An improved method of separating buckhorn from red clover and alfalfa seeds

An improved method of separating buckhorn from red clover and alfalfa seeds


Material Information

An improved method of separating buckhorn from red clover and alfalfa seeds
Physical Description:
Shaw, Harry B
United States -- Bureau of Plant Industry
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry : ( Washington D.C. )
Publication Date:

Record Information

Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 29621194
oclc - 48872575
System ID:

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    List of Illustrations
        Page 4
    Main body
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
Full Text

I I'1 ;A\ I AN 'I L A N ,i. :t!:i


t,/,l~ll )l FROM 1K'D ClOnV\ll



i (*irc. I W -(s

/ _

,t ..

'*. ..o,


Pat/iiolgijst and 1')I.'ioloqfi'lt, ail C'hiif of Buraut, Bleverly T. Galloway.
Prtiitoloqfist (and P'hysiioloffist, mnid 4 .sistfmt ('hirf of BrUI( u, Albert F. Woods.
Labl orai torl/ of P111anti Pathoilo(iy, Erwin F'. Smith, Pathologist in Charge.
In f l)is.Sa(8 of fruits)it. Merton B. Waite, l'athologist in ( h i _-..
Labornloril of I''ortst Pathologpy. Haven Metcalf. Pathologist in Charge.
T) uck ('ropil Ihisass and I'lanit DisTiti' .ut'r(a, William A. Orton. Pathologist in Charge.
P'latt Lif' Histortia Inrststiiations, Walter T.. ', ,-r l'i'...I.'. in (Charge.
Cotton Brcil( It >ici.stigiatolns, Archibald D. Shamel and Daniel N. Shoemaker, P'hysiolo-
gists in Charge.
Tobacco Inrc Mathewson, in Charge.
C'orti Inirc)stiytiotlis. ('harles 1'. Hlartley, Physiologist in Charge.
Alkoli and II ro1)tlIt liesst5it Plat Bren it lrr11it In r',t)geittioiis, Thomas 11. Kearney, Physi-
ologist in Charge.
S'oil taIrtcriologjy and Wlatir Purif|rIl tioIl In't'stif/lations, Karl F. Kellerman, l'1,% r.,' _t
in I I.I ..'
Bionomic ltir'sxtiflatiolns of Tropical 1inl Subtiropiicil /'i i,,. Orator F. (Cook, Bionomist in
Drug and o1 Poisonous Plaint Ivr.1stil)i)tio/ns1 an1d Tea ('ulture Inrcstilations, Rodney 11.
'Tirne. Physiologist in Charge.
Physical LaboIratoit'/, Lyman .1. Briggs, Physicist in ( i 1 .1
'Cropi T"1,hnolliiy 1nd 1-'ilir 1lhJnt l) nistiyatio)s, Nathan A. Cobb. Crop Technologist in
( I. I -
Tat~roeoic awl KIII; liii! Farm Mi!I(d1cin'1 lit InricsitifatioiS, William J. Spillman. Agriculturist in Charge.
Grainl t'(,stittion.% Mark Al'l'<,d Carlhtol. Corealist ill Clharge.
.Arliilitoii Er/I'rii'IIntal Farmn, Lee 1'C. C'orlett. Horticulturist in ('harge.
V Syugar-ltBcc t lirc.stiotiotits, (Charles 0). Townsend, I'athologist in ('Charge.
1'(cst1)rn A yricultuiral EJ(Itcsion'1 h Si'lItilil )8s, Carl S. Scofield, Agriculturist in 1 ir,-
lbrol-LioLd tlgriciiltuirc h irrs.ti l'tioiti. L. Clhanning Chilcott. Agri)'ulturist in ('Charge.
I'Pomlololiiciil ('Collt(c'tioni (Gustavus 1. lirackett, Pomiologist in I I1,.i -..
Field tnrcs)igatio)s in Plitolio/ol/, William A. Taylor and G. Harold P'owell, l'omologists
in 'Charge.
'.i'/'rittitiItal (;i'd<'ni (ti)d ro1t 1)ad Edward MI. Byrnes, Superintendent.
Fo l il/It Ncc' iind I'lint litriodltltio/1, lDavid Fairlchild. Agricultural Explohrer in 'Charge.
Forei)o ('Cop llircstiSIitions, ('harles V. Pipler, Agrostologist in 4 1 ir.
Secd Lahlortfori!, Edgar Brown, IBotanist in I 1.,-i.
(Grobit ,t /IIl/irlditationt, .John I. Shanahan, 'Crop Technologist in 4 I I.
,Siuitropiical Laboratory and Gari-dn, Minnmi, Fla., Ernst A. llessey, Pathologist in 1 Iir-.
ltltt Introduc'tionl Ulnrd( n, ('/ico. ('lt.. .\gigust Mayer. l:xlert in ('Charge.
SolitlI TcIr1s (iGardilc, Biroo, In0sill/, T(.r., Edward ('. (Green, Plomologist in ('Charge.
('otton ('CiltI)) I tarms'i d l('1r/ Ilr)rw'rN' ('ioopi'fOtif'( Dcii)instrutiol WIork, Seaman A. Knapp,
Special Agent in Charge.
Sccd /ishlribttlion iDirec(ted hy Chief of Bureau), Lisle M,,rrison, Assistant in G(,neral

Editor, T. E. Rockwell.
C'hif C'lt(rk, .James E. Jones.
ICirc. 21

(Ci() I IT NT .

I ntro(i ict ion ........ .... ... .. . . ........ -........-...... .
Thi jmcihl ii,,u ) property o, I krl sffI... .o........................... (Coati fa, b tikh,,rn sr vcI s after iiisteninh tlnt'I ... ..... ......
T InI-( d ry Saim II-t I Id o I <>l14 M'f (PI rot i4i I n . . . . . .. . . . ................ 7
T ih ves or s rcfn,, s ,,i ...-,,...-.i.. ,t .. .... .... ...... ............ S
Alfalfal or r ,l clover sc,-,l in th rntiles . - - - - - -
I'The kind of staw ldust t use . . -................... ............... 10
D rv Stlnl or road-iinsl i tlth nl ................... ......... ............... .
\Vet sit\\ sI t i tit l .I .. .. . .. .................. ... ........ .... . I1
A I alternative- i ttIht ..IIit-tII- . . I.. .
W ot S.and 11i14 1 h l .. ........................ ......................... .. 1
A \ -O ltillative l cirtll oh .......... ...... .. ....... ................... .. I
M otll(l of S,'|>aratiot nolt injt]6roiu t10 C'lo\+r Mn1 ;Ifall+:fa Is . . . ...... . 12


I(. 1. Typical plant of uIckhorIn ( Piiooiqp) IIIceol t,, L.) ................------------------.. 5
2. Seeds (Iof alfalfa (,,); seeds of buckhiorn t() ).......................... 6
;. A alfalfa seeds (a); normal ibuck horn seeds (h) ; immature or abnormal
bluickhorn seeds ( ) . ....................... .................. 7
4. Iuckhorn seeds c(oated with a -rade of sawdust too coarse to pass
through a No. 22 eish () similar seeds coated with sawdust passed
t1ii.'i a No. 2'2 imesh and from which very tine particles have
been screened out (,)i; similar seeds coated with very tine sawdust
(c); similar seeds coated with white sand (') ..................... 8
5. Perforated sheet zinc for sieve to separate average grade of red clover
and alfalfa seeds. l oles one-fifteenth inch ... ...........---.......--- 8
6. Box screen designed Iv)y the writer, within interchangeable sliding frames
for various sizes of mesh. Suiges-ted for the use of the farmer who
mav raise but a few acres of clover or alfalfa .-..................-. 9
7. The same screen shown in (I, ) with the frame withdrawn to show
construction .................................................... 9
S. Mixed sawdust passed through a No. 22 mesh (a) sawdust of same
grade as 0 but with line articles (c) sifted ouIt thIrough a No. 36
meshli (I) (the grade which shouldI be used); tine sawdust sifted
from 1,; too I.,i',. sawdust (- ........... .............. ------------ 10
9. Fescue cliaff ( ); buickhorn seeds coated with chaff (b) ............. 11
10. -mall seedl balls, each being a buckh orn seed to which alfalfa seeds
clin .-.-.........................---------------------------------------------------------- 12
1 Cirt 2 1

11 l *. I ::0 )

A.\ IMPIO'"Vi"D1) ),1T1,l0))lD OF SEPARATE;\
t(kiII \X I IK()\I RO liD) (IkOVEIK

M aNiii' vm ietit of \(i, cd' ar: c I 'e or It.- c( IIII Io ilv flolli l in clovi I
,Indil alfalfa. A niillo l'. the'(' iion im L- ItMOv, COiin II i (Q, inorc ieio s
Hlim)l luckli()1,11

(iil 'n i b fii i / t /.>* i- a
Ikiow ni ;is lI I i'li- "
pl]ilian iita ril)-n'r'i,-,
.)ill i )w rt a
perei ilial I p lii
Sli.., 1) nur11 )alize. l
it'r ll cl r i t. rv a t 1
froin it oi)(>. Itv .i li/ t /
fniil t'mlv and\ *\ S' C
canii 1ot l be era dfi-
c'a t (tI l I t\vII W I,_'
Iclilsae li leave j( I

I I e' (I 's
t' i" a I I1 tt1 lor> (U '
t o iY ],:l r !tiiiid "2,1*1Jw

14 (l'J411' 1t 1h m ;11 s1I
Tl )i-e o (f red c](Amer i

ai '1d alfa lf i Iit.*. I
,"1 al* V;1" V 1()y Ito .,, I. *1 '{'i ~i.u. i t'T i~kl .,, ././-,,^,., i,,,,,, .^ "

l It i) l Il I l i 4 I I I Ili 1- (, t A* 1 4. icl I* I..o,1
actcriM ic.g For tl" (]ii- I i it li- liilli rl 1crto -li-1 t'o iltd iiilprac W;1ili
1to 1 ]);11 atc tlit' ,-cod- If I4 1 iil frl\ n lli o1 .4 1d -fI. V I I Ian ;i lil fai
4 l' l crq instl rt 'ir i s t I I 11. \V4' i| A\ .-i l; i h1 l I' M, SIIi;ivI
IImlt] rql~iio !11 w o k tiwt ; I s~tlis(';it'ry i 'lh nl "I' I'r r*i I II-r Il liiirii f 1il- -I'lii'


Lv means of any of the methods or machines in use. M,.-t other weed
eedis may l)e cleaned out without much trouble, owing to differences
between them and( clover seeds in one or more particulars.
Many trials were made in the Bureau of Plant Industry with the
best known
1 S * ty1) es of
to #, 41e e a I i I I
}* t cleanjiir
8* 9 In a c hines,
hbut they
t ^ S failed to ef-
,-ft - fect a satis-
a" factory sep-
J ration of
t1) it bcckhorn
rJg "* ,,,,^seeds. Ex-
^ 1 pe rinments
4 o were then
u nd(Iertaken
Fi(. 2.-Seeds of alfalfa (a) ; seeds of buckhorn (b). (Natura size.)
to work out
an efficacious method that should be inexpensive and available alike
to the farmer and to the seedsman.
The only point of sufficiently marked difference between l)bulckhorn
and clover seeds seemed to be the well-known mucilaginous character
of the former. This mnucilaginous character is possessed also by the
seeds ()f peppergrass (L<,piJdint 1 rur.,q i L.) and false flax (('Nm''-
;mui sdat,'i, Crantz). The mucilage forms a comparatively thick.
glossy, transl)arent, external coating on the normal healthy buckhorn
seed and is very absorbent of water. When moistened the seed
l)ecomes much swollen and very adhesive. A very small percentage
of Ibuckhorn seeds is found to be nonminucilaginons; these are immature
or albnormal seeds and possess low vitality.

The idea si,,,,-ted itself that after moistciiiii thle seeds and thus
developing thlie adhesiveness of the buckhorn seeds, an insoluble sub-
stance in a fine state of division might be mixed with them, and that
a portion of this substance would adhere to thle buckhorn seeds. The
latter would thus be increased in bulk, surface friction, etc.. and
light then be separated from the clover or alfalfa seeds by means

clover. The results have I een so saltisf;ctory t'iht it is deemed wise to present
hemi lIrietly for the infornintion of farmers and seedsmen. An al)plieation for
;i pate reli tlil.he processes il..-i il I.,l to permit their general nlil unnrestritedt( use
l y lie imlilic has been tiled.-I. T. (GALLOWAY, Cli(cf of Blfura (.
I ric' 21


. ll4 u )114 4 t le tLe 444lii 44i 1 tV\*I)( (O' (seed .(W'l I1l-lv'.. X'V('li I>\X hi ll4d -I\ '-,
T ilt, p d1 ( l4 l it Iw I aII -e \\,wl it the jle\cepl ilt 41 a ; vi alev iiimall | 4

cew (, tli tI Ihluclimt lh'441--1ll ltl i-ty,

Te e th od wt k tl141 hl'". i ri n pvl a e;r lw I)- ti t tI"Iiti

1xat! h. l'- K ii'; Iltls (fi t ; ii t'iiile l)U'k t'ri s

\\Tin1 2i li t o rlke d t o ut o tisile priii il nexp4 a e ns ll -lt ered
\d itio'l' -ailx xi iii-ltla'n if t he l il iix l +', f til tile -et inl a artii t

th i'i, he i ealilnd arrXTiied a )II wl it h tilie l mtliV ).lllll tiIrc xllliii *111 itll-
illUSP0 () 1V I i with hiand 1i -i v and (llr

t1' 144 111 [ i-t-e-- ,ix~ Ili ~l~i ie 444. it4l xx~>++, ithll~ii Th4 ax 11i Itiill;" Illl i t l;lt
1 accil'silbli- to everYi folir\er a: d 144dii) 'ul ii -iI l ii'a. liil ,

T1 ile -llfa 4 1i. red cl ver sieed, i kserit- h. 1 I -ild i l -z io a reilovee1d
with Watlir of about room It lrea well stirred III l-edt

wetaIIll lrlie e ds tit tiif id iie s d a e llo d los d ilt
waite ol i ve m111h 111 e7i.' it, tieil(, ter it 6lt)i F. (w m\\r 'll+dt 1t.. o o e .i t
'inhte i ti iile' Ilr\o , ll pe t ee water 1,1 thenall ined o, l
t(liomrmig v. Tist" f1:1Y h lie i do e with ii v (oWmo 'tra ie l il vi
of about 2'2 meshecs to tliw Inch. The twioiA ,ec' ;aretheni .'czlttered
Into dry v ;Iwdiis 11( an tliorml-Illv mixed 11111t hc (l ccsed- f:1ll apa)rt
frecky anld no) smal 'ed IVas'e remai. This,- iiiixill-' nia\" lie done
wIth tli liziliks. with a1 ra:1e oI llhe barn llo ort with :mY suItable
\ppairalu 1. hi 1at v lhe accomplish ed In lwo m. tilire m1111e4. whele
It will lhe found that tlt, sawdn't llas ah'orbd the five 'u-face
Ilu-i'llire Irml tlhe zlhlt*fa': s-eed'. and1 tlhat all Ihe] luclv-
horni ecdl llavt, lheconie coaleI(d with (lhe 'awdil't (fi-Ir. I l.
The propowt ion ()f d ryv 'eel' 1to haditsiil e a' follow.' : S e
one part : -awdn'~t. fourll mr five p n prefe'rabl)y tive parl- it' r'n u
.sawdli't ht, n'ed.



Two .-treens are.e requiredI to ef'eet the separati o of blickhon -eeds
anid awdtust from alfalfa seed-: an upper one (of -heet zinc. perfo-

Fi(;. 4.-l uckhorn seeds coated with a grade of sawdust too coarse to pass through a No.
r22 mish : similar soeds oateid with sawdust passed through a No. 22i mesh and
1f',lll which vory line particles hav, lr(-1 scI''rened out 1Ibt similar seeds (o teod with
very fin-, sawdust ,c) similar seeds coated withi white sand (d). (Natural size.)

rated with roulid holes of one-tifteenlth-inch diameter (ii.'. .), and
aI lowe( i olnc of No). 22? iesli wire cloth. The mixture of seeds- and saw-
dust is fed conItinouslyV upoll)n the upper screen. The sawdust and
free seeds pass through to the lower screen, and the coated buckhorn
seeds are retained. The sawdust alone will pass through the lower
screen, leaving thlie clean a1l-
falfa seeds to h)e dl'-(ll 1Qd
Iv that -crel lInto aniiy siit-
Ia]Ae rt'ceptacle. Care hoiuld
hee taken t hat too g41reat a Iuan-
ity of the lmiixture is not fed
JL-JL J1) X m 10 upon the upper screen at once,
VlE ;. P. rforatod sheot zine for S iovo to I ss
'1 rate al \'n1'11W1 .'ad o)f rod l'ox r ia I wl (.l case -ole of the less
:i,.,;ia sed.,. Ilole- one lit eeliut inch, lihavily coated buckhorn seeds
l'l,,I .uie,.) ,1may lhe thrust through. or the

sawd-viust may lie ruilledI off : and the blickhOlrii seeds allowed to escape.
TI ..sepa 'lal1tion iav 1a h ,e utlertakei as soon as a tholrou,,,th mixture
of thlie -ee -s and saw(lus-t Ias bl)eel eli'ected. The two screens may be
u,-.ed together in a light flramle siuch a'- miay be conllstrulcte(d bv any
cart( eiterl or by thle farmer himself. They Imay be used in a seed
Cir- '-21

M'|);i~l 40l' ]rill -MIW 'ItCl lhoA :1- 111:1 -1diow 11 ti 21ffii 1'> atnd i
tih 4I44 ('4-11 il1 111;:1 v

d lli -t X\viIlt :1 f:111
:1l11d 1441 IX w -:vI-I 4
ti('> (l l-'t11 4 w i't

-creI*((1. T he1" 1 () -t

'411111 ol I 'tI 10 1 1
XX-114! 41eaner 4:11 141
C ( ltI I I I I ll ItI I III o I
fill) a (l 1 h!' ,- I lit,

(0 I t V l a 0 1v I, t I .1 0 11 1; I; -x .rri.1n Il.svn l l t i I 'r, wril1r. ulil n hl 1h.-i i-r
S h o u ld llI t \ ) 1 o f i" r'1 .... i ,r .... i .( .. I I ), .(, I.,i
I' I l t r lo 1 1.1 f I ,Iw t\'t r iii r w lIn !n1 i v r 'li I ~ ,1 f',"A ;It I
1,41 1 1 1 I 1 (' 'l l l w uI, v, I'r a, r ; I Ii l ;
lI t I \ tIat IIiIIf-
;!lcs liy" inicani- of" iUK.lined l>Iiin^, r<'l,,, lll~ iit,_," ;nmlf _h >. :;iinl ;ni ,,-,il

Ix l I t \v I4 4c1 111,14 -ta v rv144Xl MIlI 1 111 'Il4" IN IX4 wl1\I"I
lA in,' inolio FA ll FA s l lZ 1t sl oI l I d lir-ll I nI I'm iiK 1 T" -it'l ,il l t lAIn

I 1411I I14 I i'1 111 I 41 '4 I\14 44IIIIIII(t t ( II() I()I1411 1111'114 4 14 14 1 I1C4 V
1--w' a I 1 c 1ii 44! w ill I \lt'lct a vI y t I I. l I:, 11--I ara( I \ 1 ll 4, l ic l;I I':iI

I I ti l'-1 '4 ) 41 ': I '41
AI.I'AI. I,-'A tUl; I~l l) II.(\1I-:1; SI Il1S IIN *TI\'( l wIIAI) II

IH- (',ii~lliycl tfor tlin- worvk, it i- ad ~i -cd (ihat llic ,'lovr or alfaltfa

IIl-) lc 4 1ir-14 -~' 1 2ara114'
1 I I II d'r f I 4 1 i' I I

I 14 11414' 441' ; 4114' I I -o
_iV **1444 i ii ,' 2 4' i 4i4 I h

wil, l re pr ',cnT~i willa
T'4ill' 114 14 po 411 i 1 o1

-'4l l r al4 :1 i' r I l i
Iw 4 I I 14E ir l o I I I I 1141

-11 11 4 1 141 1 1 41 1 1 441)(
I~~~~~ Ii w4 4 I I4 ~4 )1 114 411-4'
-1 III'Ic I4 A 14 .1 I\ I I 4-4 II- Ik~ tII a w I44 It14 H\ 11411 Z11444 1 .( 144'
"I 'e I liC r IIt 4 114 '. 1' 1 /111 "', I :i1r' 4':I 1 11' 11 v1h101'II 2 l 1 141
4-4 pa rl t cd from \li i
-liualhrr gTi'ihr 1>\ tlin -lin',lo/inc .^h'\'c alrreadyl lnii lt ~liwcd. ;:iid t'rom
(lie; largert~l ^*aT dch tllIr ,,_'!i al -iliil:.ll -lV(> ]l:i lim ,," /i -l oiH'-liinrlcciitl i

F:I 1'A :V \TI N (; 1;1 *K l0 K N I'1;((M I 1.< I1 ,\ N 11 \1.1. \1,1 \


of an inch inll diameter. If the seeds are thus divided into two grades
very few clover or alfalfa seeds will be carried over with their bnick-
hlorn seeds. The old methods cause a good deal of waste in this

Sawdust front any kind of wood may be used. Some of that used
by the writer was miixed sawdust from a carpenter shop and some
was from a planing mill. All sawdust too coarse to pass through
a No. 2:2 mesh should be discarded, as well as that fine enough to pass
thIroulgh a No. 3(i mesh- (fig. S).

G l .1


i i" ,

FI(;. S--Mixed sawdust pas-ed through a No. 22 imeh (I ; sawdust of same grade as
1 buit with fino pailtidles "() sifted ot throiah n No. :(; mo, h ib) Itlhe i'de' which
should lhe ,used1 ; tilln, sawdust sifted from 1b: too fll(,n sawdust ( (Nantral size.)
Mr. (. V. Piper. of tie Bureallu of Plant Industry, sgI.'_,--ted the
11u- of tlie chaff of various glasses. such as fescue and redtop. as beiifI'r
exceedingly light, absorbent, and of the proper size. This was tried
anld (found excee(dingly successful. Whenever available it may be
usied in preference to sawdust (ig. 0). The chaff should be used
in exactly the same manner and proportion as the sawdust.

This metho(l is not consid(l'red quite as good as the preceding.
lRoad dust and sand are not nearly v as absorbent as tihe materials just
discussed; consequently, a larger p)rol)portion of them must he used.
-ayV about one part of seeds to( eight of sand or dust. Furthermore,
ieintg so nmich heavier than sawdust or chaff these materials entail
more labor. However, thie( same method is applicable to thlem. All
sand(l or (dulist too coarse to pass thii,,, LIl a No. :,I miesh should ble dis-
carhded. as well as that which is so line as to pass through a No. 5)0
mesh (see fig. 4. d).
I 'ire. 21

SEPAEA\TIN<; lt'CKIIHOkN F O'1M \I.OV l! .\I) 11,,.\ I.I\ Sl .lH 1 1


I',w foiir i orts of -,,,,,lltl-.t plr I mr( ,l ;two (l<-.,ril t>l. lv p rl, t ,,f- m l-.
amii onle )airt o(d l .all 1)\ iie -t' S iiikle (lie -;i\\'lll 1ili
,rater. -tirrii; (,r illixili iliianwlv ilh utIltil the sawdullt i- u1111ftqrinlY
11oiwtened. All ordinli*\ ^v atclrilly [)ot maI;Y ihe ll-d I'm. thin-[)ip .
M ix iI tlhi ,'ct, ttm, oliylvY. 0'oiii --.- tlhe mi -i~t with- Oiwl lhr


r -

Vti;. 9.- Fa ; I cbi klori sco>(t coaited wit l mf fi t i ll), iN;ilnr:il i/ i

ha;nlds or :1 shioXel alld let it '-talll or a;m.ttilo fifteeni nillil'l- -o iitha
tihe Ibuck'llorn 'eed-l li;IV lIave time to thloro,,:ldlv ;aooIl) 11iotl l'n and
h!eco!lle adhiiesiv+. "l'l l'i break up) ti maI~( and twp cad mt[l I ,t' (r,, :1,
faill. in a cillIrr'ie lt o air. or i a :1 ,eed dri'lr uI itil lpile 1l1". W hl!
dry, e-aratle by aI iY of tl IllemItllod boI-ve lde-crilbdl.


Sawdist, I eight part-: s-eeds-.
the dry leeds alld drY -awdius-t
a:d lmid ix tholoughllv. a-, ill I le
ie for

four )arts: XX water, tI ree I)a rt-. Mix
toLet'lher: thelle -prlillkle til- \1 ater ill
p)lro() .ess jI It de-eril( ed. LS epaI rae It -

Proceed -xactly a, with tlhe wet s-vawdusllt Imlethlod. i-iln, thle -a:Ie
proportiol-, lhInt \,-ith perhaps rather lss- water.


hoistenl the seeds. ;s in llthe wet sawd\vlut mrlethod: drai thllem tlhio-
,' l : place thle in I ll :1 plerV ious ve--el Iof aillV kill l. Ill tll -'e e,
lerlrileitts ; plece of ipelrflrated -Ileet zinIe w;is co'llverted ilto. a cvlin-
I l, rc 2']

, -' -*


< ap
drical ve-sel. IPack tIw i eeds into sluch ia vessel (or into shallow trays 9-_
]a1in wire-d]ot)h b)ottoms)n- of No. 20 miesli, or finier. Set these recep- 0-
iacle, I (fore a fan. in a (culrreiit of warni air, in the open air and L C4-
0 ____
un-hl. or in a seed drier inilil tle alfalfa seeds fall apart freely. >_Go
WIlen moholderately drv. screen them t ii.n1 sieves as mentioned in M
des.cri inig lie drv sawdust method. If the seeds are made too dry N _
1 lie clover will he too easily detached from tile buickhliorn. The alfalfa z cn
seeds will pass through the
S sieves. )but the lbuckhorn
_____ seeds will be found to have
t collected about themselves
a small number of alfalfa
..- 'seeds, thus forming small
4 seed balls (fig. 10), and
Slthliese seed balls will not
.-a ipass, through the sieve.
The loss of good seeds
FI,. Id. Small s(..., Ills,. each Ieing a Iickhorni bv this ll1ethod obviously:
seed 0 which alfallfa seeds clind. (Notural'
si,- will depend on the num-
ber of biiuckhorln seeds pres-
ent. lit the g-ood seeds hus tilrown out mally be saved afterwards by
one of lie other methliods if desired. This method is the simplest aid.
asi le from tlie percentage of alfalfa seeds (liiging to the buekhorn
seeds, thle chleapest to operate. Ordintarily this loss will be froinm 5 to
10 per Celnt.
In order to Ie able to a.-sure the readers of tills- paper that the red
clover and alfalfa seeds cleaned bv tliese ilethliods are not injured,
germiaiona tests were made withl both treated aIn untreated seeds.
No dlit'erence in tlie average germinilability could be discovered.
Sli(e thie operations subsequent to tlhe allpplication of lhe sawdust,
icha. 4etc.. are identical withl ordinlarv -seetl-cleaningl processes, other
ilmplrit ies will be elimllillated at thle same time.


4 'i'ci 1(1// of A<1 qrVI'l/'
W AS ,INGTON. I). ('.. 11,1'Clt I/S,
I C'irn "21