlie details of the plans
-i._.-t-led at ti, coinferen:e and to send tlieni to tlihe hop growers*
o,)rgalizations in tlie various c ilintries. It was also resolved to call
a geeliral conferelce of relpre-elltau ives (of the groovers o(t all the hop-
produciiing coulintrics to meet in Bohemia in tlie latter part of August.
190)i. It was further decided that at this conference the establish-
ment of an international standard for judging thle quality of hops
sh11ild also ) be carefully ollnsidle're(l.
Sullicient reasaonls ia ave been a(dIvaiicedl to show that tlie adoption
of a new and illmpartial standard of (quality i, not only desirable blut
nlecessar'V. When it is considered t hat the favorale l rec(epti1(1n (f
Amierican hops ablro)ad depelld, p)on foreign ap l)l)rOxval that tlhe
ado(l)tion ()f a;l ilternatiolml stan:lldard ba-ed entirely upon Eliopean
ideas of (ualitY witliho(ut regard to the intrin-ic lierits ()f Americanl
(hop, w(uld () operate to the disadvantage o(f the Amnerican grower:
anld that American ll(ho)sS are m:easullred as to (quality inll their holimle
markets l)v a -tandarnl of exceihellnce hased 1upo1n the fe:atires of hiops
imliported froIlmI lhe (Genlan Emlpire, it se)ms lthat the hop ,) growers
o()f thle l'nited States ,lhoulld n()t fail to avail themselves of the op-
po)r unlitv to send to this 'cnlerellce dulY auIItlorized and qualified
represenltatxives, xwho si,,Io'uld aim to secure more flavorable ollonsidera-
Iion ()f (tle (qualities of Aelierica) 11l)ps. lvex v ell'eort -llhould e made
to l)bring al ot (llt thi' th)rolgh revision ()f tli, methlods of hop vialuation
ad to) secure lie Ircinel igat oll o()f h(op constltllelt-s as a step) plre-
limiirvy to tie lixillo of alln inllernlatiol talldardl. wlich slioild be
ba-ed on intrinsic vale wilhout i reference to o(tthli'r factors.
Thee ()bject(,. 11 lay l)e rllrged tlat tlie Amelicn(:lll represcentati Ves
Vou11 ld be o() ou0lt11uml'beld ill a con'lferllee t(o be lield abroad that their
lI ir. ;:;






NlV S\l1ANONH l; !H IP % AIJ',,HIN. I I

v'iew, mo ldIih l wo midw full! mo 'da- rt~ loll. AWli Il~l 11E A v kawlr .
Iluw tul' Im t w k ). n ]'tp ill t/.;, n v Ul (A)n Owl ot r IAi lno

;il lli' (* rr-tHl;
  • 111"ii;g pn,,nitay iiu of 11" li vreir --in V 14
    ;a Il-i dealcr :1n1d 11ori tinwou -- lha-i, of hopI valnwil illi could not l0.
    ippimrcii. 14"Ai atton~ dmul ld It l to tinv W*arilica loll "r idca r,-
    .*'j ect 'H 'i iu t |ii. 1:1ily of
    Appiro(\'fd :
    JA.ME1S AV\II".S~\


    I t' ). C .;;, |/

    0




    Ui IVtKzI Y Ut 1t-LU IUM

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    4.