Clover-seed production in the Willamette Valley, Oregon

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Title:
Clover-seed production in the Willamette Valley, Oregon
Physical Description:
Book
Creator:
Hunter, Byron, b. 1869
United States -- Bureau of Plant Industry
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry : ( Washington D.C. )
G.P.O.
Publication Date:

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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 29629181
oclc - 48872594
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AA00020782:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
    Types of soils in the Williamette Valley
        Page 4
    The seed yield of red clover and means of securing a stand of red clover
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Crop rotations practiced by growers of clover
        Page 7
    Pasturing and clipping clover
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Harvesting clover for seed
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Treating clover seed affected with honey dew, insect pests of red clover, and how clover-seed production and live stock improve the soil
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Summary
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Back Cover
        Page 16
Full Text












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U. I)tIEPARTEINT ()FA \RI('T/ITRE,
EA' \ F L"IIANT [NN'STTIY (irriihl No. S.
t1. T. (iI.IM VW AY, hliic, f .. 1 I



CLOVE0 )-SIT ) I) I )l T 1 i IN Til ,


WILLAMEm VA1EV




IBY

BYRON HIUNTER.
A~ssisT N'I A<;Imic IrIl/ IST. )FlII- o1 IAcM or .\NA ;I: I' 1.



:A Tr
WA!SHtNGT ,- : ,OiR~ TPO TIbO Kf-10

















BUREAU OF PLANT INDl'USTRY.
I',, I... (122 In l'anthiol(i.qisl, and l chief of lBurcr21, Beverly T. ;alloway.
I'hl /sioloqisl i(i)l l'alioloiist., mrld .Asistairlt Chicf (if In ireau, Albort F'. Woods.
Labloratory of Plant P'athology, Erwin F. Smith, P'atthologist in C'harge.
FI'rit lixc o'r' In rcstiqIulions, Morton I1. Wait, P'athologist in Chalrge.
InrCesliq itiiol.i i ''f'rcs( lt'atlholonly, IHaven Metcalf. Pathologist in I.i -.
'oton 11 nd 'Truck lisricascs awl llantl liscase xu'r(ire!, WVilliam A. Ortiin. Pathologist In
Ch'largre.
l'atiolili('irl f('iihctions an2d lhispcction Wotirk, Flora W. 1'attIrson, Mycologist in ii ,-
Plant Life History Inrcstifatiowns, Walter T. Swingle. l'hysiologist in 4 i1 ,r-
(otton Itrecrli!t Inr'slifiationir, Archilad 1l Slianiil and IDaniel N. Slhooipakr, Ph'liysiolo-
gists in 'liarg'.
"I'o(2ba'rco I, ri'uirijiiou,. Archliilbalil I). Shaimol, \% ltih t .V W. Garner, anI Erniest II.
Mahliv-son. in ('har.1 .
Corn Inrestigtiionns. Charles I'. Hlartley, 'i, -i.I._ i in 4 ..
Alkali anid lDrolulh t Recsistant 'lhiitt Brc diljnr it rIstiiYaltions, 'T'homnas II. Kearney, ]'hii
ologist ili ChliargeO.
Soil Bacltrioloyy ainld Wacr 'Purificaltm In itstiiyations, Karl F. Kellerniian, l' ~lI_.t
in ( i. .i-
Bionomic 1nr'stii2tio1ns of Tropical an(dl ( Slut roircal PlrnttIs, Orator F. Cook, Bionomist
in ( ih.i i
1)22!rig rr I'rsoirorius' l'lriti~ Tt ruI'(r '221122,e Inr22slir/ritirni, trrrln'y 1I. 'lrri'. li '...... I.-i~
in Cirr
ill tt l212a .-.
Physical Labora tory, Lyman .J. Briggs, Phy3sicist in chargee .
A gricullurial '1rhroIloql!i, Nathan A. Cobb, Crop 'I'relinologist in Charge.
TaJrono(mic (nd RItlnge lirrsligiations, Frederick V. ('oville, Botanist in ii i-'I
Fiarm, Mllaiin('iiint, William .1. Spillman, Agricultilrist in C'hlarge(.
(rain Iciir'sfiqalioins, Mark .\lfrrd C'arleloi, C'rr'alisl in 'Charg'e.
Ar1 linitrn Ei'peri i'i nhtil F2arm anl Horli r2ull1iral Ini'2,2tijailiniis, Le C'. Corl)ett, llortieul-
tirist in 'Clharg' .
Vegetable T stini) (lardc1ens, William W. Trary, sr., Superintendent.
Suyar-Bect Inifstsliatiilis, C'iharles 0. Townsend, Pathologist in Charge.
W11('1.'sr A!iricull 2l22al ilt '4nm4i2, Ctarl S. Scotirld, .\griculturist inll Charg'.
lDr!1-l22ad .1trie1clturc 1h2r2'stiqanioi Ei'. hChanninig i'lhilcott. Agriculturist in i1r-.
1'omoniilical 'ollrh'tiions, Gustavus It. Brackett, l'omologist in ('Charge.
F ield In22stigations in Pomologyt, William A. Taylor and G. Harold IPowell, 1'oniologlsts
in Charge.
.pc('rimni11al Gardens iandl Gro2unds, Edwartd M. IByrnes, Superintendent.
For(ign Sccrd and Plant Int roductiion, IDavid Failchild. Agricultural Explorer In rh.rr -.
F1orri0 Crop In rcstiainti,.. C'lharles V. Piper, Agrostologist in rn-',
iSeed Laboratoryi Edgar Brown, Botanist in ('Charge.
(iraiii Nliniardli:alio., .loirn I1). Slhanalhan, Crop 'rTechnolorgist in I h .i,
S 2btropical (lardcl. Miami, Fla., I. I 1.. WeVster, in ('Chiarg'.
I'lant l ll2Intoducion South Tc.ra (JGarden. B;i...- it, i,' Te'.r., Edward C'. Green. P'olnologist in Charge.
1222F22r22 <'roopt'ratirc DI)irmostratlio2 WIork, Soaman A. Knlalp)p, Special Agent in Charge.
kiccd DiH1ribulion (Directed by Chliie f of Bureau), lisle Morrison, Assistant in General



Editor, J. E. Rockwell.
Chief Clerk. ,James E. Jones.
I 'ir. 28]
2











i i% i 1;6 l.


SO R-S ) I'R()) O CTIL()x IN A THI W\I.-

LA IIHTT \AIL1EY, ORlGiO;N.



INTRODUCTION.

When hirst iH'oirht into c'lt iv\at on, the soils of the Willamette
Valley wiee' lfri:adle, quite easily tilled, and productive. Fo' r lfort1 or
fifty yeris the cereal (wq,)s ere w Io, n ;ii ih soil becanw infested with weeds, summer fallowing 1ecame n 'commn
practice. '7llis sysivim of' tillage am! (he conitinuous growth of cereal
crlop yea'r after X;a1 delpletedll the Oi of n tmchl ofi its \egetilhul. nat-
ter and retlderel it hecavier, mbeire i Ie<.liilhs, altre u" illitS lt to w(ork.
\\When this (otlition w\as rea;i hedl thle l)rodiiirtivie t ss oi' (l shill wla
,..iitlv reidu'edl aml thlie excluivAe proimtt ion i of ceiel l)eeisWine lil-
|rolitadhle. Fariners turned their attention to tlhe :I,,n\\ i,,_' of clover,
hIut they found it dilii lt to get saiti-fa sttorV tands.
1)r.. *Janus itliycoinbe, in l1liletin No. 7T; of the ( )I-no, t Exl)eri-
llnelnt Station. s;IVs :
Al ionlllgh western (Irl'^lDi is so Well adopleld lo 1 l*e, [rii illg, of 1,111c14 rni r'-
Olls fili rle'es 1c ;are inui lliy I"Ii''dfil. I 1 00-'t tho(s' f ilill's Were so _enora':l ill
the IpSt thai iH was popihlrly lilieoved ti loer rould ol he sllucessfully :rowVl
n1"'] thle ordinary prair[e soils 4f
In slpite of this 1elilc. however, the peristlent eifort: of llllnerol'.,
farmers in dil'erent parts of lihe valey and ihe \'ork of lie ()regon
Experiment Station have proed it> fallac'v a&dl WaiWI i 'l for Iolh
red and alike clover a vey i prominent place inI thle ag:ri'ieilt ure of
\V'sternll ()l '"1.

Ill iiletii ll o w itlh thie study Iof pr tobldoe1s int f'arit mnall; geolloentI aitly i1i1t141
talt dunkils of farm plaa(lie are hnleaed hy lhWthe ni in ch]l/lqv,' td lhis \\wl.
This circular sets forth in deW ail shuce'4ss1l farln practice ill g \owiwl- red ;1111
ailsike clmo-es rasseed m lc'ops, iving sodl lyp(s am! ncidimns lldcr \AiW-lh each
is grown. l\Vaehtlis or st/lring stiln s. awl 1o;tia l s I lsed in arowilng clhoV'r. n"41
calls special atte wn io to(le milh "s,4ed in western \ ( woll or Isi rinn (".
cli|>ping clov\(er in order 01) delay 1lle harvest :alid 111s in-rease tOle yield seed. This. paper is a continuation io stWdies on coIIIIIIel'ehil seed produ tlion
froi ordinary farm crops. of which InllltiMO No. lH(>, P1art VI. of this hlinsa,".
iv 1. A. Oa);kley, iotn hard (tlrass, is the initial inu berh'.- B. 'T. (;i .I(.ow .\Y,
P'/ih ,it lluitiit tutu I'oiiotli,(it, tand Chif of 1Burtu au(.
Sir. 'S] 3





4 CLOVER SEED PRODUCTION IN WILLAMETTE VALLEY.

At first clover was grown for hay and pasture. Seed production in
a commercial way (lid not begin until about six or seven years ago.
The quality of seed now produced is excellent. The seed is l.r'-e,
nicely colored, alnd of grood vitality. The yield of seed, as noted
elsewhliere, is good and its production has steadily increased until one
may now see in many localities the clover huller making its i1,i -lil,-
hliood run instead of the thrashing machine of former years. Not
oinlv is clover a very profitable hay and( seed crop but in conjunction
with live-stock production it is having a marked influence in bijildliiin
uil) the fertility of the soils that were so long used for the exclusive
)production of wheat and oats.
TYPES OF SOILS IN THE WILLAMETTE VALLEY.
The purpose of the discussion of types of soils given herewith is
to point out the soil conditions under which these two clovers, red
and alsike, are grown. No attempt is made at an elal)orate descrip-
tion of the soils of the valley. For further study of these types of
soil. see Survey of Salem Area, Bureau of Soils.
There are two types of soils in the Willamette Valley upon which
practically all of the clover is grown. The first, a reddish yellow
clay, usually underlaid to about 3 feet by a clay of the same 1l','
occupies the rolling hills of the valley. This type of soil is well
drained, and level areas are very rarely found. It is well adapted to
the growth of red clover. The second, a lighlit brown to black loam,
occupies the level prairie areas. It usually extends a short distance up
the slopes of the hills, the t 1i" g r;Iihy being either level or very gently
rolling. The level areas have very poor driiii:ig,., and water stands
omi the surface of the ground during much of the 1,ng( wet season.
When the surface soil of these low areas becomes dry during the
amimnal summer drought it assumes a very light color, and for this
reason it is locally known as "white land." This soil is poorly
adapted to red clover, because the seed crop does not fill well.
Where this light-brown to black loam type is slightly rolling, the
surface of the higher areas has a very muchli darker color than the
whiite land. A foot of elevation may completely change the color of
the soil. Because wheat will fill on this dark soil and not on the
white land it is often spoken of as wlieat land." Where these two
soils occur together in ii rg ,iilar areas they are often spoken of as
'. mixed land." The dark-colored wheat land is adapted to both red
alnd alsike clover.
Fanrilers usually grow red clover in preference to alsike where it
is p)ssil)le to do so. Alsike will grow, however, under much wetter
1con(1dilioiis ithaii red clover. For this reason red clover is .,i'wnli on
tile hilly clay soil and on the dark wheat land of the brown to black
I r. i,' % .S





C'I)VKIK Sl.K1I) I'itIhiI'TI0N IN WllAM IAIIrTTE: VAI.IJEY.


loam type. while alike occilpuies tlhe white land and Imuitch Iof the
mixed land. In addition to tliis. alike is (i*,'..ii on the overflow
land an I'ii some of tihi water couPses where it is too wet for red
clover.
THE SEED YIELD OF RED CLOVER.

The usual Xiield of red clohver is froiiim t o G bl-heL ( of seed per a .l'r.
Vhen : II oil [)()()Io'r -oil and u lder ullt fav r le oi{mlditioi-. tlie ield
may be less than this. w liile )n te liit(,t of -oils with a favo'adl, s-eas-oll
tlite ield imay run as hii) h as 7, S, ()1 9Ishel- pir atre. \Whell ltowin
oIl the isalle kind ()f soil, als.ike is said to Yield a little Ibelter thalt redl
clover. )On thle poo)rest seil. the w eitehad, where rel clheXr is rarelv
plantedL alike yields from i2 t) 2I blshels per acre: on the llixedI
land frFmn 3 to buishels: and l o thle dark. waxy Ov crlhow land bellr
the South Yaimhill River froiii 4; to 1(; bsllels. Mr. llHorae Wood,.
who owns a falrmll and runs a huller in Yamhill ('Coulnty,. reports ihe(
h'liii. of 5 acres of alike oin thle bottolln land of the Soutl Yamhlill
River that Yielded So buishels, or 16 bshoels perl acre. ()n i hiX (MAn
farm thie yields have been from ( to 12 luslise per acre. iar'e
yields like tIlese. however, miiist be expected o nlv uiidlcr thlie mot
favorable co()i lit iolns.

MEANS OF SECURING A STAND OF RED CLOVER.

There arne s) manyl ditl'erett -oil 'oditimis iIIn thlie Willamiette
Valley that ni)o one X ay of smowiiu 'h clover c:al bIe said to be il mot suc-
,essful. As a rI -lt of plor wdra inaie ,i and ears of cntinutiouis growth
of lie cerleal cr)op- thle physical coilditiml (If soime of tie -oil- iS v,'rV
poor. Ieflore attelli.ptii.- to start clover (oII sluch ;lalnd vetch i is oftell
_i",'n for alout two seas-os. Vetch mllateriially impiroves lie 1)phsieal
condlitio ( of thle soil and buils it 1i i i iit',",'i. Follh(winig. velth.
clover can us,ially be start,(l witliout lmuch dtili, Ilhv. Thle white
land is poo-rly drained and especially d-liceint in huus. VWhIt it
ieeds is (1) tile draii nL''e :idl (2) liberal aipplicatioi, of barnyvard
11manur-e. Where thi- i i imlptoss-ible very satisfacitorv result- are
usually 'secured by1 thrlojwinit lie laid into rildes. Tiis i- dioe hy
pl ing in lands by tlhe Ibackfluirrlw and deah'l-fI'rrow sv-,-t. TlIt
dead I'lrrvows are left opeln to caary o tlh-' tie 'Lirace water. With tile
land ridlred il this wayv alsilke cloe'r doe- fairly vwell.
Tlie ollow1 inil are soime of (lh iie ans u-ed iIl -start i1l" clover.
(Cl.o 're et ,(w tr;/f/ 1- /p..--( )in (lie while land1. tlie ilixcd ati nd. a:n1d
ill fa (ot o l lnll all clas--e', of soils. sckil, lover wilth rape in tlie
late -pri,, 1 ite in M:a w or early in Junie-is very sF uccessful and
poplhllar%. Smile prefelr- to -ovw tlhe clo r amloe. \\hlln Il letlmdl i1-
cmIloIIh)d tle h lite laid -is plowed cl in tle early -ptii as -00-11 :as- il i-
I 'ir. 2, ]





)6 cmvI,)\'II SEED PIPDUCUTION IN WILLAMETTE VALLEY.

ill good working conditions. If plowed in the fall it usually runs to-
g(etlihe' and becomlees so hard dur'iiig the winter that it is necessary to
replow in the spring. The darker. better soils are plowed any time
duriitg the winter whlien not too wet. The soil is worked up in the
early sl, i gM' and kept well cultivated until ...'i'i]j time to hold the
moisture, destroy weeds. and preserve the proper tilth. The white
land is usually sown a little later than the better drained soils, be-
cause the late spring rains that come after seed j-h might be sufficient
to cause the soil to run toethlier.
From 1, to 3 pounds of rape arid 5 pomnid-s of alike or 8 to 10
pounds of red clover per acre are sown broadcast the last of May or
early in June. It is better to have the rape too tlhin than too thick,
for when thick it makes but little growth. The seed is usually cov-
ered with a h:a'row. When the rape is from 8 to 12 inches high it is
pastured with sheep or swine. DI)ring the late fall or next sp)rini the
field mayv be pastured closely to kill tle rape. If rape is eaten off very
closely to the ground it usually dies.
Cloocr ,owpt Iloiwu oi ,dftlble blaid ;n f/l' 1U'l /ft111.-TI'llis method
of sowinglg clover is lb(ecoimi1_' quite popular. Land that is plowed
a little late in thle spring gives better results than land that is plowed
early. The spring rains pack the early plowed land too much. Some
farmers harrow to cover the seed, while others do not. If the seed
in1" is done early inii Sel)tenmbl)er, so that the v.it.g plants will have
time to make consider )le growth before thle beginning of winter,
excellent stands are usually secured. The stubble gives considerable
protection during the winter and the ground does not heave so much
as it would were it bare and worked upl) fine. Clover sown in the
stuibbl e in this wayv makes a fair crop thle next season if it is given a
good application of land plaster in the early sp)rinlg.
('lvei'pr sou'r witIh 8pt'/n f!f'U/;,.-()n rich land that is in good con-
dition or that has successfully produced clover, very good results
are secured by sowigii_ clover in the early spring within oats or wheat.
Fromn 30 to 40 poumilnds of land plaster to (lie acre applied to the surface
of tlhe ground at seeding time or after tlie young clover hlas leaved
out stimulates the clover and makes tihe stand more certain. ('lover
is also frequently sown in Februal'ry or \1:1rch(' on winter wheat.
Some of thie clover growers vwlio practice this method cut thlie I'i
crop just as lhigli as possible in order to leave plenty of stubble.
After the grain crop) is removed fri'om tlwe field thile stulbble is lmowed
and left on the ground hutil sprl'ing. when it is removed. The stubble
protects ile clover from thlie sun during the latter portion of tlie
suinier and( lessens thle heavinlg of thle ground (llding tile winter. If
a fill stand is not secured f'ronm tl(e spring see(lilgo. more seed can
be sownm il (lte si lhb l(e in tle 'aill.







t i f'X mW ? i lltt 'al ' ,iet ITa bainl of clohve' I lne l tleal Ith a-t lhad
ils prodite i\eneV-S Xetalil lityi Itede v b ear-. tf c nltinist prito1lutiWon
of wt wat a dit oat.i. that ie till (if I'. I. I.WA F ei"" f link. anul wthv r






XXVl'tai oF tItt" dieil ell~." It\et" IT- \I 'itt ,tqttt -oXX ll t i';lIlt ':t I'tm >I.te 1uf X-lll
we-jeds. and that as\ iteter g Irowi cile, om liar. lelr-'s reotti lIe -111
iner fiallotwin'. 'iTt e eajt et in alul t r fallt an aIte re to rid tlhe il of
wf s it, Uopt it iln a m Aoist, n "i w cittt oiattel oin. il, thailt tiit "ill ,i,
nlltort acli' \' Iltiv erta l i ui l in th it ie ;l lldt. t, tW l ii;i>t io l tat A i ,d
a\;ilaill+ with whit? to stalr(t the cTrop. Iln >mi nIIII> Ifallowiiin' tll6'
i.. oi.. i.- lien ( t lirt Itdl-y c iult t i aitg l e l l >e iniai r. A ft r dht e-ti itiig'.
ie wtt'v d.l-- ttl i start i ll Q Vi fall a t fill cItq> i oi r wil ttii wlih it oI wie tlter
gots is .own witli tvlo disk drill. In "o i ie taiii(;iie'<> tliw MCill will
dehstroy the we\ tl withlliont otliwr ctlt ti\'( i. lM uitt t I ls potIds
of re oll chveir or A p -iids olf nliek \lir iol-rce ariet sow o i e ti t >sOttl';> ct'
iof ithe ground, jnt a, tie driill hcak^ it. In ti;>d of isowint aa"ill
whl at or oats, tit, vh i in-. s.o.4 ilo ilt. t tw \lilli a bushel t4t \et'clh
Celd ]er aicrt Th- i vtch cop1 i. i use t for hat. ('lover it ottilt tliihtns
sown alohe in the teIarly fall on land that las Ieu tllott lttwed.
If a ,io4or stand renliltl frio' om m)Win atl',ni or w4ithi Xtrai' i i ln thei early
fall o'e seel inaV li+ +owl in the early" s-pring'. dtriin'..- Fel'uiaryt or
March.
None of these tn1hods of sowting" clover own "e said to e entirely' lv
sIuH+essful tnuder aill uonlitions. They may all fail at tines. Tle o ne
to ose is the oeit that nmost nealY mneets ti(lieeeds of the individual
fainniet, tlhat is, that suits tlhe c(onlitionl of his -oil and permi it, hint to
get hiis hand into clover iiost qlitily ow at tlhe tile lie wants it.

CROP ROTATIONS PRACTICED BY GROWERS OF CLOVER.

The follow "in t' t, are soile of lite rtatioms ilsed by ti e clover 'row-el's
in thie Willanelte Valle v:
(tOl tR OTAlTION .
I w/ t f/<',.- c'lover", sonx will 1' or alottl & i Qllic s]i'il 1g t fIl I' |;isiil'r
thle lirst santl ner anid fall.
NSC'O Third/ !/I Of/. -C'lover. ,tuel 1'or ustliir. flity. for +se t.
1i,'riilh y/t,,t%.-- \V\lic l or owts. withi chniT'l so\Vl, in tlhe .rv;iit.
CRiOP' 1!(1 \ IIO \N 2+
lTAi't ywirm.- 4('Ii)ivand (rd +rtp. co, it +r |iew ot M'r Thi'iiili ftr i,'. \-* lseIt t'tl p:is t 'tf hiiy. Fotl' thl i/r'. iis(e\ % t lt'tc for pIstn e,'+ 11:1y. or S-cfIl.
1 nI hNo FA I I+ of:

Fir't cl f'r.- + { i(s +, \'eIr sol ]ltmw l .i- ,l M>W, tN, Si'; s W in in eth sjWit ,
,N 'ct w !n li it ...-\'tflh. (,t"t 4 1i0l11il4 li.lceI in l';I l lll +\n0 1 11 to \ t el lh.
7'1iri 1 am!'.- W\ le;)t ;llil elo\t'e Ve\Tll sl0ill,!1h, Nlslwewl it t';t]l | iV ll >n\i\ + to
\Vtlnat andl lover.
Ittr+ on)


C )VKIE IS' 1< I 1 14I >HoI'tTIlN IN W ILL I t\M l'II V.\IL.IY'.





8 CLOVER SEED PRODUCTION IN WILLAMETTE VALLEY.

lF'ourtt ycar.-Clover, used for pasture, hay, or seed.
Fifth yc/tr.-Clover, used for pasture, hay. or seed.
ii' iW /cr.-C('lover. If the stand is poor at the end of the fifth year, the
clover is plowe(d1 up ;,iiid oats sown again.
In this rotation it will be seen that the land is plowed but once in five
or six years. This rotation is not in general use.
In actual practice these rotations are modified to meet the existing
conditions which control the length of time that clover will produce
profitably. In some instances it lasts but one season on account of
the ravages of the clover root-borer. English plantain, or rib-grass,
is a serious weed where clover occupies the land for a number of
years. About the only way to keep it under control is to leave the
clover down for about two years and then raise other crops for at
least that 1,.-gth of time. WVhere these pests are not serious some
farmers have been able to use their clover for five or six years by
sowing a little seed on the clover sod in the early fall of each year to
thicken it up.
PASTURING AND CLIPPING CLOVER.

Experience has taught the clover-seed producers that the first
crop, especially that of red clover, yields a very small quantity of
seed if allowed to mature naturally. If the first crop is used for hay,
the dry season usually cuts the second crop so short that it amounts
to very little for seed. For this reason it has become almost a
universal practice to retard the development of the first crop by
pasturing it in the spring. All classes of stock are used for this
purpose, but sheep are preferable because they eat sorrel and many
other weeds that most animals leave.
If it is impossible to pasture the clover, or if there are not
enough stock to eat it off closely, it is clipped with a mower. The
sickle bar of the mower is set to run low in ord(ler to get any sorrel
that may have gone to seed. and tihe cliplpig-I are left on the ground.
Even if the clover has been pastured pretty closely there are usually
areas here and there over the field that the stock have left. To set
liese areas back and( make the clover come on evenly, many farmers
make a practice of running the mower over the field after removing,
lhe stock.
It is difficult to determine just how late in the -l 'ii g to pasture or
clip clover in order to get the heaviest yield of seed. In l)practice this
date varies among the different seed growers from May 1 to June 211.
Thie season has considerable to do with it. If the splnri,- is backward
ad(i wet. the clover is pastured a little liter than usual. On the other
hand, if the spring opens ui) early and (the ground l)egins to dry up,
lie stock are removed a little earlier. Owingr to the impossibility
of knowiil,,' what kind of weather is to prevail during the latter por-
SCir. -'l








tion of spri1,ui f a'(er thile -ock liave been reilloved or' the Hfield clipped.
the decis-ion of tliis date is :a maitler of ('ei lice.
A Iood heal also tdepells mil tln typle of si upon which tille clover
is g I ii. l"Irilers whio raie clover see0l oin ihe poorer soil-, ilhe
while land :iiil lie miixed llLnd. ivallv remove their tlock earlier
thaln tliose nm tlie letter t(pe-' of oil1. where the sto(k often remain
onl tlie ('clove( r ue 1 .1 tille. a il iIt som0 e iint Ilnces- as late as J1 tne tJ().
On tihe Ietter. well-d raii ed oils i the growtll i- i>;iii;'ll liea iYer. anZil
it i> reatso. bltle to a;s-ine tliat tlie pastilrinig sitouild l)e c(tlititied :


F1,;. i.--t'ield .showintl i ,% , th 'fco of land plwst, r on cjlovrr. Tli d(lark slrrnk.s on .-acl
side show the havy growthl of the clover wlwre tih> plaster was applii'd. On lh li]lht
stron k in ther (,i'il'r of thel ti [nr>' wholre no tl)aiter wa's applir'd the growilh of clvov'e W;1.s
\ 'lry scniiit.
little later than oni thle poor hind. A hIea v. rank growth it ehlom
well filled. For a see1d crop. growers usually want a medium l ri gowth
that stailds iup well.

THE USE OF LAND PLASTER IN GROvTWING CLOVER.

Land plaster, or gypsiin. hias a woilhderfidly stinlmilatii i- 11ct
11po ll tIe _''' thil of clover ind otilher leigllnes ii lthe \Villaiietite Val-
hey. (See hiir. 1.)i If aplhied ast a-.: t op ti--rciii~ritt it tl\ern tt.oIl tatl
4'i,.,_`hi in the splriii,. to lie disolved antd wahiedt ilto thle s.oil bYv tl1
I (ir. 2''s


CIAOVERI St, EI) IO"Dt)('CTIN() IN WII.1.AMII[TT1 VAI.!IIY.





10 (CL(WEI SEI)ED PRODUCTION IN WVILLAMETTE VALLEY.

rAiin, it produces a healthy green color and materially increases the
yield of 1)both hay and seed(. lUntreated clover, oil the other hand,
is often very much stunted, yellowish, iand sickly looking. The moist,
mild climate is favorable to the _rii\(h of grasses and sorrel and
oilither weeds which have 'a -I1.i2 ten(lencv to choke oult the clover
whlen no plaster is used. When land plaster is evenly distributed mn
clover sod in the early spriiL"', thle clover grows vigorously and its
ability to hold the weeds and grasses in (check is increased.
There are three principal reasons, then, for ,-iug plaster in clover-
s.ee(dI P)roduction, viz, to increase the yield of seed, to increase the
alliounlit of palsturage, and to hold the weeds under better control.
To attain these ends in lie fullest measure, however, it is essential
that the plaster be applied early enough in thle spring to be dissolved
bv the rain and that it be evenly distributed over thle surface of the
entire field.
InII se('curing a stand of clover, the app)l)lication of 30 to 40 pounds of
land plaster to the acre at the time of seeding or after the clover is
well up and leaved out has been found very beneficial. The stimula-
tion it gives enables the \,,,I1ig" clover to withstand the summer
drought better and to make a heavier growth, and therefore more
pasturage, in the fall.
For hay where a full crop is desired the amount of plaster used
varies from .50 to 100 pounds per acre. While this is a small amount
of 1)laster to use, even less is used for a seed crop. While a few
farmers apply as much as 75 to 100 pounds per acre for a seed crop.
from 30 to 40 pounds is generally considered sufficient. Heavy
applications usually produce too much straw. The plaster is usually
applied during February, l:i rcli. or early in April. One very success-
lil seed grower, IMr. Clarence Koon, of Lane County, pastures his
clover heavily with sheep until al)oult LiMay 1 and then applies 100
pounds of plaster per acre. By applying the plaster at this time
when everything is eaten off closely, lie thinks the clover will receive
the full benefit of the plaster, grow umore rapidly, anid have a better
(chan('e to crowd out the weeds. For methods of applVlyil, land
plaster the reader is referred to C(ircular No. 22, hBureau of Plant
Industry, Uniited States ID)epartimet (of .A\gricu('ltulre.

HARVESTING CLOVER FOR SEED.
(Clover is not usually ('ulit for seed until it is fairly ripe. M.o,)st seed
growers wait until practically all of lie heads Ihave turned a dead
brown color, but not until they have t'.iiI to fall to pieces. If ('cut
a little green the leads do not ripeii properly and much of the seed
is shriveled and light. When the crop is left until it is thoroughly
ripe, thlie cuttling is done when the straw is damp with dew. Ileavy
[ Ci1. 28s





Ii ti AZ. iiuuwuv 'Cth > IN Wh.L .MI:I Kv: V.ui11.11 I I

dews occur ltiinol eIerv -Ill tit which allord exuellent conditiont- for
cutting1. T ,he u idttin i.- donte 11 te l itte eieiniie, ev enoonlig -l al.d
ill the early ii1,,riill un til a ,out 9> o*('hc l.
In cittilnri the timower ithi the -ide-deliverv biliehler attlached i-
,__'r ,1i t10 -e9d. (Sce Ht'i. "2.) Thli-, Ieaves thle swatl ill lhiuncle,
'liUnd the niclhiini soh) tih it is- no)t 1i'atIpldtu onl Il tle a r Iur,-, or
FIII otV't'F Iby the w+licls ol' of lth IwV r in cutting" thI next sw t.tll.
erio-el i riti e> the I- ll hi.ii ,_ hvi, \\ivi ce w ich i- trietI)\ "i-o fi tlhe I 'i ot. i+t
ni t used and tile alta(hiiintl ( tlit S ANl. l;ir i- tlicn o c'tn M[>)olu'ii
of as tlh swaitlk r le) at>ei it tlurnh thie sw-ati]i outit int(o ;:i( i o lll inl
thelc lmh.. \V'IheII cnt inll tlis way tlh chm\ctr i< uni"allY raked into)
windhr+ows betfore, i't Ieconns dr+y.
The slt'f-rake rei|)mr is, |crhlmimi the nt)+st s:ltisl';ac()or\y iimc'hinv witll
w\hiiei to cut a cro ol' ofsetl clovvr. If thle chliver staiil i)ij well iK
(anil he w int nunch li wu r witli thlie na|l-)tr 1llh t witli (lie ni )wi er. ITril>\x
leaxia more olf thie s-ttw\\ oi tlic mam+iil. This is ;aa isril;-,f tailt i)<>irut.

Ai
.,- ..- '
1 "- '"-'. I /





Flin T;h sieol _N t-w~ -,~ w e p to ski im f\ ,wo f1
...- 7 .-' . ',~ .

an . :10 4ito i* .0-d
\ -





PI++'I 2.-Tlh > snlr.-(liliv>'+,).\ ~ t~ ~ Iiii ,K'r. I ih+'li s(*'i |' lv, o oii( side. ;tn
for it saves a great deal of lalor in limalii., iniid ln-lin. tlie crop1. I f
theI clover has lodged, the realpr is 'et to cut as low as lpossilhe. 1le
rakes of the reapelr ull thie fallent clover up to the silhkle o tiat it
is cut ai s closely wviti (li' reaper ais witli tlt(e nower. By dlrivil ll tic
realper show *lv yie tihunclhes ar:e (r-oppedl w\ith l tihe heads nrtr(nd uI) a11dI
tliht butts down. In tis c-ondition the .seed du-ies out nici\i Ifi the
drivii, is ra id- onthl. (l e oth r haill. tlihe Iuitts of th(e brnoihes will lie
throwvn uI) an I the lend- iindirneath.
Tlihe Iunchts fron lithe rea r iare r(llppel in rows aumin'-ss-( li i-hlh.
where they vreimin undiisturbed i until hlitu'nl too t he Itilve. In ila il-
ing, thie clover to tlie mlachiine a bunch is picked up) at olne fi(wliiil
wit la ou-tid forith i firi O ith very little siatteiriiu:2. When the
WlTIer is cut with the nmower,- raked into \windrmovw-. anti haul-hd frotii
the window to tihe lbulher. con-sida-ilh e sted is lost ft-ron shutteirin.
The window is tially rolledl p ito) iu n-lices in order to ,,et 1li
propler-i l sizl forkftls, and this shatters- out muitch of tlihe seed. I iay-
S1ir, 2IS'





12 CLOVER SEED PtRODUCTION IN WILLAMETTE VALLEY.

racks used in hauling clover to the huitller should always be covered
with canvas or provided with tight bottoms, for a great deal of seed
is lost when hauled inii open racks.
If the weather is favorable clover is ready to hull in six or eightt
days after it is cut. Practically all of the clover seed produced in
the valley is hauled from the field as it is hulled. Stacking is said
to be unsatisfactory. As previously stated, dews are heavy and the
luitllers can not usually run until 9 or 10 o'clock in the li,rning.r
Light showers on the clover as it lies in the field are said to be
beneficial in that they make the hulling easier. Ileavy showers and
protracted rains may necessitate turning the bunches or windows
over to dry them out. If this is not done some of the seed will
sprout.
TREATING CLOVER SEED AFFECTED WITH HONEY DEW.

IHoney dew is a sticky substance secreted by plant lice which some-
times work on clover. When clover seed is affected with honey dew
it is first run through a fanning mill or other cleaner to remove the
seed that is not stuck together. That which is stuck together goes
over the riddles with the coarse trash. This seed, together with the
trash, is put into water to dissolve the honey dew, which requires a
very short time. The water is then drained off and the seed and
trash spread out on a canvas or floor to dry. After it is dry it is
run through the cleaner again.
INSECT PESTS OF RED CLOVER.
For information regarding the insect enemies of red clover the
reader is referred to circulars of the Bureau of Entoiioio lgy, No. 67,
entitled "The Clover Root Borer," and No. r.,. entitled "Some
Insects Affecting the Production of Red Clover Seed." These cir-
culars may v be obtained free of charge by addressing the United States
IDe)partment of Agriculture, Washiington, D. C.

HOW CLOVER-SEED PRODUCTION AND LIVE STOCK IMPROVE
THE SOIL.

Tle system of ogm iig clover seed in connection with live-stock
production practiced in the WVillamette Valley is very beneficial to
tie soil. As soon as the seed crop is removed the field is used for
pasture, except when thle ground is too wet, until the following M;iy
01r June. The total time that the land is used for pasture varies
from six to nine months. Tlhe manure that accumulates during the
winter and the droppings from thle animals when pa-lurinig add no
small amount of humus and plant food to thle soil.
I 'ir. 2S]





CL \V'E NAE M I-'K I "'TION I VIIlA.A.\M I. I': \ IV.I.U V. ,M13

(lover cculpies t, inh-la f'or two Mor uore var. Ihri tlhi teilli
(lt' r1oos eiielrtate illc soil to :; coisidertahle depth. \Vhel tlese
roots deWay chaliuncs are hleft leading' donv nil tio d oil blovw.
'lli,-, challu 's Ipem it the ahi am l O;nii \ lr to it) i ltralte the soil
more frely,, lv. B il,";i a legu-mlllilnio s criq)[. clov(,r. adds 11)o1re nilr)' .z,+I I
to the soil than tihe (ro]> revm\vts. The slinllle ;lihl other was-tc
niateriail "I Owi sirface of thvn rl"int, tog+ether witlh flu, root-, addl
a l r~g; tnite ii \+llot, t;"lahld nuiitpit (o lil t -(oil \whlu~n llif t ohld i- [lol\ved.
'l'lim, lfolhlowini" re-tills vni'n'c ,d I,\' l yirii r' w lu 'ro\\ whlo\o-r anld
pasture it witlh sheep antil oill'r live sto'k illiisti'at liow tliis- tyl[)
(if farininj! incrrasc;s the prtodettI\'e'IK'ss ol' tlicW soil. ThIe datal ;>i',
inconiplete adi dlo ol (h) sho)w oi veisid y tlhat lhe increased vields
are wholl\v die to the clover aind live stock. Other factors na' have\
exerted ill intliteiice. I l w eve (lie i enetlicial +efev l or this t lvpe of
farluini, ol thie lexlre and, pod ti\venlessa olt tlie soil is t(0 well
established to need ft'llher ,oiiiel.
Ti1e exi enhlCe or' Ir. ('. M AVidlntr. of 11pnomi outl. ()I'o7'.. i>,
sunit-iarized aIsi follows,:
1!M.i Wii.ilt h ItMd (leveo mr s i in ihow \wlih ;t Ilo''e l~riilt o Mrciih, ili'.
lI90.'o. W\ ht >:it. Y iell, 7 tillshc |iol' ;I C lo ve 1i11:ile ;I iri l sl:1111l.
1!)o(;. Clover-. YI' l f ,1';seed. of A hitsislels |-r ;>Te.
1907. Clover. Clip[i td l( at l;1le. YOUl. 1 Imh sliel nl' 4 sed poe, cire.
19iI.S. <)itls. I;idi pIhwold in faill aii! sonwl in spring. Yihhl, 70 hlush l,'s pier
Hvre.
Air. Al'illiani (ula'ritr. until lately of Yninhill CountlV, Or{i,.. rio-
tared clover ni two thOls of (() and 10 aci'es, rlispetivelY. \\ith the
follo\\ili.:" result's:
VIC)K. W\henl. lRod clover ,soi\\tl in ilhv wvhenl in 'eli'ni ,ry.. Yihh! Is Imslvils
per avlv.
1902. ('lover. Yiohl of soed. T h]uselns per ;n''.
1903:. Clover. Yield o)f s('eel. G buselsi per acre.
1T!4i. C,(lover. Yiehl of leed. I hoisluh ls per aere.
l )i z. OItsI. 'i ,. hl 'I SO hushels per acre.
]liOG. \'Wheat. Yield. ^11 Imsli hls ]>Tt ;a'e. := l ver was s wn will tlie whe aMO.
11.t1T. Clover. Yield of seed, 4 bushels per atre.
P -3. \VW It w Yield. 17 Iishels per ;"Tv. Rol o er sow+ T ihi xhlio l.
V 1>) 1. Clhoer. Yield of seed. 6; ushliels I)(, [. er
P1i1 .15. Clovter. Yield elf s(4,4, (G, buln ithcs ]n, *'r a re
l! if;. Oat: s. Yield, !i-+ bn hsliels per acl'e.
lPio7. W\hleal. Yield. 27 Imsliels per icre.
Ainr. einrirv Ziliiineniian. of Linn Conntv, )re,. rotae v(i M d lilM e
Mlover oil a i t-amew fieht of "" n ixeil lanIdml.-" The ricord ()f (ile Yields
follows:
l1l9i6. Alsike clho er. Sown ailo e in June. I'laslnred lale suin inll nid fill.
P'-(7. Alsike clover. Yield of seed. Q* lislhvs l|er uIirv. =lowed up in fall
of MI'.
[Cir. 28]





14 CLOVER SEED I'HODlU('CTION IN WILLAMIETTF. VALLEY.

l1)(S. Oats. Yield, ::- Imshels per awre. A field of onts just across the fence
made .'5 bushliels per acre oni the saime kind of land which had never been in
clover.
Sidar dldate of November 3)0. 1'i,,, Mr. Ziimmermnan writes
I am plowing n a piece of land that hadl (ieni seeded to clover a second time. It
is astonishinog iow imuch ulilore liellow ilnd light the g"'round n'ow is than it was
when plowed after tlie first seeding.
SUMMARY.

(1) The productiveness of much of the soil of the Willamette
Valley has become so impaired by the continual growth of wheat and
oats that tile exclusive )prod(luction of these crops is imp)rofital)e.
(2) It hlias been found that clover-seed production on these soils is
not only lprofitabl)le, but that it increases their )productiveness \very ma-
terially as well.
(3) Red clover is grown on tlhe better, well-drained soils, and alsike
clover oil tlIose that are low and poorly drained.
(4) The average yield of red clover seed is from 1 to 0 1)uishels per
acre. When i1grown under similar conditions alsike clover yields a
little more than this.
(5) Stands of clover are secured by -,,ig it (1) alone or with
rape during .M.iy and June; (2) alone in the stubble in the early fall;
(3) in Feb)ruiuary. March, or Ap1)ril with spring grain or in winter
wheat; and (4) after summer fallowing.
((;) In the rotation clover occupies the land as long as the stand is
good. (O)n account of the clover root-borer and of sorrel, plantain,
amnd other weeds, clover is not usually a profitable crop for more than
two or three years.
(7) If allowed to mature naturally, neither the first nor the second
crop of red clover is profitable for seed. Thle best yields of seed are
olbtained1 bv retarding tlie growth of tlie first crop) by p)asturling or
clipping.
(S) Light applications of land plaster to clover sod increase the
yield of both hay and seed. For a seed crol) thle amount applied per
acre varies from ;`i to 100 pounds. From 30 to 40 pounds per acre
is the usual quantity used.
(9) ('Clover is cut for seed when practically all of the heads have
turned a dead brown color, but before they have begun to fall to
pieces. The miower with the side-delivery b)uncher attached is gepli-
erallyv used in cutting. The self-rake reaper is used b)y some and is
considered more efficient for this purl)ose.
(10o) ('lover seedI that is stuck together with honey dew is suc-
cessfully separated by washing it in water to dissolve the dew. After
washing, it is dried and cleaned in the ordinary way.
I Cir. 2S 1





CI.OVKH l ;t;l PK I 'TI N IN r'llAMI.T 'V 15

(I1 ) lF illriiHT -l' hl~ c l uiiil llia l ll,'ic i" l:iin Wl V d 'll IM I l I 'I l 12'1'r
<.'roi).' of wheat'; I ind ii.>. 'Ilter A( h;I-i holc n (l~ III I'm. w(wo Y03 Fl'. Tl'ic\ ;il.M tlinl thiat 1lic toxdlfro of (he' -oil >- niiichi 1111pf<\rov l.
tih soil l.iniii loo.-r and inorc imllou .

A|)|)i'o\ ',l :

*'h N *I 1: < tN l I I tl l> I11I l l f II' .

AV SIIIN T(, N. 1). C., .I)1/. (, i 1,, !'0, .


0





3 1262 08928 9648