Some stem tumors or knots on apple and quince trees

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Title:
Some stem tumors or knots on apple and quince trees
Physical Description:
Book
Creator:
Hedgcock, George G ( George Grant ), 1863-1946
United States -- Bureau of Plant Industry
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry : ( Washington D.C. )
G.P.O.
Publication Date:

Record Information

Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 29621237
oclc - 48872576
System ID:
AA00020761:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 1a
        Page 1b
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    List of Illustrations
        Page 4
    Occurrence of tumors
        Page 5
    Description
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Experiments
        Page 9
    Structure of tumors
        Page 10
    Relation of the tumors to other forms of disease
        Page 11
    Effect of the disease upon trees
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Suggestions
        Page 15
    Reports desired on the distribution and severity of stem tumors or knots
        Page 16
Full Text





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S tru rt i n In l I . . ..... .. . . ... ... - . . .i
Ii lwwf a l lll 1- a
Ite laltio ni If t i t i r < llh 'r l' 111- i if i ; . . . . .. . . . .. : I

F _' _-. -titlt, t > l' li'r\ i k lt i )ll'- v i n-pcct -. ;nii l i >r li;itili. .s. .V. .. '. It ) .
I~t] itr)i >'l ,I,.- irri ''1 ll I ie i l iri l iiit l io i a ii I s<'\ ,'<"i \ ,, f >t-h l 1 111111 >l' ',ir k m, it'- t .. 1
























I 1, I, VIST I\ +A TI() N


loge,
t,.. 1. Stini lumors on a" o0l apple Ire* at 1silla Park. N. )htx.......... -i
kl. i tn I ators on a Meech qil nilre tree at M'licu, ('al ............. ... 7
Y n. Vo niinml tumors l i ,,iiiiiils at thin liasr of twvios "n a ( Alanatii. m alqioh
t&rW at F:lyettevill. Ark ................... ................. -
S tir > ait I ly tts-villh A rk ............................. .......... 9
5. lR ost lir(Ihncell tiilll l a tlll010 I'l sa uiilIn lakcit l ir1 1 a Clharlainoff
a; ij ic tre :an I kIept in l i sl soi- il .................... ....... 10
G. Itiils [ri'ilico l fm'tii nt nII i, n a (tumoirs' taakt'n lI'iiln an u \V - 1 I,, liin
trmt iirar Ol iiq"i, (01 .................................. ......... 10
7. lib pth lis al srniQii < a inor 1 ,i anl(Ie limb aler lir,,inI" tl I
roost \" l"m placcmd in soil .. ... ......................... ....... 1-1
S. I.,m iihili:it se'stim of wslxli-knst ii a ri gro'"I 1 fniimi al parent ly Il allh y sciui ani ist ................... I 1
9. The woolly-kniot foil nf hairv-root on a Norithrn, Spy apple Ire'
o \n in an (x n' i nrt. -----------------... .-........ -. --.. -..-....... .. ......- 1
l Til simple forl i liof airv-rioot ill o ln apple swe:dflinlg grown ill alt
tx ieiilnli t .................................................... I
1 1. I Ii ... I I h iof 1 ailry-l'o t is I mtis i ls on an aipp il se tin ........ ... 13i
1 "


















lT'I( IS M K\()T ()\ OX ''I.ii

.\XI) ITRlI- T,



OCCURRENCE OF TUMORS.


(luring" th li [;a-l: G e vr~ir- imccnrrhigi1 An dw l ir li'ri -. lint ,i^ ;iiQ I" \\in;
of alq?,[]' r m i li2. No an pii I i in c W c ^i I No. 2J) 11i a>i n im l Kr 1 l itiI(- ill va n'l(it- i on, o f l lir I l it,,, S t:It,-. '1I"wa,-,+ luWl It lK-!tr,, 1"
.M)HtC KIM'<- A hich!' v pItarami i. indilcatin111- thaltt Ili( dlil'Ha-e a I; fie o nin
(,+cllt i'in )\o+ r ;l w o' ) l c, o cxt t ,ll' t'l'I'rll t'\. 'I tll lH '- v, Il t nl' (, Ihv ( lW i i,,
havi'e lo,'cln ,>l >. '"\',l ;Al ( 'lAi :aC imn ;i l (ot e) lw r i t1 ( ';m il 'nl'i ;> n, l r+a n
il i, ( tl' ir < >rcii rrcii'c. fitl, -|i x'rit11ici( -. Wiit'h(+ l)'ciil 11,VV 1'"41|1 1\4 I l 1"
writer M'rdini A+\ i-tm i \V. \';>. I'l'I(-(, t lir ;it |lqdh lim",,, lm(m m W( t( n l1
;i in indliwr off lcc;>] itic,- ill (';>lih'wni:a. ( )r i',,)m. New M exico. '1'\;>-.
+\r ;l,:>r- -. l ;>tt~;i-. N ,l)r':t-k, Iwm m. N1i4-",iri. Itliin, -. ;inl \\n ,-t
V ii-+tnin. S IpecitiIC)- tin;,l ml l',)ll ;l)llh -firon 111^ t)' ,r hla:lv lirll
rccc cim l fro r. (' (i. Q G .11()mll, r or' ti(, Iii ali niii Akgi-iqIhlnrilF l
E xi>(>ritln(itt SIation-. (c lh'dit l iln -oi0 il-rn 1Itiliniana.
(;,G rci;i. 01f tlit N v, Mlvxio )xpcrimc t Staitiont. r )port, thle (limn.u-
(on al;j ih trc(- front h-illN lA Mrl lmln,'i. ;awl (;irhlit'l(l, N. K lx.
(iartl'lu .' o, thle Kcntucklv I'erxitnolit S'(;to ioll. lla h'r-,rilttd a ,ori)
IT Lis ,[i- r n 'l r-< tit rl< l.s l | tk )i' <,nlsflt- Q iIti, )is a d( e) >x] >rrll+wll t t )s l ;: l.y|)A,
ofI' di,<(is< that iwclirs n> i>' ini)i)r NiI nliqit&i iirclinrl+ ;a dind is pWWtt'i Wlh iO' t
ll rsi ', r (' I iiiil ryiil'ii, '|'li' ItIIt-)l+0 11hs t' ITit l ;Itri' >l i'<+[dInl t a) hl y nry t
atHll rrl', m m on ll, alinl t ills' l klll ii :tti)ll S tlltHiH 'izc, ;1 lm] t:> + n ;ll t(llni \'r ill\a 4 a
timi)tio \whi(h l)(tho r 11(4104`404)tl, iS lPUI>U',+ ing ,A)t h" (+rN ,.)+.:] OWW"VVI find A ,d dki-
(,+i ('s. 'lhr ]i+i)n'r l ri oi.,s rut so n",' il i a1 tlh< liiits): ;til )\ <> ; ))r i (in ] t(> rrr'll~til +(I'nriis n)f ]+lili ir -l'+)rt. ;titl >'-)itm tiins ;nl \'ir(> ti)
""irsrryin'n ;s I"t n v t I "\ n11;>\uil tIN, Iru hldn Theie imo *st i-,;uii~ms \\Ncre hiclin
.it tih+ M ississi]>|ii \V;ille>y l.; t, rttwy, St. l.A lis, M i.. M IAhun ,r the> dlirorik-11 et' In)((>-
l'>r Mhnr mm vttt; \,H[ S,-hrlcnk, andI will Ibe (+i t ioni l('idun eIr I(he direct i(i f Mr. M. I1.
W aitn%. l'; h l,)c i +git ill hlivirmL ",f I tmi\ s :li.t (|>s 4t l isi msr .4I+ l+'rllits. 1H. T1.
(GAI OI NVA) P"il.,l<,lix'do ffi x lI'/l ,l, i +it. diand 1l1ji6f of /B00+ i, .
,,(;; :rln, 11. I)iscs'l-a s 14 l r.i (,ry Soo Kelatlnrcv o\l irciltuIral> Experrimento t SWnliM i. lH llu+ ii +)+;, |)I+. lG, 1,, 1 :ilt[ Iid H 4,
1!Mx)1,.
111401,t





6 SOME STEM TUMORS OR KNOTS (IN APPLE AND QUINCE TREES.

of knots occurri1ng on apple trees which is apparently the same
disease: this lie repol'rts from at least two localities inll the State.


Il;. I -SItemII 1i1or- 4il[ an id :Ipl(, t I*(, at M(,illia P'ark, N. Mox.


\Waite. of thle Bureau of Plant Industi-ry. reports the disease as com-
mo)n oni the apple in tidewater .Maryland and Vii.2ili:i.
DESCRIPTION.
()i tlie apple tree11 this disease appears most often oi the trunk and
larger li1s (b fig. 1), but in ail number (of instances it lias been found
[(a'i. I:





SOME STEM T'MlS()I: KNOTS ')X APPLE. ANDt QW'INCL- Tl',[L.-'. i

1tl'e tii tI lt t a n.: '> ) \ A ._'.'.)dl (*\: il hl
of, tih dliscai E aI, tfoi ill on :111 ]irls the ll trc e cc l ;ijt) le trc iHt tli Xpcelri ntlal <)1orc ExpHerimenit Station, FaIvetleville, Ark. 'l'hi- w\a, first rlpOlltc tlo
the lhircnii o,4 Plant Iidn.l. trv l iy Vii'(>ill.clhr. (d, tll -litiolm wvhlo
kindiv donated tlnw trce to the I)('Jrt tl' Agriciultulre for f'llrllner


I -mmmmm --umiW
F I-; oll Sl i~ii^O Mrerh qiUHlic TV' AT Ch 'icou, <'-ll
stild. Thlie jir'o're'ss of the di'case on this trie hal,' eeln l lted fIor
thrilee 03lI c-'e Ve: rs.
Thlie tiiiiors o tlis tree are' excepltimiallv lar. e at the lheiiiiii..
and freIlquently appear in thie fowrm (d' a -1inoll) swellinit suirriiiidil
tlhe base of a dormant Imld (tlf. 3'). (1iiite often tlhe terminal 1ild of
I < i 'l :"1





SOMi STM IUX1o1S (il KN)TSm ON AmPPLF. AND) QUINCE TREES.

a 1 XiX:. [ililat v he noted at the end of the -rowimy season. InII
the forll 1i1suallv occurring oin mainyv other trees, the swellings appear
ol twiX _s ;iil limbs indiscrminliatel, apparenitlv iavx:*. no connec-
tion withi tlihe form ion of lihds. IThle tumors vary really in size
oil tlie sa.e aInd on (dilerent trees: soIe are as small as a pea:
others atlain :I size of 2 to 3i e inclines nII diamlieter. This vaXriation
in size is oIed e venI at the beginnin- of tlhe formIation. Imnma-
[li___t'_ I'lu e I o a11)) 1 re oft'e l formed oI n all )pol-
..tiolis of thle tree. quite frequently occurrinif
Sit lie ba,-e of ItwiX-s (tif 8)) or springill,-
I i ftroml older linmb1s 1or fromll tlhe trunlk. DIr-
...ll the first period of lleir -rowv th le
A. swellinlrs are covered wXith a thick. fleshy
.":ve la ) of n1eri-teml and )ark tissues. The
$)I 'rwlh for tlhe first veal or two i- often
,. *!very rapid. At tle end of a varyinllu period
3-.m : "of lile. uisuallv one to 1Lhree years, depend-
inI.I on the valrietv of the tree and tlie condi-
tions1- of Imovwlt in lthe locality where it is
oliindI. tlie hark covering' tlie tullors I ) (-
Il'om ils rutlredl Iv the rapid formation in
d lie iliterior of a very pecillia'r -trllctllre;
lit' h)ark tissue ceases to TO\V. Liut tlie inte-
?" riot tiss-ues (hhnrdevelop a s-Iructlire similar to
'... tliat found in root olrmlation in lthe lihair*y-
Slro(t dIisease. As thlie Iark break IIs awayV.
Ii mall elevatio-ns, which re-eilhle short
t'; thickened root ca:ps. appear on thle surface
jl.;' of the tllllmors., ivin- them a very warty al)-
e 1Iearance (flig. 1). Thle knots nw resemlll)le
the or'ion of the flilnation of the woollv-
.. knot form of l1irv-root described bv the
writer" in a letlure to tlie National Nursery-
I 2I,; :.,-Y,,|4 t n ,rs for ill- sle 's Association ll IA year.
il, at tOii is- ,r o.twigs oni The tumors in their older formi in some
; 14 I'i r uinoff :ia il ti1, 'e at 1 11 i T i
1 h}arl-laof" ath tre at cases lbechme hollowed out Lv a slight decay
lFay",t(Wvillo' A\rk,;
of tlie tissue in tlie center. which results
either directly from the disease or from thlie entrance of wood-rottini
oranisims which are foreiiI to it. Tle mIatuire form of these knots
fi-. 1) resemlbldes greatIly tle outrowths 1Ulpoll the limibs of 11 1111111-num-
Ibler of kinds of trees described by Sorai ier in (Germany unideri the
Ih(-(il-( k. (;eor, e ;. P'revenltiol (if, Apple C'oviwn-(;ill ai ld I:Iairy-ly oot.
Natliomal Nurser-viiaii, vol. 15, ppl. 192-19;. 1!9)7. Amierican Fruits, voI. 7, )p.
(;0 11(t17. Apple S (ie-ialist. vol. 4, pp. 14 15, 190(7.
Sonrlier, P'. Krotiflinaser. IlIandlmu ch del er I'llzeiinriikieiten, vol. 1. p)p.
7;81 7;1 a;)ud lii. ;!, I is ;.
l Tfig, i l





SOUNMF S'IrVAI *l'l HI"M<|; 4w KNI>II', (IN AI'I'IAL ANI) Qt'lNiT T1;F.KS.

i1I,11 il' oirop l'ifit- w it \w lli ilh Ic l l i f I ': i i' I l ,A
idelit ica1. .I A iiiiil ir flrui /on ,,,.+ i,,,I,,. ,./,;,,+ ,,.+;. \\\- x h ci do-
Be li *l >V K I,;l'
O n the-<|iii t rcc l( l.c!* (hon m if.idif ^n ia l tnI l li1t


it1 rtti d vxI "h~ci hot on t'. ihet :Ip e Ir o illit, tli 11111wi i I- I! i I I ii'.
-, l'cri I \"I l< I c l l ni-I-l:,. >]) l IIf \ llli ti c li<* iil i+

lia1\ n iot liecillinoted :> ll'fcl 111l lilt oil mld :1 11 1-:1 ('Il i ;l'l i c;>ri t lirti' Itt I' i t ite Ii t (, 'i n I ll" ,iL ( t\ ,ot ii










EXPERIMENTS.
tJioli~ o li t "'t' li tlt\- ain I l \I ,iU o|f t' tt- i r -+ II n \ y :tr (,r l 2, > t '







llt'li"t-] l IIIIIIi '' : tI i l l tiit l it in < I ti ; ,i ii 1 I ii :tM I+







(t ti i-' iit' I t r i t'l l re ti I l i i itii it- iii a ii it ;i i i Ih i i iii' i I ;it| t
|,> tl l' n l i,- ,il ih 't','; ll in
> I r n i c l l i e t i n ii l ,r li i l c ,- c rt i l +,t






I, +'l VC OVl~t'. trk..'n oh,-,l 't lir Ind.' v I(\









('ildi w oith llol' "o abot fol!e M___ ^ ^^' *_ -
,wIurck l- the \v ,w "a c out, t; l ; ,'- 0'.^*r^ ""i- Iii >**'" *




l l ',l B otull-tc, tin1'tcj.. a i'l ; < !
.\~ ~ th ,l l,, ,t litmo,-, (i-t:,, Ml -ch.i i






livic l, r o l ,-t -;ll for l t linl \N\fol cc they were ** t;ikl o). l l t. andlc a F I, ;i.v th
(| hior > :t lo o t l ,tln l -. Init in ct o llc ; i> a)l' ; ltioht f Ii ', Ili l i I IIlI ( l r '' t'lo I ro ';It Ark.


frloml firo llnrirot I IIIla nc fr- oml ;1 ''' i p Hahiic ;n etu <
^i I~i -. :'i :1o1d Gc ).rii^ hut I om -c ioo were 1 oii<>i fom oll mvi ldicr-
\ ,roo t i ll(011 o f t Iil ; ti| l ,, I ll ,w ;i t (l,,e o -lp o! I iii I f I |.
(~v~ t, Ilc, A 1,. d dl t 'Vl o w ,rt)tir,, ,.,il 1 1v I li ItllI,
'' l \x th n i>t -, Il lu thc + - ll b-+ . I *'"

\\ ..]I ll I i~ t hw ll10 '0 C II, I -rIltl COl l)t'-'1. wit-oeofthe: ] l' V
roo ',+ -o l. (\t,'r t e p l io n ; tilt,., l+,l l ,,i o ,r '` +'ool+, '. +-"+o






lit cl root y i l7. .l cionlo frron ttlto ll t c |r -
'otl\w niclt i i"l.c of, whichi cmdo l iitKer knot-ll o (wnitof '' li]\y I tlite
'? Nis \\". [\litn i. Ins tlwlnii. l i the ilwlhns rli l i si. Zcit lt fliri'l'
fiir thllt, *ha i'n, h. I0, pp. 'i-onl 14 i t HMM).
l'ir. ;-J





10 StOME STEM TUMORS OR KNOTS ON APPLE AND QUINCE TREES.

shown ill figure 3. while others were smooth and apparently healthy.
About 70 per cent contained no knots or tumors; these were grafted
on piece roots from healthy apple seedlings. One hundred of these
"rafts were planted and grown on the Potomac Flats, near W;-,it-1ii_-
ton. I). C. The trees grown from these were dug at the end of the
season, an"d 9!.3 per cent were found to b)e diseased to a greater or























Fi;. .5 .-loots produced fron i,(; G.-Roots prodini( from in-
unr en a ciii ini tak n nr,,, on a cutting takn from a
from a Chaoria m ff apple tre Mccli quince tree, near Chico, Cal.
;ni(l kept in moist soil.

le'ss degree with t he woolly-knot form of the hairy-root disease. Tie
letinait1in1g treess were apparently I1ealthy, having smooth roots.
T sciols which liad tumors before pL.1 i1i iL. developed in nearly
every ivt Ianlce roots from thle tumors. whiich tflien agreed in structure
and appearance witi tlie w oolly-knot form of hairy-root.

STRUCTURE OF TUMORS.

It a Section ismade longitudinally through one of the tumors
lan t )rom tlhe I lim1) of aii apple tree after roots have been forced
from it by moisture (fig. 7) and through one of tlhe 1iiiid112oiiitiil
root m otiii(r s of the woolly-knot form of 11,hairy-root (fig. 8). an
identical structure is revealed. The wood elements of both are much
distorted and disa rra nged, gro\vilig somluewhiat in a fan shape from
tlie origin of the tumors near the center of the stem or root. The
I Cir. 31







































Fl';. 7. Lonzitidi i;tl M 'T1ion n Fid. [.fIi); i in liil -Fnr
l I -:. Lt l all s i [ ; r iue.

ill s~.ji1.


?

Ii I I


tjle-t forii.. :iI'c iitiirlll'o1:- thle-4l v root- wx inch :ita 'C otfl(l tw it:illd l:ilil
di'tortued. Tli'- tic-h]i Iv()t-; i- ti he l'OWx ,lder eiher rolt l\\V inI
)ilrt ( )r lIe)olmIe Iw (I \mYv.

RELATION OF THE TUMORS TO OTIiER FORMS OF DISEASE.

W ith our )I I" p -cinl kiio ledge, tiie. rct' c.f aide ;I, ;i rclile o,1' lit, il,
II*l\"il1011 ;ix dt \ xl i )'niiilb lit- l>i *,,\ l i >l iha i tiiul icI llimi-' le iiol '- 40.
the liliil.) and 1'iinlk- o)t" appil trei'- 1;IV v lhe (*-o hridlrn' lld ,-:1;i r di-(i:'-1,
z lilthe w\ m),llvY-] tl f(wil ( til'. 9t 1 of liI' V-Iool : 11 otii lr word-. Ill<'\
:11i' the i 'rmi t'l'olili (d ho liiirv-root. e'li' -nilhm form of lr1 i;ii t-oi10 .
which \vii- crhke film h )-vi lixt :1tcvnrl'NId. l1t'-:. ali I llall" and i11ii
tiioncd hi It[ I li, he \\ riter ' Ai- a tOItll If di'd l i.-(-o d iti I ctl 1 Y I II ermil

1 Slw\vw ill. F. I'.. IIII1s.Y. I. t., a di lhIIn l. V. I 1 H i( ;t.:. '. Y A t'lini I
E x1 e'rilli'll ( stl itli, i llu tl iit i 19!1. lit. :"(M) 1 : 1( 1 ; ti.l I Ilt!Ifm : ;ils (;'m Vi\ >, N. Y..
A. iricullurinI I:x]erriiinil s ;tiint It Ip rl 9, l l. 11 I T( 17(; ITS ;iild ] i I. 1'."> .
'' IIch di'c cl'k. (;,<>r,., (;. T hIn ('l twi\ l ;;i111 ;:(till iiry l0', 't l>i-c;ls': of' ilh A\I
pih Trot. Illrelai ofl Plant Iiinl ustrh'y Bulhetii N\ !i), P'art 11, I. 2. i,- 1, liI
1. :i1. Ui 2, I l!)5.
It'ir- ;; I


SOM"\IE STEl'.I ,I l'Mol IASI O1 KNOTS ON 'NPIII1.E AN, 1),Q VNIlNCE V KE1K11t1V 1 1

bluiidle- of w\ i()(l d i ii illc liiir_'l.*I v;01,l ii ib iill\ w illi -In ll |iilcl,-
o f [;i ll'c cli\ ilil llt( ii --u,0. frorii ,iii fl',iii tilt' -lirlt'i c ,it* (;> li filt





12 SOME S'ITEM TUMMORS OR KNOTS ON APPLE AND QINtTNCE TREES.

from ('crown--all, is ini the opinion of the writer only a form of the
lame d(iseas'e as woolly-knot amIt these aerial tumors. The simple
formil of lairy-ro.ot occurs most frequently upon seedling trees: it is
)resent 1both on twe steml aind root portions of the trees. It consists,
\wlien it o('ccur' (li tHite roots, of nulewrous line roots -roowinl- at rio'ht
tangnle- from the
ll ailnl roots or tlhe
taproot (fig. 10).
.l These side roots
,-. are very s-oft and
A i succulent at first.
-^-.-.i a, '.' om later harden
S' *. ^ .,i,-*.'-. anid have a wiry
S app)ealra lnce a 1'(
p-.W ^. text re. on the
ro." '. s 'rot they are
',^ ".,'-' *l,'q usually quite nni-
f fornlv d(is-tril)buted
t"-,^ ;",t fin f deinlite 1)elts.
S's Whierve this forll
-, occ'lurs onil shoots it
''. springs nMorel fre-
,-,{. .! l '^iS E -. -t% i- '" .. -" tqient lv flrolm the(

's, vicinity of a bod
,<" E 'i \~ ~ (fig. 11), often 1 ust
......7 *. ^yi:, ,\5 l)eneatli it. These
S'n ., ine root are
"'..' "' formed ill gr'OuI)S.
l \ "" ' 1" 1 e ', I
__________I_________________ reat many often
,q; ti Tihe woolly-knot form of hairy-root on a North( rn Spy sPi)rill'in' fIrOIll a
cl)lih tree grown in an \xlcrifnjt, or i .
sing1 Ti'e origin of eac'li of t1lese ('lnllps of roots is simiilar to that of the
'ruldilientary roots in tlhe aerial tumors. It follows, then, that the
I a iry-root disease lia v have at least three forms'is, which are miiore or
less distinct : Thlie sinmpile, t lie woolly-knot, and the aerial forms.
EFFECT OF THE DISEASE UPON TREES.
Owini" to tlie ('onpll)hxilty in tihe forms of the liry-root disease
and tlie dillicultv of obtaining g at'cilrate infornia t lionll as to their final
reflect 111)p11l orchliard tree(, anll(i in view of tlhe fact that extensive ex-
perim'lllents ar'e 1beiiii' conductedl to determine tlie nature of each form
land its effect iupo( thle life and( frIulitfilness of apple trees, it will not
l)e sa fe at present to malike a definite Statement as to thlie effect of these
tunors furthilier than to rive the observ'atiohs of the writer.
[Cir. 3]





SOMEI SITI M 'l TM(tIiS OR1 KN(TIS ON \APPlI ANID ( tQ I.N( lt I '1 1 3

A pptli tr' ,- froi t li l'ti c l, to twi ,il < v*'l '- ,old II tll h IY dlc d-(+ l ,tli
tll I' t lltll'' l't aIv' I )(fit t r ill \: Iti l-') l'ocalitf iII I nh Il--I
ilppl i Valh' v. T 'P i (.(we- (l I title' t1 tltm1 r- Ox
lteid d Iw;Irl\ to lln lli:l lt o ',ti l" lit" llto Id, .
w ood of (lie lirt+<'-tl]inl>-. im(lt, t111c 1 tAllit '--W" :,1- 11


I i I IIII i v I I I' tii N\ It
tin t,, il fn til e trli +-( -ii l ,I I it' i iti l l t t 't',i\ ;t /l .- I
hilier I r -ll li tit .: i( n. ti t++. v,,r, tIjI; .Ik l ,1- ;I- _1(m(od "T W)'. tlj :I-
4, l (r r (> l'lI 'l .le o w ,t- \ (, I*t(, :1 p l,:+r,1ilil v -4 11 1
I t t [(),,_ I~t,1 : a lid :t..- fl' r :I- (+( i d!( It+(, l -ert.",. I
(ltito I tl \ll it': I') it l'-IIt'; t tI' iir It' It (
-1tI'ltI't (ho 4.ir11-c l tihil tm t) -w i)lo+ t.l l ~ -.:
Iti clt r t(t c'i. t' \\.][it| lirilt, 1i\''Itttil' It o' t t Il t
1lir ii .', i(ir : IIi :''I t I l i ) I ull I r1 i.
did' nrlo dni. r' rti't't ll' la o o







to I l cli .i v. x' itli i' I I F
il'tiTI it i r I l lit' X tu llli' *i' ilt i l(n IX t v :i lil' i'
ln) l' w hi c (11 1 I1 1 l I'
\ ;I r. o ( e I~ iIIv ( Tl l)l dzll' l lw' I ll-
l\A l \i- l n tt ,i\
l Id llv 0 '1 iln l- Ht ,11 ,




II 1)1: -1 1 for li th. d il+, ivi ll, (
r (e ll-dr I' \.. er t l (i'r i l,. l* t,,i w, (it, the

ri l y ;l- ;,l i -' fl i 1fr i) -I r it (d III( :11 ,, .





~ ~ t o lll .I- l: ( I II W )_4 I"(- ,'(, ld it I, (,+li tl( 11.\ l1 the+
,IA ro i m-t. \ v hli cr \\ +a lli lllld ic I i- l o Ii-(lt \* t lollc (J 'f
i '^ ilIlcrctitl t+ t) trm lio(-(+ in \\vliir]t (lie \srit(>r -

S'i ol><)-(r'rtli o 'r' madh. andc tlln- 111Im ay a<'




l| c~W'lint wn -o c toa-i forlld. dIIIm n
T*,)ll 1 11 A lilh< d ll ('d t ll't, o:11l' tl file w i- ot r ill-ir


It o ) o l l l 1 i"a r +\ >t ltl f t h li-w l 11 (11 ) f tl t + S l l I ) lln 't



JJ^ B ^ rili' f \a (d Ic [>rI-d row lIIIozd. \vn pl I t 111^ I' \'l -
)+'lii l t l Il, i\ llcli -li;>dl roo t- ,r ."<()d \ tlit ) Il(a r\-,



rroot of" d( Iii; 'I ) a ,d ; in ( il ltlt(, wo,' + ,]virlll*v.
,'Ill(ootll root,-. Iliat a ._' iti'r "-t;i d of ()I* tro(f, \\;iv ohl illt d \\illi tit(, fillr
IIH(T. lo-." in In' c'i-c olf tiThe liHit thre )t (4 OwIrt- \\a- ;lltlit 19 per coit.
I ('ir ;, I





14 sOME STEM TUMORS OR KNOTS ON APPLE AND QUINCE TREES.

;idl1 of the trees with smooth roots about 32 per cent. This may be
accounted for in part by the increased tendency to throw out roots
in the case of tile trees diseased with hairyv-root.
This peculiar behavior on the part of trees diseased with hairy-
root is further explained by another experimtlelit. Since appl)l)le trees
are p)rop)agated commercially by grafting and budding, never by
(cuttings. Because they root so rarely, it was a surprise to find that
(cuttings from trees withl hairy-root are often able to throw out roots
readily. Inll anll experiment where 100 (cuttings were taken from the
-hoots of yearliiig seedlings badly diseased with the simple form of
hairy-root (fig. 10) and planted in moist soil in the greenhouse in
early spring, more than 50 per (ceit rooted readily anid ',) per cent
grew into trees. On the other hand, out of 100 cuttings taken from
healthy seedlings of the same lot, only 5 per cent rooted, and even
then so feebly that lnolie of them grew into trees. This exl)eriment
was carried out on an ordinary greenhouse bench with 8 inches of soil,
without bottom heat.
Some of thle diseased quinice trees observed )by the writer in Cali-
formNia were mu(ch 1 stuilted in their growth, but were considered a
profitable investment by tlie owner on account of the crops of fruit
whiic'h they hhad borlne for several years. The quince trees in Cali-
fornia appear to b)e quite universally affected with this disease.
liougli usually with oily a mild form. No indication has been found
that the disease spreads in tlhe orcliard from one tree to another.
either iM tlie case of app)l)le (or qlince trees. and exl)eriments in which
i11(1ulatitons were made witli chips from living tumors indicate that
it is either very little or not at all contagious. In the ('ase of apple
trees, tlie perceiltage of disease oi tlie roots of trees in 1llursery rows
ilicreases l)percepl)tibly 'v frolm hlie first to tlie second year and remains
lie same or decreases from tlie second to tlie third year. This observa-
tiou is based )upon an extensive exl)erimniciit.
It mighlit easily be irlie that a reasiliale amount of this disease
(oin a tree stimulates it and encouirages fruit production. That it does
stimulate root production and miiay temlmporarily stimulate thle growth
of h(lie tee are facts now well k(o\w to tlie writer and have been ob-
servdI iin nmaniv instances in tlie case of n 1ursery trees. The disease.
therefore, appears to be not as inljullouls as oine would think. It can
hardly he )possible, however, that in thle log' ru l trees seriously
affected bIy I Ithis disease will not stuffer. Br'anches badly alecte(d,
ais sliowiv iii figures 1 and '2. certainly must have their movemient of
sap -greatlly impeded, their general activities much (curtailed, and
evenlti iallYv their life shortened. It is not I)believed, however, that smniall
tiufts of hairy- roots o(n very limited areas of the root system of an
:1pple trlee will in ally way lpercel)ptib)ly affect tilie grow ith and fruit-
fuilt ies of anll apple tree or decrease its length of life.
I Ciit. 3j





SOAMI STE I 'MNl (Ml KNOTS l>N AI'11.1K AND) Ql'INCV- TH KKS'.-. 15'

SUGGESTIONS TO .qL1RSLRY N LM, NUI1SLRY INSPECTORS, AND
ORCHARDISTS.
NIIIrMTI\ itnll a11re advl i-ed, ti, lie (*.airefuil ill lthe sel ,lec ion ntf >,'n usi ;uii l
Ntocks I 'i" I I Iirv Ii oI ;tlI Ii l -oI, Ihat tIhe a e ilw y- la n fIoII1
h 'at I \ I l''( .- rl I' l >'li i i z g II I I I I t l vxiil :11. i 1i 1 w' I lt vla ; I tk I f 1.411
1e alth lrees I lr I I k of 1p 1 n ofai( )"ic wIi i Ihe I I'liol- I apple

i Tdicae f ht ) I II V II I I I oI har -r o 4n s1on 11r w re v;I
sc'iois arc, ~l~!i taken from dli-e,:ised, ti'ee'.
"']w 'lic fol lo in si _-'",-I ions. l ;a-tcd lii]iti c\[l~'iiicnt!! ;llil oh-crva,-\;
t lio aIc Iide t I i '-ir crlv iis|)cct(>rs: I)lh orl Ii llnnr Ircw l:illy
dti\Vi i I I I illi l;i v Io f ili fI or41 ii- Il' liaii: -II t. rY itli ltI c aI(lt iil. I.ooll1I,
lk l I, Ior s Ii pl s. onli hl I it, li-ca ilcd as -iiilil or,, I lai il11 ". IIIIg'.i' I '(,-
1. 2. 3*. 1. ;), ll II4 1) r p'r '-illl -t*Vo tl' |H' ol Ii al, woo,(,lld wv ii4l. midl
sini[>l(> ~ T hii fla r\ o l 1le hlast 1\\(o fonnll- )cc.Il o tit III,, (If
tnr fiv tli- titiii'r i11lc t 1ll ic l ar-t i' miou d o" n r lo l ''111 v ot ii rc i rl rf
Ir1"' I 'liatblW v als la it r'l. developiiient o i lie ore iiile i' t'o n- ol
Ith d -is s I o, n -o IIIItII(l '("i t >ot .
If all 1ire ,. zillec cl ( I \vIll t o ii't or IIII I-h ( i I -I oI llio d ti-:Ise S :as it
o I( 'I I]*s ol I1 he root wore d\ I l i %l1- 4 Icirde if \\oul lld lil ti lli ic |(J>ctiot otf
elarl'l aill of 1 l" 1 ll'ee'> i:To\', li i ii n > i li I a:litie.-. S iieli li t- ree u hii' llie\'V
lia e a ve o ,-,,'o "l- iroo()t >\"I ell I. Itilf\vill -lai I t1 i' t1race I w itlI It 1h 1" o,,1lil,- ) f
lie iI. a |1I-I Iv>[)are i t o\,v as \\I >11 a- IeI I llliv 11'rer4 \N IIl I i tl> lli
I'o( t-. oit) iI -4Hlll at\IIt'I IIOV I*( \V Ilo lte I II I I I'or\v v eil'. l' f;i
Ias( I: liasl I Iie lse i e, bv e [cInim an 'I II I1 11 tH l ons. I nI I I caII I
we s]o it haI i t he pIII I tl' I -te i1e 11 ttf (lie lo ild .*h t r I IIiIs ol 1r d 4i- 1ise ont llie
n l m ts of II i -t I I '\ It I I ill le\d:1 to i t'l IfrthIer s'preadl in ti t oII (r(-IaI;Ird or1"
that ^i 'li I ee1 a1 i- ,; il i[ 'oI lila l l I IoII r laiilin^". il IoI- no tI -4IIlii tiililiti:i
hl nI t e d I IlII tIlIIiIIJ. ( i li t Ither liaq. I : I tII e \vri e,1 ir I otII 'IeIa v to
rls et tIIt Iial lliov tre eic iIall t v :1 -'-fod or1 w II ila tiiin aI- t re \Vitli iII tl i

"1 'lierV is a dl lOllefe\e, I I i, o I Iop I iniotnIt 1a zl liaI( 'o11I1iIsI( II Ii hr:liiv
ot I't, I Iv !,vit : Isome1i4 )1o ild lilint n(he 1 a 6p*li I lio:I IoI I lie IteIrI Ii "I li a 'I llI i\t "
loi (e eti re. i l yl l fi'eel flroml lill' -iroii l roo l'ilt lorm tio on~ Jihe inia in iroot-..
The \vrie-I liels I tIoI(As erve hal I t I tree Iwilli ai v\ rv tll)n'otll is roomt -v-ltiII
ITe IlI'l ii ll t h Iw(lieII pl I t tf ce aiin I,111 d- I oI Itoil atdI 1 :;i c r I ; 1i i 1111iil 1\ a
hIl alt i ai s ; l' ,I 1 t liee* I oI eI( ea l\' l,'11 1 Ivl m fl li rooI' ti Ii 'A 1. 1.- ioli iI I I I ;c:i1
e ]ilall3 .1is ltod tfor tlaniili a1- ilio-e wvitli -lmoot! li root-. :midl iiin,-tlit

hail'r -root.i l'iilil il can ll e t liownl tliat titroi' i- Iroot- arc' infe'rior' 1o
(mooth roots lad ttial th I l NorIs idt Il f ; ,lirv-i'o" 1(It I -Irioii'dv Ivl l cII %

1, :liar1, I1rcvi,,. t he \v 1, 1V1i1 ir-- > oitl rea;idI' to recom-tm)eI ndII II I lie, c-ll'li( -1 'itI li
of-lI, li -Iees in (he lsIv' V. -ilicoe t lli- co Iir'e-(, \VwotIl d Il'i(d1:1il l iivol lve,
,aIl II I lll ce--:arV l* ss ot 111 v (li i on-lV IIanil- of l (- I d1 lllar.i' l t he fill I-erlvlie i I
alidi ai c >iis il iliert is i li t1le 'i,0ce of l i*ee- I to ihe orch 1ardi.l4 .





1t) SO ME SlTM ITUMORS OBt KNOTS ON APPLE AND QI'TN(E TREES.

lHeports halve beeln received from a inumhber (of localities where all
Ihe tr ees iII (Ir(' hiards a fled Iv t Ihee t lmIIor (fig. 1) have been cut
down oll acc('ounllt of their presence. In the absence of data provilii
the lt disease to be sel-orioslv in juirious and in view of the writer's ob-
'erv1a;tit(nl. orchtlrdi st- are ad(1vi-ed for thlie I)reselit to allow such trees
to1(, remai iill their orchard s in cases where there is noi apparent spread
of thle disease ald1 where lihe trees are pearlii profitable crops of
frulIit. If. o ll e othellr han1d. lthe trees are not doing well as compared
Witli helielihv trees, it woviuld bIe better to remove them.
REPORTS DESIRED ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND SEVERITY OF
STEM TUMORS OR KNOTS.

It. will reat(ily l e steell that further information as to the distribu-
tilon and lseveritv of tis diseas-e is nIee(,dd. To this enld it i] proposed
to vi-it ans maYllv localities as possible where outbreaks of the disease
aIt reported.
All Iperso1ns who hlive oser),rved -tei tumors or knots in orchards
will onltfer a favor anid will aid in atctmulating data if they will
report tlhe lcanlitie-s x\hhere Ille disease occurs, with notes as to its
-'ver]itv. All tcomillnlliatilons shotul ble naddres'e (d to the Buireau of
l'lai Indlstrx. \ S. ID)eptifenlnt of oAgricu'lture. Washington, D. C.
Ap)p)r()ved : UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
-mII 1 11111111 I$I
is',, ftr;/
WVASIIIN(;TO.\. 1). ('.. At1.;/ 1. lWOS'.