Some factors affecting the keeping qualities of American lemons


Material Information

Some factors affecting the keeping qualities of American lemons
Physical Description:
True, Rodney H ( Rodney Howard ), 1866-1940
Sievers, A. F ( Arthur Frederick ), b. 1885
United States -- Bureau of Plant Industry
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry : ( Washington D.C. )
Publication Date:

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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 29621905
oclc - 48872592
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Scope of the investigation of the keeping qualities of lemons and losses of lemons from parasitic diseases
        Page 3
    Losses of lemons from blue mold and physiological weakness of lemons
        Page 4
    Methods of preparing lemons for market
        Page 5
    Physical characteristics of the different types of lemons
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Chemical characteristics of lemons
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Keeping qualities of lemons
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    The most serious causes of decay of lemons
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Back Cover
        Page 19
        Page 20
Full Text

U. S. D 'I}F AI 'rMI(T XII+ T {}1: A.K{;IIC' l' tl/lI l':,

HCH II.\ I I1 ANT INM`I s 'l'; x *iiiil] N,,. N 2 .
1 T.I, ( ;A L < III\ A Y, Ii I;:]) 11 !2 1

SOQ F1' 1rr\ IN) I 1S A FFi(T N( TIC I L LI AIN(;

QtAlVITli:ES ,, AMFI'lt .\N I ,EMONS.


I}II :,'H IO}I.O} ;I+IT IN {+I ;(;K

Aik-TIf II F. SI EV E'II ,
Exli v r. I )i't { (; )II.AXNT I N\ r.,-i t f; vi',A i(>\s.

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('!hicf Iliin' iiH. lof;\l.rIu.Y1 TI. T. ALLO AY.
AIxixlsttl ('hicf of BlirI,'l, A.AiiFiT V. WOOl)S.
Luii/r. .J. E. I IROCKW'\I II.
Chli'f Cl(''rk, ,JAMES ,IONI:S.
[ ('ir. 2'. I


It 1' I 1 11;



There ii-iu pruva ilniji iniipre-Sun niniwi- NtOi lnidhT- Ani; AniiTi-
(1:1 -1ngri-m\1 Ilellnim w ll l,' p0-~c'-l 11P 11 1V |nI~ll(- o|t 'l1perln ;all ';ct -
l\'ctH"s ;ar<- OJH'H Wo (In' J mib l n that llhe\ aire iiot Ihung 4 **i)
A -Ii u mt iiiri' tlhe )rn uliil'sll i-. C if i ti" t(i' u li( (iir( of () iilin- ut ;tii"rii
(I ii;nni l- ia carefi"Il "- d1(i I lid t ]i, X lui( hlll i 0 aita i;ilti(i. TIh 'li laijrt
OI' lrli i, l u', ( I, li \ii II) i ti- ",,l i U, V i (Tl,; ui"riui "flu'- ii i I i i tile
)r(I (,(-">(s (lir)ii.i w lh ci I, iii i ;n i a 'r t lo lo r i i ilw li ckinLg, vi( i -uu 'tiial
rcfIrm Ia l h irinig, ()f lli0 sc |r)i'(> --io om d l)Tli;-vi) ol' i ld fr in l
inl tthe )p ii- linlgru 'u iidi i))" iia ;>rau -ii ani :iaf ll t' hai r alh'ld l lti
market. ''li- Im m)i l lihad lt \ lha- A'm in l)r;i'i l A mtijr lIV
dectermiinatio 401 ot o lit ions A clcl 11r th kn cpI n,-iiii; (|alili ()f~ol lilt
fruit arufm(' A it ii;i>~ r(aclni, lli, i, irlr l. T 'll(, hope i- al-()I Pr' 'iit th1at
llir,,ii.'' l (l retulti, 'ld iailid inm prl)v(,nlI l- ill :" i11' f tlihe jl wi'o^*l -('w
iliveii antol nia hI e -)i'i 'r>(rtol.
Il liat h s 'ii nailed (,](,ar, 1)v tlih e \( rl.k tlii far a c miilpli-lici l lit a i(ll,
I,,,liii^," (qiuali(t' (of A ei cai I(,ioii," i- i l u mdiil'(d lwv i nn;ni\' fai(ors,
so11( aci n^' i l(ln i the (o hardly. >()11c in tli, p)ackingi li(i'-0. 1 ,ic l i (le
('sl' dliiriiin' -- t iiil. ;1i1d soni at points far di N on-it (Wrii lif)'orniia,
thiat i". in tiit 1 inarkct, .


Ii [)orantit aitiii r the f li'-. ('tfiu- in ihV, hw-s lr Ici >o "re' mara-
A-ithc di-<';iM>s. v (la, ri l IvI() O m it i ()r(lidirn 'llit-e (olp ate w) (mil\' v litere
l iii lt",le'---m i llii N O tK'le ,ted anid disar h !. al-o 111 t l k)acl<-

*' A s r<('I 'i d Idi l)y rlii) i<-;tl st.- liw i a' s llii I)'('II li;nlc in lh (l ico of', 0 l ., I'l mill
1 11\04erim ine l lei, lc lili lre! ,'otwr iu
1ih 'Al-ir >< w tnl Iin' l iin'- e t1i, i t IJt innl ihllr ri nllilim) i th'o" "i lic A I l tI t am i tn'
('('lp{iii |>1 li(;,i s sh()v', li t)w lby I fruOil iirh r shlii i mii t. T lw -:, l-,,ll s m 'r l l-- an 'l
ultI lil l l il a;llnl. ;l "' ar l\';lll<'ced I I1;i "i\ 'I3. ;iiil ;11+'< s lij)an tar sinid( iii'illwtn i<) h" llh
lill' Nh 'l, i ll \ rslimailk m i','llli l'f . \ A s1i n H m ll'lltll n l rl ;oti|I ih a q l'l ulip- > ll I 'N'St it s
1hllUS 1";1r dowit ilnet]. r )u!l|>]< ,i 11i l 1li t';lr1 lwil lh]i<,. :f'm> tIhat I'N aI ik o ly sprr vi' Y(*m*lls ( 1 1 li f> i" t t l ir pulltli :i< l Ii I ". T AIl t (\\ \ <. I114i4ii [lii i 1#t


iing house. and evenll after tie fruit has come on the market. The
dr headed brownu-rot (]'ift/ihi/t f-!. r'frioopjihti r't Smith) may stand :is a
typle of (, destructive parasite. Since these (ogallislIll are isallv vii-
!ill. tlhe diisiiasedl flnit- il're ill larl-e p art detected before shipment
anlldi formI a conslpiioJs ati s of loss in California.


A secolid tyvpe ()f 1ro le co(nie's fromii ;..L .i' --ive as ._.ilsl li as
Jlteli lild. wliich, while lot abl le to sIcc-Uesifu ll V invade a sonmild
leiolln, ale fatal to fruits which :have heein ilijulred 1by calre'l- slatil-
(lliil at soille point in their' hlioi'. vor \0i0hh are phiysiologically
wleak. Thus. whl ile h ltue lold( f :iire s ;al imiiiediai(te aslie of
(onisiderablhe loss, it 1becoiIIes a source of d(ilile' chiellyv after tlie
fruliit ias heell weakeiied L iv previolis- hladl treatillielt. Mold inlvasionll
Leil ii" a -ec(oiil' dar )hi iielioli may applealr at allny tinie in the his-
tory of tihe frliti, hut s-ilce lil(, iixinliiiim aiioi01uit of luandlinlg. alnd
ther(:efo thle greatest d(iingei from h):ad treatnielt. i- found duriniig
the plikinl p'o',ss il (the orhliardl'l anld inl tlie silhseqlIent sorting and
haldbilln inll thie pac'ki" lios. a lhar e proportion of the loss front
olrd)(1 is jpr(JIal)d N also fLndmnl in ('alifornia. Si''e si)ini,' condi-
ios !maV itroduce violence alld ijury, a e:1 'til percentaire of
loss duIe to (hlis cause and to such injuries liandl iinfectioinsi as took
place dtiiiii thl e hlst handlilg, in 1 i.ii. will lie mIet in tie niilaket
'sooi after l( tlie :irrival (f tlie fruit. Thutls the ilue-lmid situation
becom'ies' lalghely a (qestioll of lpro(per care in handling. As the
losses due 1() )hie oll i1 ale' to a laI' de degre depeldiienlit onil the )per-
cenitaui oif lemolis hiiil" a pliunctilured r (ot lerwit-e ruil)turedi epi-
(lerini. the toiizlshies of the out-iIe cuticle heoill(e- alln inliprtalint
factor it fruit conservation. Tlie resi-llts (iof miiechai:iliial tests of the
ease, oif pulilcture Is affected by thle piacking-ihoiise poc]-sses are suill-
niai'izeId liter ini this icircuilr. Since iijurii il the hInIdlil-n aiii(
shiipimenit off leioins i- a matter of stlildv in the ()tlhice o(f Field Ini'vesti-
g*altit-i' ilII Poo(iloy)$ ()f this Blurea,:i. this geiieral silubject is not
C(sli Ideredl here.


Another lpos-ihle -eat of Iriuilde lmay lie in wnveakiess t caused )by thi
roesse thliroitl" whi'hich thlie 2reieni fruit is put ill order to color it for
tlihe iUia'ket. o(r i (lite condit iols i eili(4'r which it i s stored, either at the
plaie f ireii'ioi or at ( lie point of sonsilit 1ion. This line () o in-
v(estiraitioll calls for a sttldv of le(,m 1lon hos-es 'ind their ()perat ions.
itlt special rieferenice to sliuch procss-es ls seciit likely to1() weakenl the
I Cir. 26 I

lFA(T O wli)lS M T A I l. \

A r i tl1111 ', -11010 lt tI' Q untlti tll l It:" l,\,r|,[ i I0a ram ia t
lellloll-~j un \!o ilI r lil V' 1 U i 1 1 11Ill cl'l 11 m2 1 & V 14 0 1 t11,'l -
( 1 SOHItC atr, ... li, lll ,lv col red i +, V> I ll.'ll llV ar iked, tt ,Iro l] llir.
litl' anid aret -l l[0]it, 1t t ll(, im "a et a- W,, ll ; I > lw ilmlK u .li, -n-
(W H O l I l ri p, Irl t ll l '-; !* t l- v;l l r ('r i+' at --,l ') *'11 i- l, l' ml lk, t
al it ,'n l'r r WIt iitn A I i "l :1'r>> : t a ti e ripe Ic.ul -) il
110" lav l a r;- iriH ul kYmC)ilHL 11ktaht V lll'~; t lIw I rH m h ? \lllllI jd ho U v n Lircl
;IH( cno f'lm ;l llrrld0l I 1\.
(0) S', tol fruit -" i- Q UiM'l< l r 1' 1 ql, JIM i [, nr i |Ki iiic ,cr
in r, ,cl,,,,l. amIl O WNl,,lrc l li ld v -1 iu') ;ix' itn Illoi-I. tickl ;. ~.\ c, i l
ro,,iii or -"Jwv : till ( t-- 1 11 ili ; ln!i It ;>h a1p i t t rr i+ hi h ir t tlivln ,l.
1l"nItall v ) v ';ttil- ,>1' oil t()lv"- lurui] t1 in t in room, w hit i i n uo ,tlt>,r i -
or in a tvlltcr+-]ilik rooin lwclov,\ thl 1'r inl ;r ii l -t'iiiratlcl fr), il 11",
st(l1r,._*'O,. l yIl '\' t'l l ll H Ihn -. T he ll i t v l l )l lut;. :m ol l ,) i l j :yl,;
Cuil'l i)iI Il ill 0101 other < ma-rolt, pro uict- of >! ilhiu'l101. ; i "' t i
cllhn r l riti,' ;tla ouit ; rapidi col ofro tii Ii l t fr'uit. S\v(a;i( 11' i- usu-1
allv ns-to ,l t( I ot< rimlitl
m rk ti o (If ther Q > W ind It i rt!r]lv ;ii+','(i :XI IIIHIcL Iiiio,
gr^ owcr- that '. 10101tt'i h nitmeta- ;i' Il- y l, , l.:riv Ia tci litIii tll -md ,ol,>r,,,
o,0re ('r~a ltiin ll' ;at l (o e.r tI('nl|) rniti(rt-+. titr ilr coilit KHIol ii i
tiaincil in m e,,sot ri',,, am hii, chi lilv iiiitmut l iir l ;tiil tlh n -uhlt i- olot;ni int il
ill a w liii t ill tuliirial \Va\.. "-oiiic t l imion Ila- lWitc i\"('n (o th l lic p i ,'o-
loh+t+ic, l l'iactori inv,,olvedl in l -v 'atit1'.
(3)} IN, rAir (h, hi r r pa:l rt of tllic Icmm ii mryi) i,. l)i0 licl \\,liwn thei
desirf ,l ,lia t cr ,If JiM fruit i- m' ic(lI l. ;n l t ,[ i- ,, ,worr l ni) h'y
" c'utrinig at low \ ltlnl>'Imrl-i lr'> 1i 1 tint lt); '^, l .ioi +,mes. It m tt Id=ln-c '
wlim |ti' he Iw(ater Ito- K'n'i>t thle fruit ik like*v toi 14, relativrl\ (m'g -\ t t(
control. an> op)' lloor' c'\ov l't'd 1v aI roof i- 111iciielt lor at pcriitilclllt
"tol'r c Atrltictlire. Ill order l o i qt;lnld the' nii;nil;ta ter lo modi I v con li-
ti in (o Mlit tIhe ""rcd o l' ll ir ,li\ ld itd lto-". tll Irliiiott-. ill l)()x<- or
Irat?* ;ire [ rlih l i1> iln carload lot-. :Intl ac hi Ile i+- ,ov,'r 1, i v a heav.-v
Caiiva, tent. of whih tel (l ir W a'i m- ; iii( e d- nuiv 1,v 1%6ied or ]o\0ered at
will. It tlo-t regioi)- \\hliere wa;>ter lot i.- l,6.. r0 idil\,' v onitrolOL t(i
. ,tori :' loi).,>e i- Ito rl ,l uip[ w'if tllic u-i' al \\a;ill- :Intl ntdl-. +I', -.,'e r,
tinli I'ri il \r' it v or toidit w'itlh even groale'r ea- o'. -niii, H *ro\\er-"
lha tv e ti-d n' f ,.(*lla,.' delit lioniptf-. 1fM a110Ixt ol ,r I nl li d (In-*
>Iovw "--curinig'" |>l'(ice-- I laV relai 1n illn th e tl or cellar- "- Alon a,
-ix ntio llt- (or ilor if narlkelt cO dlliot ,- rc([nie it. lh itl- ,ll\ Krnit
l- l airl;'le ed nol+i *ooter.
It gi'+>ding:' andI lmc'kil;ng mlandle th e m w-\','eted l and ( ai-ured -ort- lptaralel\. ln(t tlti- i, not
tie in\+arir ildle r"le.


Liiemoni i'-( knIown to be a mot- variable fruit in their physical
characterist ic-. Not onlyv is this true of trees of any given variety,
but in s-),m' ,'a;se- it i, also true ()ofI tihe different fruiit, taken from the
individiiual tree. The manner ()f handling water and fertilizers is
eommlonlyv believed to lbe of reat importance ill getti l slmooth, well-
shaped lehmols. The lemon varies iln gelilval from a Ibarrel shape to
a] almost sp~herical bol ma d by moe o) less (w prooll((ced pro-
tui!)eraiit en(d-. Thick andl conl-picoIuI einls d(etriat front thle vale
of lthe(, fruit. Tilhe we-t size of lemon weigh ()in tile average 120 to
13.) grams. (O)f collius- size is niot the o)nlv factor which (letermiines
the wilhlt, Illlll hl IItii(, (i m th rilld. (uanIIltity o()f juice, alnd gen-
eral ol)iditv of til, fruit. The lmost desirable -sies of lemons average
:;o() anIld '(0 to thlie I)ox.
There are u.uallIv three rade(- of lelmons, knowvii as fancy,"
' choice." aid ltanlard." Thli'e grades depe'lil o()ni thie' general texture
of tle fruilit. thle foirm. a.d tlie colhw. Thie sizes, vary from ISO to .--40
to (tle bo)x. ])IutI few ]mins are packed larger thai thie 240 or smaller
tha-in tie!' 1! )(, )(V 1)ox size. The 1)Ieter gIradIles are mostly made up1) of
thi'e fruit of fil' extIIIIre alnd of go()()i ftorm picked whex gie reell and
colored either I)v slow cu.rig in iteli- omr by)v sweatingi. The tree-ripe
fri( is le-ss, coi)imonly us'ed for the finger selhcct grades. sinl'e1 many
question its k(eepling quality. In some placking hous-es it goes 1 ,gelv
into anl iiietfrio.r grade, and at s-ome sea-oils of tlie year when the
fruit i q(iite fiiall f -1ni (10 ) to )(00 are ackedl in a box. .A v(,erv
small percentage of frilit constitutes the grade known as sinkersrs'
or heavy lehll)nt-." Tlils type derives it's nim, l,,1ii (the fact that
the friruits sink in water wheen leing washed. They are u-stuaIly
spheiriIal il sa)'pe and quite -mall. with extremely thin rinIds and a
relaitiveI lag :mloillit o()f juice.
Tlie green fruit aIfter it is properly ciired. either lbv swvt.ingI or bVy
the sl4wver tent proces-, po(ssesses a rich lemon-yellow c(lor which is
seldo i f(muild ill the tree-ripe fruit.
There' is a wide variation il) the texture o()f lemions., which is cur-
reniI l Ielit,'elved to be illheiincedl bY (r-lchard c'n(liti(ons anti the seasonll
of tlhe vcar. A, a rule, larhig', oveIrvwn lf'iit has a rougher texture
thl,1a smaller frit. During, tlhe crig lpr)css thle rind is smoothed
down cos)-iideralIxv anId lthe texture i,- iipllroved. Tree-ripe lemons
us-llallv have a si-moother texture thian thle green fruit.
''lii(, tidt1 cos'llists of tie 'xterilal 'pidermis- and a well-developed
nnhderlyving layer (of sofl't. spoilgy. white tissue. This :Ia ver of tissue
c (itails a c()sidevilralie ('UnItity o1( waterr, much ()f which (valp)(rates
(during h(e cfring of the frui',taui a (')nsiderable shrinkage in
tlhe (tlilcklnle,- (df hi, rinld. It is I')r this rezasonm that thell ,,p,,_.. Iyver

V \< 1 I 1 't %" ',l Ai II Kl 1 l. I i\ Q I t I 1

oIr 1 in trn i t. l trr- l 1 pii'kt Ir4it 4 -. :I- :i r i h tli ',, r l li:i lli:in l ,tof
the44 l r ni l l, ont4-. Iin 4li.ivlhi4 1 inon- & i- iav4, 'r l ,,;in ; 1 1ti,11 -
ill th li t h Ii' -- i f tl' ir ri iA l. ;a ,' I i4 0 0I + l ,\ 'li it i- li A i t I,,
't1 ,_+ l I T l l',ll I ll y t I l t \ ix 1 l; p 4'; i I' tI l lr'tI t. I
; 4ip ri llcit w'i.l. o- oii l. w riio ;>l--i/.,'d l'io Q it. \ 4 t -i 1 -i 41l r '11, 1111'
tv .liin ;i- ai ni l i, ha- :a llninwr r'id titin llr riiUj i ;>Ad thin vC -.: ,il
-ot'-. 'ic r& l o1 '4 'i'ii fruit v;ri,' r t 01' O unlA l o I, live -Ki
to nti l- r ;lf l N i. 11t l i t +l, o -- 1d1 1 1 ( 1i ;1 r't;l ;ll441 li ,4 ic fI rl\ ,i : iiO 1
tilr l[. K\ -lalulc l[)r (''1,'1l( l I in'l l 4 ll 4 ,-'llnl'i l :I- ; 1 \\ l l'" -wlal ;i vi r-
_,i'l- -i( ,", lin< t l c'-- \t "i' ll+b. "110 -1 ri i '- oi-Ha 'rll; l'(I f i i i one
Q.'4'Itth I" tllrh iiq- w N4. 1 1 1O t i I\ 14'I 12' 4\-,i \i,,it ,it,1

",Ill -c1cd cOn iIH ,' Ot l th ( 4 l 'all 11'14i' h'in. l -'~ i. qlrr\ tit:litl. t h Mi .A
lair's, int ;|i y |til n, o f r+ lj' I' il i V >rtir, l'1 ri'r' l'r, 11 -A l,, N O"I 0 1 1 ii Wi irit
O ,ne li d -' :[ lot'l oI' lic:t ci l Ii 1iil :I 11- : i 1 i 1;1i\' ;'4 ;a/- n -1114 d-' 't i II1h4 1 4m11 11
a ll Iivh' >| I',[d l1"ll ntIm' (4il't ,cn I 1v O l4) rtyi' 1 14 v -(n,. l 'l\'' [44 c411 11 i i ll
11r4t '1h ;iii il ',;ri<' i- o1 l'0.1 I4 i l 14o t t Ai )lq ar;' t l\ It (1 'v ar. i 'oinii l in i1,
fl'tiv I ii lt1\ in I lc tii ol' lo, 1=ii0l It i- ,-;n l ,\ i it I V'o\1 14 '- liti
OliT laril nai w wit ion- 1o> rI4,'' 4 tri -oi a l4, 4 li,4l4 o11' 4' I 444t at1ion. :4-
MA ll ;i> 44 e '_', i ll '; i m .l 14 ol l<'1 I 1i '- li;1\'1. 1i11 nn iili j r nilt h'iri 'iI
on lihe r4',-oi'ic o t >of ' loc1'ali ic- d l i-plhi44, ;i a 't'r ito a ler1,. 4n'. to1 v;ir, u'd -l )roI 441o lti li ll I li;iil
Itl;It fl'l'o'.n o liert-+
'Tile< iil. I ticv iw IIit 11- ft.1 in i 'ii tI 1 ''I.> plw r i oli rl 1 1 ;iln',l \1ii / of
d".t lciion i. \virl. vil ;i t 'o i n -l-ido'tldel ext nlt \vitli (hl!e lliickl mi-- (if tl n.
rind ;ind tlir *., ito +w al -olii\ olt' d ll t fruil. Il I le "A tr-In rip -.""
"" ) til l'r-.'" 1 ld 4 irt'(l ri ll lian 44'1iI l _'' i4 l4i4411, 'l4 hli; 1h ilh n l il 1 4 ,41'l44 ,
iH' l p icked' li4i t, for Iln r<'tol-(o ) ith tlie lall'r l;i\ ,c nli4r \x;ticr
iA tlirr fild-. 'In 1W | I t ;/iincd 10 \ b xy |)'i>-i( i+ <1'o lil i tn- a; Ci O -idih l
Al&ll' qnalll ttt rt \ lrlim'ila invwl ti~ll i+linl. \\lil hli l \c'<- it aI A*l-loi v
alilivat' /ll'iK (i'r;t d linh iltlv i- ftiiml in r in o imi tIl i- ii vl(c lm I in
'fact. aill ui.tmloo- or m rh in'lf y iii" tc-tec f;>il to I i" l tie d i" + licrul'ct' ll\
clea, r.
tWr-idc- (In' rilv ric` ;x'il. l vlhi li l lie ++c i 'ltirntv l( dIm l :i r.
Ut a ml! ;l lld lll;lre l lv;il". hlli -tlli l" lll 111 iK-I -1i|ll >11 il I vI H A w l i:i
tlitv ain, oldwild !v nvulig' ildlc ;a- l, (Mli'r tl'('rt In)! k h on (Io- llhi I i r ")|'
tlid" t'lit itA <'lf A;n l (on tlW Airik d el ritllli/!lliow-. T iih -lm 4ilic grnt\ ityv
ot lf mon |liiVi ( Ai imvs'- ai nirTo\\v nil/r olf \o;inlthi( 14- f;ir lli Hui;I-
jowril of dr 'riiitiuiti io A*i\, wm-iv th ;al>pro.\ in iit ; 1 (: ,). N nii ri'.
MiV, -nmit lh;av'e gi~i^ lc nmiillt- ;a, low ;i- 102G ttuI ;ill lo e ;1" tI|Ih i|A
uls l !.A It \wv vXpw'itcdl A m lt leh -|)('<`l ie I'I'. 2 a l I' lAl( )iH('h ju 'wwlil(
he gover'l'ted Ie l i lt" l Iic iId l W ol l li \\ ;i- "l'nlcl (i)Il n only in ;a pa;irti;al
Nva v. ll w\;i f lonni tli ;it i'itii'1' :i dlth'icr nl 41 6 1\ li_, Ior ;i dfi'idc ,d v lo\\'
Il'rcell;i dl' ;Of a 'id i- indi.-t';> lrd I>\ a r ri'.- iio ,_dii^ lii 'li aor ]I)\
10 C2tIt' i

1' | LA i NWQ S.


specific gravityv. Thlisi was es'pecially true wheii the acid content was
higher lllau usal. (iIll S i tler(reiles' inll acidlity are not indlicated lby
the Tspecfici gravity Xvitlh :aiNy de rIve of certailty. tle variations in
lhe quantity of muiilalillous material perhaps hidinl,_, anlv cha'1ge
1lwhich light otlihQerwie lie ilidici'ted. Experlie(nce Ihas hown that a
difference of les-s tihali 1 per enit of acid canl ( l'ot lie foretold by a
specific gravitlY delleriliinit Ion (if ilie Juice.

The chemical And v of heons as iregards acid, si, ;a. and water
(content lias been uhder'talikeni ill t1he liope that it would lead to iln-
forl-:la1t11l whlic1 would oilel ,r -omlie suitOrest ions for improvi ,g the
handling alnl curin-"d of f1e fruit.

T'lie a:idityv of the lemllol is coslld irled vy sonie t(o le an important
factor in deteriminiilg its keeping. quality, it beiilu asserted that
lemons Lcolainigi," a h1ih 0 percelitagre of (citric aid resist- dea*v fori a
longer period thanh lellois (of 1 lower acid contentllll. 'Tile re'ilts thilts
far ob)tailled 'show lite averael- a(ncid contentt of tie ditireel-l sorts of
fruit ( hIlcluated as citric acid 1(o le as follows:
avid inll Jiuic.
DI ark nI'le I fruit (pickiii: sl'-, .... ... .... . .. .. .. (i.0
I ghlt greell 1'l'u il (|il kini stt~i (,) ..... . . ... ... .. _ .] l
Tenlt-ellre(d fruit (iiiarkl_.o ible sfail e) .. ... .. ...... .._ l. "
S\\'ei tl red fruit ( 11il1'keltabll stl ............... .. .. . (., *
l r -r ilp 'e f 'ru it . . . . . . . ... ..... . .. . .... ...- . 9 1
"* S iln l e rq s "' _... . .. ._ -...... ..... .......... -... .. -. .. ". (is;

lThese r]"'Sil were obtlaied f1rom1 1 lar'e n' er of ( ellionH' tllacn
front \'valiolls )packiilg hol'se- andil thier indlicIte thit there is a differ-
elice of tr'itle less tlilan I per cent of acid between (Ithe ht) keeping
gIrade of fruit, the teit-cu(ired. and the tree-ripes." which represent
(lie poorest g rade o il( the i)arket. This deficielncy 'ee'm too mall to
alcoltlt for tIhe marked (dil'erence in (ll tie keepilig (1ality o(if these two
grades of fruit. )Other ipoilt" of (dill'ere(cie iimu'ch more striliu.,g
s(eellm (o indicate (tI:i other flct(ors halve a g're:ter i)(arigi' oin this
lpro(leil t1ha111 the a(i(1d content. It has ; been found. furtheroillrre. that
Iree-ripe lemos(l.- sowing ml average of ';S iper cent of acid. wXhich
is except i(onll *v hih \l.X when ,tored(l decay fully] as quiickly as other
fi'lit of a low\Vlr acidiv'. Sicilian lelimonll of a good grade bo tulhit on
hie open market ,hi(owed (oi tlie average (;.l er lr cent (iof acid. ThIis
is less thanu is found in much ('aliforniai fruit of a corresp.-i I.iilig
Ini ordeIr (to determi'inie whether. thle clurinlg l)r(('e'-s ias :)aIy marked
inil ueice oni tlie acid it iY of thie leolon, a series of deterli nations was
IC 'ir. 2 ;1

1 A W I il' \ I i T H1 l PI]4 I:I I'I ()l l I I I. -. ;I

li el iF 11 lril l ary a:11 M arch.1 l I"i^.MOI 'Iiii 11 if iith thl A w i I, <
picking andI riepealed a>t weekl h rval- until lieW trll wa- readl.v
f'or market. :w follw- :

S'c ;irI ". 17 i. I: I X\l '] '-:; 7>i
*l irn IT i :; U' M cli ':li P

It will Iw -eoii that tllic |) inc're: l-i. [lI c I ',. l iilll -.. Io l li w waterr Io-- a .<'iiii)llitii\ ll ldi
'urih;" t I. 'ih--
(*iiriii^; prices
S 1 1; \x I

'ile +ti' \" tl' sta y' ...h irt l' a^ tlli fadi It 't'a otilined to) e-tIilnating-
tih quantit\ if rilt Icitg '-lid'Ir ill lw juic oft (af tl (hi rl cl lili
gl'nvn. ami! tirit-iort" fruit. An altfini~t ha- at- l k Itii iiinilh tro'av
the' lcV\'(l(t li( t ,(If r1141,, i;17-.- s I,_l, ; t> tl i ft' it dh \velop- in tle
,rchari'tl. 'Thlie tc.ts whl chl were made (IIrini, -tv,\ l -Iag,- (it' ,h*evhlop-
in i'nitlil' t he 't ll ji l t'll-it' ii_' Il4 ll l rl. I'r iii I' Ill' light 'll ,
awdl tle'-t'i|)t i t A I_ -. reslpecti\el\y. sh',owed t 'he follow ing, per',tat'll ,s
of sugair in thn jtite:

I jrr llta *' I'. t ll f
sttil-;:> int jil h', ?~I!;;H in iii ifr,
l-'irs-t still .... I. i;:11 l+'if l t'li il:irk .'t'O, II i sh-t c "-. (;I;
S .'<"tl" ll IL:+ 1 !.2'7 SiM, l l lih-tll .gnrrrl I sAnlnr '. lY l
T'I' t'd sIt I I. :; SIT vent I I rr,' riIr l ta:1'- 2. 1 ;
F ii"ll i' sla-' 19 2

V'lisc, a alyiv e- -.,ho hla;i tl r i- r-cla tiv kl little+ dr]l li--A ill the
sii'iar contel nt d tiI-ingi thel Iarly history of (lh frilit allt I That (he livitp i i-
pal devhloipnt conwic after thle frlit hlas ;ilahn t rva'dwd ils flll size
.1n1di is ;.. '.itriiii to ripen.
S1l4gar dtermiinations w"trv aim) meade upon fumit limit. i ii>" cur-
illy in flie w'iti'na tents. T ie vsitnit iotn wa liatdi d rinit I l,',thr ar\v
atnd Marlch. t+ s.once a week front tle time tlle ''nit w,:I- lielvel
until tlhe fruit was ready to lie marketed. The result- -how a verve
I=lowpcen~tale cif -I;_Y or (wompared w illdi e fruit ;ali)\e mtldied \"Ail
ml dhelnilte (ed to twad either invrca.-" or hecrea-e ;a- the prori -,"

1. M
,+e,,d-. 'Ilie, t'ul IO\\ iIIL; laluthition .-itiiiinarizx tlie, aiilt; v-t,-"

l-f i i-r :;... .I .+ i I s+ M+r l '+ t+ it I+ l

l+ hl- la'i lirt 1". I T M arc+h e, 1 L lit
FI hriaryx 17 1. 17 lM:11-'l ..:; 1. ,i'
al-'clr i:tt *'2 1.:;, M ; t',lh :;; 1. 1 1
M1:l rll "' I. l. dU



Some invest. tons were Iegiun relative to the los, of water from

hlmions while undergoing curing both by the tent-curing method and
l y sweating. The green fruit as it comes from the orchard has a
rather thick rind with considerable e spii.y tissue. During the cur-
in l this tissue shrinks to a considerable extent and( thle rind becomes
somewhat thinlned(l and toumghened. This change is believed to be due
(hieflv to the evaporation of water from the rind. In order to deter-
mine lie extent of this evaporation, both as to the total amount
evaporated and tihe stages of the curing process during which most
of it occuirs, a convenient (lqulntity of lemons was )placed inll a separate
box and( ke1t in a t(ent witli about a carload of other fruit and weighlied

onice a week. Thie lemons were divided into two lots by a l)artition
throuh11 the box, thlie bottom of one-half being lined with paper.
This was- done with the object of deternmining" the extent to which
evaporation is retarded byv liniig the boxes with paper, a practice
Which is sometimes res(orted to during" extremnelyv dry weather. The
results obtained d Dringi I)ecenmber. 1907. and January, FebIruary, and
M:,rcIh. I1)0. are ,shown below:

TAIHI.E 1.--/.^.-. ,rf irater in lcmolls w'hilh' vliritl iu lWOt 31.

Boxm's )lned within Boxx wisthmut iniper

December 1 ;............... ...............................
l)ev: l 'r 28I I I ....... ................................ 1 1. 1. If 1.46
)(,( m l r F ......8.........8. ............. 1, 7 2. 17 1.1:; 2 .55
,1linuary (;. . . . . . . . .......... .97 : 42 ,3, 150
,lallu llry 13 .... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... ......... 1.17 4I. 15 1. 20. ,.68
2unwt" 20 ................. . . . . . . 1, 1, 5. 97 1 hI 6.23

Iml'II : I l.- /oxs ,/f ,' cri Ill 1cmo .of ,I-hil' r 0'iitl0 ill if l 1t 9).

Boxes lined with B,Xtes \% without paper
Paper. liinig.
Wckh .e,, ,tklv Weekly ,

I c Y. T)tul hl *. k I Total loss.

Petr 1",W, ],r r cW P' r,' l Pecr rent.
Jianiar 27 .......... ...................................... ...... .. .....
p bl 'linr \ .............................................. 1.0 1, oI i0 01 1.014
F rl ]0 .. ... ..1l 2. 0 i .97 2. 06
,I clmt b r 1 .... . ...... .. ............. 1 1 1. 11 .. 23
ibruary 21................ ......... ..... ... .. 3. 017 1 .97
M ar-r, 2 1 .. ......... ..... ........ .......... .... '. .77 .7 9
Mi it r 2 ..... .1 .. (..1.1 W
Milarch I1 .2.......... ....... ..1. l. ,.). .7 l. I 1. 641
Mairh 16 ................. ............... 1.27 7, 10 1 W, 7.67
M Ir 23 ... ...................... ................... 1.50 8.7 10 00
Mn r 0........... ..... 2.95 11.70 277 11.57
A pril 6 ....... ........... .. ....... 2.:0 M 59 2,22 13.54
n'ir. 2(; 1

FACTtIU S .\- T1 IA lI'iNt; I Ill KFA NI I' ; QKI M 4 l+ '4 ,1 4t IS. I I N 1

The following" il)iilatiol how- the Percm ntay, f total ut in cr lW -
(li ]l," i nl y I -tw\ oM y I )- A e "u- da frt ii:
T1II I II t.4i\ +I" :1 4 1 1 II i 1 i1ir 1144 ll 4 1 i' 4h I. l' 441 1441:1! ,I lii '.

I< rk,r ti . W. .. .i . . . . ..... ... .. . I .a 4 .

T hrl 'e experi enil t I it tliat thet l, IoIn \v tl t I ruitll n t ff I I it I ,dIs
not iiicrl'ciis l" itcr a.t+ \\or>l'; ld\e ('c<'l \weiek AiwY Iwct'h itila tilm\ oImc
\\cciA s >lhow ; (hccidcl ai (hwt 'trt hw a ri arc in ltmWIM l O ll, l)\ :i
co listpon iiii h,) 't'r st. TlV ic- tx.\[lani)ti i for tlhese irr,;IlilIil ,1" ,cn
l)r',lm aldl' 1w l'A4 n iil x1 1 i 11'i\1'. ;it lit"1 :1'i lit 111,nv4'4 1 ,'1i' llv a r ;>r4 d'-
htnii4 M Y" andl w"iA A vr" l liiiioil dI\" \ \iuilld r1amt i d11/('1 '1>,1 l i ll tlin :
(val~ iritlion front tine fruii. whereas a liiii wind. veli tlidilili ot(,(
4xc pl 1 itiliall t\' dr'. \v Al tll i \t 1h l ial l lt u> 1ial t'f'orii.n-o' jt" l -i ili l It, -'I1
ibid (*nHi\"my thie iiioi-.tiirc away (hl'ntigi various domors c'rap l,- ani
other o( 1i1i4 ll' to 1(!lh ani tx lit l s toi i l l '4 itiic ''a> ll \vaIl tr 11o-- fr)'11
tih fruit. ('ar 'tld iia iiiillatioii of llic tiii aldl ,_o4l jil iiir i t ;>s
to v li w ae;nd lo\w inuich lto ventilate the fr0 6it wold toli d lWlrs do iintl'li
to mii niize lho.c tllctliationis.
In *ompa|);rinig the restllts -.lio\ l iu dtli'reilr tent-, it iin Mi leu- rl i
in ilind llt at tlli iespectivc hloc tion o'f t16 tolwn lmis a v iv mlmatl ial
(t]'Nct oi \v"iiiorational. A toont whcli is in ch(sI |) diIl\v tlo tIlI> o[l ii
sAle of lthe loise o t'o dors nd oid"lors wheni (cuitsi of air cani
circulate aiiround it would ilecessarily show wider thictliintionis in its
evapjoration tlian :a tent locateld in the welter of' the house and well
pri'Vo l (tet froi exterAnal at )o 1 lperic( cI ii .es.
In sweat ioo1s, where ihe fruit i., kept all a milll h hig-her tent-
p] r;litt e, vem y diHV tereni ( ondi hiomi are iet, Wl ill. ()wil. t) thle tii_,li
heat with lower relative Iluiniblit thle evaporation take- plIae much
morm rapidly. The total pret lu lape or water evaporated at dittlreii
it'ervais fromi tle fruit in s l a sweat ro1m the fruit 'in -weamled
twenty dnivs. a lpriodl coisidbea llv longer tlian is Isallyll rV uirIed1.
iK- shown Iehow :
l'4l'r<' r ttI1 7'' .+i 'l4r14' 1ll 4..+l i'
'r t'vaWriE va t r ">V"a Ii a "<
e r i m .. ... .. .. . .. .. .. ... ... . . ... . .. .. .
February ) ...1. .. ..7....... .. tt, s i M irl i'h ,. c
l+'elliriuzry :26 2]. 1i o M ;ir'li 9i ii
I'l'lir ;iry 27 2, -,' 6. M :1lch 1 ...I... .I 1 i i..
l-'elr+ 'ia ry s .. ............ ..... :. i rclh 1( .. K
I Air. 26+ 1


To al voine who lias carefully examined lemons as they come freshly
('cit lfrom the o'rchari'd or a" t|hey ha1ng1 on thlie tree it is clear that the
fruit i oftentimes extremely variable in size. shape, and texture. It
i quite ( eIerally held that lemllols of a certain form are likely to
prove 00good keepers, while those having other formlls are liable to
decay early. The uinsyilnetrical. usuallyV undersized lemons grown
inll tlie Iri('hit s1ll arie thought to be poor keepers, while those from
the portions of tilie tree where thlie fruits are well enveloped 1)by leaves
ainld have a good size alnd symmetrical form are believed to have good
"lii 'e.'" It ihas not l)eell pr'acticable t hus far to experilmeiiltally test
thlies-e suppose) itionus, but it seeris from what lihas been done that there
is a consider:l de eree of variability in tlie keeping qualities of
lemons from tlie same orchard and prolbablly from different parts of
thle same tree.
('Certain structural features, viz. tiose belonging t th tlie rinid. seen
to Ie especially important in this connection. Tle rind,. whiich con-
sits of a lay ver of white. spongy packing tissue having a very variable
thickness, is coveretdl oil tlihe surface by the el)itlermis. This covering
tcollists of a player of cells so molioified chemincally as to be almost im-
pervious> to water. Tlie degree of ii IIperv ionsiless is greatly increased
l)y a dlense outer cuticle of a very resistanlt material which is prac-
tically waterproof. There aire a vast ilnumliber of small pores (sto-
malta) ill tlhe epidernilis, throthug which gases enter and water, as
Vap r, escapes. Tliese sltomiata open into small chambers inll the outer
palrt of thle rinid.
Additional characteristic istructlres, known a:is otil glands from the
si substance which is formedI in them and which they retain until the
Skill iih'es u11. are found elll)edded in tlie oilter part of tlie rind at
different distances from i (li epidermiis. The oil in these glands is a
volatile product, giving tlie characteristic lemon odor to tiie fruit.
As Ias tbeen already inldica:lted, tile losses :assigneld to blue mold are
ill a very large measure due to tlie development of the fiilig,'i fol-
Itowing injuries. It is probable tlihat thlie true blue mold cain not pene-
itrate lite uniii1jured elpidcrvmuis oft a healthy lemon, but whlien a break
,cc'.irs it i- a)le to enter and '!ii',.. about the characteristic rot. The
develop)limeni t of the defensive uoiuer lawyers of the rind is a matter of
gt'eat iImportance in vie(w of tie' ease of proI(du'i ,-,g sglght, but fatal.
il jurlies to thle fruit.
To test tlie sl'-il, _'20l of this d(efense,I. a simple puncture experiment
as deh'viseid. It consisted essentially of an apparatus so 'onstrilcted
as to e(inable one to apply kinowin anid regulated pressure to a blunt
moinlt ili such a way as to get thlie amion(it of pressure needed to force
tlie point through thie epidermiis. Thie needle tip was found to
i'ir -'21;

FACT01;> kkM TI ("Il ( TlIt!: K I FI" NV ; QtC \1 .1(II 1 1S 3lKM N '

pi tnilful re lll Cpldrh illl-. ;ltlll I llq'it- and t til oi, O w -' -1 t ith n lo F, rrmi,
li'e s When it N A, apldidi dinm i + x oPij r ;111 op ,,il 11,11d tial ij. (i+ thle
-Nrlra c I' ()tI ,,Ic Ill, l -r 1) ting( |a 111' p tldhr ttha l \\ :lI pplhed ill Ill,
s+unk n place lnRlA ,,'mti llwy.. It app ir- that Oln, tnirm' 0", ll ir o tl+d -
arc lo to e Mirli+ c l ir t_ rtfa' a tl t or 1`1'-r,' of 0H n Ip !'i'. !in i cl-rijn,
lhulnll > i ( -t,(*(*111 l', ll l -44q l tfll im ost L'I;In(- are lilely\ I to li e, .... [ )'t l thl,,in in O fic t'n i it \'I >icli k
plic kl't +I \ L' l I~ t: l + I 1 \ l (t', l l l (0, 1 11 ;11 *l l~ + lt\ ; l + t l '*.* ) l n l' ,i l l

In at inlilatr -tl+,V ,"f 14111 K'Ur" I lQ W .+ t a I l,>~~t ++limr l iv+',l minte,,r
0 1in ll ; i .m' l ~i l n l IS -(llr it ;i 4l 16 ,'-m--irltc, l \' l*rculi'r
fl tt ll l ll 11 I 't r -,+'l in 'li' l l it >t t i ,+'l- '> i : \\ I, { l,, l( h 'r il t ic t ,' I I'' ,+] ; t l r e ( l i+ ,l ll .
t rrr'c inl (N NI11-ci m iI 'll U ni ^ l'lt w n I" 1w dir ( l d il>c i )! of Ir rr ij vc lipill..
Thi, tlillrcrci'llit i- l m lilyit, n' in | i;rt td> ,t lner l';1 l11*- t Kiim 0 lin n
vli>ol rtl t o m l itli ol' 2lio O wall- o, t"f i 't|ilIr' -, lildt b lu l10 11-0 1l 1
l1"t-ills lr;atic, ill ]v thl e r(>l ti(i \+c lvl>i litY t o < uiva I i l ] 'lI" il ,o,
tlhe (-+ llci nl' v (,I', l+ t i nter t l4)-f lc'-, o ll( Ietlll l. It \\" "- fl i, i l tlh;al
IlN tk-m R uil n& I N (ones ltl teill r I'lli li'l'lll i- \\a;- ;>l el,. to idl',.r \'. \"
litth, r:l-~ > Il a t. "i ei l l l h
I i o arlt.l arc lre qu nt t. ilmiit,,i 1 ,, l ot y l I ml\+ In'--i 0,I' \v';irlio -
d( ."'m ol' a tinicii-il\v. :n inl ;Ire |i, n ,-.Tr\ve l 'i[ it' injvr l O, tllt ^*,.icrr:l
Alr('kil 'gtl of theirl it ,tili Idn-",t tlS r l e-p(,i c imni-t ia r tl lt
N lire. lullpy) lImU'l, li ln tIS -t l)tit ui \\ c ll the Vl0ic"lc' t .lin ZH ,I Ol l icI11t' tlt
Id>lys all imlporttant pal't. T heli' llli c-'l of tloif ti'-tn \ayie' \'N
W HiheIV In tlwI in alh,,l "" >iiil+<'+.", \\flJlit t w'iol t ao r ,u-n ,i' nii c\t-+ ann'
r14 1ilt0 ion. tlli- -Ii- K'A, n 1-',a v t'+ irllP iri il ,I 'tol i h ill- in -
Hl1r'\. I tI n.ti c. -ilviker l+ Ilie]it ,t l, lec ir toli he pI'-.

v vlvK relatio, to ;ltcar 'ne .-. oa Irxtex t' to ]td i- i n lilt VerV 1arlv
nmi lrktl Ill gciu iMr l. (IMM't Inion^ have a -ha rmii ilr\ opliiilt 1Af
rim l ti. umIn l I Jt nm ils .tit), 1h hVlem nl a c' ,(|iIall, "I', ll I i rotrr 1.
Tlhe tliic'kte olr tlli (>,iild rn i- and tihe ,on.-eilictt ;'lhilil\" () Ol '
hfinot to, \6 1itli-tanldl \\wcar i- \\'Ill '1tled in tln, lox d tring,' '111ilielitt.
\vlnen. ;is frciltmitlI\" lia pi,'v-,. Olie jar tif tlhe ,'*ir in loiAi|)in and -tartl -
i -t..t in (lll -ltliltt t1 tI, lW Nx. 'l'lc r6 1v T ht lo',lll ,\\> Illit tlhe
fr+it i- "" ra'-])i'd on r ii lli rfai ol', ()f Oll, -lool. l)arti, ilarly ofl tit,
endl- awnl iidle h T, l."pH 'co liii tlh+y aret 1l, 1l,5 01.
M EI:I' 1101) 0|W+ Cl ( I;IN ,.
'I'lle ul( i,' (j ltlith,- ofIl dli l[ ,r, lt t Vl\l,,- ,I IN "11101"1- a l-,, d(,] ,lll
lart- +clY o in th< n ,cil ,id o l t'tliiiciil io \a !iirl> til<'\' :;iri l jl<' dt it)
lb 'ing,; tl l i'm n o nto I, arl, tl !he ("Wlrition. k\llllto inall 11c, inlij' t co01-
dition t)' t!he fruit. ditt partly to in tr rly hidi-u "ill do uFnlintii
I 'j41r. ,; ]


its a!ililv to resist dlecav to somle extent, there is reason to believe
that thlie method of culin is an iml)ortant factor ill determining the
life of the lemon on thle market. Thie lemon i growers as a rule agree
thai thle so-called sweating process (of curing fruit ha a deterioratingt
effect, altholougll no definite tests have been made whichh would fully
uilstantialte his belief. The -weatin', process is rVeMsteld to only
when tle 1riskiness of thie mrkHet necessitates a rapid coloring of the
fruiit. The gro-wer, allhotgh lie realiz(es tlhe possibility (if endaln-
gering the (quality (of his fruit, hias at l)r'senit n other method of
cl1ril1g lemons ralpidly, and is tIlerel lre compelledlh to mniake the most
of thlie Ijrocess.
The tree-ripe friit, as liha been statedl elsewhere, is thought to be
inferior to thle tenlt-curedl sort. and is kept in the pac'"i,,. house as
short a time as pos.sile. After beitl" wash-ied and graded, it is
immeildiately putt u)po thlie market, a aa rule. for unnecessalW delay in
the packin/ hllouse will onIly sholten its life on tie market.
Thie )point to lbe investigatedl, therefore, is thie relative keel)ilg
qtimlities of these three sorts of fruit. With this object in view, a
limi ted series ,of storage tests was iiiade in thlie spring of li)0S.
All the fruit wa- s-Iillpwd to Was'Vhiigton. I). C.. and toured The
entire lot was cuareefull v examined once a wexeck for three or four weeks,
and the! evxer two xxweeks during l thie remainder of the test. Careful
iote was made of thlie form of deha which wa- lmet with. in order to
(yet moire il formatiolo a.- to what varietie-s oi dec:aV Ire mos-t destrie-
live after tlie fruit arrive- on thle market. Thlie followiiiL. are tlie
stmmarized results:

... ....... i-.-I I -I 7 2 o
5 . . ... . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . .. - - .1. 0 2 3I 1
-llted l I + re, -ri])i -S\vvltcl d
I',iit It~ il. ir it.
.'i t rui. 1'l r r< l)t 1' 31 rail.

N hi If rf f i f 1. i l.

* . . . . ' . ' -. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. - - 7 2
S. . . . . . .... . . . . . . . ... . . . ... 1 7 6 ; 5 2 7 2 0
',+;~~~ ~~ . . . . . . . . .. .. ... . . . .. .. .. ... . . 0++ Ii;{ 62.S
1; oi '16 3

< I r rli xI-. t t it lr IXs th li< iT> tt( \ t ks i i -1 1,, ;.it' i lr in lu dfd, hm 1 c ,K111yTtTen; forms of dle vy
<\crr' P Mo l i~n^| Ir>'<] ''[>iru 'ly. ]Ililrn th,. rarly wrk- lir lln lil ] |ir i i im li l i\\\ing i bali|s
t(1 ( mcclmr *i lici]i inljury r>''( i\ :Cir. 2W;

F'ACT(IIHS AFF'WT I \( ; I'llt: KFIXKl N ql;H ES \I,111 4 d ll' LEMONS. 1 )

A (car Il' ml -(ii .v "fr lll, iV "m dl ind ic'ate arI v i lie -tl i,-i) oriyi \ ,l'
the tent-cule' over the tWel.m ripe Kridil. IIn ach or tin. Ine I,.t ti-.
point is wecll I)rinm,Ijl (titt. It wN ill In,'futher MtIS T m ed (! t hl e IV ait i iil
of rot in (tle twl -omredI' ruil ist very nearly, tlhe -'amipr in ;ill A ie lWt-,
(if lot. I tliti lie n kept lwv week- I( _'ear it tw\ s owtin Itt;rl\' :'I)per c, nlt alt dee n I". tm i nn',+,] ii' l li ti l thiat, ]Ok i,,
ll);lt ( rT +l ; l l h tt t + (i 1 l''' ll C 1 l n > +t' l l l w l i 'l l I lalll fl l l ll t ;,~ +l ll| (I 'r l l t l l l t i,
( Ti wt. ( > t' i~(-t t !i i 1't ; i in !t' l ic<, + -iii [ ;i in l J'tl i-( r ir t +< + 't :-.; t : l j ,( :
Theli rin-uilt l, >It ; iv i I hrim -~\ ah F"A ilJr iil 111licilc ; nll M A P a irm &i ; ~l >
conililtinn. wvhi eXVt; I v ali( kc. \\hl ic I 1 l';ti +tl t :Ia V aI COt+In lt-t 1)1, 1 > 1'(inlv \VI 1t 11 11 )1y *I'l g ni\ ;l I

dill t'cr niic, ill lnt e 'n- ll-. A lp VAl'3;i ia l) i > ii ki(lcr:i\ i t- ii 6l l lionlk
Im+itmt I. mvp' % hit ,, hl~i,} ihcmt+ twov, hn>l orI N O'ti ,1 1A N,+ lom+ ;3 \v+:)
ex('celh'tlnt fruil. \\Witl i a lml"in tr"-'. tc\( iti r ainl o'I\'<" l \\co o w il l Q '
tin, l >+-t i';llli\v i-'Ira hl w while lot 2_' wl.. ;l !li<-1I lit inin l e ,. li or- of
tll( l('>t >. o r-l'+ -IK'l ll [li'C+clllt;tl ll ; ppr,*tt;trtl ll ;t- tlo lll+:l>.+r l( [ >r;) ft|c;:I I v
uniiitarkmtalil&. Th'ei cau v ut u i vliwl(Tlv tu' ilht-e gral dl illcrt'(, re]It :11'1, not
tii l('ir' Of' tlhe imiatter.


Al im po tantt phla-c o ,l l' ti l i il -ituati,,i a^ ror 'tiel. \vccjv oii
quatith" i> tis nattmi> ol tie di lc+rcut ofrni !- o l, r thlwa\ v inni i l? in
tlh -e tests. In th6 lirA n t'c t e l exaimiat ions no Miiiitv rcrurll w'a+- k pi(
of each fornm. l lnt 11",le I ,i i hl drcdonW l iii"inimlc a mro bbli l o v A )li
bwcon es lr eh t ot l arteio r li lim iiillin ,1' o l' (he frl it+ :a- i- (lie t' in
sorting. )acl;iiiig". and -hippmi;ll.. A lfte'r ai l' N \\ t eek- it ,ecamlle ;ip;>'
(mall, , ti at aI ditreriitg l formi olr w n v wa I)'. rinn ,, I,- alo app ar,
wvinch - [_-t(4 led mlie i iec^- \v o4 b pinti a lose watlrl ot tlhe indlkAl v
"ro r, th eal i r n)ril. Kl'I' dh V -how, (lhe Ii V)I'r*'lti'i-e or tlihe (olt l roi
wljih-I wa.- a ;irpp ienltly dutle t ljllie oldI wVli -e .l. ('on-ih 'rahlkl
djilnql'tln e i- isf( I:oud aioln, thle ariei lot-. lIe ; l ciked in handling (lte ftmiill it tlhe didll*yrent place, w vlit At wa- ddalinmin l
:t the IN. t thi1 it wri,- noI t A ll -0lt1|iiIed over tlie "alne rout e l it+ ilQ 0 / q')
far in explaining Ho' tlie dill'rence.
As miany ai- live apparent l istinct ( l,,e- ol'f-low ili-ei-eb of tvi,'
mrid were 4mse en. i, otfte nti ev-h li Jig, i 1 very t-(rikitii' iu r iA aI: d I olon ? r ,Im ar
ilcet ri.stic. TheM-, were [lil s-Itdied, -itiie. a|ar( f ll' i hiiiril
alp|)arance, 1i6 loss dite, to tl ini d l l W U hiiirnp a to h I"" mal;l.
T]iev iliay, ho Twever. I|s>o-es ,-reatler -igriiktiea 1c Iy o enielgli e ti Wayv
A' tini miore aotiv\elv Wne'tmlive |I)owe- or' tlhe nolt.
finally, there -s a ver lPrevn lheno ion n o"r dcci\t Ic-iitin iv 6
nin>)e! i ranee ai nd 11 o oll tihe vir ken h rown-rot (,t' (lie citilrn- rrrio
JI 0'v '';1l


Thle conspicuous symp)toll i- a Irownish discoloration. which may
a appear anywhere oin the lemon, followed by softening, discoloration,
and a1 s)rCealdin of the affected area. which in time involve., the entire
lemon. The progress of the decay can be noted by thle brown color
and disintegration of the tissues.
The following table shows :tn interesting 'codition as to the periods
when the greatest and smallest aimoiunit of decay takes place:

TA 1*; VI.--D (ed in hi ciilliiis in Kti.l'llx w c foi- (,""ri' t IK' il.

]L t 1. Lt 2.
Time i rl slo rg't ',
Tent-cured Tre,,e-rip Tent-curedt i Trke ripe Sweated
frii iruit. Irr .it. fruit. fruit.

)lt'i< k.'. I' (iO n i riv il ......... ... .......... 1. ; 1 l1 (I.I . 4 3.1
1 .... ............ ... ....... ..... . 1 1 I 1 15.7
2 .. ...... ..... -........ -- .. ... 2 2 5. 5 1 5 13.2
S.............. ...... 1. 1( 1 2.0 3.4
4 ....... . - .... - - .. - - ... .......- : I 2.2 3 .6
S............... I 3, 7
- ................ ......... -. . -. 12 1; 1, i.s 2 .2
10 .. .. ............. .... ... ...... 7 2 11 9 2.7 i;. S 16.3
12.. I- .. l-; 2. 0 12.2 24. S
II .. .. ... -. .. ..- -- - - - ( I ). I I L1. 19. G6
Id .......... .. .... ......................... 1:3. 1 ............ 1 ............ 27. 7

Lot :3. L'Mt A. Lot .

Timec in storage. |i;,
TIeil- ii cl Tree-ripe s| Ialed T t it-c "rd l'rek, ripe Tent-cure(1 Tree-ripe
fruit, I fruitru it. ruit ruit. fruit. fruit fruit.

P' / i ce, 1" fi 1'i r Ild I', i. P r 1 ti t. 'er Ceiint. Pi'r Cint.
01m trrivI ll .. .... .i. ). ( 0.0 ( 1.2 I S 2. .S 1. 1
1 ................ 2. S 2. 1 1. : 1. 8 8. S
2 .............. ..0 0 1 1, : 1 S 2.7
: ... ....... i ; 7 2, 2 1 1. 6
...... .. ..... :- 1. 1 2 .4 1.2
I;. .. .. .. .. ... .. 2. .1 9 0 1+ :;. tt 1. 1 2. 8
2i 4 1 2.1
.. . .. . .. . 2 9 2 ;3 1 7 + 9 .2 1
1W ...... i 5.-1 -.( 1. 2 -.S 22 1 3 :; 8 4. 4
12 .. ..... 7. 2 7. : 4 1. 17 :3. 1. 3
i .S............... 1. 0 I. 7 1 27. 1 13.0
S.. 2 11. 2 2.1 7 ..... ....-- ... .. ............

Tlihe li cialml Il thing to be observed hee re is thlie interval of mini4mum1
deca v occurring about three (or four weeks after time arrival :f the
fruit in storage. After this more or less extended period thie decay
often increases rapidly from week to week. When it is remembered
tliat thlie decay during thie first few weeks \wavs toainuly duie to blue
Ilohi. it seeills easolnalble to suppoll)oe lihat the period of decreased
deoav flhws after the majority (Iof the fruit injured mechanically
dtlrin" itg c intlg a1nd mckinig aild while in transit lihas stucuitnl)ed to the
attack of the blue-Iiohld fulnitg1s. In other words, it conlistitutes the
periodI of the greatest freedom from any form of decay. The fruit
later slows siginIs of \weakeninmig, however, a1n1d collapse, the synll)tolms
of whiih have already been disciissed, tlien becomes the chief source
I Cir. 2(; 1I

FAMYOT I, \ iFEI'WTI \ ; TIll,; KI:!1'I N(; Q, \.IlTIF n- I.):MINS. 117

of Aot". The u (l h ll m- wcaknin ,,w ;Il'';II ultc a ( )|)[>Ia t ,ri iinit v Aow
,lum -mold atta .. I( llii -t l)t r iil" ir, (litit t ir-16 ", >-rr\at ioln-
w\ rv tad ti o, to >t > ofl' ai cottiulpia!iv y aiall |liiltil\ o \'rint. al .\-
lwritilHn s alt oiii (Ini- lint, \\ill Ih+ ti nm ,d otl a lar-e. r -+alb.

lr'r +tJ tin \vmwork t lins |';irm ;t. m i pll i-h d tcorl ain 21-,ii'; Ia +*l Iiir li -
sm l o41 t floll \\ int i 111 intli'i nl. t1 lli4 4 -41w i 4 ll A m1 h li-tin 'l1\ l"i,' ill
niili lit"i l 4 i t ; Iv4t 41.Il i4 \\ v41 i 44 i\3' \l1N ;i4in( 11\ v1' lmia v 14 U
Ics>s n xlilitcil ;a- tlh'em' inv\o'-(igr:;tion,- }pr c,'lpii,,+ qualility f A e ri c anif:ti'ruK int i-O ni vt k : lll~' l l 'v 1\ it
"Ii ttIiwi1r I I II II' 1 l411 4 4 in A V t i i1m o 1 t ,' 11 Ihi-t lor\ '. ,'- 14ial1\' ilii ri li 1411
later At .._.'4 1 l' li llr l iiin 111 (4 .il il'4i 4 n i 11 4 'it:! (. 1:i l 'a-it. anidl ill t1,
\ lih -la.1'i liti-,1 -, l ,,it4 i lhl4i2ll iil_," re'- li- l [I r ''ll- 111v i '- o1 f' lilnu
I oldl. \A w,( ,4|l- 1ia Irl'd1', i -il'4';il lr -ak4 th i ,~. r '- tii1 u. 1 :,1; [ i ',,1 i 1\,
V oin In ',i t it 1111 'rcri"A lin n'm'tiio- to muil-c lim l- -crioiii ]o w'c- rlf'ler Il,
fruit lias lhcil -lurted for -,uiwc W ve].- or liloiitll-.
Tl ;i a eric-, of (*xi -'rimii,+t lI'-i"m' l t o tdf i itstr; i K-' dviint st a ihie ctini i-
w allilt'\y or' thi- ,i- W A ct"i ,itioll- ofI' -to++rag'>, ]re.-;'i I A,''-
li\vo r ,-ilt- ait ri ,iinwl to lo ,init 1" o i ]l \'~-iolo.'ic d I n 'r+ili(lo\\', ). !l it
; ti ortid l' ,lth w''avinig wn'iigio N l\v M r-. I'lora \. iW'allti'-oi. I1,PAl
g'il-t l,' tli' I krtiir a i of4 Il'm l l d1ii-t r\4. r1(>1\ ;il14' l 1 6' IjC i Ir4-i 11 4
lpra ticaiilly :1l cas'Ve- ,I' fini .al 11\ [lI>t rc'-o ililinig, tll t of Pltl ina
\'c+sti. (lis. lo w o\\ i-ol. nii\,'- l iaio i- in toi' oilic, ,d" a i'riii m-1)is o':i-,r
In\'>etiv_' tin-. lium r 16" ii mikt 10i or .M r. it. I\v\ lnt,. li itllyilo 'i-1.
ha vl., l ( ii)io l- rated (lit li'v-' lt't 111 iitm ll of id' ll, li-ca-t, I'i'li N% it lir-t i ) orl'a. nAiiin. ('ollelot ric'hllint. O( or' tr l it 'of lin'- or anir iii-ii-,.
iianl |n'rha |- oli'r- a!-o. are tliv't t i'r, apparently t +ell '-m e or caiil- -
of t ei' lro-ow\ i-li rot whih appear- 111 hll c t ci, liui.- afit r 1t", v havv
lw ,l : onllc wcek- 11 -1 ,i i,: 't. Itn 1'tc on w pr)lithl\ talke- |)ltiwc ili ('alki
f)rilia and lie( di-,ca-, retiaiiim i cvu"'lo tiintil \\ in1 tllhe catvi l i i ina l' tt.

A.\l)pr \ 41 ,l4 :4
l.\ /i I.S \ II.MHN.
.^ : I'l / l if t/ l'! 1< ilH' l f1 1': + .

WA.SHIiI ,T'ON. I). (C..I/l,// ';. 1.P10..


I3 1262 08928 9499III I
31262 08928 9499