Certain properties of papreg as affected by laminating pressure, resin content, and volatile content

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Title:
Certain properties of papreg as affected by laminating pressure, resin content, and volatile content
Physical Description:
Book
Creator:
Seidl, R. J
Mackin, G. E
Baird, P. K
Forest Products Laboratory (U.S.)
University of Wisconsin
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory ( Madison, Wis )
Publication Date:

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Resource Identifier:
aleph - 29392695
oclc - 757386625
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AA00020667:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Test material
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Discussion of results
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Conclusions
        Page 9
    Tables 1 to 6
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Figures 1 to 25
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text
5.4/
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CERTAIN PIUPElTIES ef PAPRE6 AS

AlfIFECTI IBY LAMINATINC PrSSUIr,

RESIN CONTINT, ANID VOLATIIE

CONTENT

IlRvised ctIober 1943


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irorkT sRVICE


This Ioport is One of a Series
Issued In Cooperation uwith the
AIMY-NAVY-CIVI COMMITTEE

AIRCRAFT !ES16N ClRITIET A
Under the Supervision of the
AERONAUItCAL WOARD


No. 1394


UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
FOREST SERVICE
FOREST PRODUCTS LABORATORY
Madison, Wisconsin
In Cooperation with the University of Wisconsin


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CEFrTAI: I'R, TI.:, r' PAPREG AS AIrECTTI BY LAI'TiATT,'
Pl.',.:1i, RE3I!_' COHTh'i', ATD VOLATILE COUNT: T!


By

R. J. SEIDL, Assistant Chemical Engineer
G. E. 7 ACKIIN, Associate Industrial Specialist
P. K. BAIRD, Senior Chp-emist





Preliminary experiments, previously reported by the Forest
Products Laboratory:. indicated that certain troinf exist between
laminating pressure, resin content, and volatile conte-it of resin-
impregnated paper and some of the properties of papreg.- Results of
a more thorough investigation of these variables ara presented in this
report.


TEST 'LATTRIAI


The base paper (T. R. 2037) used in those eyorrime-.Its was made
on the Forest Products Laboratory experimental paper machine from a
Commercial Mitscherlich spruce subfite pulp especially developed from
Laboratory specifications for this purpose. The significant physical
properties of this paner are:

Ream weight (25x40-500)---------------- pounds 31.0
Thicness------------------------------ mils 2.5
Porosity (.Curley)---------------------- seconds 9
Density---------------------------------grams per cc. 0.69
Tensile, in machine direction--------- pounds per
square inch 11,900

IThis mimeograph is one of a series of progress reports prepared by
the Forest Products Laboratory to further the action's war effort.
Results here reported are preliminary and may be revised as addi-
tional data become available.
--2"Effect of Laminating Pressure on Certain Properties of High-strength
Paper Plastic," Mimeograph 'To, 1394, !:,arch 1943. (Ostricted)
"High-strength Laminated Paper Plastics for Aircraft," ..ineograph No.
1395, revised April 1943 (Restricted)
3
3The name papreg," ide'ii fin, the experimental high--trrnrith laminated
paper plastic developed by the Forest Products Laboratory has been
sent to the U. S. Patent O'fice for re.'-istration,


Mimeo. No, 1394 (Revised)


-1-








Tri.-s'e, atcrons n cilne dire on- ..---pounds per
s q icre Inch 4,4'9?0
Tensile, averap -.---------------------- poin.' s per
sqin-o inch 1, p1.5


The base p;per .* 1inrr- -nated ,,Ith a spirit-s.luble pheno'ic
resin (''elite !.7-13.526), In this report thn ter-n "rrsin con,.-nt"
refers to the difference in weight, between an area of the air-dry
,.per ".d/AqlV area of thi piper Ir.e ediatply as it cerges fro',., the
inm.pr enat-'r drying tun-iol, expressed as a percent-.se of the trPated-
n'-ier weigh-t. The vol-,tile cor.tent as usee In- this report refers to
t:e i ffoerence in weigih)t bet'.een a resin-tr.-atel shret im'iediat"l' a$
it einerges from the impregnator drying tunnel an. its wei,..t after
drying in an oven at )60" C. for 10 minutes, the wei.'.t eifferece
bei-ir expressed in percentt of the -first rweitht.J. Tf.''rfPr, ti.
volatile content of a resin-trento.d pauer is inclu'. i. t-h'LP ris-ir con-
tent deterr.nination. F'r a givor coiin.nt of resin soliL.'s a chn,,rno in
volatile content also causes a change in the resin content.

In making, the resin-treater' 'aner the conditions of opF-rtina
the i'!pre-n:Aitor (fifs. 1) were establi.-,.Pd by test for three rosir co--
tents, each of which included about 4.0 p-rc'-.t vol'iilp c-'tprt,
These may be consi-lered t'.e basic cnHbi.nations of r"sin: s'1i* 'I andr
-c.latile r.a'*-er. TMe rate of r:sin nrplicrtion, te'-.r re of t' P
resin bathl, speed of travel of the pa"..er, and t-;e air velocity, a.:d ;c'.ir
te.:v.erature in the dryinrg tunnel, were ectabiisi'. for t1-- I.sic C0o.-
'ina tons. Increases in volatile content -.'rre then '19e by rri'uvin-
>.r air temperature in the r'rv-*n t'i.-i'el hold!n-i a! other en-.rliti'ns
as constant as pos-ible. After ir.nepna'ion, s) -s of the tre-'t3
pnner were out from the roll, .sse.9-d for mol in., in : .. i-r iaf1iy
sealed in moict'.irproof pa?,,r to 'ninir-1. e chr,.--, in Toll-At' e c'-n.t."..
caused '-, contact with the air.

Al nnnrls were parallel laminated at ;20 r, for 19 .in'i",-"
"x', remo'_-- fr-rr the rross while they ":ere hot, The I .:ii!ti!g ....-
sures used varied fror-. 25 to YOTY pound -er sq"r re inch. The t;.ree
resin cont.-.nts of the treated r'.uor were 27.5, .Vi.5, 30.3 nrree.t.
For convenience in discussion, however, these vr 11 Ahereafter be ref.-rr- A
to a.s 27, 35 ard 40 p, rcent,res.'ectively. Each r-'si-i cr..-,-t vr'- run
with thr-e volatile contents r-ngvn;" from 3.9 to 4.1, 5.3 to 5.4, and
7.1 to 7.3 -rrcet. Ier,-a.'-u r t,.:.-. will be r.e':rr-"' to as 4, 5.', ari
7 percent, ren-ctivelT.. The i'"'rerences betv':.: t.e actual ann rfferred-
to vr.lur's are within the experirmeni1a. p-rr.r, a. insefrtr '"s past ic '*rrp-
"'"i.es are concerned, are insi-'-If'icsnt,

--t is necessary to differer.tiate between this vo,'.tilo cit-nt .an' the
volatile c-nent p.roduc'1-.- -y ;'bsc-rption -f "nois'ure during, cor.-itonii-
ing of i.prnrni.td paper. It is reccornize? that t'" rnsi'i-f ro.,' e,
n ers havir-r the sa:ne volatile content by test, but rrr1'vcd by tl.he
two meth- 3, wny yn.Id "'prmr 1 -,Hinr property's that a-e ,":r.l,
il fferent,


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-2~








The sa.ne number of sheets were us3ed for all panels. Before
mo]dinq., the weight of each paper assembly was recorded. After
removal from the press each panel including the flash (extrur'ed resin)
was weighed. The flash was then remno-ed and each panel was again
weighed to determine the resin lost as flash. B-cnuse of difficulties
in entirely removing the flash without also removing some of the paner,
these weights can be considered only as approximations. It w.s recor:-
nized thc.t the percentage of flash was dependent upon the dimensions of
the panel. This deter-mination was made on panels of about 10- by 10-
inch dimensions.

Test specimens were prepared and conditioned, specific gravity
was determined, and specimens were tested for tension, compression,
bending, and water absorption, according to procedures set forth in
"Proposed Federal Specification for Organic Plastics; General Specifi-
cation (1.efhods of Phrysical Tests)" July 7, 1942.


DISCUSSION OF RESULTS


Since resin content, volatile content, and molding pressure are
interdependent variables, they are considered simultaneously in the dis-
cussion of their effect upon properties of papreg. The data not only
show the effect of each variable, but also indicate the relationship
that exists between there Erratic results were sometimes obtained,
especially at the extreme limits of the ranges because of loss in vola-
tile conte:.t during mcldinr at the lowest pressure and because of
excessive extrusion of resin in the high range of ,essures. Erratic
results at the extre-.e limits of the ranges indicate that for this base
paper and resin the practical limits of resin content, volatile content,
and laminating pressure had been reached. The properties of papreg, as
affected by resin content, volatile content, and laminating pressure,
are shown by the data recorded in the tables. Interpretation of this
data and the discussion of individual properties is from the graphs
wherein the numerical values of such properties are plotted against
laminating pressures. F'=c-nse the effect of resin content shows more
range than do the effects of volatile content, the effect of resin
content is shown by a comparison betvieen families of curves of the same
series while the effect of volatile content is shown by a comparison
between the curves of the same family. Although considerable scatter
is sometimes shown by tIe test values, especially those for laminating
pressures below 250 poun'vs -r square inch, the smoothed curves are a
visual average of the tect -llues. Pue to the scatter of the plotted
test values at the three volatile contents for any resin content, the
relative positions of the curves, at laminating pressures below 250
pounds per squ.rg inch, are not particularly sig-nificant in the graphs
of strength pr.-perties. The families of curves for water absorption
and specific gravity show, in general, a more significant relation
between the volatile contents for a ziven resin content.


Mirr.eo. No. 1394 (Revised)


-3-








Tjltimate Tensile Strength


The ultimate erensile strength of papreg increased to a maximum
and then remained nearly constant as the lTminatinf pressure was
incr ise This was trunk for ench condition of resin content P.nd
volatile content stufldied. T:'-- data are riven in table I ar. figures 2,
, an 4. Using paper with 27 percent resin content and 4 percent voln-
tile cont'-nt the ultimate tensile strengt. was increase'I from 3",000 to
nearly 45,0CC"' pounds per square inch when the laminatina pressure was
increased from 50 to 500 rounds oer square inch. rhe maximum +-eriile
-+r-:rgth was not ar'.r-ciab3y increased at higher molding pressures (fi',
2). Usinr proper with volatile content of 4 percent and resin content of
"i recent, the t-nsile strength increased from 34,f,.0 to 42,30' pounds
por sq'.inre inch and at 4 percent Tro]atile content anr 49 percent resin
content it incr-ased from 36,300 to 39,9Y0 pounds ner souare inch over
the same ranc of pressure (fi.ts. 3 and 4). Althou-h t'-ie same trend was
exhibited at all resin contents the tensile strength decree.ne' ,vith an
increased resi:: .n volatile content. The data also she, that in tre
low rcar.-e of laminating rr-.ssure higher tensile strength vas ott.ined by
usir.. higher resin content. "TIen usinct paper with 27 percent resin con-
tent, nearly 500 poun-Is per square inch laminating pressure was required
to produce parrv with the maximum strength but at 3. percent resin con-
tent the 'fmaximu-. value wAs reached at about 250 pounds, per squv.re inch
laminatinr pressure. The rate of increase of tensile strernth with
increased laminating pressure was greater when 35 percent resin content
was use.- than when 27 percent ..'as used.

The effects of c'Rn-n-es in volatile content on the ultimate tensile
str;-npth of papreg were of smaller magnitude than those caused by changes
in resin content.


Ultimate E,'>rewi!e Com.prpssive Strength.


T7-,,- resin content of the tr-nted paper has a. hi-.hly imp?rt.r.t
effect ot the edgewise corprssive strrnrth of the molded plastic "-s
shown by the data of table 2 and figures 5, 6, and 7. The ultimate
c''-.-ressive strength increa.-er. as the resin content was increased.
Parr.-". molded with 5.5 percent volatile c.-ntont at 25"1 pounds per square
inch reached an *C : wise compression value of ?0',CO. pounds per square
inch when 27 ".-rcent resin content was ise, but the use of 40 percent
resin content under comparable conditions increar.el the co'pressive
strpr--t1 to 24,1ru, pounds per sqmire inch.

Althou-. the tensile strength "--,creased with an increase in rein
cont'-.t when the moldin- pressures were greater than about 25-7) pounds
7-r s-r.r- inch, the e ..nr-'ssive strength was, in general, increased with
-n increase in resin contntt thrUr-hout t.+. entire rnr.,e of laminating
"'r e.>sure cover -*


.-". "'>. 13-4 (Revised)











For nearly all combinations of volatile and resin contents the
ultimate edrewise comrr-ssive strength increased tm a maximum and then
remained nearly constant as the laminating pressure was incrprsed (figs.
5, 6 and 7). For each combination of volatile and resin contents the
nM.ximum cc'mpre?:;sive strength was reached at less than 500 pounds per
square inch molding pressure. When a resin content of 27 percent was
used a laminating pr-ssiure of nearly 500 pounIs :'-r square inch was
necessary to produce the maximum compressive strength. At the higher
resin conF-erits it was possible to develop the maximum compressive
strength at a molding pressure as low as 200 pounds per zqu're inch.

Cihansns in volatile content were found to affect the comprpssive
properties of p.preg to a lesser degree than changes in resin content.
For a resin content of 35 percent, slightly higher compressive strength
resulted when using 4 percent volatile content as compared with values
obtained when using 7 percent volatile content. For instance, at 4 per-
cent volatile content and a molding pressure of 250 pounds per square
inch, the conrressive strength was 23,000 pnunrds per square inch whereas
at 7 percent volatile content the corresponding value weas 21,500 pounds
per square inch. At each resin content the general trend was toward
lower compressive strength with increased volatile content.


:odculus of Rupture


The modulus of rupture, lihe the ultimate tensile and compressive
strengths, increased to a maximum an( remained nearly constant as the
eliminating pressure wos increased for each condition of resin and vola-
tile content used. The data are given in table 3 arid shown graphically
in figures 8, 9, and 10. Paper treated with 27 percent resin required
a molding pressure of about 500 pounds per square inch to produce papreg
with the maximum bending strength for that resin content. Then the
resin content was increased to 35 percent, the maximum strength was
reached at about 250 pounds per square inch molding pressure. 'Dlton a
resin content of 40 percent was used the maximum mnOulus of rupture
occurred at about 200 pounds per square inch molding pressure. The
hirherst value of these maxima, hor-rever, occurred at the lowest resin
content.

If the molding pressure is above 250 pounds per square inch an
advantage is to be gained in the modulus of rupture if a low resin
content is used but if moldin- is done at a lower pressure the advantage
is gained by usin- a high resin content. For example, at 27 percent resin
ccntent, 5.5 percent volatile content and 1000 pounds -er square inch
mol.- ing pr-ssure a modulus of rupture of 41,300 pounds per square inch
resulted. A comparable panel using 40 percent resin content produced a
v'lue of ,20'? oounrs per square inch indiic:'? .nr a gain of 8.1 percent
by the use of the lower resin content. However, at pounds per square
inch molding pressure and the same volatile content, the modulus of
rupture of the panel made when using 27 percent resin content was 31,540


Mimeo. "p. 23S4 (Revised)


-5-







pounds per square inch and ',-n using 40 percent resin content the
modulus "f ruptur-'.i was 93,500 pnund. per square inch indicating a gain
of 6.2 percent by use of th- higher resin content.

'At all rosin cont-nts the change in maximum modulus of rupture
due to a change in volatile cuntnt from 4 to 7 percent wvas less Than
5 percent. With l]mi.n:itn. pressures above 3500 pounds per square irclch
the effect of volatile content on the modulus of rupture seemed to be
more pronounced at l"wer rosin content hut at the lower molding pressure s
the effect was more pronounced at the highest resin content.


loduli of Elasticity in Tension,
Compression, and Bending


The moduli of elst citv in tension, compression, an! bending
incrcas;'. to a maximum -ind then remained substantially constant as the
laminating pressu-re .vas increased for each condition of rosin and vola-
tile content used. The.? deta are Rivmn in table 4 an, tho relationships
are shown in firures 11 to 19 inclusive. The hiphe?,t rmo'cli were pro-
duced by papreg molded at a resin content *f 27 r.rcent. Increasing the
resin content up to 40 percent caused some loss in these str-ngth values.
Increasi'r- the resin content from 27 percent to 40 n:rcent cRuscn a loss
of about 10 r-rcent in the maximu-. module of elasticity in tension nr.c
cemrnrrssion and a loss of 'ipproxi'mately 12? percent in the b'rdir.g
modulus.

The discussion of the data on ultimate tensile str-.ngth and
modulus of ruptui. indicated that, in the rare of lcw laninating
pressure, the use of hi'-h resin content sometimes yielded higher values
than those produced by low rpsin content, whereas, at lam.n9oting
pressures greater than 250 pounds per square inch the maximum values
were obtained ,., the use of the lo-.vcest resin content. 'Jith the moduli
of elasticity, however, the lowest resin content produced the high--st
moduli values over the entire ronuro of laminating pressure usePC. A
laminating rr,'-ssure fro-, 400 to 507) pounds per square inch w\vs required
to ap-rr'ch the :s.ximu- mo'iuli for a resin content of 27 percent. At a
resin content of 35 recentnt, a laminating pr,-ssure from 250 to 30`
po'in Is per square inch was necessary to develop the maximum, and at 40
-"rcent resin content only about ?Cr pounds per squ'.re inch molding
:r-ssurc was requir-d to produce the maximum strength.

The effect of the various volatile contents for all of th., resin
contents on the -.ejiai of elastici1,'- in tension, compression, and bend-
i-. did not a;-.-,r to be si~nIfIcnnt snr (-houth trends may be noted
J' *v are so smll that tlc,- ec.sily could be caused by norraLl varietions
in material or test rrcodur.'s.








Specific Gravity


The specific jravi.ty of papre%, as shown in table 5 and figure
20, 21, and 22, increased to a maximum .nd then remained apprnximn.tely
constant as the' Irminating pressure was increas-,1. At 40 percent rosin
content a maximum sprcific gravity of about 1.40 was reached at 200
pounds per square inch laminatingr pressure and at 35 p-rcent resin con-
tent a mnaximum of about 1.41 was reLached at 250 pounds per square inch
lamirnating pressure. "'!h.n 27 percent resin content was used a maximum
of 1.42 was approached at 500 pounds per square inch molding pressure and
a trend observed toward slightly higher values by an increase in molding
pressure up to 2000 pounds per square inch. It is, therefore, evident
that the lowest resin content produces the highest specific gravity. This
is probably because the fiber component of papreg has a greater density
than the resin has.

The rate of incr-.aso of specific gravity with an increase in lami-
nating pressure up to 500 pounds per square inch was greater as the resin
content was increased. Altho.giph a fairly high specific gravity (about
1.35) can be obtained with 27 percent resin content at about 250 pounds
per square inch molding pressure it is necessary to use 500' or more
pounds per square inch in order to obtain a specific gravity above 1.40.

The effect of volatile content on specific gravity was more pro-
nounced in papreg ma,'r at t're low resin content than at the higher resin
contents. At 200 pounds per sq2.ia-e inch molding pressure and 27 percent
resin content the specific g7ravity4. was- 1.28, 1.31 or 1.34 for vola-
tile convents of 4, 5.5. or 7 percent, respectively. However, at the
sane molding pressure and 40 percent resin content the specific gravity
was 1.40 for each of the volatile contents.


Water Absorption


Data obtained from water absorption tests on rapreg are given
in table 6. Papreg made with 27 percent resin content and volatile
contents of 4, 5.5 and 7 percent showed a great decrease in water
absorption as the molding pressure was increased from 25 pounds per
square inch to 250 pounds per squar, inch (fig. 23). For example, when
using a volatile content of 4 percent and 25 pounds per square inch
molding pressure, the water absorption was 21.3 percent but this was
reduced to 6.1 percent: by the use of 250 pounds per square inch molding
pressure. Higler molding pressures up to 1000 poun.1s per square inch
caused 3nly a c.mraratively slight further reduction to 5 percent.

Within the range of laminating pressure used, increased volatile
content caused reduction in the water absorption. This is exemplified
by the values obtained with a resin content of 27 percent at 250 pounds
per square inch lIminating pressure, where the water absorption values

Mimeo. No, 1394 (Revised) -7-







were 6.1, 5.2 and 4I.3 percent for volatile contents of 4, 5.5 and 7
percent, respectively. The use of relatively high volatile content and
low resin content permitted the use of lower laminating pressure to
obtain papregs having equivalent water absorptions. For example, 500
pounds per square inch laminating pressure was required to produce papreg
having a water absorption of 5.2 percent when using 27 percent resin con-
tent and 4 percent volatile content, whereas when the volatile content
was increased to 5.5 percent the same water absorption was obtained at
250 pounds per square inch, and at 7 percent volatile content only about
125 pounds per square inch was necessary. At all resin contents the
effect of volatile content on water absorption was diminished with the
use of higher laminating pressures (figs. 23, 24 and 25). "-,hen 27 per-
cent and 35 percent resin contents 'were used the highest values of water
absorption were associated with the lowest volatile content, but when 4o
percent resin content was used the variation in water absorption caused
by change in volatile content was not significant.

A considerable decrease in the water absorption of papreg was
obtained when the resin content was increased from 27 to 35 percent, and
a further but less significant decrease followed an increase in resin
content to 4o0 percent. At 35 percent resin content with 5.5 to 7 percent
volatile content a minimum water absorption of about 3 percent was ob-
tained at a molding pressure of 200 pounds per square inch. At 25 pounds
per square inch laminating pressure the water absorption obtained at 27
percent resin content and 5.5 percent volatile content was about twice
that obtained when 35 percent resin content and the same volatile content
was used.

The lowest '-ater absorption resulted from the use of 4o percent
resin content, anc a comparatively low water absorption obtained for
this resin content throughout the entire range of laminating pressures
used. Values under 4.0 percent were obtained at 25 pounds per square
inch laminating pressure and were not greatly changed by additional
pressure up to 2000 pounds per square inch. On the other hand a resin
content of 27 percent is insufficient to produce papreg having the best
water resistance, regardless of volatile content or laminating pressure.

In practically every combination of resin content and volatile
con-tent used, the water absorption was slightly increased with increased
laminating pressure after a certain pressure had beer. exceeded. This
apparent point of reversal occurred at approximately 500 pounds per
square inch molding pressure .'hen 27 percent resin content was used, at
about 200 pounds per square inch ,ith 35 percent resin content, and at
150 to 200 pounds per square inch with 4o percent resin content. As
the volatile content was increased for a given resin content, the trend
of the effect was to move this minimum point in the direction of lover
lalminfitirng pressure. This reversal in watere r absorption is explained by
the tendency for resin to be extruded during molding when the higher
rar.nges of resin content, volatile content, and laminating pressure were
usel. Approximate values for resin losses as flash are given in table 6.


!:imeo. No. 1394 (Revised)







These data show that over 11.5 percent of the weight of a molded panel
was lost as flash when 40 percent rosin content, 7 percent volatile
content, and 1000 pounds per square inch molding pressure was used.
For this extreme condition the total .mcunt of r'sin lost w's about 25
percent of the total resin applied to the papr. At the opposite extreme
of resin and volatile contents, namely 27 percent resin conte-nt, 4 per-
cent volatile content, and 1000 pounds per square ineh molding pressure,
the percent of the weight of the molded panel lost as flash was only
0.8 percent or approximately 3 percent of the total resin applied to the
sheet.


Conclusions


The following general cortclusions were drawn from the data,
obtained Vnder the conditions described.

1. The ultimate tensile strength and modulus of rupture of
papreg increased to a nv.ximum and remained itually const-nt as the
laminating pressure was increased for all resin and volatile contents.
The maximum was reached at lower molding pressures as the resin content
was increased. The highest tensile strengths were obtained with the
lowest resin content and the lowest volatile content.

2. The edgewise compressive strength of papreg increased to a
maximum and then remained constant as the laminating pressure was
increased for all resin a-nd volatile contents. The compressive strength
was increased as the resin content was increased and the highest values
were obtained with the lowest volatile content.

3. The moduli of elasticity, in tension, compression and bend-
ing, increased to a maximum and then remained substantially constant
as the laminating pressure was increased for all resin and volatile con-
tents. The maximums wer. reached at lower molding pressures as the
resin content was increased. The highest values were obtained at the
lowest resin content. No significant trends because of changes in vola-
tile content were evident.

4. The specific gr-vity of parreg increased to a maximum and
remained nearly constant as the laminating pressure was increased for
all resin and volatile contents. The maximum specific gravity was
reached at lower laminating pressures as the resin content was increased.
No appreciable effect on this property was observed by chfr ges in vola-
tile content at 40 percent resin content.

5. The water absorption of papreg decreased as the resin content
was increased. In fact, resin content was the most important factor in
reducing the water absorption. This was especially noticeable in the
low rr.n-e of laminating pressure. Increasing laminating pressure 4ppreci-
ably affected this property only at the lowest resin content. The water
absorption was decreased with increased volatile content only in the low
range of resin content.


l,4imeo, i"o. 1394 (Rovised)


-9-




PP, -


':7ble l.--ltitrate tensile strength of j)apreF (Series 2037) as affected
b, resin a.id volatile contents and lazi.:-ti: prt..zre4


: eiecin content -- percent

: 27 : 35 : 40
Laii.iiat iii :-------------------- -------- - - - - - - -------------- -. _


Lb. per
sq. in.


Volatile content -- percent


: 4.0 : 5-5 : 7.0 : 4.0 : 5-5 : 7.0 : 4.0 : 5-5 .*


: Lb. per sq. in.


-- ----------- ------------------------ : --------- .-------- :.--------- --------- -----------


: Lb. per sq. in.


: Lb. per sq. in.


: 29,993 : 3,24u
: 32,210 : 32,883
: 32,103 : 33,917
: 35,220 : 33,837
: 36,330 : 36,330
: 38,230 : 37.,670
: 37,700 : o40,63
: 38,427 : 39,600
:7,647 : 37,920
43,510 42,593
43,4 5 : 40,475
: 42,90 : 43,377


: 29,54 7
:33 ,943
: 34,907
: 35,877 :
: 37,087 :
: 39,3.70 :
: 38,360
: 39,920
: 42,140
: 4',2S7
: 41,20
: 441440


30,223
34,74o0
33,347
37,630
39,417
41,070
39,110
40o,340
4c8,57
4o, 330
45,690


: 32357
S34,567
36,900
: 37,037 :
: 38,377 :
: 41,010 :
: 39,540 :
: 36,590 :
: 41,520 :
: 39,590 :
: 43,833 :


31,69u : 27,9o0
36,293 : 3Y,623
3b,053 :35,267
37,1-97 : 37,607
38,300 : 37,303
35,323 : 36,190
37,313 : 37,610
39,00 : 37,237
35,.470 : 35,645
39,900 : 41,330
36,760 : 4o,61o
39.730 : 40.3M3


ilitscherlich base
grain according&
cation (Cetnods


paper, par.illel laminated at 325 F. for 12 minutes, Tested parallel to
to "Proposed Federal Specification for Organic Plastics; General Specifi-
oi ?iivsicail Tests)" Jly 7., 1942.


pressure :


7.0


25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
250
500
1000
2000


30,310

3 310
35,57
36,370
35,863
36,090
37,200
39,273
44,51o0
45,060


33,273
34 8,s67
35,203
36,367
34, 847

38,240
39.255

38,210








Table 2.--Ultimate corapressive strength of papreg (Series 2037) as affected
by resin and volatile contents aid laminating pressurel.

Resin content percent

: 27 35 : 4o
LaLinating------- -------- -: ---------------------------


pressure :


Volatile content -- percent


: 4.0 : 5.5 : 7.0 : 4.0 : 5.5 : 7.0 : 4.0 : 5-5 : 7.0
------. :... .... ..--------.... - --- .- --. -- -------- -- --


Lb. per :
sq. in.

25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
250
500
1000
2000


Lb. per sq. in.


13,160
16,120
16,300
18,230

18 ,46o
19,420
19,540
19,885
22,780
24,630
21,290


13,880
16,o6o
17,022
17 850
17,425
s18,180
17,153
20,350
20,000
22,060
23,990
22,790


15,480o
16,ooo
16,o080o
17,900
18,217
18,280
18,600
19,230
19,730
20,300
22,380
21,610


Lb. per sq. in.


14,030
17.150
19,180
21,060
21,392
21,370
23,220
23,740
23,058
23,600
23,320
24,290


14,920
18,150
ig, 900
20,120
20,480
21,220
22,810
21,082
22,400
21,480o
24,390
22,687


Lb. per sq. in.


16,860
17,720
19,938
19,860
20,320
22,380
22,120
21,540
22,270
22,640
22,225


19,760
20,690
20,670
22,140
23,640
22,823
24,900
24,320
23,850
24,440
24,600
23,307


16,530
19,270
18,530
22,380
21,960
22,200
23., 620
23,800
24,100oo
22,560
23,470
21,407


18,960
19,430
21,290
21,060
21,630

22,340
22,480

25,070


-1Mitscherlich base paper parallel laminated at 325 F. for 12 minutes. Tested edgewise,
parallel to grain, according to "Proposed Federal Specification for Organic Plastics;
General Specification (i-,ethods of Physical Tests)f July 7, 1942.








.:Ie 35.--.' .o'lia of rupture of j.uire, series s 2037) as aifected by resin
,..J ,,'.iatll. u..t>-;;t. an-d la...i, riutl.in lpr^G.^-i'tj

2: ?esin content -- percent

: 27 : 35 14c
L:r, inati ---------------- ---------------- -: ----------------


pressure :


Volatile content -- percent


S 4.0 : 5.5 : 7.0 : 4.0


: 5-5 : 7.0 : 4.o : 5-5 7.0


Lb. per sq. in.


: Lb. per sq. in.


Lb. per sq. in.


2,270
: 32,o060
: 33,820
: 33,420
: 34,970
: 38,380
: 37.430

:1.670
S41,510o
44.200


28,700 :
29,520 :
31,540 :
32,750 :
33,530 :
35,220 :
36,270 :
37,120 :
)9430 :
1.?20 :
41,300 :
42,700 :


32,180
30s720
31,500
31,"))
33,197
33,200
36,v5u
-b, 92o
38,420
4c,47o
40, 200
41, JL'o


: 29,990 : 27,560
: 31,400 : 30,200
: 32.520 : 33,o040
S33.580 : 32,360
: 35,550 : 36.950
: 37,240 : 37,700
: 38,500o : 3,800oo
: 38,600o : 38,380
: 41,420 : 3,86o
40o, "Ir"4o
: +,7,,- : 39, 34C)
40,980 : 38,240
S40,800o 40.980o


31,700 :
33,600oo
33,153 :
36,740
35,755
37,970
35, o00
39,480
39,570
39,24 )
41,44o


29,890
33,560
35- ,380
35,775
35,880
36,700
38,100
38,540
38,640
38,880
38,180
37,530


29,020 :
32,970 :
33,500 :
33,155
34,997 :
314,637
36.400
37,020 :
36,280 :
38.920 :
g, 200
37,000 :


Lb. per
sq. i: .


25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
250
500
lOO
2000


29,500
31,030
30,0140
34,810
13,910

36,080
37,180

38,000


-k.itscherlich base pajer parjlljl-l l.ziiated at 325 *. for 12 minutes. Tested parallel to
grain accordinE. to ":-ro.osed 7eaial Sr--cification for Orr:anic Plastics; General Specifi-
cation (M'ethods of i-b/sicL'l T'est)" July 7, 1942.



















Table 4.-Moduli of elasticity of papreg (Series 2037) In tension. compression and bending as affected by reoln and volatile contents and lamilnating pressuroi


Beaan content percent
---------------------------------- ----------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
27 2 35 4 l0

L l-I Volatile content percent Volatile content percent Volatile content percent
proe*: 4.o0 5.5 : 7.0 4.0 5.5 7 .0 4.0 o 5.5 : -0
re e----------------------1---------- --------- ---------------- I------------------ ----------------- ------ --I------------------- -
Tn- Con- : Bend-: Tan- : Com.- : Bend-; Ten- : Com- : Bend-: Ten- : COm- : Bnd-: Ten- Coo- : Bend-: Ten- I Co- : Bend-: Ten- Co : Bend-: Ten- Com- Bend-: Ten- Cos- : Bend-
sion pros-; lng Sion pres-: Ing ion pros-: lng si lon pros-: ing : Sion : pros-: ing Sion : pre-: Ing : Sion : pros-: lng ion preo-: Ing : sion proes-: lng
Sin : ;sion : Sion : :aion : i : on: : :sIon : : ion: : :eion: slon
1b rar: 1000 pounds per Square inch 1000 pounds per square inch 1000 noMs per San. inch
sq. in.2
25 2456 2520 2280 2612 2567 2364 724 2639 2594 26o6 2363 2340 2575 2352 23555 2706 2617 2372 2508 2515 2276

50 v'7?3 2774 2509 :307 2782 2555 3132 2802 26w 3153 2960 2561 3090 2349 242 127 2640 2584 3176 2778 265 3116 2w6 26o7 294o 77 27 24oo
2 : : 2 2 : 2 : : 2
75 :3185 2836 2679 3004 2 745 2682 3062 : 239 2720 : 3128 266 226 :3299 : 2839 2677 3124 2616 2804 3156 262 : 209 : 3110 2723 : 2746 3016 2717 2706
1O 3060 2957 2654 3156 2928 2772 3126 2915 2732 3274 2561 2735 3258 2942 2T716 3195 2912 27714 3057 2907 2759 2999 2675 2695 3008 2769 2554

125 3200 2936 2848 3366 2946 2876 3426 2981 2928 34144 3155 2948 3410 3016 3058 3267 2957 2954 3250 2902 2882 3104 2940 2776 5316 2860 2651
150 3440 3060 2800 31426 3078 2603 3648 3009 2852 3628 3049 2941 3514 3146 2906 3529 3050 2990 3350 3121 2641 3308 2962 2606 3686 2842 2721
75 :34l19 3073 3175 31402 3032 : 3077 : 3525 : 3036 3202 : 3429 2981 3150 3145 3100 3194 3464 3089 : 3260 3156 2940 3012 : 3300 : 20S : 284 -- --
?o0 3490 3158 3150 3218 3094 3145 3496 3090 3234 3171 53141 3318 3350 3072 3172 3312 3073 319 3129 2877 2943 2-- 200 5304o 176 2978 3026
250 3945 3096 3254 3914 3}`42 3165 3664 3172 3292 3746 3186 3390 3563 3140 5304 3541 3 120 3198 3252 2926 3012 3369 2962 2958 3348 3000 2966

500 555 3356 3626 3806 3504 3560 3576 3339 3508 3650 3261 3279 3371 3148 3219 34s6 3294 3224 3098 2964 2979 3360 2966 3093 .. .. ....
1000 3946 3215 3565 3877 3378 3525 3750 3240 3500 3690 5229 3329 3689 3190 3296 3760 3344 3354 3405 2871 3032 3490 5080 N",39 3505 3144 3213
2OO 3935 3575 3702 3968 3621 3558 3985 3450 3644 3670 3294 3300 3650 3262 342o 3790 3452 3466 3374 2976 3078 53*26 3134 3119 -- -- -


ltschrrlich bass paper parallel laminated at 525* ?. for 12 minutes. Tests made parallel to grain according to *Proposed Federal Specification for Organic Plastics; General Specification
(Methods of Phyical Tests) July 7, 1942.


Z M 50582 r









y.. ,-tle 5.--3-c .c I it, erlivit,,' o p'S r ret (.rie 7 37) z fi..cta hy re -in
' a..id volatile content- and. lontinat:.. pressureL_
o
: ; : ezin content -- percent



p r.^'-'rc Volatile content -- percent
; * "<-- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --.*<*
S4.0 : 5.5 7.0 4.0 : 5.5 7-0 4.0 : 5.5 7.-c
------- ----- ----- ------ ----------------- -------- -------- -------- --------
Lb. per : Lb. er sq. in. Lb. per :q. in. Lb. i-er sq. in.
sq. in.

25 i.(-9 1.09 1.11 1.14 1.16 ... 1.L- 1.20
5 .c 1.14 1.16 1.16 1.22 1.24 1. 1, 1.^ 1.-.3 1.3%
75 1.2 C 1.20 1.21 : 1. 1.531 : 1.31 1.36 l.,b lb
10( 1.20 1.22 1.23 1- 2 1.32 132 3 '
125 1.23 1.26 1.2 1.32 1.35 1.37 1: 13, L -.Y9, i.9
150 1.23 : 1.27 : 1.26 : 1.32 1.37 : ---- 1.38 1 ''
175 1.30 1.30 1.32 1.37 -1.4( : i. .1 .
O 1.'2 : 1.31 : 1.31 : 1.37 1.- 40 : 1.40, L
1.33 1.534 1.37 1;i., 1-.. .41 1 1 tC
U(L 1.40 1.42 1.42 : 1.41 1. : .4 l.ij .c .
luu" 1.43 1.43 1.43 1.42 1.1, .. .5 .l .-
20uu 1.44 : 1.44 : 1.44 : 1.42 1.43 1.43 i.4l 1.41

-1it.:clerlich b-6e ,.;Eur 1-'rallel lhu.in;i.td ;.at 325 .D for i'. rr.ite Test vW'lLe buied on
-Ui.ht and volJ.erir a;t time of tost.


. Z Z Z--
















Table 6.--Water absorption of papreg (Series 2037) as affected by resin and volatile
contents and laminating pressure!

Resin content percent
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
27 35 40
-- ----------------------- ------------
S Volatile content percent Volatile content -- percent : Volatile content -- percent
Lawi- -------------------------------------- --------------------------- :-... ...----
nating 4.0 : 5.5 : 7.0 : 4.0 5.5 : 7.0 : 4.0 : 5-5 : 7.0
pres- -------- ------- ------- ------ ------ -------- ------- ------ --------
ure :Water :Flash:Water :Flash:Water :Flash:Water :Flash:Water :Flash:Water :Flash:Water :Flash:Water :Ilash:Water :Flash
:absorp-: :absorp-: :absorp-: :absorp-: :absorp-: :absorp-: :absorp-: :abeorp-: :absorp-:
:tion : :tion : :tion : :tion : :tlon : :tion : :tion : :tion : :tion
...--- : ------- : ---- : .------- -------- -- -- ------ : --- : ....... ------- ----.-- ------..... --
Lb.per Percent Percent Percent
aq. in
25 : 21.3 : 0 : 13.1 : 0 : 15.9 0 : 8.1 0 : 6.2 0.3 : --- : 1.4 3-7 0 : 3.8 : 1-3 : 3.-
50 : 11.0 : 0 : 11.3 : 0 : 8.3 : 0.4 : 5.6 0 : 4.5 : 1.0 : 4.1 : 2.0 3.4 0.3 : 3.1 : 1.3 : 2.8 :4.2
75 : 9.8 : 0 : 8.2 : 0 : 6. : 0.7 : 4.4 0.3 : 3.7 : 1-3 : 4.8 : 1.4 3.0 : 0.3 : 2.7 : 1.9 : 2.6 : 5.1
100 : 8. 3 0 6.6 : 0 : 5.5 -- :4.14 0.3 : 3.7 1.0 3.6 ; 1-7 3-0 0.3 2.7 2.2 : 2.9 6.4
125 : :.6 0 : 5.8 : 0 : 4.8: 0.7 : 4.2 : 0.3 : 3-5 : 1.0 : 3.2 : 1.0 : 2.9 0.3 : 2.6 : 2.5 : 2.6 : 8.7
150 : 9.1 : 0 : 5.7 0 : 4.8 0.7 : 4.1 : 0.3 3.3 : 1.4 3.4 : 2.0 : 2.9 : 0.6 : 2.6 3.2 : 2.6 :6.5
175 : 6.5 : 0 5.8 : 0.4 : 4.6 0.7 : 4.0 : 0.3 : 3.2 1.7 : 3.3 : 2.0 : 2.8 : 0.6 : 2.6 2.9 -- --
200 6.9 :0 5.3 :0.4: 4.4 0.7: 3.9 :0.7 3.1 1.7 3.1 :2.7 2.7 :1.0 2.6 3.2: 2.7 5.9+
250 6.1 0 : 5.2 : 0.4 : 4.3 1.1 ; 39 : 0.7 3-3 : 1.7 3-3 : 2.4 : 2.8 : 1.0 2.7 4.2 : 2.9 : 8.2
500 : 5.2 : 0.4 : 4.7 : 0.7 : 4.2 : 1.5 4.7 1.0 3-3 : 2.4 3.6 : 4.2 2.8 : 1.6 2.9 : 5.3 : --
1000 : 5.0 0.8 : 4.9 : 1.5 : 4.6 3.0 : 5.0 : 1.7 : 3-7 : 4.2 : 3.8 6.4 : 2.7 : 2.6 : 3.4 : 6.7 : 3.4 :11.5+
2000 5-5 : 1-1 : 5.0 : 2.6 : 5.0 : 4.6 : 4.1 : 2.1 : 3-9 : 5.3+: -4.4 : 8.0*: 2.7 : 4.6 :3.4 9.9: -

1
-Mitscherllch base paper, parallel laminated at 3250 F. for 12 minutes. Water-absorption specimen cut with grain in long dimension
and tested according to "Proposed Federal Specification for Organic Plastics; General Specification (Methods of Physical Tests)"
July 7, 1942.
,Z M b)058B B



































































FiL.ure l.--T'-.e Forest Products Latoratory resin
z'-n r n. tiryer, ror preFaring
i I paper.










^
Si
^
^
^
*us
^^
S v)
S B-
^
^

<:II
5
s


/00 #0 300 -f0O 500 O00 700 800 900 /000
LAMINATING PRE.55URE POUNDS3 P/H 5QUAR/f iNCH)
Figure 2--UltmlUte tensile strength of papre iat three volatile cont-nt -v.ls e t o -i ce-ter
of 27 percent.


o



0


LEGEND:
RESIN CONTENT- 35PERCENT
D-- VOLATILE CONTENVT-4O PE0fCEFN
&----VOLATILE CONTENT- 5 5 PErCEvT
0-- -VOLATILE CONTENT- 7 0 PERCENT
I I II


0 /00 200 300 400 oo500 600 700 800
LA/MINATING PRESSURE POUNDS5 PER SQUARE INCH)


W00 1000


Figure 3--Ultiate tensile strength of papreg at three volatile content values and at a r- c-tcnet
of 35 percent.





J _-^----V-a- -~ ---4.---


0

0
60


- 4- 4


LEGEND:
RESIN CONTENT-40 PERCENT
0-- VOLATILE CONTENT-4 C PERCENT
0---- VOLATILE CO/TTENT-70 PEC rNT
-- __ ____ _____ i____ ________I__
200 300 400 Soo 600 700 800 900 1000
LAMINATING PRESSURE (POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH)


Figure 4.- Dltiomtse tensile strength or papreg at three volata eontept a..-s ., at r r,! n content
of 40 percent.


RESIN CONTENT-Z7 FZ.:.,.:_'T
0- VOLATILE CONTENT-40 PERCENT
A---VOLATILE CONVTENT-5.5 PERCENT
0--- VOLATILE. f'".'T 7- 70PfR(. .FVT


44.000
N.

4 40.000
4"
'0.
. 36,000






2#,000


44,00

k
S 40,000
^14

S36,000
! ooo
1 o
% 4
14 Q- 32.000


o^.J 28,000


24,000


1 -


f


LtJ


71,


Z "* 50574 F












ki

^ 21,00 -

8--





k^ / to.000 -


N -


i- 0


- --' - - -


. i it


L (Lr.,AD


^A'


/.."LOI ------ --- -
0 IOQ0


I -?R('.V COf'vT-27 PE,-CL.'s1


0-- 1 c A7..' C* -'fV 4 't-55pPfRCf I'V

f ---CON RC,'. FN T,'. -P[R,


00 300 400 500 (00o '( 5.00 900 /000
LAMINATING PREs5YURE (POUcDw5 If ;.'.Q /NCH)


)'ipur. 5.--MBa .n--,:~..,. ---.' niieal<, of ipare! at thrn vl~tils cosent nlue ao r* a mts


?4,000 l---




20,000
I .-.-_.--.--


r :-i Llf~%
Rf/5 V CO' 't V if :r P
0- VC2_LA:T' LC LCZ-A rr 4 7-4J Rfc[.V7
A- -VOLA-.'Lt C.A rL'VI 5 5P(RC( Vr
O---vC'cA' N.( CO r- 7v P r R I-fRCVvr


12,00l L0 I
0 /00


20O 300 400 500 600 P .00 800
LAMINATING PRE 55 URE (POUND5 PER SQUARE I/VCt,)


Figure --Mazr.m-ed-sw:se :c;--etalcn vaile of paprog at throe lt & ontert ngues mao at a rlst
,:r.*srr. cT' <=;r~r


r -- -- ___


LEGND f 40
0 *6 f '0% TN t 4' 4, P '-Z 0/.
A--- v'0LAT,=C COYth'L,- ,, ',"', r'( \
OL AT',E C0, rtV T. 7- A', r1(,(17
L-- (71,AT,f O f'^ V 7. 7 L' i'f q:'.'f 7


/
H


0 /00


00 .,00 400 L"' ,, W 700 A 0zO
LAN/NAT/NG Of55u.Q( (%~'i.5 'V 5 .Pf ? 5O.L'4 vc.-)


gra? f.--Mllklea torn iv oo-eiapsaor vmloo of papru! s* ruti ro ~tll a. cntt tibetan* a$it aft~
contnt of^ r^t


/000


28,000
S., ooo



24,000
R'

"' -
rid


___ --r-


m







44,000


"' 40o000
Iq Qj


S 36,000



~-32000



'~~Z8,000



Z4,000


300 400


500 o00 700 800 900 /000


LA//NATING PRESSURE (POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH)
Figure S.-Modulus of rupture of papreg at three volatile content values and at a resin content of
27 percent.






0 ______ ______ ______-




~r-----------------





,LEGEND:
RE5IN CONTENT- 35 PERCENT
----- VOLATILE CONTENT-40 PERCENT
6- -VOLAT/LE CONTENT- 5.5 PERCENT
0-- ---VOLATILE COANrENT- 70PERCENT
I I I I


0 /00 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
LAIN/AT/N6 PRESSURE (POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH)


900 /000


Figure 9.--Modulus of rupture of papreg at three volatile content values and at a resin content of
35 percent.


0 /00 200 300 400 500 600 700 600 900 1000
LAMINATING PRESSURE (POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH)


Figure 10.--lodulus of rupture of papreg at three volatile content values and at a resin content of
40 percent.


L LEGEND:
4/1 RESIN CONTENT-27 PERCENT
-0---VOLATILE CONTENT-40PERCENT
&'---VOLATILE CONTENVT-55 PERCENT
0j-0 0--VOLAT/LE CONTENT- 70 PERCENT

1L I I I I II I


/00 zo200


44,000



,: 40,000
114

S36,000



32,000





Z, o000
ZIAoo


1 -p fpum
k44






S 32,000



Z8- Z000


0


^ A f*M ft


Z M 50576 F





















'4 ~

N
'4~


0 /00 200 300 400 SCJ 600 0 800
LA1/NATiNG 0A?5 5L/iT (PO9., ,.95 P'R./SQUARC 1wCH)


F -ir -" d. U!B of *Uitldty la tunioi o! pjroi *t thrtiQ VOctllA e0nt t y a i at a realn
onotoat of 27 pi-nt.


2.t J ,O
N 'C -\








'4-'




^z ;:.X'c


A?"5 A :_0 % 7A7 TT-J 35 PSRCE'v T
0-- VOL A7 -E COT 7E..';T- 40 P fCEvT7
A- POLATLE CO'VT.,7'T-5 5 PERCENT
0- --V 'OL4TIL E CO,\ rErvT- '0 PERC ET


0 /00 20O 300 400 500 600 00 10o0
LA/MINATING P[f 55L f (P i.'-'5 PER 50aAe' INCH)


FliVure 12.--oduluB of elaaticity in tanaiom of paprog at thrs vlatilo ontent vaBlue$a* at a re.ia
on-teot Of 35 p-r-ft.


*"3
4 o, 00.' 0 '

,




c)3200000 r-


SI
? :3:0,''C~O -



0,4 L
0


--o-- --- ---- --.--.Y.
[] "^ ---- -- *-- -*- ",---- -)


/W0 200
t..AA/iAT


f 0
GD


Pf5 i, mvTE//V7--4C Pf RCE,'L.
0-- 0.-1L^ A ^ C 0 V 7,%T- 4 P,-C o?,: v
A- CL47 r CAN'AT-55 Pf.CTtN7
0---6 C ,,Ar E CO7Tvr- L, "r^.NvN

V'. 4,, 500 i1:' 'J 800
* ,: *' ." 'suR (POUte PEA" 5QUtAR[ /NCH)


'A ~ ~I~' '~ ~1< ~t t~~ .niatt~ ~nt#nt ~ai,~4 an~ at a r.oin


---='_ -_- -.--_-... -_.._ -- --. .







3/.0oo-ooo ---

I L !GE-'D
I P?5/N ,'ivf ,T/S'T% 27 P1. R,9/VT
"',* i.'i,"i.'1 0 '-' / ^ -- -- -- ,. --- i D --- W ,'; ^ ',.- COfiiTi. T *40 PfR(- f7 ---
I 9 i --VOLATILE ,' T/NT- 5 5 PfRC1NT
Z A0-- -VOLAT/LE f 'rL/VT- 7.0 PI -CL '/T

24 \I I I I ----


900 '000


900 /000


-' dI
9.2 /00











2 ~ 8Q'). t"l "----, []----------- -- ---- Or -A--TILE ---N-/-- ,- ------ ,-P----- ,-"---.-
3.t1.0^ -j ___ ________________________________.___

^ || ww 1-- -^-^ ::-^\~~~~~- -- ---


^ tn I.-i. 7^ |L(GENDI
eD: ,^'tI. RSIfN CONTENT-27 PERLtAir
^ 8l. 2^ D ?8W-''-- 'tl~~-- --- ---- ---VOLATILE. CON TEANT-10 PE/i'CL~i -.\
S -----VOLATILE CONVTENI'T-55 PERCEvI
I 0-- -VOLATILE CONTENT- 7.0PERCE, T
"- A~ oo, I I I
2400.000 _ _ _
0 /00 20O 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 /000
LAM/NAT//6& PRESSURE (POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH)
FiCure 14.--Modulue of elasticity in compressaaion of papreg at three volatile content values and at a
resin content of 27 percent.


J.600.0)00

- '?


200.OO
KQ



2 2.4000.Y
2,0,Q 00
zS




2,000.000


0
-----o^^13

j10y T


0 /00


- ~LT


-4


] LEGEND:
RRESIN CONTENT- 35 PERCENT
-- ---0- VOLATILE CONTENT- 4.0 PERCE/VT--
A--VOLATILE CONTENT-5.5 PERCENT
0---VOLATILE CONTENT- 70 PERCENT
_ _I I I _ _


ZOO 300 400 500 600 700 &
LAMI/NATING PRESSURE (POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH)


/000


Figure 15.--Modulue of elasticity in compression of papreg at three volatile content values and at a
resin content of 35 percent,


3,200,000






2 tj C'00
Ck^ Zo

>

2,000,000)
) 2.altil-,.-'O;

^|


0 /00


- ~2K44'i~


LEGEND:
RESIN CONTENT-40 PER CE.VT
2- VOLATILE CONTENT-4.0 PERCENT
A---VOLATILE CONTENT- 5.5 PERCENT
O0---VOLATILE CONTENT- 7.0 PERCENT


.~~~~ __r _


20O 300 400 500 600 700 800
LAM/A TING PRESSURE POUND5 PER SQUARE INCH)


I0S


Figure 16.-- 1oduus of elasticity in compression of papreg at three volatile content values and at a
resin content of 40 percent.


Z M 50578


A0


















cv ---


0'
3 O.': --t


0 /00 2' ?
/LA/NAT/ NV6


_ 1 lf I
400 509 600 700 600
ref SURE (POUND5 P.FR SjLIARE IWCH)


^iyel.-"~l1..yla of ei~ cty In. bw. li of~ ptp et thwBTlat1e O~ofte~t "''lsa.r KanG at a reitn
eisea lat, ip om


340000 1--o --J


t..?1


-z -' )^1L' L?



-~ $,. 2400,000 --



2'0 00,000


LLGLDW
1LA..!v COTV TAT- j3 P ?rvC7'NT
______ ---- 1 VOLA TILE CONVTENT- 40 PE RCENT.IV
A --- OL, A 'L f CC',,v TE IV- 5 5 DE C lNT
0---- .uA7LAT,'1LE C0,W TA.A,- I'S PL I -T I


0 IOo 200 300 400 500 600 Ao) 800
tAM/INATING PtE5 5URE (POUND.5 PER 5QUAET /INCH)


-;tUr 18 --IlW4.4 of hostility in tslmi; of ptprg at t* t tr6 V->tl;t loteLt v-s aM at a ril!.
ccraL-t (f 3-1 plr.ont.


RE5i I CONTENT- 40 PERCLIVNT
O VOL A TIL CO1TEt7T- 40 PE.RCLNT
A- -VOA TILEF CO.NTENT-55 PEfRCLINT
0---,OLA7TILE C0,NT,7T- 70 PERCENT


900 /000O


Fleur* 1.." cf alictty Vin benin1 of paprog at tthre vIo*Ml# ^oCteut mrwlaBB %we at A rtif
Iet& f^ wwt


r '. C?\TEV V ~! Pf RCL EN7
- ---.-- n--i ",J COvTA,'.?-4O .RCE'V7
... C', r 0,.rvfr.,-.r -5 fR9Cfl I'V7
"- *-L.O. '*LL ,'Q.' '/ 7- 70 f.,CE..VT


'~ N>

'N


900 ,000


900 J000


I


I J4o \
, oo~ooo ^--a jrg' -1 -- I --


/^'0
Wopi -^ ---- -, -

1 0 ,


2_ zoo.o000


0 00 200 3i0 400 500 600 700 600
LA/.AA T,','VG PRE5SL AE (PO4.,,D5 PER 50,ARE INCH)


---rr "lJ - Jl - -- -"


Z V. 5ua79 F


3 ,o # a#



























0 /00 200 300 400 500 600 700 900 900 /000
LAMINATING PRESSURE (POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH)
Figure 20.-Speciftio gravity of papreg at three volatile content values and at a resin content of 27
percent.


l LEGEND:
RE51N CONTENT- 3 5 PERCENT
- -- 0- VOLATILE CONTENT- 4.0 PERCENT
A&--VOLATILE CONTENT-5. PERCENT
0- --VOLATILE CONTENT-7.0 PERCENT
_ _ _ _I I l _


Figure 21.--Speolfio gravity of papreg at three volatile content values and at a resin content of 35
percent.






I -


0 /00 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
LAM/INAT/NG PRESSURE (POUNDs PER SQUARE INCH)


14'd 1


0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
LAMINATING PRESSURE (POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH)


900 /000


900 /000


Z V 50580 r Figure 22.-Specifio gravity of papreg at three volatile content values and at a resin content of 40
percent.


1.5



N. 1.4
K
I,
/3


y12


'I


K


Z.3
Z5
fr'


LEGEND:
RE51N CONTENT-40 PERCENT
D--VOLATILE CONTENT- 4.0 PERCENT
A'- VOLATILE CONTENT-55 PERCENT
0 ---VOLATILE CONTENT-70 PERCENT
I i l l


I


I.,














ZO T 1-


/6


14 -



1 /2-
'/

/, 0


-V -- --4.- -- -I--



--4-






4


-_ -. .- -----.---_____,


S /00 200oo 300 400 oo00 oo 700 800O 900 /000
LAM/NAT/NG PRE.55URE (POUNDS PER .SQUAR M CICH)
Pl'ear <2 --"W< %'*or; to* f 9 prol *a t hy niroo 9l999ll B la.B .- -A *I "alz ne t: 9 .1 st f Z'
prB* s7 .


I I__ T' 1 1_____
0 /00 Z0O 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 /0,00
LAN/N7T/PiG PQ[5 5. tE (PR/ND5 P7 5^ INCH)
Flour. ?..-.tr crptlof '! p.pr-g *t t^re. roistll nflt N.. *t p**a ree t 9! 3l
^Dor-.tt.


I s





:1- -



L. A" ., '


4-5 N % ICLI
0---OA7'lt
0 A' -L T C,' -- C ( Y, " r -7 t "'' "
0- --VOL^ ^ir , b-r- "'."' ,"f m.'L


.1


W 400 500 600 7,0 &0 900 /000
**i PRL5SuRF (POUND5 P/? i}<.1f[ .vfH1


? 1< 505@31 F 'r**"* y\r.' se rt .- ,i .1 -rn -.- % IP* w .. .- .t* .4 3 fl99 o*9A r 4K
Vwr.- .


1- ---4


.-- ,;A '
* -- >cY'^s' ..; ri'~'v '' a.W d'*.^iC1V --


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