Improvement of the oat crop

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Title:
Improvement of the oat crop
Physical Description:
Book
Creator:
Warburton, C. W
United States -- Bureau of Plant Industry
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry : ( Washington D.C. )
G.P.O.
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aleph - 29629235
oclc - 48872595
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AA00020784:00001

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I It I Y* 1 I tl t
U. S. DElAll'lMElNT "() (,Il'(rIT[E,
I1'1;E1A\I ()F PLANT IN H'STIl Y ('iicllhir No. :Vi.
B I 4 \ I ,I A,\ l l I, f I i i r ,' i





Ill VlTll-l (! TlE AT (1T!W.






|IY

(C IV. NVAIPI'ITON.
A(!;I()N()ONll,~'r IN ('0 1AI (G ,] OF ( )AT I N1 KS'll.\IlIl\,.


"T.M1 I ( 'ir. :Ii> i>'.


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Ill' I1: V OF PLANT INDUSTRY.



C'hi, [ Of olfB ni. B]VERL'. 'I. (;A.L(WAY.
AI S.'4,1t t ('hiCi of BflUIaI. ARI.ERT F. WOODS.
I'l, itol, ,1. E. ;, II)('K Iv II..
Clhicf ClI 'rk, J[AMIE.S I'. .JONES.
>ir. :10
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l.MI' \IIROV INT (lT TIll OA\T )A'[ '.k



NEED FOR IMPROVEMENT.

Neairlv 3 .4,1)).l0(1H) ;(i" mwoe devoicu l I" tih p od'>iliic( oi oal, ill
the I' iItd StI tilts- ill Il907. This- wa (h:ie lar;I2'tc ;atrei< repoirtl dl I11)
to thatt tilli '. lbti tihe' att' \V4'l1 V> fit' low\e't 1ll '' I'':C ; flll1l tlllll)'-'
the lowe i t-(t r-ti cor dd l>v 1 lui I t'>tp!ii of olatisti"- i f Ithe 'lited State'
D] pr tliiHr iit or' y roirltur,,. The (uiilhvy i tlihe principal ,alt-wo-
ducing" ("lons \\tccl-b al~sI'+V i)(t. 1lwllic The 't acr ealge \\'>I", !t'j>-
nis'oxu iitcly ll it t:iite a-' thali t o tin pre tvi t's "or. aiil thlioit'li tli(e
u!i' )l w\a' s t liftitlv lair-''cr lli" l 11 lh!a(t \'lt it \\ 'ar telh w liltu i\ th tilra
of the I n'l vioii ten y a s, v'aili lli the awv rar' vivid ol' of ll il or (lth(
lnitieud Stat it i-' a, Ilo\ a. Ln.f litlitt'l f tho ai o'taA ai> it litis iffnt 1i thi
pnist tw'o \ear, it i" evident that improved varieties, and. Iletl"r
iiethods+ of To\ini" ail and handling' t+ roh p ael, i HIC needed. Onl \N
tihe ih lroveettiiin i of tlihe tiio a,- ui'tu ttlfii titie -ee1 will Qii e di -
vil"0d here.

T hl e \ \I'= ;i i fl i.I l l1 l:illp i |l ) <;tl (* A'jl +i], Ai' l I 1 1ril i ftlililt S tl;'l hs ll IT, am f i inn lAw:l p< hu wI ilioll i n wllli ht i fl If r' tlhe i' iljif|> lif'til
id' this er-a'll. u 't icll llth e i ;blt l ijl as h it++ t iuiei f t t litbe '.elu tifill ilil! iltipil'u ft clf.'t l
tf cu' 'lin il 1ho I ;isl t i 'ol yuals: a;1"i"!l t I ;i]>el i'I ta lb en tilhfd W\vith s!i.'es.
li, i +rf ii'lhlidlsAwl of l i lll ; Qumi us Itltlh+it. ontl thn' stihion'i l>;i'h
lI -'i I lblishii' d lby lht' trift lit i f lll(l"u'ra' (l lxf( i'l'l l eltperiosen l';l iif i rs'' insl io ltl
Icrt li '!s 1 tl\f' lifi'l flf\' ile t lft' i ia H : Awll in nll aif y SI tif s s'c"'t- 'w l'n 1' iI1 liin''
hln '< ri i o p ',o i tn t i;illif Iowffw. Sil'.li fI'ly 'ifullf'th. xw itlh li!l ltis c'lllhil
7insIl ; nl lldth' i:ctl l ili inrol'einll t oA the roll tsi cr i \\hW hir lus rcsn lcil. fhu i i'll i s
llfl i'f f ilf tt ili f l ltfjll t I l1 l i ill' fitfl n f 1 "l h1 lifo real's'. l <-Iilltil ly- th re IlS
It>(ll sf. li w,'tf iI, 't tl A lis ull i,,it l ais I" lni tlld is still n u, wv i ih is little i lt"I sl if l h liyt Itlii "II |t f, l'" lh;l l'r.Ift i rio' 1i"uO w l u l
p+ tl~t'l liis !,ircit Itr+ciialm +l.
T'I l t l l 1f iim p o'i' 'il lt by ildivioloiai l ilani sI', i s 'i, ri'r u "iii i uli l liy
lth i a t'llr' I ts l fts l u ivs fl w illi nf' ui h f llii< >ss ll y Ill"' oiofiI ami l\liir" h'i<' i ilni ll-
gr1" iii li 'perimtl e t sItflfii ;t s \\s '" ais f on lhf 1 oxnui''hliiK' al f ;iftfls 0f tihf tliiri 'u l" M t i1 Il
Iltvr'".t JiiltIfuif". uf tlis lt- JI'ti'ui itt. T. i(;\itJll\''A\, I'I!.'uiui uJl 'fl ufffl i'fttlilhuf fl'1+,
fIflut s liu rf ''f ,iln uiall.
an i. ;I1 i






11MPLPOVEMENT OF TF E OAT ('hOP.


LINES ALONG WHICH IMPROVEMENT CAN BE EFFECTED.

The prominent lines almig which the oat crop can be improved
'ire the yield, ratio of kernel to lihll. and weight per lbushel. Inci-
dentally. selection may be made for strength of straw, resistance to
d disease. and earliness, though all tliee points usually contribute to
tlie increase in yield. For cereal manufacture a high ratio of kern1l
to hull is desirable, and this may vbe made thlie basis of selection.
generally speaking. selection will be made for increased yield, with
incidental reference to lodging and disease resistance, and to time
of, maturity.
METHODS OF IMPROVEMENT.

Several methods of attanii,,-- the desired end in the imlprovemlent
of 1ny small-grain crop may be -1i1_u,--,''d. Th,,. are: Mechanical
selection: introduction of new seed: use of the seed plat, individual
1ld:mt or head selection, aind l hybridization.

1M IA N lI. i. SELECTION.

Miucl has been said and( written about tlie u-e of the fanning mill
a'nd other means of seed separation Iby gravity or wind power for
tlie improvement of seed oats. Actual field tests carefullyv con-
dueted by several experiment stations indicate that little perilanent
improvement of thle variety results from these methods of selection.
If thlie seed[ is carefully cleaned each year. however, lie work will be
full justified by thle removal of weed seed and the small shriveled
grain, which, if it grew at all. would probably produce \%,dl and
unproductive plants. Thle ordinary field crop of oats is a mixture
(o several varieties, soeie of which are necessarily inferior. Me-
chanical1 selection can not,. of course, purify thlie strain by the removal
of these mixtiures, which are often thlie cause of unsatisfactory re-
turns. This can be accomplished only by hand selection.

IN'T1IIt)1 (l'(1(N 1' NE\V SiEED).

T''le intro(lult ion of new seedl inlchludes impolitations from foreign
'countries ad transfer from one locality to another witliin tihe
1'nitedl States. Ml,:1lv of our be st varitietis :ive been introdulcedtl
from1 foreign countries: indeed,. it is prol)ably true that more good
varieties otf oats lave been introdIuced I fromm alboad, especially 'rfron
EI'rol.pe, tIhan of an'v otliher cereal. This is lari'ely due, however, to
lhe fact that little attention lias been givenll to the production of new
va:ieties- of ats inll tlihe Inited States. Notable alliong the introdullc-
tions of recent years have been Swedish Select and Sixty-Day, intro-
ducv(I b' thlie Iinited Stales Department of Agriculture, and Klier.
:' ir. ;H)J








sonl. iintrodul ed Itv (i1e (I Ne a iska A-ricillllnral lExlpelrimtelnlt ,Staltionl.
AN\ lIdle I1lll l h bl eeI di i Alone ilI tt III IlIne III IlI( p:1-1. \\(, (,m l 1tnot delt lid
cnilirel\ (in1 hisii 111"r'e tf r (lie fllu lt're as wet have [>rmcl i<';iliy ex-
hlai sted illn I1-1 oft exi tlin"r varieiesl t f III Flirt we. ilii ized valrieties bredI there :11.1 11 likel tk v (o I cce d ,over ;ilV hiree Ii a ea
of the lilt S alie-. The: s t hvl ,ll aixl ii p ov iiemen r dtI ( if li ,-e
ITil I' t lI ( i i 'lrI IiI l\" I l io I I lii ] w i v li;i\tc IjII\ '((l o,1 I ;I II 1 ) \i I ,I -l ,

tll ti I w rtI alc l IIIIF IV III.III II o
I"tI fo l( 1iiat i l v i tiil tl' \n 'litcill r ;tii r)( >((*il'('l 1)\ tI (tx I\ xli 'I wo fI
>>'<'(>< flolin oniel hlocalil\ ( i iiiotllHl 'rg. .A \"alriclv whtu'li ilo ,- \\(,l1 111 ourlt
Sl;ilc' or c'r io i \\ il! l i l II' I' 11Y'il >iitccecd iII allict r. t(\rii lliomul'
(o inlit io'lar a|t>:ir'mli v:i i 1 1 1 1 It Iy ^ Iiier i> t11' o*t*%ci 'lo If (:iV 1i1T:!v i1
Uto inii kro tlnie llraii- l'cir~ Ixt'l\wcci lora:lith, xicl^ w ''ith3 V*riaiyvar i '()it-
ditl~ i- uol> il ni l c 'lii t )llI. :1' : 1 tl 'l'f r o f [ il ii. li _'"',, ii illidcr' irfi.'a :l iol in M ontii ;) ci, i ial lianl' ly lIn ailf'inlcd \, itli
SilCO. \\ li thol -e'1ccediil' ('colli tl i ollns ot lo\\,I (wr I li oi w-. I'E xperi)inii iils It()\\* leing, ll 1 >: \ lo i lia'
()Mlice of (ira IIt 1n\"-c t i';ii(io t- i td' tli Imir i I iI [ li( I W I lial J imiie-
l vv (\*cd-.et oft at i\vm \'airict,\ \ l/ill 7' ^* i*ncral onli\ idl~ ilil ia t li fr in
diIin cIe, e n ] \ ,(ih r ih oi1 'i- i Il f s lo c IIi i lic a iIie. A t t IniiirI loI.

T ex.. Iloll w -- r(l m, tli seef, Ie d oft, Burt ():It Y;it- Iie! co, I I[>ra:1 l ic' il l: Y t\vitv as
ll ch li as i n ;i d N joill i plat id' tile sili, \arieiv t'r ni -ccd wincli liid
hornl ,,I,,'"; in VIciilral l iis fIr t wo veais, it ioYh lot. li \v l I wch ri'
,21,,', li tI'rolii tlin sanil' orl'i~iiali slocl\. V le t l icrc unproved liiidhi.viclldiiL:_
\';l'i(te '( i ls ta )(, sec'uried flromi In.i';i-l~v 7"1"owci''. tlicir purchasi~ie l(o
el aiI e '0I 111111011 oI iifenior :1 1 1'k i- ) vo lI I" e olif ielded, Il ll it i-s
no( a i sal\ l e l to (11" sel se d oil- flo n a -eItIkli .i W Ili li llie III, I i-
li tii- i di i t 1 )h I IlI I'erent Ivi lli-,1. )111 11ci' r ii- kli lie cr op i- to lie

I re; o1 1W i I wk I I'I I,,WVt.
no | I IIav ti ai l ImIel]I o F of- i(i1( 0 o\vm (i1' lie o I l I'(IjII). thIo\vIl li oIIte \I liif li
invol e- a r e \v li lie aiil ex|)ell. I Itie IIs IoI Ilie smalIol wed pla .
Tlin;- r'eq!uire- ilie s-eh lcc ioii of" al coii-id/erallth i~nintil t\" (dl' i',tod tiiead-
,1,, ll lie I :t Id a Ifo r I lie l t loviii ll- a t n i I a i l qt'l'or i( i liar\'e-'Il(' .
('I e I sho- IIIould I l Ie e erisoed win elec n I the Ie d- Io as to I t n the m a-

iieai' \' asI IV l- I ,t Io IIe t \'je. : I lv (.()iil- \\liirh/i -lio>\\ sYIftetrf ioi"
I-uilities uinidear fi ordililal\ cvloildl io:1 1 lt ,n1|1 1 Ie w-l 'l4ele T lio-1 : liic(li
stai d r loee. ie,;i" (lie eI, ,I f tlie 1iel, oI wIich arc otlhi, wi' e
es|ec'iallv tf;!\orcd. -^lioiildl 1, l ie re c led. "I'lic, lic;nl- -,,/,,'1,,, lioiIll
l loe lI :Iie ] tl\ l) a d;id, II d] tlit Y :ai e,)IeI -li nid l\ n ii oI I [I|;ii

ha rvv'\ e l .eld I thiasltd scpa a tet tlv dy I'l Itltl I llte Iai II cr'ol,> .\t tliI-ra-!i-
{t ir. ;;i J


I.\l1l(iVt 1 l:( V I, (IV 1 11l ()A\T ( 1No 1.






IAJPno\V'-M\KNT (IF TilE )OAT 1CROP.


in;,i thle first portion to .-o tlirouigh thlie machine should be rejected,
aI it is likely to( contain a mixture of other graill. The grail from
tle seed plait should be used thle succeeding year for sowing the
2Ielier'al cFOq). or such portion of it as the quantity of seed secured
makes possIble.
To el'ect )permainenit improvement, the best heads should be selected
froml thii seed plat at each harvest to pldant the seed plat of the next
\year. I tlie quantity selected will. (of course, vary with the size of
tlie seed plat (ldesiredl. If possible tills should be large enough to
fulrnl'ih seed for the general crop of thlie foliov' il,,' year'. Where
the I Iri' is considerable, another year is required for tlie transfer
frolil the seed plat to tlie g-eneral crotp. For instance, enoiughi heads
are selected thlie first season to make one bushel of seed. This is
Sotn11l oil a half acre and prod(1 luces .25 bushels. The *2.) iushels will
sowv 10 to 12 acres the following year. which should produce .ellw,, 'll
to sow several hundredI acres the succeeding year. The 1,ii.nth of
time from seed plat to generall cro)p will, of course, depend on thlie
ratio of size of the small plat to the a ,' i. "'- of the general crop.
Thlie term seed plat is sometimes use I to designate the plat or
small fiehl in which new or desirable varieties are increased until
1-li, Iiit seed is sectlredt for the fie eld crop. Thus. if a seed Igrower
or ldealeor or an experimlient station in the vicinity has a 'ood strain
wIlich the far'leir wislhes to t vr. it can be sowni in this trial or seed
plat, antd if it proves better under his conditions than his general
roip it can lbe increased sulliciW1 tlv ii a yVear or( two to take lthe place
o(f thlie ohl variety in tlie field. The use of liie seed plat in this way
is often alvisable, as it oilers an oppor(lunity to test tlihe new variety
on a small scale without ri-kin-" llit (t'iiire crop. Frequently. too,.
s'(el of new 'varieties caln lnot be -clured( ii suliicienlt quiantitv, or is
tot l1i2-h il price, for, lie wt\inij oft larI'e field, a;id an increase plat
is t1hs imale a nieces-ityV.

IN1IiVI 11)1 I 1 P ANT SEI.I':CTION.

Thlie milosi reliable and, at the sa!le time. the slowest means of
imlproveenliIt is 1,v tlhe selection of ilividual plants and the estab-
lis'imienit ()of Ipedligre(d strains. Indiidumal heads sliouhl be selected
froimi tlhe field ('crop1) as for tie seel plat. liut. instead of Ill.i N" the
sec(I whein thrashed, tlie se(ed fi'oml tlie several hica(Is sholiIld be l)lanted(
in separate rows. An exc('ellehnt mIethlod of t(esting these selec'('tionls has
beesnu des.crilb d 1)\ Mr. J.. B. .Nor-t on." formIerly in charge o(f llie
A\mol'ricnn I Br d ,lers' Associqlion, vol. I. pp. rs(-2.5. This plan is outlined
rmh~" lleiol inl denil Iby 11. J. Wel\ldwr in Cornell University Agricultural Ex-
periment ,Sli;i(m Bullelin 251, ppI. 318-319.
1(11%. :"0





I. \l 'lic\VK.MI K."l ~il. *il l ( I,\ i~ ilI.


oat J reed itI g' work l-1, thi~. I"Itreali : :I hrkici' outli I l Iw 4 11- planl I ~

The seettd trof m the itdliv'ilni'l heds i 1,1;'11t,<1 t e, lir-ol theea ill rI,\-
1' feet I 'l il ll(l 1 1' (t I I )I rt. II I l l 1ii1';lder I l l ll e wrii I o N- :are
late dnle it \ill he toundll it've ienlht i .;..,o Ro IW
ito riu thell i thi ee(' m ri -l-. with a: qo v
narrow ~~ ~ ~ C--/ ^pc bgen h TI..as _.
shIlT() Vn II e dlcia i'aIii tyi. i'1 I1 f ... ..
w\ved-s iar' iiI l' l,()x10 ifl t\o ho-i . .. i. -l
iii,,J- M Ni y 1,' he vnt( --+arv. A I hai --




tI Iil I l ie f I d I iijl. )If~7A I oI Iw ( e I)
ti olin ti it |l' h t x l th i li, oiu ti > oi 't ..-r-** -*- - -. . .. .
(.::l|'c fulllv. ;ilidl tlio 'c ro+x \\' his w l i l i +- :+i.+..... ... ....
are' ft toIII It, low il viclI. or i;'ii' j)I;I- I-







poll.li toa i wlIi m ilii 1 YI Il. I eI Irtiu I l ):I4PL rO
ticit larl l v li .cct to lo II t i- ,1a U. ... .... I

I-Iho ul I l l li I- r t'l. i ohAf oull .- I- I... ..i -







hutax I J~it III l -I I II o ( Iuih nIl w IuIr vo c(i
:1 ii i i (';i -e 17 IIu Plii -. and hh Im e0
t Irf11.11 li e +I.lt l I h I ,I lq llOweii t -t.ll
and thira-licd :+-elmralclv,.ni rctul '.t iiid -- ----t- *
f'or frl' lnr tet iii''. ____i CHElCK iOWi
The n.xl v', thI I le eed f'o )ii I tlI l-l
rows sholtlld In' plahntedl ill rows\V T1--_____
feet I, x ";i Iiml 1) foot aIc art. l ah n ti n .... ...~.. - ---- ---
eerv2 tontli row o: a I ta\ldirl varaIt -------- ---- l- -----
or ofIII tli 1I I I si ueed I fro\ w I hicl l 1- (.1 th III,
ori ina l el tions wer lm de. I'o --- .. ...
'MIt|);risoli ;ind for)t the detection ol _........... O.fGU1 DO Q ow
so- ,il v\ r ia ltio n s. E a c'h o f tl he ..... G U o R O W .. _... .. ..................
row.\s of tiet' precedltin year s-lwlnd
have prodcmi ed e ou + -eed for (wod I.. 1\~\.. .
oM I1i100 -+e\Ver l row- of IIIY parti lular -trail .. .......... ..
-liould lbe phlailed In dillorelii p)art~- -- ---- "
4 to t~~~~~~h l~~ -~t -ll e -l --lte a i -------- --- ------ ... ....... . ...... ..... .. .........
Of thie plat so :i1 to -qtalize an',+ ___ _ .: I...
v\ 'riatioa l il lti ,e im l. T h'I "eir l 'oatio l . .. .. ... <*
lioiltld lie caref llv Ioted. '() (Il, ,
-l >the l ia \, t el'ec ii i ;iet\'ll\+ tiH'l ich I]''l "" "" i " *'' -~ i
1I P ~ ; \ 1+t 1(,+t i l 1',+( \\ t; t+l l i+, l +,: u.ni + ++ il *-ri l ,l. l f r n li
illw vlH nmt v 'I It~e ctlll Z1-e with+ wic
ot]ert. and lit, (.ed cm inelbtltd ;if+(er I-i .11l >.n hJ`i.iii iiii
hia r \+e ti~l +, a n d~ w\e i +lliin p-. I ;,.. .. 1T 1'1'" -"i",'1" ""
fot'() row\s c titail approxinwitelv mi-.-+ixlteetll of a ;1 ([lltarf' ol. or
of anlt ;acre. AI a co nli ta elll l ofll .w (d 0 111' li tio \\1wh re
oat, arc an i:1lportant l lcrop. *.2., hii-l,,l'- to {lie acre. tw m le l 'If +m tll .c
i- >riIl. i. i;( f'o o e+ oI tile-c 174ITf'ovlo' -. A t li;,rve' -(t 1i1 1,' illt' [I;:l!
-honihl :ti' f in l ee i'(d ll\ Alldled and ol l v the m q-t ll',l j iriii -i': -tr:ailt-
retaie(,1 l E:,,cl rov -liwild then he harve-ted, tlhra.-hd. anld w\+ jl .1.
;111d tle w1ict e'corded.
'+ ci.-:n |H






IMPIliOVEMENTr OF THiLE OAT ('ROP.


The test tile third year is aloling similar lines. Two or more 17-foot
rows sliould be planted of each of the strains which yet remain, and
the check rows should 1be used as before. In addition, however. plats
should be planted of several of the most promising strains, so that
they may be increased 'Is rapidly as possible. At harvest time dis-
cards should he made as in previous years, and (tlie remaining rows
and plats should again ll be harvested, thrashed, and weighed. The
m1111l1er of strains should now be consi(lerably reduced, and by com-
p)arison of the l)revio(s records with those of this yeare and the dis-
carding of those strains which do not show up well a further reduc-
tioli can l)e mad(le.
The fourth year the few remaining strains are again tested as be-
fore. and p)lats of comsiderab)le size shliould he planted of those with
thlie best records. After thle harvest of this year. all should be dis-
carded excel)t those of outstanding excellence. These best strainvs
should now be in sufficient quantity for field tests, and if of real value
sliould )e distributed to neighbors aind tested under varying (,oil-
(dlitions to demonstrate their general adaptability. If the strain
proves its excellence over a considerable area, a name should be given
it, to prevent confusion with other varieties.
New strains selected either from thie general crop or from the row
test miav of course be introducedI at any time by starting them in the
5-foot rows and adding them to the general series of 17-foot rows the
following year.
The diagrain (fig. 1) shows, in tlhe upper portion, the 17-foot
progeny rows for comparison of strains, with thle two -" guard l
rows and a check row at each end of some standard variety, and
every l tellih row from the first check a check row. The lower portion
shows these 17-foot rows divided into three 5-foot rows with alleys
1 foot wide for the planting of the individual selections. It is from
thIese rows that the strains are taken in suiccee(ding years to the
p)toKeux rows.
A periln ient record shiold be1( kept of hlie different strains. This
record should show the essenltia:l facts relg:ar(ding lie performance of
a givel strIain from the time the oriimlnal selection is nade. For
coi nvenielnce, each selection sliould be ;:i\, 11 a inumi(ber, and tile nimum-
her should he retained until the strain is discarded or given ;
perim'anlient mil inie as a \variety worth yv of d(list ribut ion. If selections
are made from any of time strains they should retain the original
iiumiiher 1an(1d e givenl a second select ion number as well. Thus. if
s(electlions are made from strain 2 they inisli uhl )", designated as
2 )-1, "2-2, 2. 25-3. etc. If several varieties are used, either tlhe, name
of (lte variety should be used with tihe selection, or (tile variety
sliould b)e d -ig ,.ited by a number which precedes the selection nuin-
[Cir. 3)]







IAI PR 2\ovi XI 1 I' 1 ll L AT I e ll'.


Ix.i". T1ii".. we iuiv ha ve W T Silvrindi 1. Si el'rn" w "2. itn.. wr 1 1.
1 -2, t. tin lii l e In tis le e jr-t lii'112'e 2,' ea or 'I o tt h dc iitlt,1 -
the i UiliWil Of i' v" Ari't" altl tin 1 s-''onl li tII-' Ill'' s 1celec1tions1 44
that vareti' v. Sele',1ti ,t. f va Xi eb'1 No. "2 wXXl hi e 1 I lllill ,'red 2' 1,.
- ". ` t2 e t ht li .a pleh pire I, roln :i noteli ook w ill I. \N 2ii'l2
'a1n1 I n1' 1 adeh l,1 ) I +Iliil v, X rt2'iaIl colttini2 o"+ n r21 h l I>jilw'r. illn tro11t -'
tlih -V 111 i 2 1 l 2l 'jili + 1l22 tin1' O"'-,rt ithl 1122l1'- X'w, \ 11611 l',lo ll &I,
tallI n'll ic h'1 2 -t'a'+ I 1l 2I a1 ll h 1li le '-t' lii ll-. T he's-e' olt1- -.lh i1l dl lih | [)(
in ,; it'riii it n'otver.- ancli a-> Wllt loo.- h-l;> lait th'., whRt'l rili an,- -tw:i!lY
u zlwthi l (l, ;i t t -t i irry sttorc .

l \ l i r /r' 1 W +i t o f A t .< ,/ i + ,i i \ f ,r /t 'hll :

2221121122 III '-:11'11' i" '-12212 *

I <+ I; *! +I li l I : \ 1


11 1 12 1 1
II 11 + + + I K + +: q I+ l+ + % + : t

2L 2
US~~] ,+ ;, ;i. 1, +, il.' i .. .' -i :l \

CI-i~~ ~~ r1 .", 1 1 i. 2 1 -l ;'i m \ i
70 N



, II in w c I N + l ( p a i
l1 ',Y+ : + 1 I"I N(









(oim' 'w l i % l\ withi every Iviiti ,ov as a wk. Sv hit I I io 11 ail I
three l "cl f It 1ere plated. 1, 3, alpl :K Tjin_ indicates
that -elvr okns i1 and 1. nid eel Q ion-i, of this^ -(irini Ixe rinuL; higher
i hes tan Ia\( eN1 d1 ad m[ ion t r. (i >11051





1 I "1 have two Minions. I a"d 1. aNd ; IV'4lecl of 1. rerded
as 1 1 I l. No f rter -e tio ve n ade or rain. I is N t

1l !4l 1 11e t Iel ton WIl 1l have I i'(2XX-M 111' : 11a 1 117 have 1"l4 ) I






All dalv alre recorded IN lig~ire., mlrejr t~w i( ^ I&i inonth vl"i tnd da\
*;d Ini i 2'oi T. TXiX lt e `,ate o Wan insX "1, i Api 10* 1 ol A2 ( t






hounthl niiron h 1 3. ISe-W al'-Tii 10 VIIi-t ;I- tho'cd a e Oecil f'eo
tlri,4 oiiii fivoii (his di-aw w. ize'^!;'ic lo, I o(, ii'. and -li l riij ;i'e
11t red in like m 2anner. 1 S ewliI No. I l 1 1 1 221 1. \P'i>, 22ry
lit n ir ed per c n 1 1 31 in \h+l dit l -
1'll'++I+ 22;II I 1+'- 121 2'12 111--I l', 22 +l'2 I-+ 1112' j2' 211'2 22











MIIKA I %i Ii nw2 i I 11 III -f I2 22 1 1 I 22]- I X I


eo'222 eralf'l' 22 l22Ii~llliL. I- ~iX (l'en221I onl\' ^1 22111e 111.' ('1eld I- 12 nr
*a- <.ltlic- of 2 h2'lied IIrai tIl thle rvow,, 2 12 liX 11 i vl 1i w l2 ll il t 1ed1
It\ '' Tl]e 1untik 21i, -r X Nor. t 2. \NO. :' etin. 2or .li 21 'IH;112t'e..
t ('






1MI'WOVI KME\ItNT OF THIE O)AT ('ROP.


HY ItID1)IZATIION.

Few hybrid varieties of oats have yet been produced, practically
11] of the work ol' improvement having been accomplished b)y selec-
ti on. Ilybridlization of the small grains is comparatively difficuih,
and tlie problem of selection so complicated that the farmer is hardivly
justified in a/te I till" to hybridize. For the present at least, while,
tliere is so mluchl to be accomplished by selection. his efforts can well
be confined to that field, leaving the hybrid problem to thle professional
breeder.
VARIETIES.
A brief list of thlie varieties which are most likelyv to lend themselves
to et'orts toward their improvement follows. Many others might be
ImeIlt ioned.
For fill sowilig ill tho South: AVirgiia (Ony mtid hardy strains of' 10islproof.
For spring. sow\ving, in the South: Burt. huist proof.
For the ('lenltil Staltes (t'fr'oi Pll iisylv;iuii westwari( to Colordot : Si\ly-
I)i:,v Khe(rson. Silvermille, .Jo illellette. Early ('l niip0oii. Silx'iiiii.
FIor llt, Northernii Stlao's ( inchidin'l(l the jiteri'nomiitiii ot i mi'ea ;11d l'; ilid North-
wost) : Swv(lish Sele('t, Ear'ly (' oh lalh nd, \iieliiii Icall al ier', I ii nohl 1Pro i'ess,
Sixty-D ay, White Iussianii, Lig[owo. Big Four.

CONCLUSIONS.

Thle ulsatisfactory vield and( quality of thlie oat crop in recent ear's
show thlie necessity for thle imiprol)'(vement of this Zrain. This improve-
iient imay be alont" the lines of disease resistance, strenpi(h of straw.
earliness.'i qualityt, or yi(ld, or several of these may be colnl)i ned. In
anyl event, yield is tlie essential basis of selection. M1'chanical selec-
tionl and thle introduction of seed from foreign countries or from see-
tions more favorable for the 'prodlctiol of thle oat crop are but tem-
po)'ary tmakeshifts. The use of tile seed )lat ustially gives "ood
results, ibut permanent improvement is l)cst elffecled by pedigreed
s,,trains lprodueed front indiPvidual plants. A large number of these
selections should be made and teste(d, tle poorer on(es discarded, and
the v'er-Y best increased as rapidly as possible. Where one of the
(ped(igreed(l strainlls proves of0 excel)tional value it should be widely
tested (land eveitilally inamiedl and int produced as a new variety. At
present tlie farmer is advised to leave hybridization of the amall
rainsis to the professional breeder.

Ap)p)(ro(ved :
JAMAS WILsoN,
1'(*rctany of A yr't/ii ,, ii'.

WV.\ sIN (.TON. I). (C., .1A 'i 2,, 190,)9.
14'ir. :',;







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
II111 111111 I III II II
3 1262 08928 9630


* 1