A new basis for barley valuation and improvement


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A new basis for barley valuation and improvement
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Mann, Albert, 1853-1935
United States -- Bureau of Plant Industry
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry : ( Washington D.C. )
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oclc - 48872583
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BURiEAU OF I'I.ANT I NIDlSTIY-rcirilar No. 16.
B. T. G.ALILOWAY, ('hif .if Bureaiiu.

A N :\V BASIS F1()I 8\-I IiEV \' \ IAi\ITI( )N


Ex lq.I/T IN ('IIA1I.KJ OF 1'1ECIAL. AIR.LEI, 1 \VI ;TI(;\'I()NS.

' 1 I C ir. I f; o 'I s


l'lhic iolgist a nil I'holhgis.t, and I. f Biurcuc, Bieverly TI. iGalloway.
'hl /ciolo/ilst al Im'alheologist, ad Assi.stant C hif nf Bureau. A',1wrt F. Woo(ods.
labloratory lqf I'la I'tltihology., Erwin F. Smilh. 'aiholoList ill Charge.
Ilnrrsligaliuiis o Diseascs of l'ruits. Morton V Waite, P'athologist in Charge.
Lilboratory (ii li'resti I'atholtogy, Iavy n Metcalf, Pathologistl in C'hargo.
Cwotli anind Tiruictk Diast. s and PhlItt Disas Suiirety, \\'illian A. Orloni, 'alhologisi ill ('Charge.
P'ictc l Ic li lctlri! I lmstiqi ionsii, W a\\ lt'r T. Swingle'. : I ..' i, in Ciharge.
C('illin ccrliiiln e clti/ici, A rliil.ialdl I). Shanlel and Daniiel N. Shhoeialker, hysiologisls in Charge.
7iol''cc, lIi setliaticiiocc. Archliiiaild 1). Sharncl, \Viighlllan 'W, Garntcr anid Ernesl II. Mathewson. in ('hCiar'
Crnc Ii ,ei atico/c s, Charles 1'. llarlly ,. l 'hY soloo isi t in Charge.
I Aali acdii Droflh iit cii Plantic lre'tii(/ In/c (sitigiotions., ThI'liomas if. Koarnev, l'Physiologist in
Si Bacrcc icclieicy anil Wimr 'iiriticatcin iili/teliciois. Karl F'. Kellermian, !'Lv siologist in C('harg
Bioicmiic lin stictica idIcs if T ropical find Subtropical I'lan/s. Oral or F. Cook. Biooinist in Chargt.
l)ru ncil anld i 'ieonod s Pla'nt lnIestigiailions anc d Tc a C'ulturc liistigatiion. Iodnoy le True, Physiologist in
t'hy.icail l.ortlitory. Iyman 1. BIriggs. Physicist in Charge.
C'rop ) i clchi/deiqy ani Fiber Ilccnt Intestigations. Nathan A\. CobbI Crop Techinologil icn Charge.
/Icmil tci anc d laifii/ liii eiiatioinis, Frederick V'. ('Coville, Bolaist in ('Charge.
Farm nayiitmiiitc il Intsligations, Williami J. Spillniani. Agri'culturist in Charge.
Grciin l ctilica/tlii.u Mark Alfred C('arlon. ('e'realisl in Charge.
Arlington c l.rprcrimental Farmi, l'c C. Corbell t, I Iorticulturist in Charge.
I'cqetabc Tist cig Gardens, William W. T'raiy, sr., Snperincnideiit.
Sugar-Pie liistitations. Charles 0. Tow nscnd, I'ahlliogist in Charge.
il'(.tc rn Ag ricultural Ertil ioiiln liitisigalions. ('arl S. Seoliehl. Agriculturist icn ( I _
Dry-Liand A agriculture Imstigatlios. Ei Charming (Chilcotl. Agricullurist in Charge.
I'liml/iccl ('ll Cc lions, c e GIstavus i1. Brackett. I'oceologisl in ('Chargc.
l'iild l]cniyctigalcic.t i c I'oimoloy, William .. Taylor and (;. Harold PIowill. lI'ioimlogislts ill Charg.
1'jierimn al (Giardins and (;rouinds. Ehdward M. Biyr rnics, Suirintciienlen.
l'orrign scc I ad ri lant Inroduclioni David Fairchild. Agricultural Explorer in C'harg.
!''riia" "'rpi islcigationsi, ('Cliarh's V. l1'iper, Agrostologist in ('Charge.
S/ld iLeboractory, Edgar Brown. lBotanist in ('Charge.
Grain Scland,:ri:,diiiatin lohn 1). S, h iahan, Ccrop T'<'lnologisl ill ('Charge.
Sniiropiical L.ahlralry aild Giardetn, Mtiami. Fla.. 1'. .1. We'stcr, Gzardlcnr ic C'harre.
IlMc iil irod/ctio lei ccardtin. Chicoc ('COl. \V \' W, Tracy. jr., Assistanli Iotanisi ill ('Charg
Snutlih T" l s (Ic a'dcic lcro I nscilh, 7'I'c.. Edward C. (r'en. I'c nologit in Charge.
Farersl'( C cc ijetrcitcc I) c ciciat clrctlctci ltio e 11 aSc caic c A. Knacpp. Spcial A r'e 'cnt ill C'argec*.
Scdl Distributiol Idircvcrd iy Chie'f cf liTreail). .lisl Morrison. Assistant icn (;

1,iditor, .1 E. I'kRoecw'll.
Chief CIck, .Janms E. Jones.
I Cir. tel

B. '. i-_ .i)


AM) IMIlROV N 'lI ..

Ill planning tf()r the i lpr(ovc ent (if a' rlev cr)ps tlere i H('c am
Mainyn\ other t hi)A _- I 1v)m 4 not t inii[ortmiwnc : kI) Thie imeans o)f clearlI
in' -'.i,,1 i 111' lt b 't grade 4 barley and (2l)) the l,4 vhedge l f' f hali(
factors -r (uialilhs in barley il is especially desirable to improve.
A great manly tests fI'm dis'-t inishiisng-i dillferent grades- o)f barley
have bleen in use. Of these lhi, simpleh o,)' anil Ilnrd1 'r(, ilhose
llta sliA M hiill b(, st nseul, have wit leen f)ui ,d (e rebliebleha (Ow-
clusions based upon usulc external imnis as)hlr. ais-neess aidl vin-
I.li.i' if hull, snmi)t Ii or i4t4 hti condlit ion o l' i() t neirves., Ion4iw, or o,-ltil
haired basal brus,.h, and size and shapee ()f .-i:,iii are '.ervicable, hil
hllave prved so inaIc''urate' that it is 'vident they can not b1e d'l'plnd) hl
uplon as ilis 14,'i fm' r 'sci' uiih'ill v ac(' 'uraite on'clusions. Th'e t,'lt
I (ade by cuttiiing t gi n acr()oss so ao I,-;.t se-e the relative luealiness
(ifts starch contents is also vrv 1insiati.-f'actorv, beca)( se( there are
1\\,o) different but similar appeari -ii states 4)f hlassiness. om that
injure, the i altin,; qua4 oilitie f Ih 14 ti 't i e2ll, ('r liais x it -'-11cl
eflf'ect. xv n th'x 1 1 oe i'iIIlt 44' O N and ex )pe ('ive che'4i'i'al aminlv.ses
leave much to( Ie dired. bFor exap4l(, Ahey idia(i((e perc l en(jI-
a (l' e 1 ( fnitroi e nl o'nm it 1in(41 in a sample, ut (li' d inuishL wit h n'iatI
dillivulty blmet en theu di(' vivire kinds ol' nitr()og u si)u ( coitclits: and,
wlhat is still morcre un1f(rtuniate, tliodli they accuraely, determine
the hmni' al com' pisit ion ol)f i ixven s'n'ilvx thle\' ha',h e no1) te-i'ionl()nv
t 1 o)fer shm")'i4 \in. why 4n4' varelt as mor ouix ) f a ci/erta :ill il)al ance I liAm
anlit(her, wl'ere I e 1 ill'e rinl ) onstil ie ts atre lo at41ed ill tihe gra'in, 'i'
Now super( or gi ades i f barle a, v iiiM' (, ,)n (d and Atill l~qltti
_'i d,1' develop )d. Therefolre!, althoughh rhenlie l anal "si s in iarle'v
dete~rnm inatio s is indlispe -nsa le, te re is i-cal nied t'r :a trust wortliv
sI riallt ral test.
WI undertaking, (l itiiilu'oi-m iinmil 4c Amiii n r mr'i t h- I nuiir
ot' Illnl Indusltl y therelo'l'fre decided to attempt lthe '-,)lhaii)i 41 ")nic
QV &I :4


of these (questions along new lines. Mr. David Faircihld has believed
for somie tilii' that a tioiiiii1 study of the internal structure of the
lbarlev 2i.iil should afford better knowledge than that hitherto
securedI of tlie location of the various constituents of the grain and
espl)ec('ially of the location withinll the grain of those energies that
bring about thlie changes included in tlie artificial process called malt-
iig and thlie natural process called germination. The valuable dis-
coveries nma(de Iby Dr. XN. A. Cobb illn hiis morphological studies of
wheat strengthen tile belief that the functions of barley, included
in its imalting processes, however compllic('ated, are referable to some
structural parts as their source aind are correlated with definite
organs. The writer therefore undertook a careful study of lie
in(ternial iiechaniiism of thlie barley (rain as to tile structural (li;.1i,"es
thiat take place during its successive steps in mnalting.
To do this, modifications in laborator'v technique have had to be
worked out and metliods discovered that would give(, the best results
in killing, fixing, sectionilng, staining, etc., this refractory material
So as to lit it for microscopic situdy'. The obji.i of this article is
mer'elv to g)'ive a brief sketch of tile work so far accomplished an d to
anioilunce a Inew basis for ibarilev valuation.
T'iie first la isk iunderitaikeil \VIas to investigate a tiew ilhe work per-
formied b1) the different parts of the ;'iiiii This wVias I ecessa, ry
because, alt llioll. liii a ilorlmiouis allioulit of stud lis been given to
tis subjectt, lhereL is o i1Unlit of' op)inion to be found(1 in tlie reports
publisliedo. To ake ian eXaliple: It hlias long been known thalit tlhe
lpeculiiar part of tile eilbryo barley plant called tlie scutellumi is an
absorbing orgal which seizes upon tile food supply stored in thle rest
of lie graill and tranlisfers it to thoe growing partst, thle Yolirj oot svs-
tei aInd hlie stemli. The shape and pl)osition of this o(rganl sii'T-_ h-
su(hi ia use 1o (eve'1 ai unlitrainaed observer. Uis broad, flat surface is
pressedI close against lthe large, stored-up) mass of starch, called the
(endospeirii, which fliorms lil he bulk ) of tile grain and when g(erilinat i ii.
or itts modilfied formt called iinaltiil, hlas been golig oin for three or
four days it is easy to see that tlie starchi elndosperli, especially that
l))portion 1ying ilearest ilie(' scutelluin, is dlisa)lpearinig and that at theli
smile time ( lie( embiryvo plant las commencedt gri'owthi. It is evident
liat tlih' sctelluii is absorbling tlie( starchl' au1d trallsfcI il -- it to ilhe
lplantii. But i lis caii niot be eflfected without certaiiin preliiinarv
cha ages. Tihe walls of t lie Ast arc i-contaiiing cells ii ust ti rst be broken
tlw i aid i(lie(, starch grailis 1itisl tlien be clianiged into a liquid state
.by conversion into sugar, (ldextlnl, or somile such soluble correlative
before tlie scut(eluiiii c()i tl absorb lIlis supply and convey it to the plant.
SPut1lihdlct I) lv I )('-P:I>riii'il of Agri(culIture of N(ew Siouth \VWale's Iunder tih title
"" [4l'i i rs;il 1tiHicii 1rc of W heaM .
[< i r. li>


It is li r'l'oreo i pilortint r I kitow\ w eiriM e tliU, fpllii ills or eitzv i i s
liwONs riv to br'ing atlu l these cha p;iges an, sciete4. A.r lliS' tvIhe
p id ict of the s tielliini, alln iil_ it tlirl' y not l on n aiori i nl'
bi uti secrlt 111i_ a vlorl-anl/ ()r aet1ticy locihm t l sinw .Inrv This i-o. -le t
t li u ( lestliois aloltl which ltl e e is linm l diversiNt <"fo iliniol. 1411110
itivesti- ilot,,, lioll that thec necessviry pn/. e, NA IIstas :0 n i~l evt" Ia ec
are to I" be o ld in the c lls of l e starch eil do, per.ll itself. atd tha iit if,
its is p~robliable, ltih scuttlc lli[n ;lsbo t''(* !**( l tie ,c c /ixii 11 ii is ls| ll -
i citaliyl o to l e stor1d1p st-ltlp sfi[)|l ,' tlic -ar ch clls. ()(ItIcrs believe
till or l conlsideriileli pIrt of the sh ppl >e>l is1)ecien \, l iv Ihe cells ol' lo l
Alv'Uiino lavcr. \\inieli invvsts thle eit ire .v tircli s N .-,'perii except 1ii
tlihe emi olf thle ^ ait (>etin i ioiw d ly the plianll/ t. ('C riaiii ;itlliWirs Idi t
ltlh t lo l ill a yli eri anld tlie sclu e>lsll ii |)pl;+, lU .^e I'eri cilll.., It
Was SUCiJ disworanit tUst intoi ton this and totier Iiiini, thast ninde
II C (Is"Ir\ ;it the outse l ai tiorn l. stiidld llic oif th ieio p lo ol' ltie
W ArhY\ ,-i iiiii so as (o Aix, as flir as ,o.siblh, tilhe lh ltliolii of lilt's!'
i puiortilit a t f Inct ionis.
Thi se invi'-t -'at ionlls iitVc p oved llil lil e;/.\ hias h>lreadt\ ltlmen-
tioned, hle dinstalie anti t itatli slanli t 11I 11". rel'l a \liolly l"ie
Ipodukt of t lie .hsc UlHni anid n1cn sevrdete *v itn oute1 la\ w e!'. KA le (At lie"
qpithelial thiatr; I li/ nilioi, _.' a ini i e m1inie t c c o lielii is 1o to betID in
the starchu cells (as ihl :li l lii iii s' I--ltc it t)lay's >s-, .li aril **
|)iilt in tlhc liltw iail slanta conversion tlh~ii it is pr;>cticall\ I/(,)ii'_;"il)|c:
Illt, fnr lth rtvn o ihe l i n nlhnr li\y'r liai, w ht iiil w!atevivr to l \l itlli
(ins process. The l c'uti lluiltll ii can lilu'w o lbe called lie the nalli!
o, -.,i, o" o t h tliey taily i; ii! r in a d its liifl liviial (Adll tic "W e li il
_d.,iids."' This or! ian. top,,ethlei" \vIh llie si. e and mii n li!, o! thie i nitt-
Jill, i i is the iefo e "f tlive highest import alihe in all qu hion' ed iierll,' -
i,,- thle AMoo valhew. mlu it in- vnlu and gil riiimit il ii, vzi h ofill 1' arloy.
Bl, v a womparalt ivesl i / d ,th ll1is [ t o illpwl"Intll l i n the l elieg Innlil+, .\'a -
eries of cilivat\4d barlem, it wis soin dimovrled that i., Amplia e
va ri- e s g eIatly- A -t A leIast 0\\1 distinct tylp s exist. w\ih maill iiTler-
iwl intv fonris one V'erV lv i .ad., l ost aci!rcl lar in outline, cov' rill;;
thle lower el :d I ni i l'lld r ii w ill liver the shoulders -)f tliet' "ramlili 1>te
fe.. 1); 6li otilier na oiT elongated, \\itlineirl\ ra lhl l .idvs' ailt
ro0,llided or poi ted tiQ) (mye iIH. -). TtnlT e t',-ad scniellhni i- general]
WAS fll at or so s*.ligtlly convex cm iis inner surfiae that it 1c i' s
sliallow depresi sion of thli a n't+h w",lt r'in. w htilW e tIhe airTo\ v''c l -
hlin is liie illnd thic,'_iik'e "l l whalpe l i' "Il\ n li| t deel ilu vo llit ,
elldosper,. Coipart he lile depessio A = iw o l llie heft in (ig uf I
with th til in figure 2: alo o t(le t\\,w seln lluiiis.
(O 11'- .... .i,_ ilitt'erenc- s i t liTul1Il h0.'s sJrolTIv l coiint .raslc,. \\we
fI'nml to" ex it in Ilte siWW e anilnd shlipe 14 tll, epillit'lial cell, ck-hltill r 1 iw
inter tirfat-o (if ltisc (w o l pc> ol' t w llalnli. T 1'lid broad, A-lkimll,,


formal has decidedly narrow and elongated cells, on an average five to
six times as long as broad; those of the other type are shorter and
relatively thicker, averaging three to four times as long as )road. It
is easy to understand how the former will have a greater orn-tiong
power than thie latter, since the number of cell units in a given space
will be greater without any loss in the capacity of each cell.
A fact of especial importance is that the broad, circular, slightly
convex type of scutellum havi,-) long, narrow epithelial cells is
found to be characteristic of the hest grades of malting barley,
while thle narrow, deep)-sunkenii typ)e, with short and broad epithelial
cells, is characteristic of barley inferior for malting purposes. A

+ 1. F,

FICG. i I.' S1 lr'-lsh P-1ir,,o barloy. ITh'l hulls anl o rr nlo nl rlirnilnn s, I ve ho ,ri nmoved to
sho 1w vlI I l form of soii ll i tIlltrr Gr oil I 1 righl t iitir' tin I[i w11 II l w i h .i t hes tilItll1 r miilovod,
l iavi ig ; ),roail, slIlloiwn( dIlpr sion: u llli iii tho c d iiia il rs.

g(ood exalmpxllle of this fact is seen in figure :. The value of Illis correla-
ti(ol is twofold: (1) It furnishes a means ol( recog(nizing it(, grade
of anl variety of barley Ib a test that i.- unq(luestionalbly more reliable
thian thie external eariiwirks hitherto relied upon, such as character
of thi(e hull. basal bristle, shape o th(e grain, eetc. For in ll the case of
thise external tests we hIiv.e nothing more ltian an accidental and
somewhat incolI'nstanlit coincihdenice between form ani( p)hysiologieal
(hllitY, while il tilie case of llheiscutellum we deal witlhi a strictly
vital caITrrela tiotn, a Ine(essarrV am11 th( terefore fixedI relationship between
tlie oraln and tihe maltinj-_ eflicienc(v. In tile matter of its use tlie
scutelliul test is almost, as easy as tie ab)ove-mentioned external
IC'r 1i6

A NE\W 1ASII lS IFO I;l\1lI.EV \ \A[ A, I I N A NI > I A I lPl I \ lA II..N I. |

tests, the _-, 11-1 1 build ,1lf thi. ,rw aii hemil ,' ; i,y t '.vlmade mo bv
merely re IoviiL) th(he o)Itsie,!( hulls o, 1' e u, rain+. "hlts is- re(ad1ilV
dohne even when tl(, l);arhlv is dlr,., i thou"_ it i-, bettor to soalk til)(o
slm h'ple fo'r at fetw ho ut. T o exatlitini )l l fn Ief (l 'I )pilli also n ,oiipol roltivt ly \ in [lph' ([)(':rittim A\ lolzitti tli ;>m l section 4,,' :1
well-soaked il inin. t*, l t'cd 'roi it-, httlls, c in be qtI cklM imtn le witlt a
l'tzul or -liiis'a p knife, and te int icrosop'W Pe wI,,ill thn rtvhal tlie -olloelm
forin of this illP, 'Itint lain lir tissue. If I(U'cou rse. ble ,Ir sections
CZitl be secured with a lmitcrotome. Some (,f the new freezinll_, t1niiern,-
to['{II" aire not onl+ cheap but are easily operated. The on'I'( tl(- used ill
thIese invest.'..*itio s wWill enaIle v IIai inesIMIti tor to prepW are
excellent sectioms in live to ei]lit minutes, and sulch s-ectioms ,iVe I

on I
Flo;. 2+ l~nw-prmic hiirley souli on thn, M ilv,+nik<'r+ iim rket {ri r p oil l')l)7 Th,+i !hill Olt l lirlra~+S l 1"* W illl Sr l +c+lln ~i rr li >Vt 1 ) I.'I V IIW ;l) )) l;>rr nv. il r j-l ( l+- 'kil +(1 I ii-n t (, :+) ( rllt .-lll I II t llr()"'
(>ihT.r *+i+n tro iin II ,rE I+' sid, M ai mfl(l fi unit f'r^-

far better i,,ii ._', of tIhe starcli l)d, v its, texture, mealiness, lassi-
ness, etc.-thall the crude Inethiod 14 crns;ss-ctlttinc I lie Fl, ail nowI l
tra, iced hlY "nniin I)tl Iers and 1:11m1t exlp rts,
It is to be seen by the lforegoill, 1i 11 tha l ie liSt essential for I.nrlhv
inlproveviient ientioedat n nt Ihe Ilead of this article, naimwlv, the
IIvit'IilS of I' ....- i il, thle lbest grades od* barley, is supplied Ibv ttie
structural differences of tile scltelluin.
(2) ThIe secoId esseIIIIItIa mentitt)oned, it kn Io(ledge o -ef \haI fa1ctorfCW
in barlehv it is especially dvesiaijble to ilmlprove, is also closelv connected
witil the functions wof thle sclitelluin, tfo)r evidehntly :mY improvement
in mall "1_Z barlhv liust include lilt improvement in the Illlilijl orla
0Ither factIo)rs are without doubt involved, tIhe quality of tle I-ist arch
[Oir. it,]

< -0)
_oW__ endosperni, the 1,i.,i.lt.,ige. of nitrogen, etc., as well as some werv
C---' weighty agricultural considerations having to do with yield, stiffness
o --__o of -t4';iw, etc. But whatever other elements of quality enter into
F-n oour work of Ameri-
- can barley improve-
_ ment, the scutellum,
as the most potential
____ part of the barley
grain, is likely to be
Ilow far this is ca-
pable of n i\ Idifici ti,,
is at present unde-
-SI(;< .ter1)ined. But the
-opinions of those ex-
perinenters in grain
breeding )both here
and in Europe who
-have been consulted
on this point agree
that there is no a
priori reason why this
particular form of
plant structure should
not be as plastic and
capable of improve-
uient as any other.
FI(G. 3.--Msltul barley fror Pilsen., Austria. Thegrain on e t, asetr
ha,, thl s.pront rtox -d to show tin idhal form i of s'-uellimi The -,,er;2 n success in
MXl gniolid I S i ,. plant l r,.l ikt, ac-
Cording t) iiiodernii mthods, leads us to expect that in our work of
l)arCley imnl)ro\Veilent now goiii._. oi at St. Anthonly Park, Miln., we
sIhal ctiecure results of dist imct 'v alue to American arir'i ilture.


(%t'li t (I rW .1(11 Oit'tt l /un

\XsXA1 x WI'INi 1). (C. 'I~tpht/: r 2,, 19t'i.