Avodire Turraeanthus africanus (Welw.) Pellegrin (=Guarea africana Welw. = Bingeria africana A. Chev.) : Family: Meliaceae

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Material Information

Title:
Avodire Turraeanthus africanus (Welw.) Pellegrin (=Guarea africana Welw. = Bingeria africana A. Chev.) : Family: Meliaceae
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Creator:
Miller, Carol M
Forest Products Laboratory (U.S.)
Publisher:
United States Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory ( Madison, Wis )
Publication Date:

Record Information

Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 29550441
oclc - 757730069
System ID:
AA00020705:00001

Full Text


: T:T-A

1








(- a Cu -r i. 2i- %Ii v)a v


I
Fore.;t Products Lab oratoryi," Forest Gorvioo
d. S. D epartmenit of Arri.cult~ure

i;>






I' T
Turraeanthu a. friaa r (T: eli. ) ]e!le' (== Guart. tfr]pp." .'".' "','. 'in.-eri africana< ',. Chev.)







;* ..... CAROL ,. LLI....., Scientific .\ rl
Division of SlIvicul..rai -,la.ti...



Avodire (Turraeanthus africana (Jel1'.) Pelerrin) is a spocie s frc:- troicall
lV'r.:t Africa that has recently become of l .1-;rYb commercial i t ....c on
European and Ame rican hrd-ood market:. T1e species v' 1- fKrst c ..'. in
187 by Dr. Teh.-itch as Cuarea fi' C n- ([. ,..) fro ...- Tet Ar ca.
In 1' -1, A. Chevalier der,'r.-: it aIi "-. ri 'ric" i i. nv ,
but 2 years later Icilecrin referred tI ;'eces t 1'. ... :
and the recognized scientific n. 1-e i: .rcv. r. e't': 1afican r"' r1 e
z41
It is a member of the i.:eliaceae family (20C, 2,-, 21)- .0L i''.
tlv. best knovwn cabinet woods, such as ...Al-an..y (,v i e::ia n ..), rc.
r. i ogany (?:-..*. spp.), Spanish cedarC a'and andiroa o 6).

Avodire is manufactured in the sane manner as :frica na2orny, and rhen
staind and fiished, the ood i (s difficult to .i .t. fo Afri.c...
.!' T cany, alt.':,'.-h the trees do not, look alik ext..liy (22). t
offered for sale as v'hite rmaho! '. African mal'-.-y, African. i: -o d, ,a:
African furniture wood (l1). T1 h principal and icap to i. >-x sve usr e
are its c.. a-riatively small size and lir, mited occurr(: ce, t' oor r:a' f
the logs, and the tendency of fr.s, cut ,t r to ct i if Io c'"r< .-
hmin 1-d (2). Altlhougi-h the ood :-2 oo. oni t ie ,ar,- et only, cot.- ra l]
recently, its pcA-'i,- blond color, I .: price, I'rt 'Ju! figure 2, *. (:7-
working 'ij-.litics 1.'.e created a considera le de:an; (6).



,nitained at "..P. :;,on, Wis., in cocc'-ration "ith tl. e "i...f rc' of '('1
2
Underlined nlbers in parent hs r-efer I n ere rt n c( at
the end of the article.


A ~rieu:ture-

R(-npt. No. Rl'"-1',





Trade and Vernacular iames


Avodire is the generally accepted trade name for Turraeanthus africana. It
has the advantage of not conflicting vwith that of any other commercial -ood
on the American market. V.'hether this name is a combination of various native
names or one given by the French is not knovm. The name whitee mal -';," has


alco been used, because the vood is much like that
for its color, which is pale tan approaching white

African furniture roods..........
African satinwvood................
Agboui (Abe, brie)..............
Apapaye............... ...... ....
Apaya ............................
Apeya ..............................
Appayia ............................
Avodire (Appolonian).............
Engan ............. .. ...........
Hsue ... ......


1 .Hague (A. ni... ..... .............. .
I-iC...ttie....................... .
01on. ................. ...........


: -i tei-a h .......... ................ .
1 ha te mahogany ...... ............


of African v_],,-iry except
(22). Other names are:

U. S. trade
U. S. trade
Ivory Coast
Gold Coast
Nigeria
Gold Coast
Gold Coast
Ivory Coast
Cameroon
Belg'ian Congo
Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
Belgian Congo
Belgian Congo
Gold Coast
U. S. trade


Distribution and Habitat


Avodire occurs as an understory tree in the rain forests of parts of tropical
West Africa, including the Gold Coast, Ivory Coast, and Angola, but is essen-
tially an Ivory Coast species. T',.e trees are not uniformly distributed in the
rain forests, but are often localized in almost pure groups (I). Avodire' is
reported as abundant in the region of the east Ivory Coast from the Agneby
River on the west to the Bia River on the east. Avodire and other species of
.rrtt-'anthus are also said to gro 'r in the Cold Coast, Uigcria, the Cameroons,
L !:., L! ria, and the Belgian Congo, although flo-y are not as common in these
regions, and there is little information on the occurrence (7) or on the wood
of some of these species.

Avodire is pro-'i.'ly typical of the genus (29). According to Dr. 7elwitch,
avodire is not a coastal or low-altitude species but attains its best develop-
ment in the foothills 50 to 100 miles inland in the upland forests. It does


iam applied also to the osseo wood (Guarea cedrata Fell.), which possesses
different characteristics (6).


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Rert. No. Rl0^




not pror, hoe'cver, above the 2,^0 -foot contour line ':hre con(0:1it.o -rade
into the Iiphlnid,-forest type. it occurs in. ri, soil eo t .w
of stre.amsn an- the E ;in ci '...o'", 1v.a. -an lake .....


Th e ,r*e


Size and Form

Avodi r' is a med'iu,-siZ'e ...trec in co-p-a rijson ito the ( ilnts of ost 7
may, reach 60 to O) fo t dit in 4. h u t it 'i f .. yo r ,-.
favor 1. bl- c diti )ons (I, ,_). Pt f a *i d t r .. l .
fe"t( cven -i to foot. r2norally, ,1 tr. r. ..i .' ..
tree's (o nriot develop ,ery cla(r or srah *tnkp, v"i :l': ; ... *:'r-
ablei va.st in loc-inr (2). fh utiliz'i,. part of 1,. i .. ','all fro"
2- to -OJ fot rin lcn 7t I, rarely 1 o; e tan 6o feet (7). 'o '-o-, ir'v ,-
cen.ta -c of tVe 0 ood 'as to bI rject,' in ce fr u jni"t > rt.
smali pe cec-ta. -e of teI choiC st :1aeial --'KB figure ",.oo st.- ier 'in,
veieer (6). Tihe stei.Is very : tten e'ivid i:nto vi^ s' pi\'c :I' o,'i,' an!' fo'rm
ar T(
l '") cro''os ( 2) .. Dr. e'",l'itch is (puoted (2 ) a- d '-s ri '.in', 1 ",r,'i ,...;T l u
africana as "an imn:.:ens, had:,ome tr e" in ris.' .nno on I}e fior of3
tropical ,frica.


The Biark

The ark is asn-colorcd, tinod vit ro, and srad 'ot in oorr'as+ :1 t
vwr/ a.', io... .rcn (f "' folia (- 22c). 2 bark is saC a ;. ,x
properties (1). It p;els off in tin stris the i r r 'i'n e' crea:
yellow. and ?osscEss( n, a very chr:actris:i a atc rmti oKor (i) n In. order t
prevent funfus da..a-ge, it is necessary, to re:.o, tIe bark to nl; tV voo; dp,-
out -,. -tly; consequently, the Itos eoti .n the' ar-' t are in-arihbly fre' o0
bark (6).


Leaves

The compound leaves are larFe (2 feet or or iR lr'-t), ann aeo cc 'sd of
, to 12 pair j of alt-rna, ob 0 n. lelf 1 i-ou 1- j/2L u
inchesI v" Ie, and 'i'ii rct") 3 the ia:x. T c leafle s are .-,'t.-, s: :'. ai
leather.-. Th m idi 1s very pr17onent (o the. 'C a a a ':ia fine
lateral serves. TI:e lerf bu, o etols anl floY-'r stalksl are covered
with a fine, rusty pubescence (2). h:e .Peaves ar trotCed at ee ead: 'I
the ..ra.c .i e. n i( th iv thie tie'( 'n unus il ap 'e '..n c (22).


Flo-rers and Fruit

The -wdhte to crear.y-l''low flc'rs are in clust rs in IC e axil. of t e eae
and form very conspicuous panicle- that fl. nuers r lo U V .,. T ''
differ very little front those of .raio;'any. ey a O_ fou 71early, al i tIe


Rept. No. R1905




year round, although the main flowering period is in the spring, with a
second, though less abundant blossoming in the autumn (1, 22).

The fruit takes about 6 months to develop and generally matures in the autumn.
It is in the form of a fig-shaped, fleshy capsule. These capsules are over an
inch in Y'i',: 'ter, yello-r or orange in color, scented, and have a soft, '.'itish
pulp in which the seeds (usually h or 5 in number) are imbedded. I seeds
germinate readily, and the young seedlings are plentiful, although fe- survive
in the dense shade of the old-grorth forests. They quickly fill up an5' open-
inr-s in the stand and are easily transplanted (1, 29).


The WVood


General Appearance

Although avodire belongs to the Lleliaceae family, the wood has few, characteris-
tics of mahogany. !then stained and finished, however, the figured wood may
greatly resemble African mahogany superficially (22). Its natural pale color
and' high, satiny luster have occasioned the use of the wood as a substitute
for satinwood (6). Ti.: logs vary greatly in color, grain, figure, and quality
(lh). The crooked, irregular logs often contain ring checks and even cross or
win- breaks (22).


Color

The w-ood is creamy white to pale yellow, sometimes darkening to golden yello-
(19). Unlike most of the .Ieliaceae, the color is light and uniform throughout.
Since the heartwood is not distinctly colored, it is difficult. to distinguish
the sarpwood from the heartwiood areas; the wood is therefore easy to match in
use and is especially valued for use where blond wood is desired (6, 2L ).


Luster

When vrorked, the wood has a high, satiny, natural luster (1, 18).


;vrighit

T~, wood is rather light to heavy in weight anm soft to r.Ie r-tely hard;
specific -ravity O.)j,5 to 0.60 (air-dry), -which is in the mahog-any range;
1.eiL'ht usually about 31 to 37 pounds per cubic foot (18, 26). It is fairly
resistant to indentation (29). Avodire proved less hard than most of the
cabinet w oods tested by liarrar (10). ThIe results given in table 1 are taken
from l'ilh tests.


Rent. No, R1905


-li-




Table l.-Re ult3 of testr- of h-rdo;s. on cabinet "oo.f


c: ;Liwo t iv e:fi ---- -3 a-d -a -w-a- -;-,-
--t(- - r iy -er----------------
: (oven-dry.: Avtrarc f 10 : or> ar to
: : _u.t : t1sts on black walnut
: ~: v1r): i ,c


:Percent : ounds ('cnt

Awodiro (.'. Africa)
T-,r1-ae-int.hus- arrican~a -f. OL. 6 ;

a I 7 -1 K'a 5.2 .1
i-u i -.,:i *ar p y l ,.2 .d ,3"




Lo'UI re uire to embed a O.L LL-inch ,l t one- al ia.ete.



Grain, Texture, and! Fire

i 'rain .- e straight but is freq uently,; wa\7/ or intorlcke '. o
a :rttl i('iure. on awi-rtir-cut material, T ,'K .'.. 2* : )':(
i. >irrcr ar 11 l 00-.n ,_,d, i fth I1' ; : ( i :
a, 'oarance to tAe fiL .cd :iLrac@, 7. ]L C.:: i ;
(1). Tbhc fif-urc-d -'Qoo may l .ov coi:i <;ra-le v ricty, >ued. -.c -.'[", f'.-:. or
mottle 1c, ).


Odr and Taste

Oder and taste are absent or not disii,,-tiwi (2")).


M~ecanical Pronerties

The infor:aion on It 2Ke-hanicai pr ie'' mvf a iri" i;: ;:
reputed to be a ttro)', to :re, el iic tii-" 1.i r...t.. v.7 .
(1 1J,. 16). p ri:;o '? ",fr -c a" : .e e i . ,,& :'r o r
Beilc Cp1)


Rept. No. h1905




Table 2.--Ph3-sical and strength properties of three 'Test African species


:Physical properties : Strength Iro, erties

:Specific :Volumetric :Conpres-: Bending: Tension :Cleavage
: gravity: shrin:- : sion : : per pen- :
: ae :parallel: : dicular :
: to grain: : to grain:


c m---; --------- ------- -W


Av- Cire
Turrcaeanthus africana

Lir ba
T, rninalia superba

Tri 01 .=hiton
: GI -,cxyion


Percent


0.55 11.4


: : 12.3



: hQ0 5


Ra"efd or. weight and volume ,'hen air dry.
~Based on sreen volume.




Durability
!
Bcca se avodire is subject to decay and insect attack, Io-s should be converted
into lumber as soon as possible after fellin unless torae in fresh r'iier is
provided (7). T'-The wood should not be used in damp situa-tion's anrd is :.ot durable
in cont-.ct vith the -round or in exposed situations (l'S, 22).


Seasoninf

Avodire is reported to season readily, but care is needed to avoid splitting, and
"'pn- (1'). From tests by 1rrar (12). t percent of shrinkaae of avod'ire
is cor bred in table 3 to that of some of the cabinet vroods with which it
copt. s .


Kept. No. R1905


Species


hlO :



140



270


21.0




20.5

12.0"


14.0


13.0



6.5


0


800



><0 :


-__---_--.--__--------------.--------------------- --- ------ : ----.---------------




Table 3.-Percent diirectional ind voliune s-riniki-e from on ovn-r
condition


Species : Slirinka,-
- - - - - - - - - - - - -


' Rad-."l Tar


Avodire (OE. Africa)
Turre an f1 ;u s a tric ana


-.'.*" i1 v.2e1.


;... \ ''nj 1 orib a
S'-ie^' n-'.a :

C1 oi-0 'etylon
C e t ni -i


1- re v val in


.20





.12


,C .9C :
2orce': :.


tablc 2.


TUorkirL Clharacteri ticc


Strairht-r rained w'ood is quite easy to ':ork, but care is reo'iiro in lw.inr
either quartered boards sho--'inv stripe figure or curly- or v:a.y-L1ra Tred r'tc-
rial to avoid, surf'-ice tearing (1). sn.il cuttir. riie is d..... uo a..
clean finish. Avocire makes excellent (, espciy sice p od
hias foirv oc nailinro, scre-It-hodini, an- Cuini- proeries. it" ill take
an exc ellent finish Ind can e stained evenly, alt.Iou,'-h because of te prnsent
po. i Li1y of its tli"t, naturl color tai, is notP. o rell dsr:' I'
The surfac e c n be filled and u i.od fili r e.l (2 . .-
on te scre"--hfoldinf pc"er of cbine oc-.os avod dire s(e oe.r al.e..
than tht- thrc ct (1e vococ cite( iLn table .

















Rept. No. R1905 -7-


4 i : :


.* i




Table 4.--Screw-holding power of cabinet woods


WVithdrawal resistance of --
------------------------------------------------------


No. 6 screws : No. 10 screws
----------- -------- ---------- --------------------
Side : End : Side : End
-------------- ------------ -- ---------
:Av. :7, ax. :Min. :Av. :llax.. *.in. Av. :Lax...in.:Av. :.Iax. ;.in.
---- . . : ----------- ---- -- ---- ---- ---- - -- ---- --


: Lb.: Lb.:

Avodire (T:. Africa)
Turraeanthus africana: 488: 55$$6

Mahogany, African : :
Khaya ivorensis : $68: 630:

Mahogany, Colombian : :
Svietenia macrophylla: 540: 626:
s:
Satin-rood, Ceylon : :
Chlorophora svietenia: 782: 854:


Lb.:


h2 h
424:





h7h:
48706:
474:


7o6-.


Lb.


416:


48h:


L24:


66L:


Lb.


476:

552


$16:


712:


Lb.


35$0:


418:


346:


610:


Lb.


$60:


666:

62i
624:


Lb.


636


736


710


916:1088


Lb.
* 0

: 496:
4 9

: $90:

:564:
: $6:

: 780:


Lb.

504:


$38:


514:


744:


Lb. Lb.
.

$74: 426


616: h6l


$58: 442


860: 648


* 0 0 0 0 0
* 0 0 0 0 0 0


The figured material is usually converted into veneer for use in decorative
work, such as cabinet work, paneling, interiors of railway coaches, ships'
fittings (cabins on the Queen Mary), and lighter types of furniture. The
plain stock may go into lumber or ordinary plyTood and joinery. There is less
demand for the wood as lumber because of the cross breaks and irregularities
of growth (1, lL, 1_6,2, 2_).

Pulp from the light-colored avodire yields paper that compares well 'ith paper
obtained from the ordinary commercial hardwoods (7).


Supplies

In the past, the Ivory Coast has been one of the main sources of log supply,
especially of figured material, because logs are conveniently transported to
csaports from this region. Overland transportation of logs has been poorly
developed. I.:ore recently, the Gold Coast has become another of the main sources
of log surply (1, 16, 22). Avodire is not available in large amounts, but logs
were imported before r:'orld War II with average girths of $ to 6 feet and lengths
up to 15 feet (16). The logs first entered the French markets soon after V'orld
V:ar I, and not until 1923 was much shipped into Ger-man markets. Several years
later, it attracted notice in England and America (22).


Rept. No. h1905


-8-


Species


t




1.inute Structvre

Gro-th rinr-s.--The -rowTth rin-s tend to be poorly define d, sometime indicated
only y L a flattenin of the fibers (6, I 2', 29).

Vessels.--The individual vessels arc rri-tiwlvy smal, oval to nearly ro:nd in
cr0ss. section, and not instinct without mairnificeticn. 1'ey 1re nmeru,
evenly distributed, solitary or in r.i .r.ups of 2 to .1 s '.. A
i IT 1 perf' r .tions. The vessels frequently contain yveLlo--i2 -,- "At,. no.
tyloses (171, 16, 22, 2Q).

Rays.--Tihe re are fine and often indistinct w-ithout -. nification, iltoirh
the r.arFinmal cells are not nmar_ dly upri -',t, the rays are ciazs.. c is h o. o-
neous, no stly bir er. iate (occasionally 3 cells wide it the .nidde), in tny be
6 to 25 but are generally 12 to 1i cells hi-h. Low rays, rar ly cvr r c'_s
high'I, re usually found to be. uniseriate (1), 29). Ripple marks and o'm.Y ducts
are abse.nt (],2_)

Fr, ';,-. .--Prenc yt.a is s-arincly dcvrlored about the vessE c,1s rnd 1r.vy often
contain calcium oxalate crw' 'alI (I_, )

Fibcrs.--'Tro-.th zones naiy o s o7newhat bedeinedIro"' of raially flatte"ed
fibrs.- The fibers are libriform and nonrc.ptate ,-ith simple pits. TIey I'ave
relitively thin wnls. Fiber dimensions 're recorded as follows: lienrh, 1
to 2 .. kav. 1.f 5m.); diameter, 12 to 26 nm. (av. 19 mro.) (, if 2., 29).


Wood "r: + i on

Avodir_ v:ood is composed of ash, 1.56 percent: fats and '-ixes t. percent
clino' 62.15 p-nerent; liFnin, 2. rcnt (l on a t '.
On( r icn v'with hOH in 5 percent ('r.-' ftrations for c hours in, r a r ..re
of 3 loyr'ins, avodi r -prvet.. a f '1s-y 1p, 'lich K hc)
eas'ly and yielded 37 percent of bIcac'd p (%p -9,


Rept. No. R1905




Lis'L o References


1. Ano '.)us,
1940 Avodire (I rri- tnus africana). ,sod (Brit.) 5(4):87-38, April.

2. __________
ij'. Nos bois Coloniaux (Cote dtIvoire). Avodire (1' ,rrmanthus
africana (vWelw,) Pellegrin.) Assr. Colonies-Sciences e-1 Comite
Natl. des Bois Coloniaux, Paris; 1 pp.; 2 plates; 2 veneer
samples,
(Rev. Tropical Woods 24:48)

3. ____________________
1536'. Gold Coast Timbers. Pub. in connection with the Gold Coast Ex-
hibit at the Empire Exhibition at Glascov, Scotland; 27 pp.;
11 colored plates; 1 map.

Aubrevillo, AndrA
1930. Essai dIdentification des ''.liaciees de la Co'te d'ivoire. Re-
printed front Acts et Comptes Rendus de l'Assn. Colonies-
Sciences (Paris) .7, 58, ...ch, April, 15 pp.

5. Balsac, F, Heim de; Cercelet, G. S., and ialsac, R. Heim de
1925. Wood from the Ivor-, Coasb, i.mL1, igenoce Gen. Colonies 18, 520;
Bull. Imnp Inst, 23, 482; (Cf. Chem. Abs. 20(8)1322, April 20,
1926)

6. Bergstrom, E.
1929. Avodire' (Turraeanthus africana). T'-ituras Treasure Chest No. 3.
Penrod, Jurden & Clark Co., Cincinnati, Ohio.

7. Lrush, W4. D. and Sp ,rhawk, W. N.
19i3. ,." st Af'-ican Timbers for Use i4n Iorth Anerica. Unpublished
material l in U. S. Forest Service files. U. S. Dept. of Agri-
culture.

6. Cooper, G. ProctorL
1931. UnpublisIhed Memorandum of Turraeanthus sp. in Liberia,

9. Engler, A. and Prantl, K.
1889. Die naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien (Harms 1897) 3:14:294 and revised
ed.
1912. (1940) 19 b, Io; pp.. 147-150.
10. i'arrar, Ellrood S .
1941. Some Physical Properties of ,od rn Cabinet 'I7oods. I. 'r-jh.ss
Scal 'Toods 6o: 4, Yale Univ. School of Forestrj, December 1.

11. __________________________
192o9 Some P'- ical Properties of "odurn Cabinet, .,oodls, II. Screw-
hold in7 Povwer. Tropical YWoods 70:5, Yale Univ. School of
Forestry, June 1.
^iListed in Record's bibliography (29).


-10-






tional ..J V '.-.i..i 3;r ... ..*( Tr" L, .o .7/

l~~~ ~1 1 `3. '1 1'^ T'* '-
13. n, Li, Fr 4, b 1
Par i, pp. ('3, 9,-97 .


r. 7 I i e-


^' L .L .. AJ.'. i


l I ... TiL.ers L .*
1,ue. Tib r j''." 7/or!ld. :' ..:c. : lla and] Co., L ., Lci:r.
{ditio-n, pp, SO-rJ!.,


15. dn, j. DIzie1, J. ".
128. Flora of H7 st rpial. A 'ia.


V. j -, p*1.


16. Jay, P. A.
195'0. T:imbers of lgest Africa. Ti:mber De~velop", ent A< A >e.
non St.., Lon lon L.C.)(, pp. 20-21.

17. Krits, David A.
1 30, Co :n ra n 1t "*~0 U' D) :. 'rtcc '
1C. : ,,; Ak atory ofr tT: : f ("' of e:..... ... .
ofi ot;:v !. 17(: 7i21-73Y October.

18. Krib, David A.
l9, Co~r erc:is;n Forei, n 7cods n tdic A:.pe.ricar ll"'",kt.*
Ann Arbor Uic'i. p. 116


1'. Lamb, Go or:' I'.
!9l+7. For ig.n ...'oo s ]i;r G ,P oor i-s n o:-nl t
1n, .s i'o or'.e,
Products p(12):? Ie~r

20. .' 1, ..
1lS. A-Odirc, Turr'aot',:u' afr' anu P' 1 Ur. (" >llnc (c)
... Feo, .


21. Lart ,iau
1230.


*, 7b COnu-



", JT ,1-



] 7"1 --;v,^ .'




r'o. 7/;'0



I' r'u re


t
Etude V ,r les prer'T'. rt -n esrienc8c c*3 12 Cce
d Ivoire, Acte <', C '..t: . 1'a:-oci' ,n Colos.iG-
Scin,,ces (Paris) 6:56:30-37, Febr-iry.


22. :iell, C. D.
199. Avodire, On, of t' Newro, ,i I.-.orted I ods. V sr's, Vol.
XXIII, No. 9, p. 17.

23 ,,e1nad, J. an1 n}'egcnert, F.1 .
23. 19 an Bois Clnn t ,
I'>', 2 "6]ui Le. s,1 -cCc1'n- 1a 1 1111 1 ,1o.


1920. Avodir. ein .holz 7 rest -f"n?
January,


Rept. No. l D 5


Tt 1



T i'

*-11-





2$. Lleyer, Hans 3 1262 08928 6149
2. 1933e. BoHoanod"s.. .
1933. Book of Wood :a-. (Buch der Holznamen) N. & H. Schaefer, Han-
over, Germany.

26. :onnin, 7.. ,L1. et Collardet, J.
1930. Etude Physique et IIecaniqiuec des Bois Coloniaux, p. 90, table III.
Asso, Colonies-Sciences et Corm. Natl. de Bois Coloniaux, 60, Rue
Taitbout, Paris, France.

27. 'ormand, D.
19?3. La denomination officielle des principaux bois coloniaux franchise.
Re. Bot. App. et d'Agr. Tropical 23:260, 261, 262: 160-16k.

28. Pearson, C. H. a:-: Son Hardwood Co., Inc.h
199%. Avodire. Leaflet. Tr York.

29. Record, S. J.
1931. `'lest 1frican Avodire, (Turraeanthus africana). Tropical '7-os
26:1, Yale University School of Forestry, June.

30. Roddis Plywood Coirpor 1950. Cha'actvr'stics of Uodern 7oods. 3rd edition, p.

31. Schmidt, Von Eb-rhard
19O0. Avodire, Weltholzwirtschaft (4): Beilace 1Lr, 16, April, 1 colored
plate,

32. Vigne, C4
1931. Meemcrandum on "Turaeanthus spp. in the Gold Coast."



Ad i tion il Reference

Lebacc, L and -ita, J. j.
1950. Les Bois des M.eliacees. nnaloe' du Uusee du Congo Bel-g
Tervuren (Belgique) Serie in 8' Vol. 2, illus. (See pp.
C$-59, analysis).
















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