Timothy rust in the United States

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Title:
Timothy rust in the United States
Physical Description:
Book
Creator:
Johnson, Edward C
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
United States -- Bureau of Plant Industry
United States -- Government Printing Office
Publisher:
G.P.O. ( Washington )
Publication Date:

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Distribution of the rust of timothy
        Page 7
    Description of timothy rust, relationship and physiological specialization of timothy rust
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Aecidial stage and nomenclature of timothy rust
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Winter survival of timothy rust
        Page 12
    Methods of distribution of timothy rust
        Page 13
    Resistance of varieties of timothy to rust
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Summary
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Index
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text
U. S. I)EPARTI'11ENT OFV AGRICULTURE
BUREAU OF PLANT IND'STMR- BULLETIN NO. 22-4.
i. 1r. (;~wAk ok.iV o. ~~f P urtau.
TIMOTHY R{UST I X TI llj t UNITE\ 'STATES.
ET)WARTI) C, JOTEVFNN,
Pu/ho~lfjq '., in ( hm-rop Jl 1), Wo Hrk,
ISSULDu Au(,tST 4, 1911,

W 11JN(~TO~
1~A1I.

V







U.S l)j,11A\TMFN 0IV '
B17~REAU OF PLANT 1BDUSTR1Y
b. F, A A W A U,

R. I Ct I L'I' U 1\I
III I.'-"TIN' No. 221.

"H1 j011j\1 T rij/2l \I''l'i ~ ~ ~ rI2
BY
vl1\\ P1H I 1 Ji N'~n

I S 1, 1, A i "1 4, 19 11

I \S,~ HI 0




BUREAU O F PLANT INDUSTRY.
Chiefof P~ ii u, BEVERLLY T. GALLOWAY.
A ,,stant ('h] ,:,) Jurtalt, %V11,1JAm A. rAY LOR~.
Elitor, E, RO KELL,
Chief 0(lk E o.i ,;.
Mark A.lfred I a hion, O isit ia C'harge.
C. R. Ball, ('haile F- Chamless>, and 11. Bi. Iherr, .Aqiwiits.
Edward C Jo hn 'io n, i'
11 J. C. U in liger anld 11. F. Iflaiie ard, A s,ta ut A rinoistie.
C'ecil Salmton. 'hy"Ioloyi '.
Jolin F. Eo s, Fim Soptrmtii ult.
A. A. l'otl er, A .,Isifinttil//
E'. L. Ada'ii', MleY,' Champilin. V L. ( orly and 11. V. Ilarlan, Scenntific Asistants.
11. It Btabcoc, Csislai.
L. C. Burnett, 1'. V Cardoii. J1. Mitc hell Jeakm ,, ldE. Leighiy, and Clyde McKee, Aqcnus.




ILITIER 11 TkASNIFF FAL
ptilitimi-..; Bulein~ V,.221i ld (it, ()f 1 tiite B11atew l tha')[11h-
h~~~~e(JIIIC ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I 1i)il144taIlpe hei n eelc\ a-. i 1*111tedxa-.a )11
(h)n v n Mr. e i.niwa d C tdei ,ii pite 01 e (d, Griln llivf i g,11iIl, 11l
l:1l() near .; fiiirst~l IP)F (1 1 11i 1 e li lt I ,* lIee xx I I e 2- ,IIe I
beclm Ii uxr ll anti lpn ddlllx iii rec( Il-. vv 'I F iti [1 ii- 91e Hi i
da~( ors txeiltiei ill I he eX 1Y he,111- pa ; 'i e l lill-- mpl di-n pei-.-e-liea
FartS('it linux I. W a"111- 1 it t (m I ii S, ll. ien-.lp Ii (li e bvc imi olc i i v .I
CIIIcIIS.' CM Nie rabt l a t illhria 141 4( ii lla I\ -- "iltiea l-i ; ti 111t e (I .
il t iols ol e ille Il l m Itl 1-r leIi e .0 o )I ili d i are i'a1v.-
1111d v rielies to rutl.1 is, al"'( Ieeid.
AVNI. A. ~iol







IJW l I I N w i I I t I ,II(iI o 1%I1-
Tip1k 11IlD..
I f t 1 (I-t . 1




Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013

http://archive.org/detaiIs/rustinuniOOunit




TI1 1 liI Nl'T'I' 1)N THE I VI.N [[LI 4ATES.
DISTRIBUTION OF THE RUST OF TIMOTHY.
~i st h o f tit h v mowiw wplm in". thi niniv v ns
nintondP c~o~ ~iIitvmi~ o~in llrbu y"Onm I\\a Munl'iit ath piVl'.iN
Neat lo i'antIvi- loxt indx t h F ng i ta r tio Uitai 141 )a I a'. (IeSSS)
lt of1I-(( lihiwh l was lm~ariidu \en nsing l~ndilrn1& u n myo i 'n :th,
exlwnn t i ntsa n t thi le lot exp' lTin ~ttt s tat in th 4,1 0)m
IS91 t o VRWt lit I nia tru it on n to L ivea 6,nI ail i ) i t vio1
atnn) igo lna t 1w 11 i (muntry and t wri ti a, be ltl 1aleto filtidit ally
Iii ~lle ti n i vt ring xx), Ptl'Iatl i 'w iai! Liila iir
x A ,rngt 10 i nioal A rnt il I n a7i a ptv-tca u isi
Viglla an Onaro Canda In P0 hsrxt \i i(sr
xx hk Iivdon isoin and Minson !i H19ju a
conilm1 in ninvv (f 1 t ts 1111ilo nlil odt( a




TI.NloTIY RUST IN TfIE UNITED STATES.

DESCRIPTION OF TIMOTHY RUST.
The timothY rus~t is verV similar in yenerat appearance and mor-
phlo~i( l clharacteristlcs to Pac(,iai gratin~i~is Pers. on wheat. It
at acks lwth leaf anid stein, forming long, vellowvish-brown uredo
ptist tiles amt (Imrk-bro-wn to black teleuto pustules, which rupture the
epidermis. At, times it also attacks the head, often preventing the
format ion of seed. The uredospores are most p~rev~alent, while the
teletitospo res tire less a bun I ant.
,me uredlospores are 1S to 27 in lenth and 15 to 191t in "vidth;
the teleutospores, 38- to 52 t in length and 14 to 16luil in idth. rhis is
the saime. range as that of the correspondingy spores of Puccinia
gram itt Is Per's. on wheat, b~ut the variation is not quite as great as in
the wheat rust. The teleutospores are constricted in the miiddle and
have a much thickened, roundly or pointed apex and pedicels of
mnedium leiigth, and closely resemble those of the typical Iaccinia
gri n i/s Per..
RELATION SHIP AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SPECIALIZATION OF
TIMOTHY RUST.
Inl 19 tti and 1909 Mnoctilat ion experinleuts onl various grrasses wer'e
muile rtiikeni to Vasifgt on. 1I). C ., to (leteruine the relitionshil) of
the rust of Itillotliv to rp'ts of other llost ; ill t his (couti-V and to
ats(l dIl XXht e r not it is the same form is. that wichocusi
Eulrop~e. Collect ionis were made tit the Arlingtoii Experimental
Farm, andl fiesli, imteriatl in the utredo stage as kept noming iii the
gfreelhou,(,; (it Washimgt on, 1). C. All in-oculat imis were made on
yotlli(g, fre-shl len;vcs of th ll 10- plants growing- i po)t, ruTe plants
Were kept, mist for 48 hours after inocidaion by placing(" thle pots in
mloist clial-1lbers collsisting of' large bell jars placed tin pans (oult aii-tig
sand andl a litt le water. i this w av a thin fidu of wAater sooi coft-
dlensed onl t le leaves and remnained as long( as ile( Iplailts were co0veredl.
This gaNve idteal comdit ions for spore gerimat iou a lid for intection.
The results of t hese inocula t F )u are rel)ortea it, Tie i.
2 1




,rA"L I IpT '"n' W w"W q,"' / / r-~~
Nw
4/. .4 2
o 21
ru l r t c w l ra/ti.j1) 11 1a s fjl (7 t o M
ino uaio Strol
NOW 6ti fG och nsI lot1oo12wt(1 2
hu -lti/ s wX1nttu d ~ N(i o 1 nm"ai i) n
Po o p("s (1 m i 7inm ltm ) ntuai s = W
Eri~s 21 ini-iaine prm nNih A ittnA tn
St~~~ofi' 0~~1,ila d A lm d b r1 N mitltm i all
)2. J Oi4Ek
KV Of. Bul 22 -11

HFIATHINSHIP %NI) MYSHMMOMI, SMIAMATION.




T1110MIly HYIUST IN THlE 'Ni IJ) STATES.

OX Wf' I i 10 1 t It I lI I It ,v h coi t ckide tha tt thle rust Ii the 11nited States
Alld lho rflt III EII101)(' 1- UIeniclI, and1( tIh st'ItenUlnt, fly Erlhssol
-Iii 1, no I\ wetl fixod spe)cie~s is silbst antizit ed. Alt hou-11 t imothy
I -i !, ;lll be tr.111forre to Ava ,;at~ w, Eriksson I and C'arle-
101 1,, 1 oi IhtIII'(1 l()d of1 Pi~celml gr amli ar c ( ac( Eikss.
:)ild 1lim. call not, be l1n,(le to (,row oil t ii1lothyv. This r'ust, however,
III 1>1) VJA I)( tins1f1erred to~ D(10.111~s1*" go(raa 'Ind111lrh ali(iC
* .a/ 11111io) IV i.1ist als ti( insfers to thIiese h ot (Table 1 ). hs c
-ASl iref we, z1Iithollgi not idet'lticnl, 1 Iv innin characteristics in
011 111411, Whil~ i lidica t cS, that, thr li''p rol 1b L is a very close relatioll-
Iw~j Ltwxxen the twxo.
A smiiall numbhler of' exp~eriments to test whether or not till timiothiy
r!- hsI~ e t inaisflrel b I ) lle'nwli ofl br'hidg hosts to various cereals
wh'c zlr f P' ot, ,(I ressfil I v inifect ed (1i1'ct ly ff oul t illot Il Nvwere tried
ziit was f oilI Id th ldt bV- IIIII~p _1/ 1 P1)1ti( n~ C s at brid(,ilg ho(st the
r! I- t -;sily It tal sferl- d to Ilowd( t oudlo (41 t imes ill 101 trials) by
ilslfl 1t 4?1( ('0 lor it t rall sforroto' to1 Hord Coi qC vl r (twice In 10(
ur als'l anrd todUI Triic1111 tfar (ol'( ncet trials); and bLN using
1) I ijl,, ys m #/fIlwf1( it tran s Iervoi to TI'I'llm 'I'l/gar (o nce In .5 t r'ia Is).
BYx dw ist, of~0 thet Iwiid -111, hosts tlie rust und~olibtedlY could be made
to~ t'ninsfer to 11il111 -I'1ss('s oIt which(1 it wxill Iot (,rmvx who'll 'ominilr
olrrimrll tillothyx, h]t 011 whichu it 111;'(ilt continue to ('row after
stichl a t".zillsfe'. Tkit, til- to some1 e'xtenlt tlkie', place In nature is
V01 'V pr'obab)le1,Iii i('til, III( ths tIt,-oh with ic((enlt e'xpe'ineiits of a
sin i11r niatulre onl tIit(' ritsts of -rainls," tho mlO ilcli ught (ill the pos-
4iIle origli1 of man x11 ol t le so-called p hlisilmtn-1it~ species" of rust.
XECIDIAL STAGE AND NOMENCLATURE OF TIMOTHY RUST.
"Ille w'eld al stage of t le rust is not de'finit ekV known. Eriksson
andJ I selling noticed til.lt tile timotliv Iii thc ieigfl ii )(wi o)0 of b ar-
011I('s xx its Ilot aff'cted whxx ile ot her graisse's i thle saine Iocni v wxere
!.! 1SI (. fl twxo tr-i'ls 111 1891 th'eV \x 'ere uiimble to securet inifectiOll
m111 t"Iotil x v ith Iw ec iospont from Pcri hri~ s rii/eja'is. Ili 1 892-3
1111;,o Bchcr 1 11uqqa's xxel-' obtainred byv t bent alter. Inoculation
xxitil "eleiltospores (Ii tiiniotfiv mist, once InIInine, trials, anld t hat ill oly
M lace l')f illocilLitioll against 92 place(1s ilocidlated i ~th negative
Osldt, I i 01w1 positive rc'ult UIV lv me beenl duie to accidIentll
.liIfootjon fromt smile ot her sou~r(e, ns t xx'o leave, (ill t ho' s 11110 b)ush
%L,! xi iff J. lilr-oll El wiCli l n t-d ku"I'. of( lii~i itl iile 1,1;tv, IU x lvljn ti,l
z- 'i-,c' rifi Nit ur \I ~~'lIkj', i. 4,I l, 1, il




M A il I ad l tm i l t Ite an ii~ Iv int111ni 'at.4 .1 t Im .i ii 1 jo11
riu~ l 111c11 ir r' 1 IIIll I 'x.i' i Ith '-'l i i ii 41 I' H I l l nI i lin o
I'llm dm4'l4'l' IIl fI t ,~ O- lal\'' 'II i n,11 ,I' ltlli 1I&r1 VI illc ii i
I 4'.' a lw n mov N4 oh tha Ni '0 npwt v ISV Y .at!1" p
that 4it [iI' A lyi ll i" m e AI "Al (Fll-u %,"1 it P
4.d4 the. cvny rum, shl, Ih44 II, ar ib~ in Aw W &
infvi," t4' lid rh in 1 1 q4 "K h alhla dn r
%v i a k d Iia l t I t lp 4' qj Ia V o p .s i f 1"
() Ini [41 tha ild, rust 1 ,4 to cui ivi I-) sl wii Pin an "o .. N
inld itudr-MA pWQ'4W iq:i.(.M c

J:CIDIAL AND NWFNVAIFHV.




I IAl i i u s41i IN 'niiE : (,I, i i .) sTrATES.

S Ilile Inethod d i1 rereilit~uiat img this rust lit literate ure from the coi-
IlI III grliw; forns is necessry, hiowaever, mnd un-less further experi-
i~i 1lts "'hlit ShIow that it can produce it-, eeldiumlf on the b~arb~erry,
alld mi t it suich exp~erimuents have been p)erformIued, the writer favors
the of u t le spe("Ific namle Paiccin 4't phlei-prat ensis Erikss. and Hlenn.
WINTER SURVIVAL OF TIMOTHY RUST.
Inl 190 )t all effort Nvas 11-lade to determiine how tlie rust, survives the
%vintler at the Arlington Experimental Farm. Timothy plants were
1,01 11ved from the field oni Jami-ary 19 and March 12 a nd wea re immne-
kdtely p)otted1 and placed ill a greenhouse at WasIuhlgtoni 1). C., where
It(\ coill b-11( e Ca~efulY w atchled and any further dlevelopmen~lt of rust
noidtei Tabl e It shows lie results o~tf thI ese experimllent s.
T1' aLE- 11 tS 0l1- of i lr 1 tit, tits oni th( ty ud ii ,ri ol o] 1b, risl t f limothy.
Iiiiwo.l'i
Il l 1~l
li jwi Kesull.

i P),
Jan. 2

Sd.1 .- -,o

1 )11' 111opel~d 1! inl. '?s
d f(' I-it
ex 1~ eltlo
Ni ,jiru m o
ui,Iet mlp d -do ..
Ol! Je, sev -
,il om lx o r,
s i [Js pl il e .dto. .
! wirt t) oii tiii-
per side of one(
leaf, six~ oil
lower.

"idle- of upi-
I. i e of il"
G Mar. 1,i Mar~. 11 Sexianl pustifles
at baseI of orl'
I-iaf.
-7 0 do AO t'llop''11 'I pusi-
I'll- itla of
do, -doi -Un op ilr I ias-
9 i Ao Ao.. . On ) I Ufll lii i Ooil
iouch side of
ono leaf neir
I it).
I0 -do, -.. Le'aaesxitlli sex-
eral unopenedi~i

Pus-tul, -a -r tip
nut uown. three
lu'es at cenite-r
en ri-d.
No rust.
S-'x'er a fre-di opent
oth si:les of
new p- ls
upper si' le uf
let,51 siX oil
lower ntear tip),
11-1'011-,; thl"CO
fie-11 putilles
oil upipeide:11.
there onl lower
iwarcelntvr. to
of It IeTli o1pcenI
I va: f (I rs i ......

ar. 191 No firthue de-I
vel.opllent of
rust -
_,o -. Three fresh p)1 s
t I ls (it leaf.
mole ItI in 2 pe-r
,-etnt of the
, 1 4 I f r oi To
girT mmoaeil ill
xi aer.
wo -d '( open pus-
tilufs oil olle

I leaf.
-.t ii.... No further
velopmrent
rust.
.,to. .. .do. . .

le'-
of

Fe-h. .3 End of Ioif driedl,
I I I I .I I 1;s fre-l
remiuainider (it
A o. No iis t.
.do. ... Le-Iaf cov-ere (I
x% it i b vigorous
I' is tiles~.
(i).. New plisilles
o! one v115igor -
otil l produe-
ill, ,pores.
dlead, no liew
Mar. 25 No further de-
-~eloiieeif of
.Three fresh plis-
luiles oili
and S ,\ eral
fresh pitie
Oil ('3I OS
which Nvere
flecked.
(tio.... Fresh open piit-
iules onl niny
leV VS.
- .- o. No furt her (to
veloplieiit of
rust.
. .do. D~o.

I jal 2oi




spores. At Ailigizt~ in IN hish-~ l nItit pu-stile-s ti ut- grinvxili
rus m in o lium lking t-'lin tilw jii e \ tel ha p. m itn-c( Itli hev ~
Qwe clvr'ttql ti Janitar~v 21) amti i nrc- 13. 1ms uvrNxxte Woind to)
be x iale.
the rut. wx inlers fart litr mirfth hla's wit bven dlemt inihel Noi int it'
light of rn-vitii ~t ti it is. Nito- pn"ndllv 1hat At Ois Ilo tmigli
cited(. As~ shiown by l sp vct'inell" Sent lt tile Ofic (iit of -il t r iv xet-t
int u rr~lil-t(T iri u il than x at the -! A ln-t~em iEx ntilt- it' Fotrmi
linor thy \x iiti'lvt. vttil s-v in Ptltt nnd lINK At.tt-lto t.v
itit t of x th e ion t s i ti a-v i, l i'lt everyI t' itl elt rdy to- I- lite
tte toslpn is arttnr a byal it-al andraltt i felo -dir deu t-cthi~ ll'l
~ist I-vvvntvd. 'Illoymu n oil-t t PAWti mag e if l 0'' i i~ino
t 22*vrr nAs;1r'v h A n)soei ( ohlip av

it V I' I I ( ) I )" ( ) V I I I '.;' I 1 I I l I , I' I I ) N' .




TiMNOT'IIY Rv tsT IN THlE UNTTEI) SI'ATES.

Contsiderabtlle dhaa.-e to the tiMothy cro f)iroi tis p~arasite become
IRICP111- MV 0iily onle miethtod (it present kno~vii can be emlohyed
1t~fs 'twith It prow)t tise of' sitt(ces, anid t hat is tile (levelopmifeft
Of virltries~ of timotiy rv., istitit to rust. Tlo tis end work has
RESISTANCE OF VARIETIES OF TIMOTHY TO RUST.
A lr Opport ulity Avas offIered1 to study lt(e rosistance of varie-
ties of timothiv to rutst and to make selections for rust resistance at
die \.rllingtoni Experimental Farm (lUrig 1908 and 1909, as the
disease wxas plIentiful inl those years. 'Mr. V. J. -Morse, of the Office
of Foragre-('rop JInvestigations, who had charge of tin-othy-breeding
work at, that place, saV,, in an unpublished report:
BY .Julv3:l (I 90S) no l iniothics were found to be entirely free from rust. **
Thie rii~lr(sistanice \ at ijed gre.atlyraing i(from izero to 98 per cent. In some instances
a few small rust spotsc appeared on Ithec ultus and no rust on t he leave es. Several selec-
tions muade no growth at, all, the rust appearing to stunt the growth. In other
instances the plants inade some growilh, but, the production of seed wa s prevented.
In 1909 the rust at tack at the \Arlington Experimental Farmi was even more severe
than in 1908, although the rust (lid not appear to anyx extent uint il the middle of -May.
This severe attack brou-1ht to li-lit the fact that inany of thte strains~ marked "'resis--
ant"' in NOS8 appeared to be much1(1 less resistant in 19W9 It wa, uoti( -eahie, howevcxer,
that die relative re sistance of the different strains was very little different in 1909
froi wvhatI it was in 1908.~
lin 1910 the rust, attack onl the -,tme farmn was not niearly so severe
as lit the two precedlo' years. Under such cotidit ionls tile (listille-
tioti let weeii re,-;st anit anld ntonresistattl strains" is not nearly as well
miar-kd as wheni rusts are abundant. As a result intv strains
failed to retail lit their resistance p)ercenitages the samie relative, posi-
thiol whIich they occupl}ied inl 1908 atid 1909. This corroborates the
expeelcte of tile writer that tile v alue, of rust -resisa ince figir s
obtained iti years wh, n tile rust is not abundant or' at }lace,, where
tite]-list aIt tacks are not, severe is qutestionalble a11(1 shows that the
nloh-tesaken at such times and plcsmay often ]), misleading.
1)epciidable dat a c*an be secured onlyv either, iI -rust years" or
ilt ] lc( wh ere v'igoous rust attacks oc.etir or 'Ire art ificially pro-
dtt1ced everYy ear.,
In t~order to (let erinti wVhethIter ()I not the fi(tures ot)t rust, resist-
11t)(I 010 (led ellt tile fiebt (ltil10 sc1(stIs wheii rutt is auildant are
COMt ptrab~lo to (1 t a seellredl Avlere d ifertiit st raiis are placed under
ideti1 ca ollit iolts .11 tH I tl)jvct ed to artificial inioculationi, experi-
Iltel lts we re tt in d r1aketi ila -1909 ill t le g-reeitihotses at Washington,
I). C Seed of v aniotis st rains of, t itnot lil(s froii thle 1 908 select ions
lit th ft Aiito xpel-ittlut tll Fa in was pait ed lin 4-Iiicl pots.
I FrVOTiaili and Johrion. loc. cit.




t~~i ~ R ASTANC (*')II i II I i VARITtlt I'- (' T IIMY 15it-ip lt~i
phInr orl)\ If" i aiB I~ al" 14 G vIo '.lIa tm ,i"i a
Nv e tIIeIIr ; ci;IiIIdd owe s I i n f 17 tI 21 dav w
Iin I ote r v (alaH *11W PT0"ag of1M W bIfoq
TAL 1.L -71 jW4Wy
15 'Plat in 4,D
It 1-jv o I
Ii2 1-, 7"
121 tn I
.. .. P, 12173
li1 20
17 2.1
12 it ,it
I I n it 2i 1" t)t
212 .....
23 I ,, 10Ii4
22 12




TIMOTHY RUST EN THE UNITED STATES.

the vigor of the infection w~as concerned, the relative rust resistance
of strains as obtained in the field was fairly well maintained in the
,greenliouse exI)eriients and that the differences iln resistant and sus-
cep~tible strains were marked.
Having determined, th~en, that there are wide differences in timothy-
straius with regard to resistance and susceptibility to rust, the probe
lem lit timothy-rust prevention is one of breeding. This may not be
as difficult as it appears at first, since upl to the present time timo-
thies have not been hlily bred and there tire not, only great differ-
ences bet weent varieties but app)Iareiitly* unusual variations within a
variety. Response to selection, therefore, mnay b~e both rapid and
well inarkedl. Stich breeding, however, to be of any value must be
carried on in places~ where the rust is ab~undIant or where either natur-
ally or artificially a rust attack occurs every year.
SUMMARY.
Timothy rust was reported ill the united States as early as 1882.
It was reported from Iowa inl 1891. From 1891 to 1906 1o Dien-
ti()n of the parasite has beeni found. In 1906 the rust became epi-
(temic a1t thie Arlingtou Experiment iA Farm, niear Wasillug~toni, A. C.,
alnd. since thien ha,- been found to b~e widespread, hiaving beeni reported
from AMaiue to On-tario and north~ern Minnesota in(l south to Iowa,
Kenltuckv, and Virginia".
Timot liv rwst is sinila m- ill g.eieial al~lpearance an(I morphological
cliaracteristics to IPvcrim~ gramt i,; Pers. on whleat.
Inoculation exjperimuellt xN it li t imot liv rust at WXashiingtou, A) C.,
shiow t I at it cani be t ransfet-red easily to various gralsses. Similar
results have 1)eei o)t ainied bY l Erikssoni inl Europ~e. This denionistrates
tl at, t lie ru1st 111 tll( tellit ed States au I I lie rust inl Europe are identical.
That it, is not, a wxell-fixe I sl ecies is subs~tantiated. By using ltidging
hosts hilnot liy r.1ust canI be made to tnrmisler to variotis cereals which
it will not at tack direct lY. Tli at su(11 t rausfers ta-ke 1;i dae in nature
to some ext (ult is pn l )ibe.
The a~c idli ,a tage (if fii s rust is mu t deliuiit ,,lv kumiin. Ei-iksson and
filnni1rg III numerou1,0s i l(il mlatIions wvitli Hlie t eleut( spoies onl bar-
beri-ies obt ained l gMat ive result" exei t ill one inist alice, Oil this
baIsis they Corisidt er the( rulst a distinct species, uain ug, it IPuccinia
pl Ii-pra Is. Kern hlas oh ise-vedl Several un1successf ul imocllations
ol tlie l~rl.r N ill this (i t[.Fri miiit ole .1('appa ret ly positive
result, of Erikssoni mid II enuitig, however, he believes that tile rumst, is
nlot er11tit led to specific rank a n(l should be includedti mider P~uccin ia
gq(ril'nis Pel's. Evanls accepts thie name I1iicctvi pr Jlbi-p)ratemas and
shows thiat t here ar-e well-mar,11ked (liffel-ences ill thle dlet ails of the
id'ect iol n)I oii te ui iedospoie of this rust andl the grann' is formn on
22 4




cere1l'4ak. \ rIn thl wi t d; ix Iaiil 1i S"balizaim1 ii 10 nim. i m I i ts/
dstit 11 1111m ofu IwcoImw in e tin liemi II( 1it11'd( llp_,;
retli'ts pi of i l ilt, wIliIIith l I lhmosyn, mi i b a'r'wtt oat i1t! From
Uni' hs l'urt i 1v11' raii q Am~illi f Wm t hatli ci II1' 11 11 tn it I'l''IUM it
witla ini o Ill e rl''ql atIild s v ueieh t~l liumt l \ vI I in tItr-
M x th ligwnl )IlI l Ey rInvi l'' M'i n t11 11 im I 11 xIi iyov n i Ik-v'
thouf i fec llic ii vr.111 Iit i)4tlt \, it pr2e i p lt'x i' t iex W ON,)i2 ItI T Wilt' l, Illa'
the "m-lo sini' v aiti c x fI'ltr il nwiil thni i'te& tilmW S ol, s th
st'e'zo, x it w sil xs eat'.K rivi te M NISaN
tH IoS22 f o bflinm ai, i iewnirn n i4

- I' NI MA R, Y.







I N D E .

Agj4 o a "w iino 0 4 .4 tiill rwo -i .... .. ....1 .
litlli lii~tiiW i A 0001qittli. runt ............
Avc~Ii -aix a ho-i. A iwohy r ii ............. .. . . . . . .
Barberry,'i a! Wwilt adh ik1oh tu- .i .i . .tt. 10 M
Berbi{' v u l.ai ii .til f1li rtyi. I~~iI tIiii
Ili k -or-y i~t II -i i oai~l t itt n ii it i t 'l qf
224~i Itun axq notod

, 10~t
It
1 4 1
10t I
I I
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20 TIMTHIIY I UST T-N THE UNITED STATES.
Page.
R~ust, b reevlin-,, for re-i t aiice, InlethOds..------------------------------------.14 17
timiothY, i-Li(lial AIa.....--------------- -------------------.......10-11, 13, 16
lull.................. ....................... .............8
diI ribulit- in the United State, ................ ............ 7, 16
ageiicie ............................... ......... 13 14, 17
identity in the Uniited ,Iate, and Europe .................. 9-10, 16
niomnclatur tr................... ......................... 11-12, 16-17
relat ionipj and phioI)i u1ia1 special iza tion-...-------.......S-10,11
roenmllance it IPuciiia -rarnini~z...................... 10, 11, 16
winter urx ival ............. .................1,2 13, 17
S;ecale cereale. ll(,)t oftiith ru.,t.................------------ .......9
Sey mourt, A. I anid Fallow, W G., oil the rIIA f4 tilllot ly ... 7
Summiary of bulet in.--............................................ .. IG-17
Tinmthyx, muiafiwted bY kiarberry rtl-4t........ ......... ................ 10
v ari~tieis, reistancie to rust ...... ......... ..14-16
sce 11, ist, t i ily.
'lrielca.,e, W\illiami. (m thle riot of t illoth .. .... . .. . .. .
T1riticutil v ul-are, liot of tiiih ruA.. ......... ........ 9,10
Ured,) gramimlo, ( (,inpiarioii with timiothyV riO ................... ...........11
lfi~o io (,Z .iio renwuvt of timiothyx ll I.............................. ......I.s
ili, J ., O ir i Ct F., and hunIt . (,] Ihe oilrn Of timiotivy mu. 7
Wnagreitcy inl the dis 224







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
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