Characteristics of some important commercial woods


Material Information

Characteristics of some important commercial woods
Physical Description:
Forest Products Laboratory (U.S.)
University of Wisconsin
United States Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory ( Madison, Wis )
Publication Date:

Record Information

Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 29511637
oclc - 757554600
System ID:

Full Text
Septcmbcr 1951
(Prcllminary Copy for IPcvicu Only)
No. IP1903-5
Madison 5, Wisconsin
In Cooperation with the University of Wisconsin

Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013

Forest Products Laboratory/, Forest Service
U. S. Department of Agriculture
The commercial forest land (table 1) of the United States in 1947
included about 64C million acres, of which about 10 percent was classed as
old-growth saw timber. Second-growth saw timber comprised nearly 25 percent.
Thus, saw-tifor areas having sufficient volume for economic saw-log oper-
ations constituted slightly more than one-third of the total commercial forest
area. The greater part of the remaining forest land supported immature second
growth or w;as restocking; a small part was not restocking satisfactorily or
ws denuded.
The principal hardwoods may be classified in about 25 groups of indi-
vidual or closely-related species and the softwoods in the same number of similar
groups. In the case of the oaks and southern yellow pines, a considerable
number of species are included in one group. t map showing distribution of
the general forest types in the United States is shovn in figure 1.
14ost of the commercial hardwood species in the United States Frow east
of the Great Plains. The hardwoods of the West, which grow principally in
Oregon and iachington, amount to only about 6-1/2 billion board feet of the
31-billion total. Hardwods comprise about 19.5 percent of the total timber
resources of the United States.
The principal localities of growth, characteristics, and uses of woods
of the main commercial hardwood species or groups of species are described in
the following paragraphs.
Alder, 1ed
The botanical range of red alder (Alnus rubra) extends along the Pacific
coast north.Jard to Alaska and southward to southern California. This species
has attained commercial development along the coasts of Oregon and W1ashington it has replaced some original stands of Sitka spruce, western hemlock,
:nd Douglas-fir. Red alder is of considerable importance locally, because in
these two states, it is the most abundant commercial hardwood species.
The -:ood of red alder has valuable intrinsic qualities that adant it for
a varlet, of uses. It varies from almost white to pale pinkish bro.n in color
and has no visible boundary between heartw.ood and sa od.The pores of the
11.*1 1:tinl *t :: .ison in c ration with th, University of
,1:;cons sn.
; t. :o, 1: 3-6 -1- A.*ricu2 ture-d..dison

wood are fairly uniform in size and distribution. 'Jood of red alder is
moderately light in weight, averaging 28 pounds per cubic foot at 12-percent
moisture content. It is intermediate in most strength properties but low in
shock resistance, It has relatively low shrinkage but is not naturally
The principal use of red alder is for the manufacture of furniture,
but it is also used for sash, doors, and millwork.
Important species of ash are white ash (Fraxinus americana), green ash
(Fraxinus pennsylvanica var.lanceolata), blue ash (Fraxinus quadrangulata),
iltmore ash (IFraxinus biltmoreana), black ash (Fraxinus nigra), pumpkin ash
(Fraxinus tomentosa), and Oregon ash (Fraxinus oregona). The first six of
the above species grow in the eastern half of the United States. Oregon ash
grows along the Pacific coast.
Commercial white ash is a group of species that consists mostly of
white ash and green ash. Biltmore ash and blue ash are included in this
group but are of rather limited distribution, occurring commercially only in
some areas tributary to the central ississippi Valley. 'Jhite ash is rela-
tively more abundant than green ash in the central and northern upland areas;
green ash occurs more commonly along river courses and in the southern low-
lands. Black ash is important commercially in the Lake States.
In 1947, states with the greatest production of ash without reference
to species were Louisiana, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, Lichigan, Ohio, and
Tennessee in descending order of quantity.i All states east of the Great
Plains produced some ash lumber.
Heartw-od of commercial white ash is brown; the sapwood is light
colored or nearly -.ihite. Second-gro ith trees have a large proportion of sap-
wood. Jld-growrth trees with a small proportion of sapwood are scarce.
Heart,:ood of black ash from trees growing in northern swamps is mostly dark
colored; wood of such trees is narrow,-ringed.
Second-g rowth commercial white ash is particularly sought because of
the inherent qualities of this wood; it is heavy, averaging 42 pounds per
cabic foot at 12-percent moisture content, strong, hard and stiff, and has
high resistance to shock. Because of these qualities, such "tough ash" is
used principally for handles, oars, vehicle parts, and sporting and athletic
goods. There is little old-growth commercial ahite sh now available. Tough
second-grouth upland ash is recognized by relatively wide growth rings and by
its ieihIt when air dry. Some handle specifications call for not less than
5 or more than 17 growth rings per inch for handles of the best grade. The
addition of a weight requirement of 43 or more pounds per cubic foot at 12-
percent moisture content ill assure excellent material.
Information on the 194' production of ash and the other species in this
report was obtained from materialss Survey: Lumber, Railroad Ties, Veneer
nd Plywood, PolGs nd is,' rest Service, U. S. Dept. of Agric., 1950.
ept. o. I1903-5 -2-

Black ash and pumpkin ash run considerably lighter in ::eigl t, the
former averaging 314 pounds :.nd the latter, 36 pourils per cubic f ot t 12-
percent moisture content, and accordingly rank below commerciAl -.hite ash
in strength properties. ,ish trees growing in southern river bottoms,
especially in area: that are frequently flooded for long periods, produce
buttresses that contain relatively light and weak wood. Such wood is some-
titnes separated from "tough" ash when sold. Oregon ash has somewhat lower
strenerth properties than white ash, but it is used locally for the same
Ash wood of lighter weight, sometimes called "cabinet ash", is suitable
for cooeurs -, furniture, and shipping containers. Some ::sh is cut into
veneer. Trees *f inferior grade are used for railway ties and for fuel.
Because of its general usefulness, as many as forty separate uses for ash
may De naaed.
"Asien" is a generally recognized nam, applied to bigtooth asTen
(Populus .randident.ta} and to quaking aspen (Populus tremuloide). Aspon
does not include b Isam poplar (Populus tacamahaca) and the species of
iOJoulus th-t up the group of cottonwoods. In lumber t tistics of the
L. S. Bureau of tLe Census, however, the term "cottonwood" includes all of the
v~ -lso, the lumber of arsens and cottonwood rmay be mixed in
tr u nd sold either as poplar or cottonwood. The common term ":o is
s ~taa applied to the aspens. The n mes "popple" or "popl,-r" s l1d not
:Afused with yellow-poplar (Liri.Cendron tulipifr.),also k m :. trad
I. r."'
Production of aspen lumber can be estimated only on the basis of the
cut reo :ted r cotton.z od from areas where aspen predomin:.tes. Arpens -r :
c t:=rci dll hr :->w t the Northeastern States -nd the Lake States, and locally
in the stes weiost of the areat Plains, except in the Southwest, Aspen later
is p rdo.d principal: in th, northeastern and Lake States. There is so.e
rcducti n of aspuen lumber in the Aocky IMountain States.
Heart:-ood r-f aspen is gr:yish white to light grayish brown. Sa:wood
is .r colored and enerally merges gradually into heart.vood :ith-out
:in> clrly mrrk7d- '. growth rings are rather inconspicu-us. As-en ved is
au ;"traiht-gried w:;itl fine, uniform texture. It is easily worked,
xcpt )r areas tension .wood th t do not machine so othly. Thse ar,.as
ar. CeviL stran; c. ir:cterivtic odor .:hen r. 'st, Well-sc .-d ason 1 r
d cs n imp-art o*v)r or flavor t. t s
. i ....... a; V OO f
I.K; wod of :soi Quaking ar' ind i Altooth
uasvn 7< .rage 26 and 27 pound: cu1c Ot, r c sotiv I, at 12-rcent
mt't:r.c ctent. ?he od is: : t, m e.rtel: st in ri AV( 1w
' nee to shock, and h : t ii L2: L :.. : :Lct
i: ex,. r' nood o in dryint, partir a.;1 .: :roat*.iu"
A.t : 1ik

Aspen is used for limber, boxes and crating, paper pulp, excelsior,
matches, veneer, and miscellaneous turned articles. The use of aspen for
pulpwmood is increasing as other pulpwood species become scarce and higher-
American basswood (Tilia americana) is the most important of the
several native basswood species; next in importance is white basswood
(Tilia heterophylla). Other species occur in only very small quantities.
Because of the uniformity of the wood of the different species, no attempt
is made to distinguish between them in lumber form. Other common names of
basswood are linden, finn, and beetree.
Basswood grows in the eastern half of the United States from the
Canadian provinces southward. American basswood comprises most of the bass-
wood lumber., nearly half of which comes from the Lake States, followed in
turn by the Middle Atlantic and Central States. White basswood grows princi-
pally in the southern Appalachians. Several species of lesser importance
occur in the South Atlantic and Southern States, which supply only about 10
percent of the commercial production.
The heartwood of basswood is pale yeiloiirsh brown -;th occasional
darker streaks, Basswood has wide, creamy-ahite or pale-bro ;m sapwood that
merges gradually into the heartwood. Growt~h rings are fairly distinct in a
smooth cross section. vffen dry, the wood iJs irrthout odor or taste. It is
soft and light in -,'iight, averaging 26 pounds per cubic foot at 12-percent
moisture content. It has fine, even texture, and is straight-grained and
easy to work with tools. Transverse shrinkage during drying is rated as
large; however, basswood stays in place well and does not wiarp while in use.
Basswood lumber is used mainly in the manufacture of such products as
venetian blinds, sash and door frames, moulding, apiary supplies, woodetnare,
and boxes. Some basswood is used for veneer, cooperage, excelsior, and pulp-
wood. Basswood in the better grades is becoming scarce and high-priced.
Beech, American
American beech (Fagus grandifolia) is the only native species of beech
in the United States.* It is commonly kno-;m as beech. Because of variations
in the color of the heartwood, the terms "red beech" or "red-heart beech" are
applied to the darker-colored heartwood and "wv-hite beech" or "white-heart
beech" to the lighter-colored heartwood.
Beech grows in the eastern third of the United States and adjacent
Canadian provinces. Greatest production of beech lumber in the United States
is in the regions of the Central and 1,1iddle Atlantic States, -.-Tich together
accounted for about 65 percent of the beech lumber produced in 1947. The
Southern States contributed over 20 percent, and lesser amounts came from
Michigan and the New England States.
Rept. No. 19003-5 -4-

4)od of beech mayr have a renounced variation in color from nerly
white sapwood to reddish-brownm heartwod in some trees. In other trees,
hertwood is less highly colored, and there is no clear line of demare action
between heartwood and sapood. Sapwood may be 3 to 5 inches in thiclmkness.
arovth rings are usually distinct but not conspicuous. ihe wood has little
fi, re and is of close, uniform. texture. It has n, characteristic taste or
9d tr.
The wood of beech is cl ssed as heavy, w;;eihing 45 pou~ds yr cubic
foot At 12-;ercent moisture cn.::t. It is h ard, strong, hih Lin r.- ioance
t s, ck, and highly adaptable f r stean: bending. Beech has large .!;rinka'
:nd may airp considerably unless care is exercised during drying '. cech is
no t dur l*. It ri. ichines sm tL y, '::ears :ell, and is r th r easily treatei preservatives.
Largest amounts of beech o into flooring, furniture, handleo, vrencer,
woden:are, containers, cooperate, anl- laundry appliances. When tro -.tcd, it
is sui:aule for railway ties. alnr with other hardwoods, it is being used
in the manufacture of papur ulp. Considerable quantities of beech re used
for fuel, and it has been used extensivel, in wood distillation for the pro-
S.cti n of charcoai, acetic acid, ,Ct,.,nl1, and other products.
The important species of birc' are yellow birch (Fetula lute:), sweet
birch (otula lIrnta), .n, paper circh (etla paryrifera), u birches of
r : -:' ,'arci ijmport.nce nr rver birch (btul L ), ,ra :irch (Fetul-
ulifL L), nd u -etrn p r -ra (2etla verifer v-ir, ccidentalis).
Yellow birch, street bic-., "nd paper birch prow principally in the
rtheastern States and the Lake States. Yellow and sweet birches r-w: along
th : alachian ..;untji:: to a rthern 'eoruia. Yellow birc nd s t bir
"re te re f nt ich u.ber nd vsr i n 197, product o f birch
i ber wcs :.i:;et in th Lake te, 1o1, 0d by1 tie ie" Entn* mVl I 1.iddle
o atn St atcs v ?hn t.r'oe ci mas rovided more than )0 percent of the
ttrchi cut th:.t oer.
Yellow birch hs white sa -I*:od and light reddish-brmn hr rt.; -od.
.:. ot birca. U a 1bit-colored: ... :. nd dark-tbr3..: hcartw::Gd t .:.-01:.itn red.
... d~. -r,., h~rt, od i wth red.
lo: .ir, avwr.:s $ pounis; :c...t tirch, E6 iunis; "o p.,r irch, 31
-un r c .ic f a at 12-percent moisture content. Jood of 7e1l1 birch
and s:::t th:cs is h, vy, hrd, -tr~n:, and hs good shock-reoc i si:: bil Ltv
1 .. 1 .. 1: n tar r ..: 0. d eay. t'in-, :. d i' i fin *. :i. r: U.
t o. .:c in ca ..0 to..:. a beautiful natural f li IrI, i r 1rc:, I
dindi I n; ita I .or .:i Lt, is aofter and ioicr iin stre: .tI! t ..n .1 lo
and 5 i e::. ..oe of t:e siren( are dur:.bA <, x os. P1 .-i situ-
ati :1, ....: : C ier 9 indi.n and care must, oi nrcid&d
t. cakn1903-5 -5-and arin
(u t. Vs. 1203-5 -5-

The higher-grade birch logs are used for veneer and lumber. Lower
grades supply crossties and wood for distillation, fuel'. and paper pulp.
Yellow and sw eet birch lumber and veneer go principally into the manufacture
of furniture, boxes, baskets, crates, woodenware, cooperage, interior finish,
and doors. Birch veneer goes into plywood used in airplane construction.
Paper birch, especially in the northeast, is used for turned products,
including- spools, bobbins, and toys. Oil of birch, which is distilled from
bark and trigs of sweet birch, is used as a flavoring.
Butternut (Juglans cinerea) is a small- to medium-sized tree of the
same genus as black walnut. It is frequently called white walnut. It growls
naturally in the United States from New England through New York and from the
southern part of the Lake States into South Dakota and southward into northern
Arkansas, Alabama., and South Carolina. The most abundant supply of the butter-
nut is probably in the Central States, the Lake States, and the Middle Atlantic
The heartwood of butternut is light chestnut bro,.,, occasionally -.. th
a reddish tinge that becomes darker .,,rth exposure. The sapwood is white and
rarely over 1 inch in uidth. Butternut is light in weight, averaging 27
pounds per cubic foot at 12-percent moisture content. It lacks stiffness and
is moderately weak in bending and in end,;rse compression, moderately soft,
and moderately high in shock resistance. It is generally straight-grained and
is easy to work with tools. 71he .wood resembles black -vinut in texture but
is lighter in color. It has moderately small shrinkage.
Butternut is used principally for furniture and to a small extent for
boxes, crating, general millwork, and patterns. The fruits have a rich,
distinctive flavor and are used by candy manufacturers.
Cherry, Black
Black cherry (Pruus serotina) is sometimes known as cherry, wild black
cherry, wild cherry, or choice cherry. It is the only native species of the
genus Prunus of commercial importance for lumber production. It occurs
scatteringly from southeastern Canada throughout the eastern half of the
United States. In 1947 however, three-fourths of the lumber production of
this species came from the Middle Atlantic States with Pennsylvania far in the
The heartwood of black cherry varies in color from light to dark
reddish brown and has a distinctive luster. Sapwood is narrow in old trees
- nd nearly -hite. The -mood has a fairly uniform texture and very satisfactory
machining properties. It is mo-derately heavy, averaging 35 pounds per cubic
foot. It is strong, stiff, moderately hard, and has high shock-resisting
ability and moderately large shrinkage. It stays in place well after seasoning
and has the reputation of being comparatively free from checking or warping.
Rept. '14o- 1903-51 -6-

Black cherry is used prince .-lly for furnitu re and for backing bl )ckss
on which electrotype plates .re re inted. Other uses include burial cask es,
w denware novelties, pat terns, and paneling in buildings and railJay co aches.
It has occasionally been used for gustucks and hin proved satisfactory for
this purpose.
Chestnut, -nerican
American chestnut (Castanea dentata) is kno;n also as chestnut and
sweet chestnut.
Before ,nmerican chestnut was attacked by a blight, it grew in cnrrercial
quantities from the New Eniland States southward alone the Appalachia.
mountains to northern oeor:ia. Practically all standing chestnut through )ut
it: range has been killed by light, and future supplies must come fr )m dead
timer. There are considerable quantities of standin;: dead chestnut in the
mntain sections of Virginia, West Virinia, North Carolina, Kentucky.
ienneCso, and northern Georgia.
The heartunod of chestnut is grayish bro,'m or brown and becomes darker
rith age. Sawa)od is very niarrowr and ailmist white. The wood is coarse in
texture, and the growth rings are made conspicuous by several ro:s of large,
distinct pores at the beginning of each year's growth. Chestnut wod is
moderately li,;ht in weight, averaging 30 pounds per cubic foot at l?-perrnt
moisture content. It is moderately yrd, :deratey :ea~k, m odc ratelr ilo, in
resistance to shock, and icks stiffness, it seasons w-ith litt- te:dency t:
check or honeycuob and is easy to work with tools. It is one oI the moAst
durable native woods. This characteristic has made possible the utilization
of dead trees a long time after they were killed by th: blight.
Chestnut is used for poles, railway ties, pulpwood, and as a source of
tannin. Ater tannin has been extracted, the spent chins are used in the
manufacture of fiberboard. Chestnut lumber is used in the manufacture of
furniture, caskets, boxes, and crates. it is also suitaIle as ca6re stock f" r
veneer panels.
C ttonwood is a name applied to several species of the aenus Populus.
Most important are eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides and varieties), Ls.
kn: as C tr lina o,lir and whitewood; swamp cottonwood (Populus heterphylla),
also i:D ),T L: c Lto: .od, river cottonwood, and swamp poplar; and rLack ctton-
wCA (P pulur trichocarpa and variety hastata), also kioi wis cott ln. od and
b In c tollr A).
Eastern cttoan:T ood and swamp cottonwood 'row through ut the eastern alf
oi t:e- nibed States. The greatest production of cotonioin lumber is stimatcd
to :,e i S ti,.Aern and Jentral States, .here cotton.;>od ;5n::,c primarily in mint
soil al n strea,. courses. Black cottaci od gro ws it the "est Coact States ati
in eosuern Iontana, northern Idaho, anid western Nevada. it inhabits loater
elevatins aion river bobtoms and and bars.
ept. No. 1? ')3-5 -7-

The heartwood of the three cottonwoods, eastern, black, and swamp, is
grayish white to light brown. Sapwood is whitish in color and may be wide or
narrow. It is not clearly defined and merges gradually with the heartwood.
Growth rings are inconspicuous but can be distinguished on smooth surfaces.
Tne wood is comparatively uniform in texture and generally straight-grained.
It has a characteristic sour odor when moist but is odorless when well seasoned.
The eastern cottonwood averages 28 pounds and black cottonwood, 24 pounds
per cubic foot at 12-percent moisture content. Eastern cottonwood is moderately
weak in bending and compression, moderately limber, moderately soft, and
moderately low, in ability to resist shock. Black cottonwood is slightly below
eastern cottonwood in most of its strength properties. Tests of the strength
properties of s,.,amp cottonm-iood have not been made, but it is expected that
this species would be quite similar to eastern cottonwood. Both eastern and
black cottonwood have moderately large shrinkage. Some cottonwood gives
difficulty in working with tools because of fuzzy surfaces. It is thought
that tension wood is largely responsible for this characteristic.
Principal uses of cottonwood are for lumber, veneer, pulpwood,
excelsior, and fuel. The lmber and veneer go largely into boxes, crates,
and baskets. Cottonyood pulmood is used in the manufacture of high-grade
book paper. The light-colored, fairly straight grain of cottonwood makes it
well suited for excelsior.
Cucumbertree (Magnolia acuminata) is known also as cucumber magnolia
and mountain magnolia.* Its range extends from southern New York and Ontario
southward to northern Georgia and southern 14(issouri. ,Jithin these limits, it
occurs scatteringly with other hardw,,oods, principally white ash, oaks., black
tupelo., and yellow -poplar.
The sapwood is nearly white, and the heartwood is brownish yellow.
Cucumbertree wood is close-grained and rather similar in texture to yellow-
poplar. It is moderately heavy, averaging 33 pounds per cubic foot at 12-
percent moisture content. it is also moderately strong, moderately hard, and
shrinks only a little more than yellow-poplar.
Since cucumbertree does not occur in pure stands, lumber from it is
likely to be included with yeliovw-poplar or in the southern part of its range
with other magnolias. Products from the cucumbertree are mostly lumber with
small amounts of veneer and some pulpwood. The wood is suitable for many of
the same uses as yellow-poplar, including boxes, baskets, crating, furniture,
mill ork, and venetian blinds.
There are six species of elm in the United States: American elm
(Ulmus americana), slippery elm (U]_mus fulva), rock elm (U]_mus thomasii).,
winged elm (Ulmus alata),1 cedar elm----- lus crassifolia), 'and September elm
Rept. No. 1903-5 -8-

(Ulmus serotina). American el-i is als knocvn as white elm, water eln, and
gray elm; slippery elm as red el.; rock elm as cork elm or hickory elm;
win;,ed elm as 'Jahoo; cedar elm as red elm or basket elm; and Suctemier elm
as red elm.
american elm grows throughout the eastern half of the United States,
except in higher elevations of the Appalachian iiountains. Slippery elm
occupies about the same area, excepting the Atlantic Coastal Plain, most of
i'Florida, and along the Gulf coast. Rock elm occurs from Now iHampshire south-
ward as far as northern Tennessee and westvward into Nebraska. It extends
n-rthward through Iowa, southern ;isconsin, and the lower half of the southern
peninsula of ..ichigan. Winged elm grows from the Ohio Valley southward to
the ulf, except in southern Florida. It extends westward to eastern Texas.
Codar el::. occupies a rather limited area from southern Arkansas and eastern
Lississlpi in:t. eastern and southeastern Texas. Slippery el:. is reported as
bcing s t >on1aat in the central Llississippi Valley.
The sanwod of the elms is nearly white and generally quite thick,
except in slippery elm where it rarely exceeds one-half inch in thickness.
.ieartwood of elm is liht br wn, often:. tinged with red. .he el. may be
divided into twe gn.ral c es, hard elms and soft elms, based on the weight
and strength of the wood. Hardel includes elm, :inged elm, cedar elm,
and September eli:. Amierican elm and slippery elm are the soft elms. American
elm and slippery elm are moderately heavy, averaging 35 and 37 pounds per
cubic fot, respectively, at 12-percent moisture content. They have a high
deCree of shock-resistLng ability and are moderately,- hard and stiff. dock
elm is somewhat heavier than American elm and averages h pounds per cubic
foot. Specific gravity tests of winged elm and cedar elm show them to be
about equal to rock elm in weight. No data are available for September elm.
American, slipIery, and rock elm are only moderately resistant to decay. The
el-s require care in dryin: because of their tendency to warp and twist. All
of these three species have excellent bending qualities.
Tot7.1 production of elm lrumber in 19472 was rather equally divided
among the Lake States, the Central States, and the Southern States. Only 5
percent of the cut came from the middle Atlantic States.
Elm lumber is used principally in the manufacture of containers, such
as boxes, baskets, crates, and slack barrels; furniture; agricultural supplies
and imple-ents; caskets and burial boxes; and vehicles. For many uses, the
different species are employed indiscriminately. For others, the hard elms
are preferrel. Elm is used to a great extent for crating heavy articles.
i, the furniture industry, it is especially adapted for bent parts of chairs.
El:v enoer is used for fruit, vegetable, and cheese boxes, and for baskets.
oackberry (Celtis occidentalis) and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata)
supply t>l umber Ion .: the trade as hackberry. Hackberry gr:ws in the
ni i Stt. et of thie reat plains fr:. Alabama, i riUi, Arklansas, and
Oklah m n~rthwird, except in north-rn L.inn: o ota, i :i, ichi ,
Nw rk, Vernt, New Hampshire, and all of Maine. Sugarberry )verlaps
Hept. No. 1 )3-$ -9-

the southern part of the range of hackberry and grows throughout the
Southern and South Atlantic States. The wood of the two species is similar
and is not separated in the trade.
The sapwood of these species is 3 inches or more in width and varies
in color from pale yellow to greenish or grayish yellow. Heartwood is not
distinctly defined but is commonly darker in color than sapwood. Growth rings
are distinct. The wood resembles elm in structure.
Wood of hackberry is moderately heavy, the northern species averaging
37 pounds and sugarberry, 36 pounds per cubic foot at 12-percent moisture
content. It is moderately strong in bending, moderately weak in compression
parallel to the grain, moderately hard to hard, high in shock resistance, but
low in stiffness. It has moderately large to large shrinkage but keeps its
shape well during seasoning.
Hackberry lumber comes principally from liississippi, Louisiana,
Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Alabama, indicating that sugarberry predominates in
the lumber on the market. Most hackberry is cut into lumber vith small
amounts going into dimension stock and some into veneer. It is used princi-
pally for furniture and to a lesser extent for boxes, baskets, and other
Hickory, Pecan
Species of the pecan group include bitternut hickory (Carya cordiformis),
pecan (Carya illinoensis), water hickory (Car-ya aquatica), and nutmeg hickory
(Carya myristicaeformis). Eitternut hickory grows throughout the eastern half
of the United States. The other three species are confined largely to the
Southern States. Pecan hickory grows from central Texas northward through
Louisiana, Oklahome, and Arkansas into MIissouri and along the "Mississippi
Valley to Illinois and Indiana. .iater Lickory grows in the lower South from
Texas to Soith Carolina. Nutmeg hickory occurs principally in Texas, northern
Louisiana, and in scattered areas in other Scuthern States.
The w;ood of the pecan hickories is rather similar in appearance to that
of the true hickories. They have white or nearly white sapwood, ahich is
relatively wide, and somewhat darker heart.iood. Like the true hickories, they
are typically rin7 porous. The wood is heavy to very- heavy and sometimes has
very large shrinkage. The weights of the species are:itternut and pecan, 46
pounds; water hickory, 83 pounds; and nutmeg hickory, 42 pounds per cubic foot
at 12-percent moisture content. The .eight of the wood is an indication of
its relative strength properties.
The heav y p mcan hickories overlap the lowest true hickory in weight
and in many strength properties, and therefore, they can be used for the same
purposes as the true hickories f)r less exacting requirements. They find use
in tool and implement handles andfor other special products. Some pecan
hickory is giving satisfactory use as flooring. The poorer grades are
recommended for use in pallets.
,:et. No. 1)03-. -10-

Hickory, True
True hickories are found throughout most of the eastern half of the
United States. The species most important commercially are shagbark (Carya
ovata), pignut (Carya glabra), shellbark (Carya laciniosa), mockernut T ay
torne-ntosa), and red hickory (Carya ovalis).--There are several other species
of true hickories of more limited distribution. Each of the true hickories
is known by several other common names.
The greatest commercial production of the true hickories is in the
Middle Atlantic and Central States. The Southern and South Atlantic States
produce nearly half of all hickory lumber, but since figures on production
of lumber from pecan hickories and from true hickories are combined in census
reports, the relative proportion of true hickory and pecan hickory from the
South is unknown.
Sapwood of hickory is white and usually quite thick, except in old,
slowly rrow'ing trees. It frequently is specified for certain items such as
handles, Heartw, ood of hickory is reddish in color and is less desirable than
white sapwood for certain uses. From the standpoint of strength, however, no
distinction should be made between sapwood and heartw~ood having the same Ymight.
The w.,ood of the true hickories is very tough, heavy, hard, and strong;
this combination of high strength, stiffness, hardnessI and shock resistance
has not been found in any other native commercial wood. Hickory is lo-.' in
natural resistance to decay and shrinks considerably in drying. Because of
its hardness, hickory does not nail easily when thoroughly dry. For hickory
of high strength, some specifications limit the number of grolvrh rings to not
more than 17 per inch for the best grades. Other specifications may include
weights per cubic foot. For example, one specification for hickory handles
calls for the highest grade to weigh 55 pounds or more per cubic foot at 12-
percent moisture content and to have not more than 17 annual rings per inch.
The second grade requires w;ood of 48 to 55 pounds per cubic foot and not more
than 22 rings per inch. :verage weights per cubic foot at 12-percent moisture
content are: shagbark, 50 pounds; shellbark, 48 pounds; pignut, 52 pounds; and
mockernut, 51 pounds.
Occasionally, fast-Cro ring hickory from the butt of second-grovith trees
lacks stiffness and is knon in the trade as rubber hickory. Such hickory
can 'e identified by the dull tone produced when blanks of rather small di-
mensions are dropped end,ise on a hard surface, such as a concrete floor;
stiff' hickory gives a clear ringing tone under this test.
The true hickories provide material for many items in hich shock
resistance is important, about t1ree-fourths of the hickory production being
used in the tool-handle industry for axe, pick, sledge, and harmer handles.
It is used in the manufacture of ladder rungs, sporting, and athletic Goods,
ar[ricuitural implements, dow;ling, gymnasium apparatus, poles, shafts, sucker
rods of various sizes and dimensions, la:.-i furniture, and vell pumnps.
liept. No. 1903-5 -11-

Because of its high density, hickory is one of the best fuel woods.
It is also favored for use in smoking meats. There is a considerable quantity
of lower-grade hickory that, because of knottiness or other defects and low
density, is not suitable for the special uses of high-quality hickory. Markets
are being sought for such material, which seems to be particularly useful for
such items as pallets, blocking, and similar uses where rough and defective
lumber can be utilized.
Locust, Black
Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) may sometimes be called yellow locust,
white locust, green locust, or post locust. Its natural distribution in the
United States is from Pennsylvania along the Appalachian Mountains to northern
Georgia. It is also native to a small area in northwestern Arkansas. It has
been extensively planted throughout the United States and is now found in
practically every state. The greatest production of black locust timber is
in Tennessee, Kentucky, West Virginia, and Virginia.
Jood of the genus Gleditsia may be confused with black locust because
of the similarity of names of certain species in this genus, such as water
locust (Gleditsia aquatica) and Texas honeylocust (Gleditsia texana). These
species are of little commercial importance.
Black locust has narrow, creamy-white sapwood. The heartwood, when
freshly cut, varies in color from greenish yellow to dark brown. Black locust
is very heavy, averaging 48 pounds per cubic foot at 12-percent moisture content.
The wood is very hard, very high in resistance to shock, and ranks very high in
strength and stiffness. It has moderately small shrinkage. The high degree of
durability of the heartwood is one of the outstanding characteristics of black
Black locust is used extensively for round, hewed, or split mine timbers,
and for fence posts, poles, railroad ties, stakes, and fuel. An important
product manufactured from black locust is insulator pins, a use for which the
wood is well adapted because of its strength, durability, and moderate
shrinkage and swelling. Other uses are for rough construction, crating, tree-
nails, and mine equipment.
Commercial species of maple in the United States include sugar maple
(Acer saccharum), black maple (Acer nigrum), silver maple (Acer saccharinum),
red maple (Acer rubrum), boxelder 7Acer negundo), and bigleaf maple (Acer
macrophyllumT. Sugar maple is also known as hard maple, rock maple, sugar
tree, and black maple; black maple as hard maple, black sugar maple, and
sugar maple; silver maple as white maple, river maple, water maple, and
swamp maple; red maple as soft maple, water maple, scarlet maple, white maple,
and swamp maple; boxelder as ash-leaved maple, three-leaved maple, and cut-
leaved maple; and oigleaf maple as Oregon maple.
oeot. No. 1903-5 -12-

Su -ar maple grows in the United States from :,aine to .innmota,
r o:ihw rl alon the Appalachian :untains to northern eorgia and Alaoama,
we -ard to the oreat Plains, and southward to Arkansas, northwestern
I, lLana, and oorth astern exas. Black maple has a more limited rance,
,h northward ani s towardrd, and occupies mainly a belt from Ne-i York
thr ugh s uthern .i'ic(:,gan, southr'ard to ihentucky and westward to the
i sSouri iver in lows. Silver maple grown throughout the eastern half of
nit Id States, except the narrow belt alono the South Atlantic States,
SPenisula Florida, and sc-uthern Alabama, ii'ississippi, Louisiana, and
e:s. Aed maple grows throughout the region east of the Plain States south-
wrd to the Gulf of Ieaxico, exce ,' for the southern tip of Florida. Boxeolder
gr):s mainly from hinnesota sou4:.rard to the middle of Texas, and eastward
to ienn 1. n IteAlani '
t innsylvania and *tlantic States, except for the Appalachian Mountains,
and the Atlantic and .lullf Coastal Plains. Bigleaf maple grows alone the
Pacific coast of Jashington, Oregon, and California.
Although five of the maple species have wide distribution in the east-
ern half f the United States, the lumber comes principally from the Middle
.tlantic and Lake States, which to ether account for about two-thirds of the
r Jucti)n. A considerable amount of maple is cut in New England and some
in the South Atlantic and Southern States. The production figures are not
given separately for the hard maples and soft maples, but it may be considered
th t production in the New England, 1.iddle Atlantic, and Lake States is princi-
pally hard maple.
The wood of sugar maple and black maple is knovm as hard maple; that of
silver maple, red maple, and boxelder as soft maple. The sapwood of the
maples is commonly white with a slight reddish-brom tinge. It is usually
quite wide, ranging from 3 to 5 inches or more in thickness. Heartwood is
usually light reddish brown but sometimes is considerably darker. Sugar
manple h-s a fine, uniform texture. It is heavy, averaging 4h pounds per
cubic foot at 12-percent moisture content. It is strong, stiff, hard,
resistant to shock, but has large shrinkage. Sugar maple is generally
straight-grained, but some trees are characterized by curly, wavy, or bird's-
eye grain. Black maple approaches sugar maple closely in all its properties,
.nd lurber of the two spcies cannot be separately recognized. The sapwood
of the soft maple is considerably wider than that of the hard maples, and the
heart::ool is li hter in color. Red maple is somewhat heavier than silver
one, the former averaging 38 pounds and the latter, 33 pounds per cubic foot
t 12-percent moisture content. Bigleaf maple is intermediate between the
C:,ft maples and hard maples in strength properties.
ple is used principally for lumber, veneer, crossties, distillation
wood, and paper pulp. A large proportion of maple lumber is manufactured into
such products as flooring, furniture, boxes and crates, shoe lasts, handles,
...rou.: novelti s, motor-vehicle parts, spools, and bobbins. Sugar maple
i. it..le for fl orin; because of its hardness and resistance to abrasion.
b is used for bowling alleys, dance floors, and factory floors. It is used
al in musical Lnstru ents, especially f'r piano frae.:s. Sugar mapc is the
sourcoc oL' miolc su ar.
- Apt ,o 3?- -13-

Oa (Red oak group)
Among the numerous species of red oaks in the United States, ten have
considerable commercial importance. They are:
(1) Northern red oak (Quercus borealis), also known as eastern red oak,
which grows in the eastern half of the United States, except in the lower
Eississippi Valley, Florida, the Atlantic Coastal Plain of Georgia, and South
and North Carolina. It is the most important lumber tree of the red oak group.
(2) Scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea), which grows in the eastern third
of the United States, except in the southern border states and the northernmost
portions of New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine.
(3) Shumard oak (Quercus shumardii) also known as Schneck oak, Texas
oak, and southern red oak, which grows chiefly along the Atlantic and Gulf
coasts, and in the Eississippi Valley region.
(4) Pin oak (Quercus palustris), also known as swamp oak, which grows
principally in the central ..issiosippi Valley, and eastward through Pennsyl-
vania and Virginia to the Atlantic coast.
($) Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttalli), which grows in the lower Mississippi
Valley region from M issouri southward, and from Alabama to Texas.
(6) Black oak (Quercus velutina), also known as yellow oak, which grows
in the eastern half of the United States from Haine to northern Florida and
westward to the Great Plains.
(7) Southern red oak (Quercus falcata), which grows in southeastern
United States from New- Jersey to Miissouri, Arkansas, and Texas.
(6) Water oak (Quercus nigra), which grows in the South Atlantic and
Gulf States from IvIaryland to Texas.
(9) Laurel oak (Quercus laurifolia), which grows in the South Atlantic
and Julf Coastal Plains from iaryland to Louisiana.
(10) Willow oak (Quercus phellos), which grows along the Atlantic and
Gulf coasts and in the lower M ississippi Valley region.
T..e red oaks are estimated to comprise somewhat more than one-half (55
percent) of the standing oak tLmber in the United States. The greatest quanti-
ti.. of red oak lumber come from the Southern States, the southern mountain
regions, and the Atlantic Coastal Plain. These areas are estimated to contain
ab-ut three-fourths of the Standing oak timber, and in 1947 produced more than
E11lf of the cak timber cut. These estimates are based on the combined stand
and quantity of both red and white oak groups.
Sapwood of the oak_ is nearly white in color and varies from 1 to 2
inches or more in thickness. Heartwood is brow n with a tinge of red. Red oaks
are alli p.... roul and have distinct growth rings. Sawed lumber of the
R>ot.. No. 1903-5 -18-

var ius s ecies f rod .sZ :an:: t e re ro 'ratd rn t.e :.sis :. c0. .rwA:-r i i:
lf lone. :~od uk 1=r: r can o ..ra d i th- f f .t
h ::ver, b,' the aose:ce f te fr :th-like cr,,th knovwr us t:1s*s. r i:. t:.. ;-re0
:.d b, the larger size of tre d Ires, If e P are ;1 inl
v es iute, r unded, :.d c: be readily co ~:ted under d rd le-.s,
toe :: 11 beo:.s to tieo red ak orup. T.o ;oen ,ores of the red .:~s .ake
these s .ecies unsuitable fr tirtt c' oerage. -arter-sared I: Or "f u:_ oks
is dl:tl:, i.ed by the broad :.nd cn-:.s, icuous rays, which Id t its. tr .ctive-
,od .f the red .ks ranges in :eicht fro' .1 to 5.- ;.nds ;er c': :i fo t
at 12-*erce:t :a 1st re c o.t:. t tu :ore b1 e l-g abou t .:< ::ds. .:.
:mr e s s : ... t LvIer that f the white ,s, bat there i7 ca.,ider .e
1e.; ia in the ::eight range f :: d of the two rroaus. .:= pdlyr ;rn
S"'. .. i! t r l e fid-
soc ::1-_r th k is yenerall harder rd t her than ier-rued ld-
r :t ..r. 1::e red 7s fairly large s.rinkae in dr i,.
1he rei aks are lar 1: ct into 1lm = r, crcssties, mine ti:r fence
ve, r, ..J i e ... I. IL:, :.:i:. tb:ers, *. : euc : rsts : e
es evative tr .tment f r t Isf .c t r-, service. uced al-: l1:er is r ::-
cti:red i.t a re t m:y te:.s, inclr di:g 1 Crin,, r .e-rn .i mill'rk,
.r ... a .L.u.e It is .lso used in c o:structi n f railro d calrs and bots.
k ( ie 1 o r's")
.t ara :stne i ri1t o cia: f ta :' k r : : all arm:
.1.'y .tn : Kl) i.ite ak (. rc a .- : ), :':ich ro's ...r .a t ,.c: r. if
t .1_ .all Stes and i ce:t a in,% ,c t in : I ri f .. .:. d
(2) k(_) a r ek ca ,,o n. r
:a k ., i ic .. ..s r :. s at. r A r::: at u:d. :: a -'.-.':: i
1. .e r ,' ::.',- 1: 8 1U/, :t e < 1:,l r l .11~ .l~s li
(3) : C ( erc stolaaa), ':ich gr '5 tr tht rrn
"-if. :'> _ziacd. [.t:,:a an v..':t,;ardct tao~ (]rea' ia>.z:s.
r s ia '. +Lf T <- r ,. rk >' t a rr..rn" I t'. e
0 : : r w s s i n t ... t .. .. .: < e s t:. d: .....
:, : .< t, ':: d 0 Tur-s l .:.. : -t :. .- 1- in :0 t e .<" ;" 1 1 ".
rd ''0 ..
j' i* I -

(6) Bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa), which grows mainly from New York
and eastern Pennsylvania westward and southward through Ohio and Kentucky
into Texas, and then northward to Montana and North Dakota, extending into
southern Canada.
(7) Chinquapin oak (Quercus muehlenbergii), which grows from New York,
southern i.iichigan, and southern iMinnesota southward to the Gulf of Mexico,
except for the atlantic Coastal Plain and the Florida peninsula.
(8) Swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor), which grows from southern Maine
through the liew England, 1iiddle tlantic, and Central States to the Great Plains.
(9) Live oak (Quercus virginiana), which is limited to the Atlantic
Coastal lain, Florida, and the Gulf Coast, extending across the southern
portion of Texas. it is estimated that the white oaks comprise about 45 percent
of the standing oak timber in the United States. As in the case of red oak,
white oak lumber comes chiefly from the South, South Atlantic, and Central
States, including the southern Appalachian area.
The heartwood of the white oaks is generally grayish brown, and the
sapwood, which ranges from 1 to 2 inches or more in thickness is nearly whites
The pores of the heartwood of white oaks are usually plugged with a froth-
like growth knon as tyloses. These tend to make the wood inpenetrable to
lir-uids, and for this reason most species of the white oak group are suitable
for the manufacture of tight cooperage. Chestnut oak is an exception because
of the absence of tyloses in many of the pores.
To tell for a certainty whether a piece of oak belongs to the white or
red oak group, cut the end grain smoothly with a sharp knife across several
gr-t~h rings of average width. With a hand lens examine the small pores in
the dense sammerwood. if the pores in the summerwood are very small, somewhat
a.gular, and so numerous that it would be exceedingly difficult to count them,
the wood belongs to the white oak group*
The wood of white oak averages somewhat heavier than that of the red
oaks, ranging from 45 to 50 pounds per cubic foot at 12-percent moisture
conten, and averaging 47 pounds when live oak is excluded. Live oak is much
heavier than any Gf the other oaks, averaging 62 pounds per cubic foot at
12-Tnercent moisture content. The heartwood of the white oaks is considered to
be somewhat more decay resistant than that of the red oaks.
WJhite oaks are used for the production of lumber, crossties, cooperage,
mine timbers, fence posts, veneer, fuel wood., and many other products. High-
auality white oak is especially sought for tight cooperage. White oak lumber
and red oak lumber are used for similar purposes, except for certain more
critical uses for which white oak is specified because of its somewhat superior
strength ~nd durability. Live oak is considerably above the other oaks in
strength properties and was formerly used extensively for ship timbers. An
EmIportant use of white oak is for bent parts in ship and boat building. It is
also important for use in flooring, agricultural implements, railroad-car
n)nstructiun and repair, furniture, sash, doors, millwork, and many other items*
ik .o. 1903-5 -16-

Magnolia Southern
t1vo species comprise commercial magnolia from the Southern States. They
are southern magnolia (Mag:.olia grandiflora), and sweetbay (Magnolia virginiana).
Other names for southern magnoliaa are evergreen magnolia, magnolia, big laurel,
bull bay, and laurel bay. Sweetbay is sometimes called swamp magnolia, or more
often, simply magnolia. The other names applied to southern magnolia are
sometimes also applied to sweetbay.
The natural range of sweetbay extends along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts
from Lone: island to Texas, and that of southern magnolia from North Ca rolina
to Texas. Southern magnolia does not grow at the southern end of Florida, and
both sweetbay and southern magnolia are absent from the extreme southern
portion of the Lississippi diver Delta. Louisiana has been the leading state
in the production of magnolia lumber for a number of years, followed by
Florida, ississippi, and Texas.
The sapwood of southern magnolia is yellowish white, and the heartwood
is light to dark brown with a tinge of yellow or green. The wood has close,
uniform texture, and is generally straignt-grained, it closely resembles
yellow-poplar from which it can be separated only by careful examination.
Southern magnolia wood is moderately heavy. it is moderately low in shrinkage,
moderately weak in bending and compression, moderately stiff, moderately hard,
and moderately high in shock resistance. It is not durable when subjected to
conditions favorable to decay. No data are available on the strength properties
of sweetbay. it is reported to be much like southern magnolia in appearance
and properties. The wood of southern magnolia at 12-percent moisture content
weighss 35 pounds per cubic foot.
magnolia lumber is used principally in the manufacture of furniture,
boxes, venetian blinds, sash, doors, veneer, and millwork.
Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) is frequently called red gum, star-
leaved gum, or merely gum. Lumoer from sweetgum is usually divided into two
classes -- sap gum, the light colored wood from the sapwood, and red gum, which
is cut from the heartwood.
S.eetgum grows from southwestern Connecticut westward into M lissouri and
southward to the Gulf, except in the lower half of the Florida Peninsula.
Thie production of red gum lumber is almost entirely from the Southern and
South -tlantic States, tlhe former being credited .ith about 83 percent and
the latter writh 13 percent of the lumber cut in 1947.
T e :ide sapwood of sweetgum is white, tinged with pink. The heart'ood
is reddish browm in varying shades. The annu;.l rings are incons icuous, .rd
the uo is uniform in texture. it h:.s interlocked grain, which makes it
necess ry to use care in dr ing, and which also produces cross :rain in the
1,_,sor prouce introske g .n in h
1'uber. The interlocked grain causes a ribbon stripe, however, which is
desirable for inside finish or furniture. Sweetg=m averages 34 pounds }er
cubic foot at 12-percent moisture content and is rated .s moder tel; he ry and
Rept. No. 1'03-5 -17-

hard, It is moderately strong moderately stiff, and moderately high in shock
resistance. Sweetgum is classed with wood of intermediate durability.
Sweetgum is used principally for lumber, veneer, plywood, and slack
cooperage. Some sweetgum is used for crossties, fuel, and paper pulp. The
lumber goes principally into boxes and crates, furniture, radio and phonograph
cabinets, interior trim, and millwork. Sweetgum veneer and plywood are used
for boxes, crates, baskets, and interior wood work.
Sycamore, American
American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) is also known as sycamore, and
sometimes as button-wood, button-ball tree, and plane-tree. Sycamore grows
from 1 Maine westward to Nebraska and southward to eastern Texas and northern
Florida. it usually inhabits moist lands and the edges of streams, lakes, and
swamps. In the production of sycamore lumber, the Central States ranked first
with about 4O percent of the cut in 1947. The Southern States produced
33 percent and the South Atlantic States about 9 percent.
The heartwood of sycamore is reddish brown; sapwood is lighter in color
and varies from 1-1/2 to 3 inches in thickness. In quarter-sawed lumber$ the
rats are very conspicuous and, though smaller, resemble those in quarter-
sawea ::ak, The wood of sycamore has a fine texture and interlocked grain. It
sh!r in k:.ks moderately in drying, Sycamore wood averages 34 pounds per cubic foot
a, 12-percent moisture content. it is moderately hard, moderately stiff,
moderately strong, and has good resistance to shock. It requires care in
seasoning to prevent warping and is not durable.
Sycamore is used principally for lumber, veneer, railway ties, cooperage,
ferce posts, and fuel. Sycamore lumber is used largely for furniture and for
cz ~s particularly small food containerx. Other products include flooring,
halndies, and butcher's blocks. Veneer is used for fruit and vegetable baskets.
The tupelo group includes four species belonging to the genus Nyssa.
The-- are water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica), :lso known as tupelo gum, swamp tupelo,
and gum; black tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica), also known as blackgum, and sour gum;
s-,amp tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica var. bilfora), also known as swamp blackgum,
blackgum, tupelo gum, and sour gum; and ogeechee tupelo (Nyssa ogeche) also
known as sour tupelo, gopher plum, tupelo, and ogeechee plum.
All of the tupelos, except black tupelo, grow principally in fresh-water
swamps and along the edges of streams and ponds in the southeastern United States.
Black tupelo grows in the eastern United States from Maine to Texas, except the
Pen+ insula of Florida, and westward into Illinois and Milissouri. About two-thirds
of the production of tupelo lumber is from the Southern States and nearly an-
other one-third from the South Atlantic States. The iMiiddle Atlantic and
Central States are credited with about 4 percent of the total tupelo production
and it is likely that the cut from these areas is largely black tupelo.
Rept. No. 1903-5 -18-

VIood of th*, different tupelos is quite similar in appearance and proper-
ties. Heartwood is light brownish -ray and merges gradually into the li,'hter-
co lored sapwood, which is generally several inches wide. itnnual rins are in-
distinct and frequently very difficult to count. The wood has fine unLform
texture and interlocked grain which prevents splintering and makes the wood
difficult to split. Tupelo wood is rated as moderately heavy. .Jood of water
tulel and black tupelo at 12-percent moisture content averages 35 pounds per
cub:c fot in weight. It is moderately strong, moderately hard and stiff,
nd m derately high in shock resistance. Buttresses of trees growing in or other places where the ground surface is covered with water for a
cons iLdera:le length of time contain wood that is much lighter in weight than
th .t from upper portions of the same trees. For some uses, as in the case of
buttressed, ash trees, this wood should be separated from the heavier :ood to
prevent dissatisfaction in use. Because of interlocked grain, tupelo lumber
requires care in drying. Quarter-sawed lumber is less likely to rwarp than
pla-in-s::.,ed lumber.
Tupelo is used principally for lumber, veneer, paper pulp, and to some
extent for rail:ay ties and cooperaLe. Lumber goes into boxes, crates, baskets,
and furniture. Over half of the tupelo used for containers is black tupelo,
and most of the tupelo used for furniture is water tupelo. The light-:,cight
., )d from buttressed trees is used as floats for fish nets.
,alut ?lack
lack walnut (Juglans nigra) is also known as American black walnut.
It's natural rance covers a large area extending from Vermont to the Great
Plains and southward into the riedmont Plateau, northern Louisiana, and Texas.
In 1-, ab o)ut three-quarters of the black walnut timber was produced in the
Central States, 12 percent in the Southern States, and 8 percent in the :iddle
.i l ntic States.
The hearteood of black walnut varies in color from light to dark brovwnm
the Sa)w:Td is nearl/ white. In forest-grown trees, the sapwood is relatively
naIrrPo-, while in on:n-grown trees it may be as much as 3 inches in waidth.
niaul rings of grc'th are marked by the presence of many pores at the beginning
of each oao.n of r.ath. Ihe wood sometimes contains alternate lig-ht and dark
stripes that reduce figured effects in boards and veneer. ',avy, or curly ratn
near kn : or ther irregular growth, such as forks, burls, and stump 'nod, give
ris to hands me figure. Black c.alnut is normally straight-grained, easily
.rkud wLt_ tols, :nd shrinks and swells little after beina seasoned. The
heart'mod ranks ,ell in durabi.ity,. Black walnut is heavy, averaring; 39 pounds
yer cubic fI t at 12-i-ercent moisture content. It is hard, str on, stiff, and
1. s E. d resistance to shock. Black walnut wood finishes especially 1.11.
The outst:-nding use of black walnut is for furniture. Oth r i::prtant are for radio and phonoeraph cabinets, sewing machines, gunst.cks, and
interior finion. It is used either a solid wood or as pl.:V:ood in -ahic: black
y, ~nu su lies the finished surfaces. 'lack w:alnut venuer is manuf ctured
prni.e al: by th, siLcing method. The nuts of black ;rInut h e 1 > n; , for f'od, in candy making and also in and cakker.
17t.",. 1? 'Y' -19-

Willow, Black
Black willow (Salix nigra) is the most important of the many willows
that grow in the United Stites. It is the only one to supply lumber to the
market under its own name. A few other native willows grow to tree size in
some places. Among them are the peachleaf willow (Salix amygdaloides), the
sandbar willow (Salix interior), Pacific willow (Salix lasiandra), red willow
(Saiix laevigataT, and arroyo willow (Salix lasiolepis)._ The last three named
are w-estern species. Several imported species and varieties of willow have
escaped from cultivation and now grow naturally in many places. Among them
are w,,hite -willow (Salix alba), and crack willow (Salix fragilis). The last
two or their varietiesare thought to be the species principally used for
artificial limbs, known in the industry as "white w illow," "yellow willow," and
"red willow." The botanical identification of the species to which these common
names apply is not well established.
Black willow has the greatest commercial production in the Mississippi
Delta from Louisiana to southern Aissouri and Illinois.
Heartwood of black w~illow is grayish brown or light reddish brown in
color, frequently containing darker streaks. Sapwood is whitish to creamy
5velon. The growth rings are rather indistinct. The wood of black willow is
uniform in texture with a somewhat interlocked grain that makes it resistant
to splitting. The wood is light in weight, averaging 26 pounds per cubic foot
at 12-percent moisture content. It is exceedingly soak when used as a beam or
post +, moderately soft, and moderatelyhigh in shock resistance. It has moder-
ately large shrinkage. Black willow is not durable When used under conditions
favorable to decay.
The wood of willow is cut principally into lumber. Small amounts are
used for slack cooperage, veneer, excelsior, charcoal, paper pulp, artificial
limbs., fuel and fence posts. Black willow lumber is remanufactured principally
into boxes, baskets, crates, caskets, and furniture. Willow lumber is also
suitable in some forms of building construction, such as roof and wall
sheathngn, subflooring, and studding.
Yellow -poplar
Yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) is also known as tulip poplar,
tulipw~ood, hickory poplar, and poplar. Sapwood from yellow-poplar is sometimes
called white poplar or whitewood.
Yeilow-poplar grows from Connecticut and New York southward to northern
Florida and northeastern Louisiana, and westward to Illinois, southeastern
M~issouri, and eastern Arkansas. In 1947, the greatest commercial production
of yellow-poplar lumber was from the South, and more than half of the production
fc that region w~as supplied by the states of Alabama and Georgia. The South
n tlantic Stats followed in quantity produced, with Virginia leading and North
Carolina second. The Central States and Middle Atlantic States also produced
relatively large amounts of lumber from this species.
Rept. N!o. 1903-5 -20-

Sa wood of yelluw-p1pr is white and i- frequent 1: several inches in
thickness. The h*:artw:) i yeliwish br vn, ;..r t men with c ,rfd ri or
streaks in shsde of Iu'rile, :reen, bloc., blue, r red. Thes riol rti ns:1
not affect the physical propertior of t h.- wod. The w- is cr.raillv traiiht-
;rained and comparatively unif :,:. in texture. t is moderatel, lie t in wei ht,
avera ing 26 pounds per cubic f-t at 12-percent moisture content f r 1d-grarth
iticr. ,. ~;f second-gra vt timber moy be considerably heavier. Oll-gr(rth
ti:ber is reprted as being moderately ,';eak ir. bending, ::oderately s ft, :nd
.: aeratui 1 :vw in chock resistance. It has a moe rately l rge shrrkLev when
dried frn:. a reecn conditi ini but is not difficult to eas(n and sth;s in .ace
.;1 alter -ar :ning is completed. LThe :od is ,)t durable under c nditi n"
fav'orable t de ay.
..uch if the second-:rowth yeil:;-popltr is havier, harder, and stronger
th an that from virgin-oro.ith trees. Heights --f more than 32 pounds ;per cubic
foot at 12-ercent moisture content are not uncommon. Such wood is not so
su-ta:le for uses where soft texture is desired as )1-gr-,rth p oar, blut it
is suiLable for uses where fIirly Lih strength is desi rd. Sel ectUd trees of
second-, yellow-pa lar produced wood heavy enough for gunstck ,r duction.
A list of pr :ducts that aan be n:. de fro:: yll w- 1; r: includes nearly
fifty items. Large, clear, old-igr:wth logs of yellow- 'plar are ,@ll suited to
the manufacture of veneer. L"ber frr. :1 :-oplar g -es motly ir.t ur i+ ur,
interi r finish, siding, radio cabinets, and musical instruments. B)xes and
crates are made from louer-grade stock not suitable for more exacting uses.
Yellow-: -,LAr veneer i used extensively; in the form rf built-up n,'-
f.r fi1:-.:h, urnit ure, piano J'a"5, anu other uses. i1 o:- Y .r is
: In fr puljpr;od, excelsior, and c1K-co erag s o-.ves.
SOa inODa
Eavt rr. softwood tLmber comprises ,b ut 2(6% billion bo)rd feet, r
about ,:.e-sixth the volume of westnr:: s ftwods, etirte ed at 1/16 millionn
beard feet. Nearly three-f amuths f the eastern soft )d stands are i.n the
S t ::.tlintic and Southern States. .sten: oftw 'd tin:-er sti'r 4 7shing-
to and reogan c )nt'in more than three-fifths f the we. st:n softy, timber,
e of Callfrnia about ne-fifth, and an th r one-fifth is :cttered along
nthe .nntains from Idahc ani 4,ontana southward. Mranj of the western softwood
stands .re inaccessible ocecause of rou,:h terrain aind lack -f roads.
Be principal la :ailities of groth, characteriOtics, and unes of 1)d5
of the :ain cnnrcial coftw :d species or gr -s of species are de'eribd in
the :: li~n',: p'mra :rahs
Baldcyre:;s (T xedium distichu:) is conm nly. kn vm as cypre:, -I,, IS
southern c',press red cypress, yellow cypress a: i.hite cypress. l -. lly,
the terms "tideiaater red cypresr," "gulf cypress," "red cy ress coastt type),
and ":eilow cyTress (inland type)" are frequently used.

Cypress grows along the Atlantic Coastal Plain from Delaware to Florida,
westward through the Gulf coast region to the Mexican border in Texas, and up
the M!ississippi Valley to southern Indiana. The heaviest stands are found in
the extensive swamps of the lower Mississippi Valley and in Florida. The
coastal river swamps of North and South Carolina and of Georgia formerly
contained extensive cypress forests. In 1947., about half of the cypress lumber
production came from the Southern States and one-fourth from the South Atlantic
Sapwood of cyporess is narrow and nearly white. The color of the heart-
w~ood varies widely, ranging from light yello-irsh brooim to dark brovmsh red,
brown, or chocolate. The wood of cypress is moderately heavy, averaging 32
pounds per cubic foot at 12-percent moisture content. It is moderately strong,
moderately hard, and is one of the most durable woods under conditions favorable
to decay. Baldcypress has moderately small shrinkage, somewhat greater than
that of cedars but less than that of southern pine.
Frequently the wood of certain trees contains pockets or localized areas
that have been attacked by a fungus. Such wood is known as "pecky" cypress.
The decay caused by this fugus is arrested when the wood is cut into lumber
and dried. Pecky cypress therefore is durable and useful where appearance is
not important and watertightness is unnecessary.
Cypress is used principally for building construction, especially where
resistance to decay is required. It is used for beams, posts, and other
members in docks, warehouses, factories, b ridges, and heavy construction.
It is well suited for siding and parch construction. It is also used
for caskets, burial boxes, sash, doors, blinds, and general millwork, including
interior trim and paneling. Other uses are in tanks, vats, ship and boat
building, refrigerators, railroad-car construction, greenhouse construction,
cool)ing towers, and stadium seats. It is also used for railway ties, poles,,'7 shingles, cooperage, and fence posts.
Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga taxifolia) is also known locally as red fir,
Douglas spruce., yellow fir, and Oregon pine.
The range of Douglas-fir extends from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific
roast and from M exico to central British Columbia. In 1947, more than half of
Douglas-fir production came from Oregon, nearly 20 percent from Washington, 15
percent from California, and about 6 percent from Idaho and Montana.
Sapwood of Douglas-fir is narrow in old-growth trees but may be as much
as 3 inches wide in second-growth trees of commercial size. Growth rings are
common!- 7dder near the center of trees in both old growth and second growth
from coast type. Frequently, they average more than one-third of an inch in
width for the first 10 years or more. The heaviest wood of Douglas-fir fre-
quently has from 12 to 16 rings per inch. Fairly young trees of moderate to
rapid grovith have reddish heartwood and are called red fir. Very narrow
Rept. No. 1903-5 -22-

ringed wood of old trees may be yellowish brown in color and is known on the
market as yellow fir.
The wod .f Dougla-fir varies widely in weight and strength. Average
material fr~ntl 3 i-ific coast is rated as strong, moderately hard, moderately
heavy, v ...: : ,. w o 34 po unds per cubic ft at 12-percent
moisture 0- :..... :.1e I 1 o,,v yidountain Douglar-fir 'ver7: somewhat
lower in .:1: the cL- ro..t. coast type. Dou-rtl-fir sr ti'ts easily
.nd caused ::: difticul : bcase of weakness of 'b.ond in rc. cause of .i>e. ha*s n:t swxn satisfactorily determi:.d. in strength, Pacific
coast DougJ-fir is given equal rank with southern yellow pine. The density
ruae is a lid Then material of high strength for structural uses is desired.
This rule is a method of estimating the density of wood based on percentage of
sumierwiood Lnd rate of growth.
Douglas-fir is used principally for building and construction purposes
in the form of lumber, timbers, piling, and plywood. Considerable quantities
go into fuel, railway ties, cooperage stock, mine timbers, and fencing.
Dougla:-fir lumber is used in the manufacture of various products, including
sash, doors, general millwork, railroad-car construction, boxes, and crates.
Small amounts are used for flooring, furniture, ship and boat construction,
wood pipe, and tanks.
Firs, True
'he commercial species making up the group of true firs are eight in
number: alpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa), balsam fir (Abies balsamea), California
red fir (.Abies magnifia), Fraser fir (Abies fraseri), grand fir i(bies grandis),
." Frse ii grndfr Aiegadi)
noble fir ~oles procera), Pacific silver fir (abies amabilis), and white fir
Abies concolor).
lwo of the species, balsam fir and Fraser fir, grow in the east and the
other six in the west. In the United States, balsam fir grows principally in
-ew nland, lew York, Pennsylvania, and the Lake States. Fraser fir grows
in the Aipalachian mountainss of Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee.
Jhite fir -rowm from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific coast. Alpine fir
grows at high altitudes in the iocky ountain region and the Cascade .ountains
of Uregon and Jiashington. Pacific silver fir is limited in distribution to
Oreg n and aashington. Grand fir is found in western ontana, northern idaho,
northeastern Oregon, and alon- the coast from dashington to northern California.
Noble fir -r.: in t'e mountains of nortnh'estern ,ashington, western Oregon,
and n rthern California. California red fir is limited to the mountains of
southwestern Oregon and northern and eastern California.
The wood of balsam fir is creamy white to pale brown in color. Heart-
wo-d -nd sapw .od are generally indistinguishable. Because of the similarity
of srucure, wodo of the true firs cannot be separated from an examination
of the w )d alo ne. Like balsam fir, the heart.iood and sap.:ood h ve a similar
apperance in all of the species.
ept. No. 19(3- -23-

Balsam fir averages about 25 pounds per cubic foot at 12-percent
moisture content. It is rated as light in weight, weak in bending and
co:m:pressive strength, moderately limber, soft, and low in resistance to shock.
The other true firs are somewhat similar in weight and mechanical properties.
White fir averages 26 pounds; grand fir, 28 pounds; Pacific silver fir, 27
po.,unds; California red fir, 27 pounds; noble fir, 26 pounds; and alpine fir,
23 pounds per cubic foot at 12-percent moisture content. The western firs,
except grand fir, have somewhat higher strength properties than balsam fir.
Shrinkage of the wood is rated from small to moderately large; noble fir and
California red fir have the highest shrinkage. The wood of the true firs lacks
durability when subject to conditions favorable to decay.
In the west, the true firs are cut for lumber primarily in Oregon and
wiashington, which states accounted for about half of the production in 1947.
-ost of the balance, or about 40 percent, came from California and the re-
mainder from the Rocky Mountain areas. The eastern firs are used principally
for pulpvood, although some is cut into lumber, especially in New England and
the Lake States. High-grade lumber from noble fir goes principally into
interior finish, moldings, siding, and sash and door stock. During World War II,
so.e of the best material was used for aircraft construction. Other special
and exacting uses for noble fir are for venetian blinds and ladder rails. lumber is used for boxes. Lumber from white fir and the other
wIestern true firs goes principally into building construction, boxes and
crates, planing-mill products, sash, doors, and general millwork. In small
house construction, lumber of the true firs is used in the form of framing,
subflooring, and sheathing. A considerable amount goes into boxes and crates.
All of the true firs can be used in the manufacture of various grades of paper.
Hemlock, Eastern
Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) grows from New England southward
along the Appalachian M-lountains to northern Alabama and Georgia, and in the
Lake States. Other names are Canadian hemlock and hemlock spruce.
In 1947, the production of hemlock lumber was divided fairly evenly
between the New England States, the Middle Atlantic States, and the Lake States.
North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia also produced considerable amounts.
The heartwood of eastern hemlock is pale brown with a reddish hue. Sap-
:Fd is not distinctly separated from the heartwood, but may be lighter in
a 1.:. Growth rings are distinct. The wood is coarse and uneven in texture
al4 inc-Lined to splinter; old trees are subject to ring shake. The wood lacks
d..raility under conditions favorable to decay. It is moderately light in
. 1i ht, averaging 26 pounds per cuoic foot at 12-percent moisture content,
ratelY hard, moderately/ weak, moderately limber, and moderately low in
smok-r listing ability. It requires care in seasoning. The bark of eastern
uloca contains 10 to i3 percent tannin.
Eastern hemlock is used principally for lumber and paper pulp. The
lu mber ic usud Isrgely in building construction for framing, sheathing, sub-
flo ,ring, and roof boards, and in the manufacture of boxes and crates. Pulp-
fof eastern hemlock is used principally in the manufacture of newsprint
ant rapping paper.
i t b. -24-

Hemlock, westernn
westernn hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) is also known by several ether
na me s, including west coast hemlock, hemlock spruce, western hemlock spruce,
western hemlock fir, Prince Albert fir, gray fir, silver fir, and Alas pine.
The heartwood and sapwood of western hemlock are almost white with a
purplish tinge. Sapwood, which is sometimes lighter in color, is generally
not over 1 inch thick. Growth rings are distinct. The wood contains small,
sound, black knots that are usually tight and stay in place. Dark streaks
often found in the lumber are caused by hemlock bark maggots.
western hemlock is moderately light in weirht, averaging 29 pounds per
cubic foot at 12-percent moisture content. It is moderately hard, moderately
weak, moderately stiff, and moderately low in shock resistance. The wiood is
not highly resistant to decay. It has moderately large shrinkage, about the
same as Douglas-fir. Green hemlock lumber contains considerably more water
than Dou las-fir, but it is comparatively easy to kiln dry. The bark has a
hi, 1 annin content, ranging from 12 to 22 percent.
lJestern hemlock is used principally for pulpwood and lumber. The
lumber Goes largely into building material, such as sheathing, siding, sub-
fl oring, joists, studding, planking, and rafters. Considerable quantities
are used in the manufacture of boxes and crates, flooring, and smaller amounts
for refrigerators, furniture, and ladders.
Incense-cedar, California
Incense-cedar (Libocedrus decurrens) grows in California, southwestern
Oregon, and to a small extent in Nevada. It is generally known as incense-
cedar; sometimes simply as cedar. iiost of the incense-cedar lumber comes
from California and the balance from Oregon.
Sapwood of incense-cedar is white or cream-colored, and the heartwood
is light brown, often tin:ed with red. rowth rings are distinct in iood of
c mparatively rapid gro.wth. The wood has a fine, uniform texture and a spicy
odor. Incense-cedar weighs 25 pounds per cubic foot at 12-percent moisture
content. It is moderately weak, soft, low in shock-resisting ability, and
lacks stiffness. It has small shrinkage and is easy to season with little
checking, or warping.
Incunse-codar is used principally for lumber, fence posts, and ties.
early all the high-grade lumber is used for making pencils and venetian
blinds. The qualities that adapt it to pencil manufacture are straightness
ot uran, softness and ease of cutting. So-:e is used for chests and toys.
..(: *f the inconse-cedar lum pock ts or rees of disintegrated wood caused by advincd sta,.es. of loeelized
deco;; Ln the living tree. Ihere is no further development of eck once the
lumber is s,-sonud. This liunber is used locally for rough construction where
chempniess and docy resistance are important. Because of its durability,
Rept. N o. 19,03- -25-

incense-cedar is well suited for fence posts. It makes satisfactory ties, but
requires tie plates on account of the softness of the wood. Other products
are poles, grape stakes, and split shingles.
Larch, Western
Western larch (Larix occidentalis) grows in western Montana, northern
idaho, northeastern Oregon, and on the eastern slope of the Cascade Mountains
in Wlashington. It is found at elevations of 2,000 to 7,000 feet. In 1947,
about two-thirds of the lumber of this species was produced in Idaho and
Hontana and one-third in Oregon and Washington.
The heartwood of western larch is yellowish brown and the sapwood,
,vellowish white. Sapwood is generally not over I inch thick. Growth rings
are distinct; they are generally quite uniform and range from 15 to 30 per
radial inch. The wood is moderately strong, stiff, moderately hard, moderately
high in shock-resisting ability, and averages 36 pounds per cubic foot at 12-
percent moisture content. It has moderately large shrinkage. The wood is
usually straight-grained, splits easily, and is subject to ring shake. It has
about the same durability as Douglas-fir. Knots are common but are small and
tight. Western larch is rather difficult to season, but if proper drying
schedules are used, it can be seasoned satisfactorily. It produces a gu
kn on as galactan, which is useful in the manufacture of baking powders and
for -overal other purposes.
% estern larch is used principally in building construction in the form
ef rough dimension, small timbers, planks, and boards, and for crossties and
mine timbers. It is used also for piling, poles, and posts. Some of the high-
grade material is manufactured into interior finish, flooring, sash, and doors.
Flat-grained flooring subject to heavy wear is likely to separate between the
annual rings.
Pine, Eastern White
Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) grows in the United States from
Maine southward along the Appalachian Mountains to northern Georgia and Alabama,
aid in the Lake States. It is also known as white pine, northern white pine,
evuuth pine, and soft pine.
Lumber production of eastern white pine is confined principally to the.
e-s En:!- nd States, which in 1967 produced about half of the total. About one-
' C from the Lake States and most of the remainder from the Middle
1."ntic and South Atlantic States.
The heartwood of eastern white pine is light brow.,n, often with a reddish
iinjl,. It turns considerably darker on exposure. Growth rings are distinct.
f u'ood has comparatively uniform texture, and is straight-grained. It is
eLly kiln dried, has small shrinkage, and ranks high in ability to stay in
lace. It is also easy to work and can be readily glued.
&,,t. Io. 1903-5 -26-

Eastern white pine is light in weight, averaging 25 pounds per cubic
foot. It is moderately soft, moderately weak, and low in resistance to shock.
The heart'))od is rated ias intermediate in decay resistance.
Practically all eastern white pine is converted into lumber, which is
put ink a 7reit variety f uses. Yhe largest proportion of eastern white
pne lumber, which is largely second-growth knotty material of the lower
grades, ,s mt boxe;. ih-grade lumber goes into patterns for castings.
-rades,,.ct ind int bxe.iaI,
Other imj,)rtant uses are sash, doors, furniture, trim, caskets and burial
boxes, s:1i1e and ma: rollers, t oys, and dairy and poultry supplies.
Pine, Jack
Jcck pine (Pinus banksiana), someies known as scrub pine, gray pine,
, I aF rgaypn
or blac: inc in the United States, gr os naturally in the Lake States and in
a f; scca-tored areas in hew Enland and northern Newv York. In lumber production,
jack pine is not separated from the other pines with which it grows, including
re--d ,ine and eastern white pine.
Sapwood of jack pine is nearly white, and the heartwood is light brown
to oran e. Sap::Dod may make up half or more of the volume of a tree. The wood
has a rather coarse texture and is somewhat resinous. Ie w d is moderately
li 1 in weight, averaging 3. pounds per cubic foot at 12-percent moisture
content. It is moderate weak in bendin strength and compressive strength,
moderately low in shock resistance, and lacks stiffness. It also has moderately
small shrinkage. Lumber from jack pine is generally knotty. Heartwood is
rated as intermediate in durability.
Jack pine is used for pulpwood, box lumber, and fuel. Less important
uses include railway ties, mine timber, cslack cooer -,e, poles, and posts.
Pine Lode evle
L d vi le pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia), also) known a7s shre pine,
kn:tt, pine, :lack ine, cruce ine, and jack pine, gros in the iicky .~.ountain
and Pacific coast regions as far northward as Alaska. In 1917, the cut of
l1 di- -i oL in cane largely from the South Rocky ..ountain States, which pro-
duc ed 3S] percent; other producing reins were Idaho, 1.ntana, rOren, and
ash i ngton.
Te heartwood of lodgepole pine varies from li, ht yellow-. to light
yellow Lr awn. The sapw od is yellow or nearly white. the wood is generally
straicht-,nine d with arrw cro-:th rings.
;Ile 7;0o"d is moderately 'i in ,ve nlt,,
The is merately l ht in weight, averaging 29 pounds per cubic
foet at 12-percent moisture content. It is fairlyeasy to work. It has m)der-
ately lur,. sarinkage. In strength properties, lodgepole pine rate as moder-
atel; ':::, r derately stiff, m ,derately soft, and moderately low in hock
reosisLtan. It is not considered durable under conditi ns favora. Ie to decay.
An t. No. 1903-5 -27-

Lodgepole pine is used for lumber, mine timbers, railway ties, and
poles. It is gaining some importance for pulpwood. Less important uses
include posts and fuel. Lumber is used mostly for local rough construction
and for boxes. It is being used in increasing amounts for siding, finish,
and flooring, especially where other species are not readily available
Pine, Ponderosa
Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) is known also as pondosa pine, western
soft pine, western pine, California white pine, bull pine, and black jack.
Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffre-yi), which g )ine in Cali1ornia and Oregon, is usually marketed with ponderosa pine and sold
under that name.
Ponderosa pine grows to some extent in every state west of the Great
Plains, also in British Columbia and northern Mexico. Major producing areas
are in Oregon, iashington, California, and Nevada. Other important producing
regions are in idaho and Montana; lesser amounts come from the states of the
South ocky i mountain region.
Botanically, ponderosa pine belongs to the yellow pine group rather than
the white pine group. A considerable proportion of the wood, however, is some-
wh at similar to the white pines in appearance and properties. Heartwood is
light reddish brown, and the vide sapwood is nearly white to pale yellow.
Growth rings are generally distinct ;ien not exceedingly narrow.
The wood of the outer portions of ponderosa pine of saw-timber size is
generally moderately light in weight, averaging 28 pounds per cubic foot at
12-percent moisture content. It is moderately weak, moderately stiff, moder-
ately soft, and moderately low,7 in shock resistance. It is generally straight-
grained and has moderately small shrinkage. It is quite uniform in texture
and has little tendency to warp and t .ist. Wood in young trees and in the
heartw)od of older trees is sometimes heavier, harder, and stronger than in
the outer -ortion of the older trees. 14ood of ponderosa pine groM on the
east side of the Sierra Nevada M1ountains is reported to be comparatively soft
and uniform in texture, while that grown on the west side of the mountains, a
region of greater rainfall, is harder and less uniform in texture.
Ponderosa pine is used principally for lumber and to a lesser extent for
piling, poles, posts, mining timbers, veneer, and hewed ties. Low-grade
material is widely used for fuel. The clear softer wood goes into sash, doors,
blinds, moldings, paneling, mantels, trim, and built-in cases and cabinets.
Lower-erade lumber is used for boxes and crates. 'uch of the lumber of inter-
mediate or lower grades goes into sheathing, subflooring, roof boards, floor
joists, studs, and rafters. Knotty ponderosa pine is used for interior finish.
Pine, dRed
iHed pine (Pinus resinosa) is frequently called Norway pine. This name
comes from the tom of H1orway, M iaine, and not from the European country. It is
occasionally- known as hard pine and pitch pine. Red pine grows in the
deptA. -28-

ew ngland State :ew York, Pennsylvania, and tho Lake States. In the ari.
1unlber from red pine has heen marketed with white pine without distinction .r
to soecies
The heaotw1od of red pine varies in color from pale red to a re ddish
brovrn. 7 1 i a:1: d is nearly white with a yellivis tir fr 2 to inches .ide. The wood resembles the 1ivfte -*ei ht .ood >f
2 .hr n A1.: adu Sun.Pri: )d is distinct in th< a. rias.
,d line is ::oderately heavv,, averaging -8 'u .s oren c fo-ot -t
1 --jure:t at nture rratent. It i mIoerately str f, :1 derately
, a d .v... tol* Li:. Lin sha-ck resistance. It i- ::. raiL1; i ht-
1- nat st: unAferm in texture as eastern :ite pl nd .ruatht
.. '.:1 'nod has moderately large shrinkaCe, but is nt difficult to
e: a. stays in slace well when seasoned. It is nit durable under conditions
fa :a:K: to deca:-.
ed nine is used principally for lumber and to a lesser extent for
1i1 os, cabin l lo hewed ties, posts, and fuel. The wood is used for
f Ith .e -ourp'ses a7 eastern white pine. It -oes principal i.t
t a], construction, siding:, piling, flooring, sash, doors, blinds, general
:. .:.rk, and boxes and crates.
Pine S uthern Yell n
There are a number of species included in the group known as southern
yello pine. They are:
(1) Lonleaf pine (Pinus palustris), which grows from eastern North
Caraoina, south into Florida, and west:.ard through Alabama, iiississippi, and
L :isiana into eastern Texas.
(2) Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata), which grows from southeastern
ew York and New Jersey southward to northern Florida and westward into
oatrs Texas and Oklahoma. Northern limits of growth are the Ohio Valley
and southern .issuuri.
(3) Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), which grows from Iaryland southward
through the Atlantic Coastal Plain and Fiedmont Plateau into Florida and ::est-
w.rd into eastorn Texas. The northern limit of growth west of the Appalachian
tI.ountains is near the southern Tennessee border.
(4) Slash pine (Pinus caribaea), which grows in Florida and the southern
parts of South Car-olin., sorgi, Alabama, i,ississippi and Louisiana east of
thu ...L issippi ivr.
Other southern yellow pines of less commercial importance include
kirginia piano (Iinu': vir inian), pond pine (PLnus ri i1.i s(r1ina), .nd sruce
pine ..7r 7.
n . . aLi th various oior f southern y 1-ow pine
Lon la.f 1is 'n ..:. aIs as a:.c: in; in ex; -rt trade :n* ans uor ~i i .,

Florida pine, .Texas yellow pine, and hard pine. Slash pine may be called
Cuban pine, yellow slash pine, swamp pine, and pitch pine. Shortleaf pine
may be called yellow pine, ,irkansas shortleaf pine, North Carolina pine, and
Rosemary pine. Loblolly pine is known as oldfield pine, North Carolina pine,
sap pine, and shortleaf pine.
The southern yellow pine lumber comes principally from the Southern
and South ttlantic States. The states leading in production in 1947 were
Georgia, ilabama, North Carolina, and Texas in the order named, each producing
over a billion board feet.
The wood of the various southern yellow pines is quite similar in
appearance. The sapwood is yellowish white, and the heartwood is reddish brown.
{__rowth rings in the southern yellow pines are usually prominent, each made up
of a band of dark-colored summerwood and a band of light-colored springwood.
Jidth of the annual rings varies greatly, depending upon the conditions under
which the trees have grown. Rings may be as much as 1 inch in width in young
trees in old-field stands or extremely narrow in the outer part of old-growth
trees. The sapwood is usually white in second-growifth stands. Heartwood begins
to form when the tree is about 20 years old. In old, slow-growth trees, sap-
wood may be only 1 or 2 inches in width. The wood of any species of southern
yellow pine may vary widely with changing conditions of growth in a stand, so
that lightweight wide-ringed wood and comparatively heavy close-ringed wood
may exist in the same tree.
Longleaf and slash pines are classed as heavy and strong, slash pine
averaging 43 pounds and longleaf pine, 41 pounds per cubic foot at 12-percent
moisture content. Slash pine from southern Florida is typically more dense
than that from nearer the northern limits of its range, particularly second
growth h. Longleaf and slash pine are classed as stiff, hard, and moderately
high in shock resistance. Shortleaf and loblolly pines are somewhat lighter
in weight than longleaf, averaging 36 pounds per cubic foot at 12-percent
moisture content. Under certain conditions of growth, however, shortleaf and
loblolly will produce wood equal in weight to that of longleaf and slash. The
other species of southern yellow pine have properties similar to shortleaf and
loblolly pine. In order to obtain heavy, strong wood of the southern yellow
pines for structural purposes, a "density rule" has been written which specifies
certain visual characteristics for structural timbers.
Heartwood of the southern yellow pines is intermediate in durability.
Sapwood is lacking in durability but can be readily treated with preservatives.
S southern yellow pine lumber can be satisfactorily seasoned either by air drying
or by kiln drying. All the southern yellow pines have moderately large
shrinkage but stay in place well when properly seasoned.
Dense southern yellow pine is used extensively in construction of
factories, warehouses, bridges, trestles, and docks in the form of stringers,
beams, posts, joists, and piling. Lumber of lower density and strength finds
many uses for building material, such as interior finish, weatherboarding,
sheathing, subflooring, and joists, and for boxes and crates. Southern yellow
pines are used also for slack cooperage. When used for railway ties, telephone
and telegraph poles, and mine timbers, southern yellow pine is treated with
I pt. No. 1903-5 -30-

Lon.leaf pine and slash pine are the source of turpentine and rocsi.,
known as naval stores. /od turpentine, tar, and oils may', be obtained aIs-
b,, distill: tion of southern yellow pine wood, especially heartwood, 'hic' is
rico in resin. Considerable quantities of southern yellow pine are used in
making vrapping paper and pulp board.
Pine, :urar
ugar vine (Pinus lmoertiana) is sometimes called California sugar
;ine. ihe range f sugar pine extends from the Coast and Cascade Mountain
Sn. es f s,.uthern Uregon alng the Coast danges and the Sierra Nevada mountains
S:lifor:ia ~through southern California and into lower Calif)rnia in :exic
. f the su ur vine luzber is produced in California aind the remainder in
southwestern Uregon.
The heart,_ad of sugar pine is buff or light brown, sometimes tinged
vwiti red. Sauw.d is cream.y white. The wood frequently becomes discolored
du: the s. oning process because of the action of blue or brown stain
fur;i. These st:ins do not affect the strength properties of the wood but
d. .fect its appearance and suitability for natural finishes. Sug.r pine
o :.s. s resin canals, which show on cross sections or tangential faces as
sxl.. dirk-o)lor-d dots or as thin, dark-colored streak's. The wood is
straciiht-gr-indc, firly uniform in texture, and easy to work :rith tools. It
: ery small shrinkage, is readily seasoned without warping of checking, and
: 1: in ;tce a:11. Suear pine is light in weight, averaging 25 pounds oer
c :c f t at 12-percent moisture content. It is moderately weak, moderately
., iav in Tability to resist shock and lacks stiffness. It is rated inter-
1: :te Ln ability to resist decay.
Su -.r pine is used almost entirely in the form of lumber or products
:.ufactured from lur:br. The largest amounts are used in building construction,
- xr 'nd crat Cash, doors, frames, blinds, general mill:ork, nd foundry
t r.n7. Li.e eastern white pine, sugar pine is suitable for use in nearly
er ., .r of a house bec ws. of the ease with which it can be cut, its ability
t s: in i .ce, -nd Its ood nailing properties. It is coming into increasing
us.e o-s;a :rn .;ood in fou'iries. It is readily available in '.ido, thick
pieces, ic ically free from defects.
Pine, Aestern White
.. A: ::.t pin- (?L nus m or .:hi 1. '.** .*, it r ...s in st rn nt ., nort r
izai~r, -ni alow th- .' . J Sierr:. tavida 1,ounti ins throu, h schi:.cton
a nd (r,'a to (,ntr' i_ 7
an l l', :h aut Vur-a-' t:a's of the cut crime from Idaho nwith a cons iderablue
amount i" -. .nchin' ., :1. i unts :ere cut in on t 'in. and Or. -n.
*rt t t... i o am-(- c cr-d to ii Jat reddish br an
and d.,v a dx: sur.. =n ...... is :plio.ih ..hrte 1ni o nrah fra-. I
ikt 0 P' L' 3 [1

to 3 inches wide. The wood is straight-grained, easy to work, easily kiln-
dried., and stays in place well after seasoning.
Western white pine is moderately light in weight, averaging 27 pounds
per cubic foot at 12-percent moisture content. It is moderately weak, moder-
ately stiff, moderately soft, moderately low in shock resistance, and has
moderately large shrinkage. Heartwood is rated as intermediate in decay
Practically all western white pine is sawed into lumber and used
principally for building construction, matches, boxes, and millwork products,
such as sash., frames, doors, and blinds. In building construction, boards of
the lower grades are used for sheathing, subflooring, and roof strips. High-
grade material is made into siding of various kinds, exterior and interior
trim, partitions., casings, bases, and paneling. It has practically the Same
uses as eastern white pine and sugar pine. A large proportion of western
white pine is used in the manufacture of matches.
Redcedar., Eastern
Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) grows throughout the eastern
half of the United States, except Maine, Florida, and a narrow strip along the
Gulf Coast and at the higher elevations in the Appalachian Mountain Range.
Another species, southern redcedar (Juniperus silicicola), grows over a
limited area in the South litlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains.
Comm%-ercial production of eastern redcedar is now becoming restricted
to rather small areas in Tennessee and Kentucky.
The heartwood of redcedar is bright red or dull red., and the thin sap-
wood is nearly w-hite. The wood is moderately heavy, averaging 33 pounds per
cubic foot at 12-percent moisture content. It is moderately weak, hard, high
in shock resistance, but lacks stiffness. It has ver small shrinkage and
stays in place well after seasoning. The texture is fine and uniform. Grain
is usually straight, except where deflected by knots, which are numerous.
Eastern redcedar is very resistant to decay.
The greatest quantity of eastern redcedar is used for fence posts.
Lumber is manufactured into chests, wardrobes, and closet lining. Other uses
include flooring, pencils, scientific instruments, and small boats. Southern
reacodar is used for the same purposes as eastern redcedar.
Redcedar, Western
'Jstern redcedar (Thuja plicata) grows in northern California, western
Oregon, western and northeastern Wiashington', northern Idaho, and northwestern
i Jiontana. It growls also along the Pacific coast northward to Alaska. Western
redcedar is also called canoe cedar, giant arborvitae, shinglewood, and Pacific
redcedar. lNestern redcedar lumnber is produced principally in WTashington,
followed by Oregon, Idaho, and Montana.
dept. No. 1903-5 -32-

The heartwood of western redeedar is reddish brown in color, and the
sapwood is nearl white. SapYwod is narrow, often not over 1 inch in width.
'1e wood is generally' straight-grained ani hI s a uniform but rather coar.e
texture. It h s very small shrinkwe, estern redcedar is li-ht in weight,
averain: 23 pounds per cubic foot at 12-percent moisture content. It is
moderately soft, weak when used as a beam or post, and low in shock-rosisting
ability. It is one of the most durable native woods. It requires care in
kiln drying but stays in place well if properly seasoned.
westernn redcedar is used principally for shingles, limber, ss,
and niling. T'ihe lumber is used for exterior sidin:, interior finish, green-
h o:se construction, ship and boat building, boxes and crates, ash, dr nd
.ed-:ood (Sequoita sempervirens) is a very large tree ,rowing on the coast
of Ca]lifornia. Another sequoia (Sequoia giyantea) grows in the Sierra Nevada
mountains of California. Other names for redIood are coast redwood, California
red :, Humblt red d, and sequoia. Production of redwod lumber is limited
to California.
The heartwood of redwood varies in clor from a licht cherr-, to a dark
mahooan-r. The n-rrow sarwood is almost ;white. Typical old-erowth redwood is
moderately li-ht in weight, averaging 30 pounds per cubic foot at 12-cercent
moisture c ntent. It is moderatel,: stron -, moderately stiff, and ...deritely
h rd. Th heaviest redvood enerall_.-r has 9 to 30 growth rings noer radial
inch. \he wood is easy to work, generally straight-grained, and shrinks and
s i1s comQarativel/ little. The heartwood has hih durability under conditions
favr-. l to dec.y. Second-ro.wrth trens are likely to hlve much ader :ro:th
r::-s, particularly toward the center of the trees, and to contain wd some-
wht lo er in density and roil ted Ptren-th pro'eorties thnn old--rowth trr*s.
:snt of the production of redwood is urrd in the form of lumber for
plan-s, dimension, boards, joists, eamr, string(ers, and posts in the
construction of buildings, bridges, and trestles. It is also remanufactured
into shi pin containers, siding, ceiling and finish, ,ash, doors, blinds,
anrd mill:ork. 'ecause of Lts durability, it is useful for cooling towers,
t:nks, silts, caskets, :irood-stave pipe, and outdoor furniture.
Spruce, i',nel-mann
Eng lmann spruce (Picea engelmanni) grows at high elevations in the
mountain regions ) the :.stern part of the United States and Can da. Enel-
mnn snruce is sometimes kno..m by other names, such as white spruce, mountain
rcru rizona spruce, silver spruce, and balsam.
nbo)ut two-tUhirds of the production of Englemann spruce lumber is in the
South aCKy mountain States. host of the remainder comes from thr North iH)cky
I4.untain St tes and Orron.
Re:t. No. 1 3-5 -33-

The heartwood of Engoelmann spruce is nearly white in color with a
slight tinge of red. The sapwood varies from 3/4 to 2 inches in width and
is often difficult to distinguish from heartwood. The wood has medium to fine
texture and is without characteristic taste or odor. It is generally straight-
vra-ned. Envelann spruce is rated as light in weight, averaging 23 pounds per
cubic foot at 12-percent moisture content. It is weak when used as a beam or
post. It is limber, soft, low in ability to resist shock, and has moderately
. .all .hria: e. The lumber contains small knots.
EngeLmann spruce is used principally for lumber and in limited amounts
for mine timbers, railway ties, and poles. It is used also in buildin, con-
straction in the form of dimension stock, flooring, sheathing, and studding.
It is finding use in the pulp industry because of its excellent pulp- and
paper-making properties.
Spruce, Sitka
Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) is a tree of large size growing along
the northwestern coast of North America from California to Alaska. It is
genrlly known as Sitka spruce, although other names may be applied locally,
-ch a"s yellw ,spruce, tideland spruce, western spruce, silver spruce, and
west coast spruce.
Abo'ut two-thirds of thr, production of Sitka spruce lumber comes from
Washington, and one-third from Oregon. Small amounts are produced in California.
The heartwood of Sitka spruce is a light pinkish brown. Sapwood is
creanxi hite and shades gradually into the heartwood. Sapwood may be 3 to 6
inches wide or even thicker in young trees. The wood has a comparatively fine,
uniform texture, generally straight grain, and no distinct taste or odor. It
is -o erately light in weight, averaging 28 pounds per cubic foot at 12-percent
moisture content. It is moderately weak in bending and compressive strength,
nmo erately stiff, moderately soft, moderately low in resistance to shock, and
has moderately small shrinkage. On the basis of weight, it rates high in
stren'ti properties ani can be obtained in clear, straight-grained pieces of
large size.
Sitka spruce is used principally for lumber, paper pulp, and cooperage.
Boxes and crates consume about half of the remanufactured lumber. Other
important uses are furniture, planing-mill products, sash, doors, blinds,
mil,::ork., cooperate, and boats.
Sitke spruce has teen by far the most important wood for aircraft con-
struction. Otlhr specialty uses are ladder rails and sounding boards for pianos.
There are two species of white-cedar in the eastern part of the United
States. They are northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis) and Atlantic white-
cedar (Chammecyperis thyoides). Northern white-cedar is also knovm as
Rept. !o. 1903-5 -34-

arborvitae, or cedar. Atlantic white-cedar is also knovm as juniper,
s uthern ;hit-cedr, swamp cedar, and boat cedur.
Northern white-cedar grows from ;Iaine southward along the 1ppalachian
:.:uuntin ::n to. northern Ueorgia and westward thr ugh the northern part f
th. Lake Staes. It also grows in the southeastern part of Canada. Atlantic
whi t-cedar ~ ;s near the Atlantic coast from :laine to nortnern Florida and
wa ,-ar ai n: the Gulf coast to Lo~ulsiana. It i- strictly a swamp tree.
Production of northern white-cedar lumber is probably greatest in
!an e and the Lake States. Census reports do not separate production of
northern white-cedar from that of other eastern codar-. Co mercial production
of :.lintic whie-codar centers around eastern North Carolina and alonl, the
KLtf coxt.
Heartwood of the white-cedars is light brownvm, and the sapwood is white
or nearly s,,. Sapwood is usually thin. The wood is light in weight, northern
white-cedar averaging 22 pounds and Atlantic white-cedar, 23 pounds per cubic
f at at 12-percent moisture content. The wood is rather soft and weak and is
iL in o: -resisting ability. It shrinks little in drying. 'The wood is
al i, worked holds paint well, and is highly resistant to decay. The tw
s:Mce ore used for similar purposes, principally for poles, ties, lumber
and at .ite-cedar lumber is used principally where high degree of
durability is needed as in tanks and boats, and for woodenware.
White-cedar, Port Orford
Port Orford white-cedar (Chamaecyparis lawooniana', is commonly called
icrt Orford cedar. It is sometLixes kno..n as La::son's cypress, Ore~a n cedar,
and .hioe--edar. It grows alon.; the Pacific coast from Cos Bay, Oregon,
s.uth .rd to the River in Humboldt County, California. It does not extend
m re than Co miles inla.1 or more than IC O feet in elevation on the westward
lopec f the Coast Range.
The 1hertwood of Port Orford white-cedar is light yellow to pale brown
in color. Sapwood is thin and hard to distinguish. The wood has fine texture,
generally straight grain, and a pleasant spicy odor. It is moderately light
in weight, averaging 29 pounds -er cubic foot at 12-percent mnoisture content.
It i stiff, mn.derately strong, moderatel, hard, and inmoderately resi-stant to
shoc.:. Port Orford white-cedar is one of the most durable woods. The wcod
lrif:.ks in.erately, has little tendency to warp and stays in place well after
seas .nn.
( large proportion of the high-grade Port Orford white-cedar is used
in the manufacture of battery separators and venetian-blind slats. Other
uses "mothpr of" boxes, sash and door constru-tion, flooring, interior
finish, furniture, and boat building.
t,. -3 5-

Yellow-cedar, Alaska
Alaska cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis) grows in the Pacific coast
region of North America from southeastern Alaska southward through Washington
to southern Oregon. In Washington and Oregon, it is confined to the west
side of the Cascade Mountains, usually above an elevation of 2,000 feet. It
reaches its best development along the coast and on the nearby islands of
southern Alaska and British Columbia.
The heartwood of Alaska cedar is bright, clear yellow. The sapwood
is narrow, white to yellowish, and hardly distinguishable from the heartwood.
GroTh rings are not easily visible. The wood is fine-textured and generally
straint-grained. It is moderately heavy, averaging 31 pounds per cubic foot
at 12-percent moisture content. It is moderately strong, moderately stiff,
moderately hard, and moderately high in resistance to shock. Alaska cedar
shrinks little in drying, stays in place well after seasoning, and is very
resistant to decay. The wood has a mild, unpleasant odor.
Alaska cedar is used locally for interior finish, furniture, small
boats, cabinet work, and novelties.
Rept. NTo. 1903-5 -36-

.... ... .... ..

Figure l--Forest vegatation of the United States (adapted from
Shantz and Zon's "Natural Vegetation" map of the
United States in the "Atlas of American Agriculture"),

70 IV
t.Ab ILRN)
SPRUE-FI N CONIrtNou Feats)OA snyocori
M c _o P____vAR FIEo
sw casnous~ sOOOtao) PaOrMXosA eeE DoLK;aSFI n ---s- Usua SEAT R N" rart
(aNomUVZ EDV wooLAND) LODOot PINE -------- MANGROVE (Sust 0 sonsst3)
F* 13. 05 or
s MRous' strme. o 1-m

3 1262 08866 6085