The cost of clearing logged-off land for farming in the Pacific Northwest


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The cost of clearing logged-off land for farming in the Pacific Northwest
Physical Description:
Thompson, Harry
United States -- Bureau of Plant Industry
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry : ( Washington D.C. )
Publication Date:

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aleph - 29621859
oclc - 48872591
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    The extent of logged-off land
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Hand method of clearing logged-off land
        Page 6
    Donkey-engine method of clearing logged-off land
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Methods of burning stumps
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Use of powder in clearing logged-off land
        Page 13
    Cost of various methods of clearing land
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
Full Text


I. I h I al Bnr -
;.... i.... .....

M It E. Ik.\V I A NT I'N 'r)I Y- 'irvi'l~ir N,>. "-2,-.
B. T. <;AI.I.(IVAY. Chirtf oif IBiir +ii,.

TIHE CO()ST OF ( LAIAINX( !( )(( ll-)ll LA IM)

F1IOR FAIN-IIIN IN T1,) l llAlll

] AO {H TI 1 'IWFS-T i.

I1AiTY T1"O M Oli AN,
E^X VER'T. ) l'-l'' F V'A M MA \A(<.FItj-: K\TI.


I'.' ,il]oqist and Pautholoqgist, and C'hiuf of Buraru, Ie very 'IT. Gallowa.
' iisioloqgist a ad 'atholotgisl,. and Assistunt 'hiif of Rureau, A I erl F. Woods.
I itbiratfor/ of Il'it 'Patihologyi, Erwin F. Smiith, l'tthologisl i:i (Charge.
iFrit 1iscasea Intrstigations, Merton IB. Waite. IPathologisl i: (Charge.
hlrisgtigtlitns in Fo rest I'ithtololy, Haven Metcalf, I'athologisl in Chargeo.
('o/f'm and Triuc: Disease.s and Plant Disease Sutrvey, \William A. Orton, l'Pathologist in i h 'r..
I' tholoyical collectionsns and Insitctiit Work. Flora W\'. Palters'on, MycologisLt in ( ir.
1'/ n! life History anirstitatlions, Walter T. Swingle. I'lhysiologist in Charge.
u'ttan Breeding Iristigatiions, Archibald 1D. Shanmel and Daniel N. Slihoeniaker, I'hysiologists in Charge.
l&itcco Investiatiows, Archibald I). Shanimel, Wightman W. Garner, and Ernest 11. Mathewson, in f i ,:-
I' t li t In slte iatiotns, Charles I'. Hartley, I I ,I,. 1 in ( i, Ir.
. H3li and Drought Jcsistanlt Plant Breding Ia'estigqations, Thomas It. Kearney, l'hysiologist in Charge.
Soil Batcri roly airnd Wlit/r P'uriftcation Ittcstitations, Karl F. Kellerman, Physiologist in Charge.
Bionomiiic Iaitrs/igyations of Tropical and Subtropical Pt'lintls, Orator F. Cook, Bionomnist in ( 1 [, .
Drty altid 'oistntosii ii 'lnt and Tea (Culttre int stigatitms, Rodney 11. True, Physiologist in l I 1r,.
I'hytsi'al Laboratotry, Lyman .1. lriggs, I'hysicist in ('bCharge.
A iiri itltluriil T"'thnnology, N athan A C o( hb C rop I ., ** ,,,I... i in ( i, ,.
T'tronomic und Ranye Jhtstitqatiots, Frederick V. Coville, Botanist in (Charge.
Farm t i nagintiitt, William J. Spillman, Agriculturist in ('Charge.
Gr ttin i tfstuigations, Mark Alfred Carlelon, Cerealist in i t, i :-
Arlinyton Erjotrim(nit:l Farm mad Hlorticultural Imstigations, Lee C. Corbelt, Ilortikult'lrist in l,]ir.
Vg/dabhi Tsting Gardtilis, WVilliam \V. Tracy, sr., Sulpernitendent.
Sugar-Ri ait listqlittionts, Charles (t. Townsend, i'alhologist in ( it i -
lt'ttrn t ritcuteitrait'I li fit'tnion,. Carl S. Scofieldi, Agricullurist in ( i r-_
D)r'-liidt Ayri ultutr 1itt istiqto its, E. Channing ('hilcol. .Agriutlturist in Chargeo.
l'omut~diral C onllctions. (hnstav'us IB. lBrackelt, l'onlologist in Charge.
lFild littstigltoitso in 'totniooigy, WVillian A. Taylor andi G. l aroi l'd well. I'oinologists in (Cbarge.
lr/itrimi nlt l (Gardeins anid G rounds Edward Mt. Byrnes. Superintendent.
fioreiin Sid anid i!I'lt ltrdttuctioitn. D)avid FairchilId, Agricultural Explorer in Charge.
Forage ('rop tsititatini ('Charles V. P'iper, Agrostologis in f i. rL,
S'id Litboratoiryt, Edgar IBrown, Botanist in Charge.
(rai Sin ndardiza tiont, John 1). Shanalihan, Crop Teclhnoloist int I i.
Subtropiueal Gltrdtn, lliumi, Fla., I'. J. Wester, in ('Charge.
'tt 1i Introdtli'tion Gart, 'hiito, ('ai, l., W. W. l'triy, jr., Assistant IBolanist in (Charge.
Suh'i Ti inxts Gtrden, iBrowttniilu, Tcr.. Edwardl C. ( reeii, I'oinologist in I ,i -.,
Fuartr.s' t'ooitratt trmonlis ittrtion, fork, Seaman A. Knal). Special Agenit iln Ch'arge.
Stud Disrirbulrirt (l)irecled bvy Chief of Bureau), Laisle Morrison. Assislant in General Chiarge.

It/itor, J. F. lio'kwe'l.
Chitf Clerk, .James I;. Jonr,h.

B. I I -t I t.

Till C(OSA OF CL.\RI.\(; L()(;(;E1)--() L\.\ ) 1:011


TV(e r.'i)i(l (hl L .W'si t of nir .liiinul hiid t ),r ;ain l (.( )nslun
in,, .i..,-ii]..,; (, o()' of ,'_:, ,l-oqff Wlai(l ha e(, lbron liht to the alt(nlith of
the people ofl' tli Pacilic No(rthlw st the inporkt )in(( of tlie ;..rici'ltih ril

Fli. 1.--I ,'*'d-ol a h~ind cl tar(,I of stlumlp il win(r ;ul s ,I

Ill order to make tiis l'ii iuii lw lue for agirie lturial
inust l( 'lhaId for thie p'low. To) d thislis the stiingi
I,,,.'- the umderbrus.h, ;itd (lie stunnp must ie removed.

purlilioes it
timbeW, thle
(10V Fig. I.)

'a MuN h w d llAt mi'liiln; iln (hic roiUilry is t()nv iII n land f,)rincrlv byrupiri iv W'or-
(,-!?s. A1 valriyus t iii c il l hiO i A the t W -Hit A ll\ im>. i ( o in ah s e v li i 'Dien ain li l v lw i flrF o i law!< w" ich hle
1), c ii !l il t ii- t ihiv fi was (1( ircl n nianl !'atrs ir lliv rI worw a'ricultuIra I
c)xp>(>rilinnl ,tii<) ,>. ill lhil iih rr hizive, |rh;iatl ithelley IKm mI i",,,i<, invcs,,i P ; pii na iu i < (n riiiit
tin' 1n0ic u)X ; l cow l A1 I. P. -inn (%I ;id,(t lann I'nr A lie ]ilhe . \A lAt t P p -r l h i6"". At,
ilUK' ini(, is inli|),irlint in -,v(,a! !"c:i')ii. ;on l w liih c itln e'( lm lIn'v ai l> :of tl~nw v.x|..-
ri v in =w, k Af lhi (Wl> m'il<'l r ilii- (*pX ,'i(il-o, tii l- \ lo er\ l lb i rutimhd'l am!iI i- w
;i\ ailnl c i m' v ll)w l il'i ).c( (,ii,'ai;,'il in~ rl),,ai'in4li I) I ,l l'i r ; i '^' llt';-,* [)iirii)..; ih( l~i );
1iiiinn T ih I )f[a)ir tn ,nt[)l yi(t Mlr. Tl'h )ini])i ),) ;tlh, -r up l:ih !w ])n ilh)l < the Pal ,
lit l'c:irin<.< i1" itln ,.(r ili tm \ ,, in r ci t s<( >,u >*,; i>it {iiiii
-" Wll ,ltilli> In ., I lAlnltl ill b y d I 11q'llK' N r l .'lt irir ll"l;h- ,a ,-- i ,Illl 'I f
)tin' iitl innal iin lhus ,tI i mla u4 A- llir ,!'iti' n! 1'iir )h >in. tl,'orin~l inn i- iirunit i' .
lh ~ ~l o ii.'l l 'l 1,, piiili hi~ti i n i l tiic I -m ol' ;t firc'uiia l'>. TI ( 1 .11.1 1 Y >w 1'. <,: -:,/ 'liii ii '1 i
I 'llfiitiiji-9 .t n in I 'fi / -/ I "I li i l .,

A\ prelimnaIv investigation of the situalio s flm\ ',Iad,' during the
summerlii of 190S to determine the extent of the l. ''- 'l-oil lhnd, tile
methods In us(- at the present time, and as nea *ly as possible thle cost
of clearing lb thle different methods ulised. No experiments were
undlertcaken, and consequently no definite figures can be given in
reratrd t, thle cost ordiiin, lbv tlie different methods in use except
as given 1bv contractors s anid owners Xwho h1ad kept thle cost of c'le;,irin'_
separate from other expenses. The territory covered in this investi-
gation embrlla'es western Washington, western Oregon, and northern
In the State of WVashington the l. counties west of the Cascade
Mountains have a total area of S,700,000 acres of assessed land, as

Fi 2.--Situump pasture land.

5'iven hv tIhe varIious aCssessIo of tih' respective coulities. (O)f tli-.
129,01)0 acres ar-e Fl, culltivatimn or, imprmoved pasturv. 5',0)!14,000 acres
ill stalnding llerehljantalbi t indwi, ind 2.:)52.,000) in 1-22 '.***1-off land.
From lhls 11 \%-Ill Ix* swee thiat 27 pix'rcent ofthle total :,, n' w--. ISl_.r -
of' lan1d al d thiai tlhe ac('e'('ae ill 'cult ivaIl loll, much of which is lpalstlurl'e
]anld !'oi'i which the lag1e st limps have ot heen removed (ig. 2), is
Oii w l' c om l oft the h d ol' are:'a. Table I shows lt Ie iI. ; '.r_''.- for
;'ae ,c I t lIes 1I (' counties.

COST O'' F CLEARING InOIt'.I)-(Ol'l F LAND -l'i l'.\. IINt,.

TAHI.I":~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ I
.1 .i I'( r [1 llt

I *1* W ll 1 ,11 \ r . .ri ll TI ."il lIl.
1441 1 .. .. 44'( *, Ii 7> ,1 'I> I 7;,
Cllrll ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~llisri .'1t !,/' I I/ I 'l <1.-~- H

'.1. HH I 1 7, 1 7
C ltli...,, ..H.i, l lH l,.<.: 11 .4' 7 71 ,l .l ;L > I
X Iu r k r . . . .. I.i + lll4), iI > ." 7l I ,", ;. 1
1 illlf 1,1N1 H., I '1441 I H 4)4 1.'>1. 1, H> 711 Kil" 7;i
lfXXla l . ,, t) It 17l, *r, :!l 7 1 1 7. 1, I'*;
J r ,l t r 'r s . + I.+ + 1 7 1 -> 7 ; *l i .: 7 r l ^1 ) (,( i
K tti) I... I 1 t i I ll i \ 11 1 1 1114' It 7.) 4. ++7 I .' ..i. l. 11' it
I,, ,i ... *I),1:> **- 1 71 il+ | 7. ;",s ._'1. 771
nv rI.< ... .so', m1ii Isib an |ise ul;.' I >l ( vl. her,. ll. I .:i
l t')+ l.l .\ .. +Il;l. Itl l I i. :i l 7 +>.r ; i t,. l+l

l'nv l s n u L aI ....... .. l)d l i 1t 7 l s il O:o foX +2I 'i+'l hT
S fk ; ! t . .. . .. . ;i > l 7+'.'t 1 i (I ; .I+> '. !>- I' *I,) +I> : l '. -++ ,+
S in !>i)>lml h -. . ,':*<. I)1,> '7 ( .1. -9.'it)' :.:>..:l;!
Thilrtltoi n i.n. W. .in! (i) I is A> l i qll by p a r anl: 'l
\\ vh iktllM ..s.. l the 5lqvs7.:7 Or rc i n Ihe loggetl :(l
\\ h tlr'olll .... /. TS +I ) ": .: st<+. ; tl).' :!:).():!l :71 71,'l

"ld il' thnes("r S ta h is i n t ()rnOres n s iinid n rt hei ('On tie'otrihia i d ii', w ist l
in'tir]\+ sii iicccssilhie ,is thi).'s, ol' weste+rni V\ ''ii lilin tton. N(,itlicr is liiere(
litili x+rlv .so n li li 1+,,_.._-", ,I-ol'" tl (]n norti is' this+ [iind( so w (ll llitnilcd, fotr
:i..'ri, iirll ril'-t itl|)los('s ;is- thai inl W as'l i.I~l'lonl. \Vhiil, Il( t~ lic dema for
fa rm~i hlind iin (i,..-,,ii tlndt ('tiiifotrtnia is we'll supp~llied( 1)v |)r`+iirh ic ind
eaisily clheared( !rush] liind,(l, < th et e,'(ssity fo)r re(cbiiililiin^ Il(,I K lo tc-od'
hitiii ill th(s(' S4itates is no)t p)res,<+-;ilj. (On h( ( )le o heri ]~idil wex(steri

AW-ih-iiti.,lon ]is Sxit few valley s that =wre nheavily tiWmbe-red at one
tine, and (ll(e demand for .I._.'i, ,itural pMro t sl far exceed,( lthe I(olw
suppl Consequently, (lthe dIeinald or armn hlind nd the idle
w stes, of -cu t-ovr fund hias l,,,i._"'ll the quesit io ol' (J l t-rin this l id
sldiiir y- efore tl, iv people. "he character ol' III( clhariiiw, I'riain'(:-
frn1 tlle heavily V imbered spruceI aiInd dar lowlands tlhrongthliet
1;,iMcles and side hills covered with fir stumps and a dnise growth\ ol'
n di[rl~nltsli to tl6e uiiirv, sliarsly (overd heinhl ck ridite,'.
Tlhe spruce slnup is Amplirlil I" lm the lie most expensie to rov,
.... ii," lo (l fact that it is lo n onl\ on tilie mlv n 6 depo il. w ,re it
IMoo lt ldly, it oftein r p' llw' ai. +i ]mx (,'() j)o tInds) of st Impinut [)o,\yld r
It loosen a >he, 1.- 5 rliii]) +'),feet il diaimetelr.
Th1u fir stump is ltle pn~remi natli slu p ol1' all h I. .-kll' In!"!d, 0ll)
, aslii ny andiA v' ii n'( 1)\d \+aldio!s meA"tWInidsi ehc(rib d

Tlhi ,t]id r grows It soilcn ,xtent w htvv r (lie, Ai is hmul i ll and lpr-
dtoiiaitnis ol low prould.
All olr the lea ove trees li- iaV p l ral root systems ;id o n t roo)t
( ch, cxc [>t mlloose or -il soil, vhee tie 1e or YWO ro t' 1- lr 1.);i
.I. :')li or several I'(,t. ()On tlf ,hd or -wampy lam! the I" l ar1 u'tcIi
partly alove16 ti, s rt'na .


In the 1,',"'_".l-off lands of the redwood district of northern Cali-
fornia there has been little effort made to clear the land for agri-
cultuinil purposes, since prairie land is plentiful and the i,'_''',l-off
land is rough and hilly.
Some attempts have been made to clear the land of everything but
the stumps and then to seed to orchard grass for cattle range. This
work of clearing lihas been d(lone for .10 per acre. This method of
minaking range has proved a failure in most cases, as the great quantity
of brush and the sucker growth of the redwood stumps have almost
entirely covered thie ground in two or three years.
It is estimated that the 1, ,.,.,1-off land of California can be reclaimed
at about the same expense as the fir-stump land of Oregon and
Most of the clearing that has been d(lone in Oregon was done by
cheap) labor until recent years. 'I' (l donkey-engine method has been
used in some sections of the State recently.

Until recent years clearing was almost wholly d(lone by what is
now known as the "by-hand" method, where the farmer, equipped
with peavey, mattock, shovel, and ax, undertook to put under cul-
tivation the i *,_*,i 's stubble field. By this method the *:( iidiiwl
trees and brush were slashed, generally during the summer months.
Then, in September or October, after the first rainfall or when there
was no danger to neighboring improvements or timber, a fire was
started and allowed to burn over the entire slashing, when most of
the brush and small logs were burned completely. The remaining
logs were sawed into convenient lengths, piled, and burned. After
the rains lhad softened the ground sufficiently the smaller stumps
and roots were grubbed and pulled out. Often a stump puller of
the capstan type was used in pulling the smaller stumps after they
had been loosened by liiin;_ aroundl them.
This type of stump puller is often used in clearing small tracts
after the stumlps have been broken into several pieces and loosened
by the use of stumping powder, without which no cleariiin is under-
taken in thlie present day. Thie stump puller should be of simple con-
'truction, strongIly built. It "genlerally I consists of a drum, a wire
cable, and(l a sweep to which a team is hitched. Powder has been
used in all clearing operations for several years, and( all i,'llr' 'I,
except that of burning thie stumps below thie plow, are dependent
)upon it to loosen tli(e stumps so that they may be taken ouit. It is said
ait1 a c(,)eap explosive that would do this work would go a li-nw way
toard solving IHlie problem of recl.ii niiii- tlie l ,-.rd-ofl' land.

Som e six or S'eV'II Votars ;i'; < \i tlu I n Vl tI- v (li(. In i it thi l 'e u n r lT
II Id III II i_ t il I' \u e h ie, ni t (t'l 'rprisii li i l ;i
cont1ra t iimf l puil-
pr'" the( stlimps
fronl ;1 Ii (i(ow.j
lie c( icelved ti he
Ihlea l usi it Ilis ';
do1+ kev v('\ niin1i
w ith )I'L' iit (dI ,
bhlwk.n anz[id cals h' -"
to ) pull 1iud pl~Ihth

s{/ '.lp fl" (i a). ll th ]atl
stlll(ll V SMti e i

1 l'oot iin diamuueter arc split anid loosePed'I1( by a (liti1274 ol stuIiiii(iii~27l)4XX-
tle* ro front live to) twi i XX411 t icks. acco~rd~l2 111 i to ize4. A i'l'.i'I274 ol 1\\t clii
1 '.-iitu b be-ic n tic ill crillx s lil ;.-loot i p jito li
,k ":: 1t lx hvarv-
hM slwcess in chn- ez .
,in,, tlli T ht"l,

I ', 1 ''- v ,
sls :n b r ,v,r ,""< 'i
^ ~ ~ " "* =' t,'
th(, tract t () ,W K. -l "
-oh red, in o)rdher to s .<.1 '
burn all p, he liyh1'onr !.y i.
sn I lI I and as Iml)O , .-iv :' '
SI.1 1-. as po.-.s,- ; .

TI I I It I I the h. e-',li i ,, ,,
StumpII|s l~l/Ole thall Fx<;. 3.--i11llin.- 1 si II)np wit h a doiklyevvinile.
I fo()t) III dIilet(er are' Split amidh)<)sewlldb I)3 ch'lar-c ()f" stull~in ])()W-
d eler )ifr)m ll ive to)tvweilvl i' ,< ('') li )s z \ ',,': ) l (n

'11(5in h lm). l '-in() t (k I ,+l/ ,n a l s;IIIp ll th p- f> cct st im l tin le -r)ti <'l i d' .

11 1' fit it I li 1 )p '

CO)ST Ul( <1 .1:.; C JA M i L( ;,I)->' .AND 1 VowI -Al. 1N


should be 60 feet or more above tile ground. A block is fixed se-
(curelv near the to(f)p o()f ile( gin pole, thrji'li which is passed the main
cable from the engine. This cable ihas the usual hook, ring, and
swivels at the end, and is usually 1 inch or 1- inches in diameter.
The haul-ba'ck cable, which is usually 5 inch in diameter, is nowV
taken to a lead )blo(k wid(l passed around three sides of one-fourth of
the tract to be ('leared(I at this setting of thle gin pole (see fi_. 5), and


I D?

ROA /NO/CATEO / /51frV OfE0 IN5

330" 330'
I '>-I ai;lr! ln h}owiilL' po in Ol ofdo}iknIY nin ; 1 1 o 'i':!il" or /Ie i ti, 10-acreI I i; l.n

l(o ('11d lI ed)Int(l int (o tlie ring oI ( tl1i miain (cable, thus forming an (etd1-
le,.- c le with i tlh(e en(gine-one 'that ill run in either direction to mr
froil d ( A in plile.
"Il sm)iw (cas's, whlir'e the eniinei is built with tlie haul-lback-'cab)le
drul-1m ;>bove h L maini-ca(lle (irit., it is better to faste1n tlie blolk for
ie !aiimi ci lie aollit l ) feet frm lio te top o() tlie )pole and run tle
iI i -h-ck caIble ll:,.,_li M llock on top o)f tlie Ipole. The haul-back
idrui is u1.uall\ 'jeiared I( Iti rml iueli faster than thle miain-cablhe drum.

E:1 II outfit should have on hIand at least four chokers and, a sup-
ply of lead lines and extra blocks. A choker is a section of cable
from 20 to :30 feet in length, with a1 loop in one end aind ait choker
hook on tihe other.
The choker is passedl around the stunmp and hooked ulponll itself.
TI'e' loop is then caiz'lit in the hook of tlie main cable, and the load
is ready to --. to tihe pile.
While this load is (,oii:., to tlie pile, another is made ready, so that
there is no time lost. When tie, cable returns, with tlhe empty
choker it i[ loosened and another hllookedl into its place. As the
loads come to tlie gin pole tliey, are piled around it as closely as
possible (i0'.. 6) bv a man on thie' pile.

iie( &; I i '*Ssi-' I"S *'-^ **

this miethiod lias lui~iuin points ito its crtdit ovter aniy other miithodtt ot
c irii eth now iiin h th', the reatesl wh o 'c i lil tils lit savig If ifew. Iw'
isw-e ; o c ,e th tli' -iand l ii e1 d lialil., on l;re t ra1t1 \ oll rs. I\t'
e+v(,r ti, Z s Ilandled to adtvniulluw 1) v cal~mt~he e Xporwi'lcedl Illl~li
fliis Inctl''dh asi}l Iliil I v pohllis 14) il: credit over m vlily e .! iel" letlmll< Idt,
(Ica -1'Zlqli" lit\ (4 U e lo 7r' t s whichci is li ":i\i1 1] ln ,

cleai tr ,_I.
Till (,|i e-tlion of usi0 a o lihr'e mr 1 'llilt dol ke i n ill iis oIeen
dis< .-sse.l tit liose who li + have been ii s11 A success, l ill elezi ril+. Ir I'e
h, r ,.il[ v itn 1 i o a t e i ner illi" lh lt lif lnl/ |-,)ow t la\,ie ill ,mot-
oult tii ; si .'li t t. avw ii(t,, tll se ol' ).Io ks... A\ (4 I> lit ii0 d
comipomid reir, (oI b 1 2>\ I- iieli shiu l _, 'i1" 1i-' Ztid to, le llie tbe>t
-s:.s I [*oI- tl( ns '> 1 rlv' .




Thlie first method of bt)urning out fir stumps described below has
been used 1),v almost all farmers and others who have done any clear-
ing in a small way.
This mnetliod consists of boring two intersecting holes .,. fig. 7)
it tile stumip and starting a fire at thile point of intersection by put-
ting coals of lire or a piece of iron heated to a white heat into tlhe
upper auger hole. A window weight with a wire fastened in thle eve
makes a good iron for this purpose, as it can be taken out and used
a lain and again.
After firing, the stmnip will not require any attention until the por-
1ion shown in figure 7 A is burned out, as the pitch in the stump
and( thle draft of the air through tlie holes -ill keep the fire burning.
After thlie upper portion of thle suItmp) has been burned away, the fire
may be kept upill) by throwing in the bark and litter that are always to
be found near vby.
|i,' "1,1 By this means the
,f TimmasrI // ,e ,- main )art of tie
"" A. ZN O[R6- h
/'/2'^MWtlil~1) is i)*IrI e .
4,. )'.5 II'- aw yiv, leaving tle
i ,I, ,SHO,\ tlD .'r-i rii i _ersw x ith

S: their smaller root.-;.
A!' i. Thesemay le liulled
/ :, ;- ... (.il... out b) a team or
wit i i stu i1) 1)uilher,
4' _/- ----.. or tlery may be en-
--..... tirelv l)burned l)by
.i-.-riawaV the
rl<.. 7.-Dliag~raim .sliowivn pll7 1 l( o of lil'cp]n'iilKg ;i sltlllj) f<]r hlurniriK i
eartli and( rolling a
small log alongside of tile root. This leaves but few small roots to be
grul)bed omut by hand.
By this inetliod tile soil is but little list urbed, thle sulbsoil is not
scattered over thle surface, and1 the ashes are left where most needed.
This imneth)od requires less leveling thlian where lioles are imade bv
t lise se' p )owder.
It is said Ihat one man ('an bllrini out tllirtv lare stllps a week
)\ tilis method and can(' cut uip a111d pile tile logs near hv at the same
Another mnethiod(l o burning ouit stilnllps is to split ille stullill) with
a sa1111 charge oIf Ipowder, which nearly il/was makes a Limi".' hole
llinderlea' li ad aidromid thlie stullp. Thlis hole is then filled with1
kiilllinir and other t,-ood and0 i fired. ()f lie Iiii;iiiil. i'ootis, those
that lie Ilear tIle sirf'ace are g1ru)lbed olut, \liile le il t, il(eri's are ('icut
ofl' to) a depth Iof from 12 to) 1 inches below tile smtrface.

COUS rP (,1LI-;A111 (; OF lI(;ll 1> I4 l I. \ I) lAND I F \I MIN(;.

(11 rcodiil it I r p)ittiIg slumI S, ;Is it is .a eIII is t ethtIe lodI 11 C
iiiriiir. uit st mpt( lIhit Itu l Is I n4 little nIusI I in Aw ne, tri4,d has
proved very, vIlieivnt.
Tli baIrk SW l 111 Ibo r1mov t 'rI, m 1 1 f e itslnps in ll tlh l'ie o,
1arlN- F41it(I11 \X44441 to allow theW I IV s I 1 1 ol llS! Islllll[ o e44011V Il\ h -
ouil ,ldv dlr\' Ofhen it is well to) digr ;a Iren h aroutnd, or (i" MMr (lhe
*,-IoIIII]d lica'U I h s1 "ip ~: lIc hV I ring^ (d' \\oiod is Stoodl or [>iled ciosek
ilboxlt ltlh s itimp to ai bright 1)rv rotten wood or bark such as is loimd in of.u.n.c on, (at ;ian\ n
lhand Will nsiwver tlIe pirnpose. Thiis- is t then c, niplchl *lv ,\ covered Willi
-sod tI I depth o' J several l iniecles, ex.\ ('e l p Mia lI s .-dl e 4f 41o 1I' .ihS le
th lie mind is llo\ihgw ij- i ..ins(t. \\i 4r 4 4 no sod 1 is t o 1be fou d tl e \" 4.ml1

!'-,7 L+ i SH K .4 V"7, 0-

7 ^} w ^., '^'+.;.p" + ,,r w

A% M t/'oCC / RAV

-'V ~5 ",+ II:;l++ I+++ l q +( + }ti I +++ '1 t! p ^t :'+ '' cow m w

(-;'it first be (.,,crcdl Will i a !a v r of bark, sinall b~rush, o>r 1*rns 1,,
keep the' earth i''tin- thr(n' -h. l,'in(, l.itndlingr is. placed', ill
the (lden spare and~ fi tre t -ttedI andnmeI Ilx b,,lirn ,,i,,Qlj until tile rtitt
td wimdl is wellI alhre: t eNi at 104v: ,if bult' ort :I binich ofI fernsl (, gras-s
is Ilhron\i w er tlI lv hol ni"I I be. W. nm ering c'+ttt q vd' Tit...ttt+il
Inu1.1st nom' be cli .v wat cited anI I", fire not nlhwed I burn Ihnr,
l:the co \, I 11),- 1 sodt' be lI) ing :ulh'l as,. nvo,. lct+ 'I'Il, wholeh S-. rVit `,d'
Im niting Ithe st tini (ionn le tel3+ in ". v II, he',l co\' v+, rit ,_, inil nct, 1I the'
l.''t*Ii '(l, l t .- ,. ll ) t r I ll l l I l I-'+ 't}V "'l'( '---, > ,) I it>t l5 *i P i t' WO W
\ :. 772F ^Jfr,

(lit! first he coer4 ed \vilhi Ia li'ei' 44l lanrh, -.iuiah liru1-lII or hI'iis 144
) alloose0 cAtli roniiA a"! win h mr n ]''i lnlin uis "Il call i

cioves, o xpe ,sinp c thea n t4, tliv ird filer wiH I obrn uprnnly ntkl Iie ly,
f W i( is wel lI ai1c the', i 1piec, o' 44 r lt v4' o 1tnll(.+ 4' is th11'44wn1 o4\e' thle hol4e and14 tlie' sod41 ('44('Iiii2 ('4411J4I1('4. 'Ilie '-111111
1I"41s now41 h(.' ('losel'\"'. 1 w t'Iit'd 4114 (lIe (ire( 11ot hallowed t' o 14 141'Iii ( il'4441'li

r4ots ar1e 1kep~t wel1l((4 'overed ald i re re1- covered\ (I''4 a'- "4411 ;1-.^ I4 l eirlt i

^Iltis mei od114( is \ er\ 4-(44141i('411 144! l;>rLj4 s14i11nj)4 ''1i411 Mumps~j4
bi 1(e rtiblhlled or o" l Illed o4 t 4, lo-t ellr dlvi'.n1 4 1 'w'. A\tter 141 I.Iv\
it will l)e fou1 l t lhat 1 h stniiipls reqnti're \VerX l11 Ie ;11 n ('ll io n.


The cost of this method of removing stumps is said to be $2 each.
Tile disadvantage of using this method is the time it takes, as it
requires several weeks for a hir',., stuInp to burn out completely.


The treatment of stuml)s by boring holes into the top and filling
them with a strong solution of saltpeter and after six months or a
year saturating thle stumpni within coal oil and setting fire to it, when
it is supposed to burn to tile smallest root, hlias never been tried to
any extent.
Mr. K. 0. Walkers, of Hamilton, Wash., writes of this method,
but does not say to what extent hlie hlias used it. Ile also recommends
the use of a strong solution of vitriol to deaden cotton 4,d,, maple,
and alder stumps and prevent sprouting.
On large fir, spruce, and hemlock stumps, Mr. Walder's method is
to bore four deep holes and pour ian equal amount of nitric and of
sulphliuric acid into each hole. The holes are then tightly pilu',d.I
In a year thie stump is permeated with the acids and can be fired in
the dry season. No results obtained from the use of this method
are given.

A machine used for burning stumips consists of a gasoline engine,
a blower, a distributer, and several lengths of hliose within short lengths
of pipe on o0e en1d.
Tle air from thie blower is dividled into twelve or sixteen equal
parts byv thlie distributor, to whlichli are connected thlie several lengths
of ho1se. some of which are mlong and some short.
A hole is ioredi in thle stump at thle ground line or, better still, lhe
earth is (duga y way and tlie hole bored from 6i to 12 inches below tlhe
A piece of irml heat'led to a white heat is then dropped into the
hole and a blast of air turned 111on11 it byv inlsertinig a plipe attached
to tIhe end of tlie hliose which is of less diameter than the lihole bored
in tlie slump. The large diameter of the hliole permits the gases to
esca PV.
As manyN situmps cani be burned at t(lie samne tlme as there are
len~gths of, liose, )I. two) or, mor(e lilies (J lose call be ulsed onI lie samle
st 11111).
This machile is still in tie experillelltal st: i..'. A few\ have been
successful in operaniing it, while others have prl(1lonoul(Inced it a failure.
It is tlimghit lhati if 1his imwlle is perfected it will be a cheap and
cCoii<> iiic l e1 thot f h stlro\ inestit\ g Il illIps.

Mr. F. I. Mend, ,it' T' oni, \\W ash., savs Ihait ]) v 11"in l h/is ml n 11 iie(1
lie huis beeln able to (lk hlea'vy clehirin + f'r ,',i per acre. lr. N 1 I I.
Davis, of ( -1,._.',.o \m l1. W, si.. ., Ii sos U [ed llis Itllac iilm' l l clear, ill i l
acres thilt iv, 1:i_ i i, 10. s mps per|' acreI 1 t n cot l 4 I per acnre.


At tilh present iliitr few\ undertake 1) clear even ai snizill Itract (id
hind without ulie tse o pod, ;id iand lie ati(ds of ill experienceltd
111i11 potder c1i1i be iadel' to d( a Itl'ie at niillt o1 f \worMk ail cop'i all l':i-
tivelv s all'ill vXpeise.
The powder il g-eneral uise lat h, lipresent time is kiltmown aIs st Ituapinllt
powder alid is pitll til in slicks ()f 1 v iches, 1) So t 6 ('of wlhichi
('tnllil ill I ox tl 50 d () po id's. Tils pmwder c lsts l tilie plre-lsenlt Ir'etil
price St(.25 t litx: ii tIo lots, ?5-.2.5 i lt )x.
"[iit'e charge of ploxder is placed as nealyl-l ais Ip ssilhe elieei1ll tlihe
celiter of tlie siluillp. The pow(ler should belt placed t lie inihardpal)i
if I hlie soil is liiot t1o) deep; ( itlher1wise it is placed fromn 2 1 (tt: feet bIelo\
the surface.
To "et tiet best results thle sticks are Ireio)\('ved fIro 'i! l lie paper'
Wl'iIppers ai(nd packed ('l(osely tog(et hei(r' i lle Iihole 'belleath lit' st liliip.
Thiis (aill Iot Ie ot int wVet places. The powder work'ks best xwhelll
the temperature is abolt. 70'" 1".
This powdr tias li'more effect whei tlile soil is satuiirated with \vzaler.
Thie wrlppers rel' allowed to reinilin uponl the si tick('ls ili w\\e plces.
The olho 11: c'har.-'' -, wiIll be t'(ilitid elect ixve iundelr iv'erna e rou dll
(01ond1itiolis nd where hl islii- .'st111111) puller's .' blocks and l('nllis:
D)iaime 'r Sticks \\ihe're i lie soil is sinlldV anid loos it will reiit' ilre' me-hilf mi'lre
powder t1fm thle sniie size sitImp.
As this llI-w;tder (ldes liot wok well ut a temperii'at li'e tlow 7 .
it is iie'essal' w\ lihen 'llsili it in (oldi wealltn'r io keep it x\ rniii bv soie
nIletlid. I "Io e powder hell rv tlie bottxes iMn : a manl'e [)ih,: !ithiie
lay it upo)n al perfI'rated rack over 1bo61ii1r water. A's il oil her o
thliese mletliods tlie p nlwder 'bec'illes IliVi'e or ( s'- lai frii' lil the' vaipor
it is tilil(itli. tlit will di'ry lieIat is applied better results ;ire oi, t:liilled.
(Chailes S',hirk. tl B. llii-h iami, W aislih., lias sed ;i box 1-iiil4i" tI I I l
0o 10 Showim n11 in I lie 1 lillst rait lion 9)) !'()1- ll,;tli nt g i >po\\ der illd 1 liilik, hli,
is tIle best inelltimo to usle, I'm-, Ills purpose. This bo,x 1- btuitlt Itpo1n ;t
sled a d lias a i i part It0il1i1. oIi (MO side of which ", p/i> thi ;i -li ll ;iif-
ti"li! he ll in -tove, \wliihiw ile lonll ie tt er Iare(, swl v\ s ,1' ( \ 1ire1 (*-.('('r 1 ,ito
which llhe slicks olt powder 'In. lo l'd tit. I'tl;' !ox Ilio,\ 1 il (lie1
ilust ra t ion will olw d 1 (Iil11 piound.s of pi w ,t a d ll l it il\ br kept at (lic
desire(Iod teniperatiure ill I he c{oldesh weal iter.

(COST (O)1 (IE.'A I!Nt ; I O()(;(;(EI) (01'lF IAN1) F()1 A I'.\ N MI NG.


It is well to employ a powder manl who has had experience in blowing
ouit stumps, as tie saving in powder alone will more than pay his wages.

_______________________________________ -I/D____

!4." /1s F SCR 5?N

,41R 7161-1r

S'M ---------------__[ fX IX! .
STOVE s ______________ /0"

1"'i(, i. i1, for epith i p x owd( r \armill

'll fi(ll lwin r stateilmenit of stUIlIIIll1' dolne' t)v the Nirrtows ,Land
com')1aiiv, o(f Taicoina, Wa.shl., firm six iontis in 1907 will give( an
idea o( thi" cost of lthe different itemsli of material used andl the labor
i: Mlast ini stumps.

T. i;.! i ( 'o.!- i" I il' I JI 8.,'11, .s'fi i f 1 fool i'o l fct (' diaimeter from 1'O a-r(rs
lal dl ,11. I ". 1t7.


.Ji lln c . . .. .. . .. .
l l .I . .I . . .
A lii t . ..

It v I1 r
wi lol r .. .i
Toio l .d . ...
lq I'o ll -i 1 . . ...

I'owdir. F us(. Caps. St. 1ulps.

Put Idlls.
13, 711)
1 95.)
I, 250i
2. ;5.(i

2 ( 7.(1
1i 22
I') 76

Frect. ,
10, 100
2, 700
2, 150
3, 100
21. 101)
5. 52



5. 100



*2. (til

:i. 7(1!>
1). 9,S7

(50. 00
12i. 37
77. 531

0.3f( (1

Thei average cost of thlie removal of each stump is shown below:

I'hwdhr. Fuse. ICaps. Labor. Tot al.

C.(i ls. 0i 0t ts. l0,. Of ('nts
491. 71 2.37 i 0.87 30., lid Si. 60 1

'le( av'e'rage (' ( 1cost of tlie materials used was is follows: Powder,
per polundl, S cenlits: fluse, per 100 ( ''t, 43 centst; (capl)s, pe'r 100, 65 cents.


It lit:s beeln a diflictilt Iiatte'r to get hdetinite figures oin thle cost of
c'hlearingIl-lnd lv thle different ilet hiods in use, ('Chiellv because he lfarienrs
or llise wholl have cleared laind hlaive not kept detailed records. Often
till' cost canll not i, (lbe dete'rmlinedl because( included with other work.

'n IT 1 0 L E. I, IM N; I.L(; I(;l:'I-' LANDI FORI I N'G \IINI I;}

1The, I''h i\ ti l e4 .slinv t lie cost given l, t lb e o, ner I' i c I'tL1c'tor

of leharini: lind by 1(liet vai'ionts mietlhods Ibscrn'ild: nilso flie iiIIutntit\

tf pove, r used, ieth kimil of laml c 'wleid, tic.:

T MI II I. IL".1t ,llfLiLLh ,1/ i il1 l lll i LILL. LLL/ns.

MW ,r.J

( m I, r.

N. E+ l(y'thi,. I

J i',,i t;.
S a rI SI .' .
I i ..i i . .

Do L[ L I. I' I
IS. Allison .. ...
FM r Wi St LL tt ir t o..
Narrows Ltiid Co.
\Vrri. ia IrriLL A !I ......
.]+1. 2 l. h rkin .. . . .

( !i1 1\. {+oll ..
I. J Oh i/ ~ifi ... .
M r. (+Ihili.t ....
M r. \Vilh< .. .. .. . .
M >t}. r Dor lm.... .
l >o . . .. .
1.* IKfkml ti .~ .. ... ...
l+ + I. .t . . . . .

F I lH rhlu .u ..
I''L I LsoLi I li .L .. .
I L '. in it i .'.L..L. .
I) I}

\h. X, tltiltlii -
I a} o.. .. .

K. S. \XL .+
Do .. ILL .i i
F+ +.' Dliunltii ..
lDo. ,
\lW tI. ial-dim ;.
t {+o. SimpI^! (;,o. { 'litir

I I. IIt. T ill{,5 .. . .

M. ll~irc> .+

Il IL L It ILL, L I L' Ii
kkTton,- Wi''ll.'
.ou I ....
LLo t'r. 'aiLh ....
I ... io l .......
T l'tti im \\a.Nh-.., \ hX .. ..
I L lliL \Vit, L ..
. ... k iil. . i.s -. .

l~akL' BI>, L X shII .
'.1 ., ,I l l. W ishi. .

S~alttlW(O+d Wash t .t~
Mount, Vlq~n{}li Wi'++ih
I o . .. .
olv WashI
do ... .

d, llinihaill, W :+ h .
. o . . . ..

I o .. ... .. . .
. d . . .. .. . .
iK cll 1liorr, WVtih. .. ...
Fa' ll I i! I, IIL\LL XX L .
... dio .( .. ... ...
MoI li ps, Li 'sl I.

. ,... d 0 . . .
1F1ma, V.'.ish .. ...

. . . < !() . . .. . .
'm tra..... a l. .

.T P

d-'illiii OV .h
Woodiv rilli. Drcirh ....
( ;irli-hll \\';XX l
'ILL ILLatl+ XX l,.
X +iL' 'l ... L.I.
W o ,L +ILl) ,,+ .
{'+ rt> IL + \ ih .
+ ILL .. .

I'owX !r I Il .L' I IL p
do : .....
In} or antl 1+ it
I'LL'.X ILH IrI I 1 lltILL

. . I 1o111 a l I ILl


LLDonkel ILL\ I ;ill

l)lkio ....i r,.

. .lo : . ...

. .' o . . .

I 'LLI LI'!' < lc L i I-L LILILLIL
i l ) . . . . .
+ .' o ,. . .. .

t't'mvdi ;>tlnl ,'arl'liili

I '1 *i il iu i~ i c
... o ..... .
" ivIiP a1 1 0HI4111

Donke cI'. u'.
I LLLI L' (to .. .
I owdlor anl i obbmp
+ . . . .
t0, lev r anld st ltmvi,
.(to .. .

-tu1 1- l 411i1m . ia-

l :Aik{ y engintr,_


ILLLIh laI i
I 'll Lh lind l.


I )o.


I Io
I,! rlt+ Itlow Loo


VHlcti landi.
I )o,
\Illh L iil
l I i l h I L .L


h lXX I iLLi .

IL IL Ii I il
l l i <' l ii ,

llef II I iL
\ ;ill.' talli1.

VLlulL hil.
liirh UP lad.

lIieIh Iml t.

I I I' LL k .
I i i>
I 1 ill-h lalid.
[ liencil lauid.

i ii.h hltti

V alIlov land.+l

D o,
I )(+.

PoLLuIL of ( i of
1 Iim\\ ter. | la tor,

N. F. IKl Xi,
{'has ]hlninlitirl t .
Sietttoardt S>+<, {,o.

D o . . ., .
t If. \*' A li in ... ...
tll' \\'-.l ]atlilllrr CD.+

Narroil I lrind k+o..I
4 raiLL Irrie; h\lL ,

.1. !K [..+rkin ..
L,' IL L II \\ 'it I .. ..
UlX L' iii
{', It 'l i t L II+

I .lI 'Lh.L i .. L .
Mr. Lolvi . I
M r. \itii .. .. ... .
Ir. Xk D li .....
!+ E I

.71 ,'+ Illa o

II- till

] } -' il i :{-' liti il t
li7d lo !77i
Lti 11 1 i1
I i lilt
I I L I] }li IL

I li I
i .>'I} i 1 i ) i l!"> iDO
;It, LI0

I "L "" I l i I I i LL t L iI tt p .

I ... ..L I +

< ni'{'ll ,tiri ir d f r r-'t lttril. i c +' I I f,
Ml ,ruliii i I rt't L ii i ii ir i' LI
L ii l' ll i I 1 1 iii i 1> IX 1 "I o l ti \i I .
1 i i ai*i -

i I L

I l. ,1! i I I I "

XnI f 'i II Ii

(I NxIL Itn

( o'it [idL

Mc1I I Io,


TIBLi: III, --Cost o/f ch]aring laimd I., arious methods-Continued.


I 1B I. C o. ...............
D o . ... ..... .. ..
Lake \%'hiallo i I 0. .'. i o
Ed. Bardon . ...........
I'eterson Bros ........... .
I K innear ..............
D o .. ................
Robt. C'hahol ..... .
('. M anikowski..... ..
W ;. lopkins ..- .... ..
D o .... ...............
E. S. Avev.. ... .. .. .
Do ... ..
F. ('. D)unhan ......
D o .......... .
W inl. tarding-...- ...
(leo. Simpsoln. ... ....
A S. (aton ..........
(Geo. U hter ... .........
I I. I1 Tilley. .. .
.1. I D av is ....... ... ...
W 1. Alderiuan.........
(hrinltenson & o ......
IBagley & Streets ........
MI. IIarvevy .. .....
ID o -........ ...

'-iindisof Cost of ('Cost per
powder, lal1or. i acre.

.. ....... ........ ?55. 00
'XX0 ?1.010.30 123. 00

500 . .. ....... 100.00
. .. ........ .. 130 00
.. .. .. .. 150 00
... .. . .... .. 3. 57 (
. .. .. . . .. . .... 1 30 00
jo 00)
... 100 (0
4.X) 00
S 100 00
. l) 9) 13, X t)
None. ...... 125 001
... . . . .. .. 40 0
1o.0I00 .. .... 125 00
900 2015.00 50 011
4. 01)0) ... .. 90. 00
None. .. .. I5 i (0
2.3 ....... 125 100
:0)l) (m 100 1)00 00
2.500) ...... 20 00
.. ... .... .... 15 00
1) .00 1015 00)



28s days' time: cleared of slumps oulh.
Light clearing. "
71-, ,I, oin -+
.lp I, I,, lll 1 ,
( reen timler- hem lock, fir, spruce.
Brush; few stumnps
Vine, maple, and cot I onwood.
. i ,,I,,-.'1 HIl fir. !' to 3'.
fl i.. ri. i s.
Large stumps not taken out.
Ileavy clearing.
Meadow; cedar and fir stli)umps only.
40 stumps per acre.
Spruce stumips; some work done before.
Spruce stumps only: other work done.
Wood and lumber sold from this tract; C 0
cords wood, SO M feet ). mn. lumber.
C. S. magazine site- IS" below surface.

Froit the foreg(oingi table of t ihi cost of cleaI iii' < land it will b)e seen
that it is only very rich land, or that which is near the centers of pop-
ulationi, thliat will at the presentt time pay interest on the capital
invested to put it under cultivation.
Better returns from other forms of investment have kept capitalists
from f)rlning eml)anies to clear these i i,.,.-on lands. It will readily
be seen that this would require a large ciil/z:iil, as thle avcrii,_e
farmer could only pay for the clearing of his land in small installments.
It has beein -li'".,,,- le( that tle State or county wmki-ri under a
law similar to) the onle tinder which l)onds are issued for drainingg laind,
whrel'ebv a l)part of thle bonds and the interest are paid eall'h v(eal' by
tlie sil1all actual ipavylnients of the owners benefited, might aidl inll this
work (of reclaiming these wastes.
Where there are several owners of land in the same vicinllity who
desire to clear land they could do much by forming a coopl)erative
('lopanyV to lbuy inachinery and p)owd(er anld hire tihe experienced
hlielpl) needed. All those whho have cleared I,.',,_,I-ofl land are united
inll sayingI that there is a great deal learned in (connection witli tie
irst I'a('ct of lan1d cleared and aIre convinced that, they could clear the
second i1;i('t very iici l('licheaper.

Approved :
.kMlls WILsOx.
SNcr tfar/ O.N A.( ti''Wii ur:'.

WV sfII t;TtON. I). ('., ,lanttiri! 2S. 19)09.

'- -a


- __U
- Y<