The field treatment of tobacco root-rot

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Title:
The field treatment of tobacco root-rot
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Book
Creator:
Briggs, Lyman J ( Lyman James ), 1874-1963
United States -- Bureau of Plant Industry
Publisher:
G.P.O. ( Washington D.C. )
Publication Date:

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aleph - 29621352
oclc - 42801470
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AA00020765:00001

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J I


U. S. P)l AR,\l 1.T IN l (1I' A\( ; 11RI('(TI l 'Il1l,
Il'IIArI (1 I PL.\NI INM 'SI'I' Y C1ir-1llr N... 7.
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THE FilIJI) 'I'l1' ATMIIKN rT ()F

TOB ,-)A C HOO(T011-11OT.







I,1. IAN ,1. PIR ;IS.
IIIsi(s'Ir IN ( \I;(;l OF PHYI SICAV LA (I ; I, API;WY.


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BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY.

Pahologi/f a ind Physiolofsjt, (and Ch hiAf of Plreatu, Bievrly Tl. GalIoway.
Putholoq/it and P1hysiolo/i,'t, and A <-tai't ('1iAf oI Butrau, AbI rt F. Woods.
LAlirwatry oq Plant 1 Erwin F. SMnih. Pathologist in 'harg,.
1In n.a.n/atio' )of Dieas Lwtorawtlry of Fr(l l ll'holotony, Ilavcn Mticalf, 1'athologist in (Charge.
Track (Crop J)}ise't. and Pant! Dain.i Pl'aurn(y. \ illiarn A. Orton, IPalhologist iin (Chrge.
Plant Lite lisIory li ( a,,tialion., xVialt ('o/ton lrcdiny Inht il atlioga Xl, Archibald 1). Shiatn l i l Darnil N. Shocniuaker, I i. '* .i in-, I r,.
Tobacio Iancsltigalion,, Archibald 1). Shanmol, Wightman Wx. (arncr, and Ernest II. Mathewson, in
(hargo.
Co(rn Itrcsftiation,. (Ciharl's I. 1Iartlhy, I'hysiologist in (Charg,.
Alkali andd Drought ]'lsislanl Plant Pr(dintil In7'Ces igal0)os, Thinoas II. Keatirly, I I ..i. .. in
(hargo.
Soi! Bcl, riology and il IIltrT PTriicalio'n Iint alitalion,. Karl F. Kellerman,. I I i i in Charge.
Biononmic hnut,-gstijat n oftn 'rmph uI aad S ubtro'p' at P]a(tl.. Orator I', Cook, Bionomist in Charge.
DrIug tii(lid Poi.'tonou. P/lnt hIn (t i/alion andil T7' u/iturf Iirf'tigalions, RIodney I. True, Physiologist
iIn I .. .
S' JiborlTitfi, Iitan J. Briggs, Physicist in i i
(rlop "tltnolot/y and Fn"r P /int hnartigntiHnsa Nathan A. ('olb. Crop Te'hnologist in Charge.
TiTxon i ic i and l/t(anc Ix iiitilatins, FrI, idrick \V. Coville, BIotanist in Charge.
FnTlr MIapiiiic(nt Ir(slgtalioins, WVilliam J,. Sp]illihill. Agriulturist in Chargi
(;rTin hir(stiialiotn., Mark Alfred Carhcttn, Crialist in C(halirgc.
Arlingtton tarprimi 'itl FItrot. Le C. C orbii'tt. IlIorticulturist iin Chiarg.
I f/itahl& 7,iMiW G iirdrnt,, Willimiin W. Trauy, sr., uiiiiriitindit.
Sanlar-]r; t In Iextltlion l. Charles Town, sindl. Pathologist in (Charg,.
c' fri Agritcullurtt l Et rnt/ l, i nan lnrcslitiaion ('rl -. S. oliild. \Agricult urist in Charge.
Dril-Lantd Agricullor [norci lig/tlionis, E. ( I 111 -' Chilcott, Agriculturi. Pomoino(oicaf (/tito,, iuiislavus fI Bracktt, il'onmologist ii n I i .
Fi/d lmix titalijot. in Potoiti/t, W\ illiamn A. 'layhr and W;. iarIldtIi Poix I o, iliogisis in Ch(arge.,
Fijl'prrilruT lol Gordi-'n anld Grounda,,, I.dwlard M. Byrnios. Suliii'rinnildent.
laor i id lmnd Pltt Inlroluctioni I avid liaIirchihd. Agric ltural .ExIplorer in ('hargm.
Forri Cr top ]irtl,,!iiiolion Charl, s \", V 'ip. r AgroAtoogWis in ChTrgo.
Srid taIborattilr/, IEdgar Broxwn. Botalnist in Chargo.
GI ini Standai di/ ii'i. lIohn It. Shaniihan, Ixp>rt. in Charge.
Snitirot ica l Labor/,ot ti (;ii i itd iii ia, mi, l/a.. Ilrn t .\. icssy, I'atliologilst in (Charg.
Pla'hii hlaroduiclion South 'l'.r.< (;arilti, prou i.;!i'hl Tex, Edwaid C. ( *. Poiro(lo,,ist in chargee .
1',imi rI ('nap< rauiti 1). /nri itrt:ii 1 Srk, Incjn A. Knaapp. Spci\ixl Ageti rill C Charn'.
\,ud livriltT hott (1a irct ld li y CI hiif ol f Buri'auli, Lisi, M' rriaii Assistanillt il Geneiral Charo.



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TIIl; I III)'I TRIATMF INT OI'F TOBACCO
ROOT-ROT.


NATURE OF ROOT-ROT.

Duirizng tI w paist f(,\\- \"f ai'. a diseasei known n-, n;)is a t 4 0- 11as IaII de
its appenaranceII in lte tIoI'bacco hihlds in some dlis ricts ()f Kewt ieky.\
(C'onmIe t'ict t, ()li o. alli W ic),Islin. Tlhi isis i s w Ie eIra\\ mr( ,ll.e; i
re( ognize111 Z( be due tto a Soil ) nii..fI /14 I l lii(tl o`i lf>/ i lttacks the feed( iil i i'tst) 4 t hlieI, tolb:aI('u- at fast as v :he 1re ta iro I I
out. ThIe rI ot-rt ,.*raill, mankels its first a IpearaIn'ce in the field
in spits, parl'ticuilarlJ hvow spots," and 1may later develIp troIruoiilut
tlhe field. The iniost strikiiin featinre is the failure of the plaints I t
make a proper growthi. The diseased plants aru often eunlv 'S or 10)
inches hili xwhenl healthy plants set at the same t Aime ready I tie
'cut. 'Thlese small plants will be found to haave uoly a small ba11l of
stubbv roots, and thle fun-us can be seien on tlhe blackeneI ur bruow iisl,
ends of tIle r.ots, whiIchI in tle active states of tlie disease have a:
rot ted iappelaralce.
Rtoot-rot lias a'lreadv been s-mccessftullY cheeked in tlie seedl-bed bl
Selb v' w\itli tlhe use it' formalin, alnd lobY Slian, el' tilirou h sterilizat ion
by steami. Nether uf these Imethodis cal b.,e cmsidlered pract ialduie
for treat in thI e tisease in tII lie fid. In experiImIInIIt ma,4 de last v ear
b W W W ( ilI)bert anI I tI e rit er, a fo' 1 aw li n sol tion ) a ppliedl t Io,
a nie-telIt i aI re pluot f dliseI'sedl landI at tli lrate oIf ,)0(l (d, po iu ds ti'
formialini per a1 c r ave s It V IomoI ex I hat i\n1 reasedl ielYsI baIt nut d siiI-
ceeilt to jI,,st f tlie expeise ixvI ve. \ l
FIELD TREATMENT OF ROOT-ROT.

TFlie olbijec't 44 til1s eir'uiar' is to 'ive briely ix tlie p ,liniiiarx re'1ultsi
of thlie x iiter's> elo, rts to o (vercmile tle alitta s'l\> 4f tilis f'liiils on the
tobaccoil ('' in li' t held libY thle pliier 11se' of fertilizers, wx ithi ttle' 1 io, p'
sec Scr >i 'l Srihy, I' ltii I(% f\ ri'tlhel ii \o;d K\ prril llH-ln Si t ii',11, ;i[]l 1,v
I Itii \l 1 1"i 1 1 1' 4i rt i cl l 'r''u rl l la I. ',\ I 4 o4 l SI' i l i f1. IIr \III. \\ 1 I illFt, I 'f
lh1l' Iirp.1 Nl -t 1 ric ll n I ;i ll4i i. lhi- 1ulj, m [> ,i: ;>i il
11t'irrillar 'n,. ftl ( lhi9 .\'1 ri<'ilt4 ir;ll .\]x rinl, il S1 lti ini.
Il/ llhrni, X l l 1 l I ti m olk I f'l til I ,il i-lr\ I(c iil llx'l l I if I I ri 'l l'I r r I. I'', ,1I
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FIE1 TIl EATI MENT OF TOBACCO HOOT-Ol(T.


that the ',-._| -lio(ns offered can be utilized this season by tobacco
grr( ers wh ,)o have fields affected with this disease. The results of
thle w writer's investiat ions thus. far iI(ndicate tIhat the tobacco is
much more severely injured by thie fun us oni fields where thlie soil
has been made alkaline byv the hlonL-eontinued uIse (of large 1 amounts
of time, asIhes, and fertilizers containing carlbonate of potash. The
remedv fo'r disease:,d soils appears, then, 1to consist in avoiding the
use of lime and inII applyinvmg tlie necessary potash in tihe form of the
sul)phate of pot'.i,as which li is a nIeutral salt: and, if tile field is badly
dis(eIased, in a pplyin.. tlie phosphoric acid in the form of acid phos-
phate iIIn order to help neutralize the alkalinity of the soil. The
above view as () to the cause of tihe development of thle (disease in
some of1 the tobacco fields of Connecticut is in harmony with field
observations, as will appear inII thle following 1".-'-

OCCURRENCE OF ROOT-ROT.
Tle ftunus c.ausinlg this disease is one commonly found in leaf
mold antd decaying organic matter, and therefore may reasonably
1he expected ill any new land. Thle fact that tlie disease does not
occur ()n to1barco fields until they have been in tobacco for several
Years inlicates tlat I le funuils.s IImaIV be present inl tlie soil without
attackinig thle tobacco(. If we ranit this point, then some (condition
which favors thlie development (o the fungus on thle tobacco roots
must develop in the soil after several crops of tolticco have been
(rI'O \VI I
Hoot-rot in tle(' Connecticut Valley is especially prevalent in fields
on which unusually lar'e quantitiess orf fertilizers have been used. The
development of tIle disease is not, however, dueII to too high a per-
celntaae of sohluhle salts inll tlie soil. This point was tested both in tlhe
reen(llhouse and in tlie field, andI it was found that the growth of
to,)acco upon (diseased soils was better when a liberal quantity of
nillut ral fertilizers w\:as used than whlien smaller amounts were employed.
11 tlie roo) system of tlie tobacco is really reduced by tlihe root-rot,
tlie pllants that are fertilized liberally and thus have a large amount
of available pl)lanlt food inmeiiediatelyv at ianid will make lie best
rrowtli. IHeavy fertilizini will not o verco'me tlihe effects of tihe root-
r()t, however, and if alkaline fertilizers are ullsed the rro wtlhi will actu-
ally be dec'reasedl, as thle follow ill-- experimlients show:
FIELD EXPERIMENTS SHOWING THE BAD EFFECTS OF ALKALINE
COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS ON ROOT-ROT SOILS.

During tlie season o)f 1907 a series (of fertilizer experiments were
tri'ed(l ()n IXtwo (liseased fields inll thIe Connecticut Valley. TI,,.-.. tests
wVeren colfinled iinmainlv to fertilizers \vhillch have been extensively used
in oI)cc('o') ,roWlXin in Connecticut. No acid salts or ready-mlixed
[ 7-'nv. 1.




F! MA) !' llAl M FA I' i q I; *CI 4 U 1 1 1 1 .


firtili q4rs ,er, s<>d. \Vh n,,ilk none o lf lhe kr ili/.., Ido,,,--, i ion h -ldl,
disi- ased ho al l sat rois, ,lI 14I, 1IA it) ,' I free fl' t dil' 1s.) la't4 c diifIl' rcX ill ld \\o re > i ',, r I .r' ) I',II I ; ,
fertlizdI Elot In Iill am", it l( t, ound, i thai l li [i1l 1111 IIrw
carbol.-ate of Ip t sh ws X ',1 t2avo On h 'l1 ,4:1t4 ,t plant14 and l11tII" 'li \(
Yithid T he tl+ > ', iinl \ll t l i, rarho, iat I' ,i.I t ae oria h Wii! ',rller
dinlllsudnA 4 (lhe virll. The' we td (*;irtlio;> o|'poaM i awd himn \Albi
cotton+-seedl in al aiid ground lisli ,u',i\'f ;a \' I if l4 Im M mti |)oiiio l >, |)r
,cr,. ThIs ", 'l, wnu- '_Kl pounds h+.^ t, t1 m ) l 'm+,s I" lie nr, l 1 "11 li(ni AoT' -
tili,' r \\m ,i us< ed and \\V4 ;ais Io ll a litt it ,t I n lt' I n half t Ine \ ic d 4o t 4ai idI
l1'44o 4 1' ,in I 1 tlt' o4tl4 r p1 lo(' I '0,. Tf-ul. t I + ,U 'a I r 1 1 ha li'l 1 il 'o4a 1 li ti
Condlit1ion of, tli<' A' il 411csi It 1 unl tlh4 t II 4of 1 1 t, Iiate 4 |o a l t i d w"11
litm lu |', r ld Oln d, velvh ulcul of the rIool-,rol,
(G.EEN HOUSE 1-X I'ER IM-NTS WITH ALKALINE FERTILIZE.-ItS.
'lt ,he l l'ti' vl l in, l 'i fe ttilizers \\:1 I, t 1 ',1 l h4 rll i n 4 i,'I, d'
.._'i, h W vlot'\i trdii nts m +ade u .\ itl a ,di -'.a,',l -Ail I to n (h'y, ttn h l i-
cut. A tle l ,,ots ,vcrv lrl iliz.d ui il',+orinl\" \\itI co(, on .--(-rd Inal.
1re sonic o41 tile poits oi d-li4 lt p r c'cu' t Ao| atit-- lakl-,l lilt : '(,, 4a1-,
at idtI l. 1T''his cut doI,=, 1 t1n' X,', is'lIt of1 tsll o lol c'' 1 1 to m :Ir 4ot1-1 alf'
(M'5:S l:,w r nt v .ni\ c hM iu 2 pe - c. p r l l I l 441 1o a l 'e le i 1>l1-ow. In il-, re1 4 ii ront "ril .
the "' 441' 1 1f c'lt ,4'e 14 lil ic Xa\'( a la'n TI9'I" A o'ro tld I, tof 414' )' 11111
\\t lie to lini "'' as usecd.,l. This sho1w14 s tlhat tlh li e do's I'n14 t ij4 o um
the tI '.n411 diroctlv. 'Tlie a[)id[ l ia l on of lain!d plaster t,4 OIn4 144 -
is' d ".,oil it a wi s \t, ;t1 4 1 v' ,itr I 4'!i, Itflr on h l 1)fI per cei nt ._' l >2 '
(cent hlad no hal4 l 'ffcts[4 al" Ii v('ein -lil1 tl1 il i 'T114' d, t 1 o\11 IiI "f'
tolaco W hen limec ",iis used \\lilt lail andr lidlr th \,,i& a 2"a',il
,hIre i "... l. ;\'4(i -ing 4 a l1o, t 1) per c(q t ol' tof 111 (d' Oln .l4 (l 114. rIIh
"SC 14 car ml p >o o~t r ot plotw in addiwiont tim, liowitn-.'cd mepai
dec e s t4'l eI IX 1 11111( 1414 \1( 11o4' ll t41t 4l per ceint o|' 11 l,
c 1'fk in spil 4 til' e fact that a14i4 1 1;II ford A. I "\it ;id ld.
TVl u s o|' ,,I \ I I ,hoY nc achl. ,i flthe ot ul+r hIaind. iti,+w "4-cd dI \,if|<|
14 a l i 1411 10 XXI'( 144 :.l'ioI"i i 1 ,l ai cid trrip' n 1 pl i 1 l, >i|.
11II lI lants in t X1 O w 1'h l 441 in Ir4-4 \ ,' ,' i4ul 441i n n 1 0 a .'. d
v;rm, il't l a d v \,,cri not -. r ,t l\ injured 1)\ ,, lhe K i i ;i!. 'li, Iii l
'l ix i 'c iil ll I >, 1-( 1' "n n4I wl i n 41 1 '14 r I I 'l .i Io' i 4 n i;nw in
all l 4 ,t po s lw l"'4' ln oX 4 c1 rlon.il Ani "r4 ;i-!i 1'. 4(-w N 0 w v 1,
l Iadll di-v' a 'l Tlh t l4 o4' tilnm 11' 1-4 ;:o111 "Ix 44 'id A n + III I 'hi W4in v
land jlmllr,\\ as ii ,d .*'110 ,\vrd .o nn- di-ra-l'. +il+oiit lihk1e 1 l ,; I llck
pl m -.. 'rhlo rot. tihtlie plaow gnml_ \n in Ow -6i1+;ri +. inlw l Q 1 N\, we in -
I'm Iv c pl an ana \n l M e, a mdt+ l it' ,l^* I+rc+x i r I't+ iii w 1+ I' nVP 1"..
I I l 1 l . 1 11 0 ',d-1, o i i l l \ l4> a l . I ",I+ 1 4 1:1 i r d F M i'
p in or t o td rw \ p Ti", rii l 1. in n', a-- ii.' I I'or i'i ,, i ++.: l il +a r i11 +,\.
' l'oii-. I M IId til T \Il 'I DrI i 4i
[1 1 4 1 I






FIELD TREATMENT OF TOBACCO ROOT-ROT.
< =m

greatly reduced the effect of the root-rot. Tin. improvement was o- 6
doubltless due in part to the leaching away of the lime in watering. -
The sandv tobacco soils of Co(nnecticut, which leach readily, are not 'o 0
affected wNith root-rot. It is highly significant that the root-rot in this o
soil reestablishled itself w-ith all its old vigor when the soil was made +'
LuJt
alkaline throughli thlie addition of lime. --
z
SUMIiMARY.

The tobacco root-rot is caused by a soil fungus.
The fungus attacks the tobacco roots most severely when the soil
has become alkaline, due to the use of too large amounts of lime,
ashes, or fertilizers containing carbonate.of potash.
Rnedy.- Use no lime on diseased fields. Apply potash in thle form
of sulphate of potash or double manure salts. Apply phosphoric
acid in the form of acid phosphate or dissolved bone to correct
the alkalinity of the soil. Plaster can be used if desired.
Where other land is available for tobacco, use the diseased fields for
some other crop for a year or more. Use no lime or alkaline form of
fertilizer unmitil the roots of the tobacco are free from the disease.
Lime andi alkaline fertilizers can th lien be used cautiously.
[Or'.. 7.]