Azobe, bongossi, ekki

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Azobe, bongossi, ekki
Physical Description:
Unknown
Creator:
Gerry, Eloise, b. 1885
Forest Products Laboratory (U.S.)
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory ( Madison, Wis )
Publication Date:

Record Information

Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 29358203
oclc - 231633516
System ID:
AA00020650:00001

Full Text


IGN ,; ) .

Forest Produc L sir,.tory'. Forest Service
U. G. De. -rtmrn n of Agrrculture




B ,t- ] i .KK<1
Lo, i ra alaJta Banks
var. procra t. 'h-v.) k. ..-
Famri ly: Ochna t.;ae ... ....... c ac



By
B y._ "" ,* . ..*- .

LOiAL 6 7 Y Technologist
Div ision c .v. -'ulturcl i-latons



The Lo: hiras occur at con'aratlvcly low hlevatos in the cen, rai a'nd At-ntc
coastal areas of .ro'ical ,st frtca, from nai to GaIon und r .. i:; n'o
U-,-nda and Ciast ,nxw (5:5 45' ... This is th only ;nus of c)n'nrc'al
m -rtzrnce 'or its timi r in the mniy Ccnacrae. i.F; Ct to _i as, Lo, ,ras ar-
th2 commonest res found, for 1. .n .n i -rs (ro'. d n al
large forests of tiro-,cal A.firica (I

Locally and in exort trad, the wood frcm these trees `s 1know.T v a variety of
names, mainly as azobe,. oigossi or k ki. it 5s also know.- as i..' t and rod
ironwood, with reference to its hardness. Th res are a knou 0 1in- ii
trees, and m.icea dniy due to superfic'ial rt srriaanc ., as .rfnc. oak (5 5,
41, 47).


The Tr-,


Size and Form

Lorhira alata var. proccra Burtt i... s tIe botanical name applied r recently to
the trees producing azooe wo'".i (5,,17 _I: ,, 24 55)- _" tree.s are _li ,ght...-
loving. traces ), 8)

To forms of Lopirus have previously bcen recognized as distinct species 5)
anu. dist. 'l,"hinL r uharact, r-tics of thIsu forrs. particularly as rs lated

-Maintaine1d at Kadison, Wis. in coo rat on uvL the ieri of ' ..


-Underlined numbers in arenn h .- refer to th. Ir of numbered ref'r ncfs at
the end of the arti lu.


Report No. R,115





the_ seds, amount of parenchyma in the wood, and habits of growth, are cited and
used by forest officers in Africa. To a considerable extent; however, the differ-
entiations recognized appear to result from the conditions under which the trees
grow (5, 9, 46, 48).

Lor! ra alata Banks is generally described as the smaller form, attaining a
height of 20 to 50 feet and a girth of 5 feet. It has steeply ascending branches
and a narrow crown. It may be gnarled and crooked, is slow growing, and super-
ficially resembles an oak tree. It is found in the open savannah, orchard, or
dry-zone areas and is resistant to the annual grass fires (5, 10, 435 48).

On the other hand, Lophira proccra and L. alata var. procera trees (24, 56) are
among the largest and most characteristic trees in the moist, evergreen rain
forests. They grow on the sea coast at the inner edge of the mangrove forests
(48), in freshwater swamps, and along rivers at elevations of a few hundred feet
(T 43). They may have heavy crowns and clear cylindrical boles without marked
buttresses, although they may be somewhat enlarged (up to 12 feet) at the base
(5, 55).

These trees may attain a height of 160 feet and girths of 15 to 20 feet at breast
hC eight, or up to 6 feet in diameter. They often have long boles free of
branches (2).

Strong shoots often develop from stumps. Lophiras have been favored for planting
(113).

Leaves

The leaves, when they first appear, are brilliant red. They may grow to a foot
in length and are almost tongue-shaped (5, 48).


Bark

The bark is gray to oranie -red, turning to ash-gray or black. It is thick, corky,
and deeply fissured. The "slash" is red with a yellow edge (5, 10, 48).


Fruit and Flowers

The flowers are white or yellowish and have five petals. They have a musk-like
fragrance and are much more conspicuous in L. alata than in L. procera (2, 48).

The fruit is winged in both species. One wing is twice as long as and broader
than the other in L. procera. In L. alata, one wing is nearly three times as
wide as the other.

The.fruit and seeds contain 50 to 40 percent of a semisolid yellow fat (Huile de
14Mnc) that is used in treating ilprosy (2, .), 50, 51).


Report 1H1). R19135


-2-







Color


The sapwood is pinkish, 9 t" 4 Inches
.a2rtwood rw'hlch varis r-'n -olor fra
Ith a purplish tin-c. Th2 I .artord
siliccous d'-posit,- :it n ahe vKR ls (5


r 'e nc :' d 't f't'( o7 ore h. f'rT-m tie
r -" 1 ,/',ry r1 t *, L ^ !. > r < r +,''; ,
- 1 . 9,; i cs l'+led 4ue to 1 ; -<'olur,:/!
7 ;16 2^ P,, % !, ,2


Grain, Txtur, and FV vr


,. frain is typically intcrlck' d. and tle tcxturc ,is mcditun to rather cars
uneven (5 24).


Luster

'ehc luster -]s ra++d ra r (


Odor and Taste

The wood Is odorless and tast- l:: :-n dr-.


We irht

..7 s 4 ay (2) and ill sink in w. crrcn, but nae float when dry
(14). The wcightc at 12 percent roisturt con-ent, s reported as 56 o 71
pounds peor cubic foot (5, 2_, 41). flc grav< t-s :r.a rc ordc d or' 6_.A r to
1.15 at 15 -r-ernt ins- ur 'content ('o 2 ) a 4 o. ased on
oven-dry wcich' and :rcn uelant (5, "h wood oi L. aJota tends to b,. iss
heavy than thatI of 1. 'roc.ra (4"' wood of I. r ra consist f m')
than 40 ,)crccnt of li,-;nin 1.3


Mechanical Properties


Az.ob: is a hard, .strong wood with vcrv hiifh "'rar-and- tear" resistan'ce ()
M" chani cal tests havy bean made in Frane. (]+ 3, 4 (, 5, 3yq,), Ge.rany 726, 27,
_5), and .nf-1- _d (15, 22) and show tI i Is 2,', onica propert' ar "-.1 1 ,,
for t' most par- than co:.. ara.l roK : or 1 aoa k. or pth i-.n ().

r equal volnc, the azobc-oak staaic-bondin< ratio is rep )rted as nearly 1.6 to
1 in favor of azobc (5).

its strenh in comp -:<'n and 's-. ,.cnd-n K- .r": oulariy t' h (r-- its
s &.ok res2stae- is eel lent and ne arly the sa.c a or :inhaar;. -.r a
resistance values are also it ph (55).


re:ort Ho. 4:1 II





The resF!ts cx a series of tests by- t e I--crial Institute, Lc.nI.I (22). are
..in tl 1. arc directly c:-. irabl, cause c" the methods
....c.. : it .. re routs Loratory, -he Forestry
pr..n.: ... anada and. ... a.nd th+. .-rst ird't"s Research Laboratory in






an:- s C lns r anc an extrcm ey rcfr -tory scc ics on the
sIs-:h :^::s : .u <.r i, >c-te.\ oU onL- T, n tI -C 1 -er v e U*U
72: 7 755> but severe che'::-ng
-i: and sn=e dorn are ikel to occur -.- seas-:n.. ,
_-' iz*__ c.. .. c.. .. -ar e. i_~ iie ed (14. 1', s ti th a -'.t_ to

....... .. .. .... r-acftre is k.n.

::7~I~r>j~: UI:-1-he -c: Urest -rodu~cts ?Pesearch a&bcra-
...... .^ .. - ;.. .. .- e : a.u -1- as -v en n a e 2.


I:I rcn. :: '-ercent ,.o.stu -e ccn-tent from greenen


_an,.eniala -- 5.5 -ercene
adial -- 1.5 leerceat

7cre area :1 euI IirI M a- percent _elative humidity and
-_d Sa-1- :a percen: relative hum.diy and
~-,.. ^ -- ..... -- .. : ..an. d -n: --n and 2. percent in the
*1 : .. .......,.": ,' *^ - ... ... ...." 9. *2:, *- e' _P-m .. .. .. F1'^ 1^'' ^ r'r n ^tc; p -c v } ~ r''?









o c < en ..... a- a a ;'c:d that holds its sha- e 7ell when manufactured
:s ~sr ~: misure s e.-.-reme>' s low.




-r .....e. r -rE ra as .n. ..f t.he most dura-le tim ers n .-est LArica
S ,, : rated. as very- resist-ant to insects, tere,'j (7, 34;
Wh'te : and eca- 464-'1. Fies have -Leen retorted as being





*-... ..- dr :>arS t-arc-L-ess anct interlocked CraIn, is considered
7, : ....n.-rec: -- 1i and c:-: remey difficult to work with
4 ?andential-_- 5e5 lercen













a...... ..... however, ith. machine tools 22,
E r-a -e- as s:-- lar -: reenhaar- in wrh characteristics
_:a~e t a: a74 -:a s -s. r ted that i a can
--farne' : su:-ea:e and with care will give a
"'" ; r---.s* ~ir -***'--." ^*vf-- *. -" ,-"-'" '- *"^ p^ rp '~p*^* r'22 ,'" ? n 1''1"r i t' \f


- ~ 7 7





It is necessary to bore or drill azobe. prefera.bly with ower-driven tools, f r
nailing or bolt'r but the od results obtained arc thought to :o.i e:usa e f r
the extra work (5). ossible to obtain strong L oinis, )ut care is nce )
to prevent splitting. fairly clean cut can be obtained on a turnln] ia'Lh
(2 Glue adheres well t this .ood (,, Stains are nt~ oad-ly o.:- r ced and
a filler .s s ,d for fbn....... (,2' .


Us os

Although too hard for many urroses, ao. l has ,ecn "ound to be sui a for
h._&,.- cons truc.t-on, especially for wharves; d(' 1,e: c doc" g decrng b-'p
truck floors and oldies railwa-y Ai and i.Ie eI 5s. It i usecd 1fr canoes
and boats, loor s, sarqut. mawr al 2ai s.air:tep2, turn..ry a. ,r's
blocks and fandl]es and for riowvlt 1 : because (,f ,'clot. bt is ::u.. :le f; r
felu <- ':d for pian:' ..arcal.

Although azobe has bcon cons id:red rathr h l eav>y and hard for catin. n. furn.i-
ture making, it has been used for .ill1lard tai.!s and 'las been rccor nuicnded for
sw it h J is on accou:t of ts h l c ial r s is tane, ce n 1e... .i
azobe has r gently been en.c'. ... d by te U. -n'c oration I i.nistra-
tion, it is planned to develop util:-aton for furn.turc also, e J-e-ially because
of the wood's characteristic shape-hlding por and r- wetac id ear.

Acobe is even preferred over metal and reinforced concretc for certain maritlme
installations and is generally ra-cd as a cons tru"-tioC wood o"f re .... r.,
(2 21, 55, 41i, 1 4W.




The leaves, bar>, and oil-containin; seeds arc us :i r-eicnall in Africa for
treating "-: .'ce and leprosy (L.,, : *'... Th o .s also a possie source
of material for sa-) makin6- (lop 43) :. Lark has c. n usd as a remedy fv r
malarLa (5, 20).




.zoobe is re1 orted as ein- available in flitches, or i-n" of 5 to 4 feet in
diaetaer and up to 4( feet I .,. (24) ur in s. 2iu, .crs .y !.. e 2
1 to 25 feee or more leno (9+, l7,.

Alodu-t.on of* az ,ne and other tropic.al( I.L ouS i r r t iia's c en Cr a.d
, t'ne 1 con1T.2 'c rationn tnm a stra-.;o: 1 ..'. 'th. s'. lyin. .' si -i an:
I2, i n i m'ci 1nery to th.e Frcnh i 'h )ameroo (2") ror tn, more tntan
a million toi were cx. r-, annually froim tie rn;-' Aol ..


truicture

GrortlnI' ifs .--,easonal ,- owth r ns ar2 a:ent r n.rnt. tu a.
tion (5) .


-p-ort "'-. Eli 15





Vessels.--Vessels are relatively few, rather large, and frequently blocked by
deposits of yellowish-white siliceous material. They are fairly evenly distri-
buted, smnthlm-s in radial groups (5).

Rays.--fy-:v are not readily visible on cross sections without magnification
T-5 9).

Parenchyma.--Parenchyma in tangential bands is abundant and has been used by some
to differentiate species or varieties (5, 9; 36).


Report No. BR10153


-6-





Li! t 1f Rof f reX


i. \ubrfvilie, .*

I1 I!
2. S'irnc-r, J., ar.d :,( h t.l r, J. F.
I/;,3. Di, b I o-iiz.L (" r r V: u*. Vol. ip -1 Iq' : O.r


3. .** :. -, 7.
i ..... pp. i n .-1 n' to cv b. I pp.' -- C Kf.
3- r{

i .
idc to
i, I. L l U it, rixlu Ae I' Col s',r,,'rtl: 'oI rnn 3) 'ir:


. CLhi k, L., Dvy, J. P., r cC I. E. '. I . r.
{'.' Forr, l:'". : en *i c .... cr "f +'' ',r ti '.. mp:.'re. Uol.

'+'r' t '1 frc'i ':-+ r pp'. '+,V- 3. ford, Zx.t'-&..
,,,n,- t \ r~ n -+,:,3 + '1 r <+, n+ .


6. Co J', i ,++t, J.
3+- os !.V +is Colo .... +' .... r+,+, d+, r -,<,. (t "cr- ',rj ci : dc+:,
: '-i 1 ,' V ,'. i 0, ip / V U -I I +. 9 r l
> ^ / ->-^ ^1^ -W y ..*'.. - ..'. 1 1 .'.1


7. *(L "1 '1 -*


~ S



1


X.


i ;., :3 1 ir~' ( r s. s-pri1' "'rc. C'2 o + E ).
-k, J ::. ++. '. i+ X '-r .. C *


4 'V 4-
k i "IN t~ (K -


* ;.., J:* 3 ~ ~i


10. v..' -, *
+++i,(-. T'+(. irndin-n+:ous +-r o++ + o~+f tdo .,'-Tr- 'i Prot.


C'V .)in'IAA', j I~


il :+ ; L,, -o. E r, *'['.-:id- Prot ct('

11. },ore::t tre-du,+ct : ,* :, :.rcl. '/i':,'.-'r" ;r".
i. ,+ ,,,,.cr ui;ic'il "'me I' +l c. ic -i 1 :"
,,r:I In ,rr I ''orc:, i '

i ; .:'+r* ':-: !-.,po 't, 1'r '

j+ .. ..... ^ ', ..- o in r- ?rep' ,4 -:, o.
Irocucfis [icr,^. 'i c;. ,Li cr'ilo-r+, i "-


rr'l,( E. 'fi: ca.


:7
K' 'V'' K ~1' U F )~ t I'
~ 'J'c' K ~'it "ly.
V t ). W JA.


CU--I
I ('(
'1 w.


-' -'. 4


.'l .h


l~lL,. Ni z a:. K ''ii. Tv' .'-"UIL'7 t:. ~. ? "~ ji ~f J~ F' ''U


11,1 Ttl NTOW Rl?13





L1. Pedin, L.
I 1
1929. Sur quelques essences forestieres exploitees au Cameroun. Rev.
>ot. Appl. et d',-r. 'rropicale. Vol. 9, No. 89, pp. 39-51.
(reviered in Tropical 7oods No, 20, pT. 43-50, 1929).

19. 1 Hp"kirtsbn, i9
l112. TLitr'ae z-ur ,ikrorraphie Lropiscler Lolzer. Bcitr. b(t. Zbi.
Vol. 29,, No. 2, pp. ,J.Li--6

16. ov' ard, A. L.
Il'). annual of the Timbers of the Vrld, 3rd ed., p. 86. London.

17. 0'n4isn J., and Dalzier, J. '..
I'. Flora of rjest Tropic'al Africa, Vol. 1. (Reviewed in Tropical
U.:s ;.o. 1N, p. 27.)

IP ___________
I U. Flora of V'est Tropical A.frica, Vol. 2.

19. I ral I'nstitute (London,)
0. Tithbers from Soul -ern "'J ra, Imperial Institute Pull. Io. 6,
pp. i,-1 ,. London.

20. _ _
T17, Lecds of iLolAira alata fr-ri f-,ierra Leone. Imperial Inst. Bull,
pp. 2h,-2 3J636 7" o-ndon.

21. _B______
I le. : "st African Timbers. Imeri statute Bull. No. 8,
pp. 231-21J3. London.

22. _________
1-2(. Tigers front tl e Gold -oast, I. I-iperial Inst itute Bull. No. 2h,
Pt." 3, PP. ij17-L} London. ([:eviec.ed in irorical Toods Nlo. 9
p. 30, 1927.)

23. Irvine, F. I.
1930). Plants of the (Cold Coast. Ox:ford, Enfland.

2l4. Jay, p.
iI KU. TLimbers of est Africa, 3rd ed., pp. 32-33. Timber Development
ss,,., Ltd., London.

2$. J17rtsci., F. and Appel, .
19'. 6 l zop! ora mrranle, Loph'ra procera, Chlorophora excelsa, Musanga
.. .l..Li Br scl rciibn trc'a, Hoizer ars em Trwale Ka; eruns Jeitschr.
..tforstvirtscla, X o. 3, p.. .110-120, 23 5-21, 331-3l1,
,',7-0. (-evie.ed. in Tropical 'Voods to. 50, p. 53, 1 37.)

26. Kollan-, '' 4
1939. lolzeige-nschaftstafel Pockholz und 2onlose. Hiolz als Rohl.und
-trkstoff. tol. 2, p. h[,


Report No. 91913 i


_e -









1.I^1 ili, -.


?--, J..


II
2. ?ii':A r, 0 ~ 'ILK . ':' *


i 'Ac2. u ': i p 'r- t(. pp.

C '. -- dc I' r (,'...... ;i":....uc .


T~,7 ~, !: s :.l1it- n 1% I O r,:: I o d ... p. 3 r l;c


C 1'uk, L., D'v J ;0 rf.,;i, 1.. E., "i.d HoyioW C.
3 -'rr:t, I n C r l x o 2' I. ti V l. C,



5. C fri J ... a
2 L{.. I G 1 :, C< oi'' ,ux' r': 7 p 1 '' q" t cu( tr K .' i S'7'
*' <.' o'' 15 I0 '* 1 1 ) P'^rq 'i


2 Lr~. ~:


4


1'.(p c


S1 ) I'J L
-~ ~ I I I .,, ^ .' )* ,r


1 0. t' 1 .', I r. o.,. f t ..r I .,
r c 1 1 "1 c
1 ,-".. T.( ,ni vn u rT'C of tbo r-a.nda FrOt, C^.or'{t i p. 1',...-l'[
l i] ". E n.. ,* ).o i :; ,U r ,,icl' P r o -c~ t c r q ,t t E . ..f c .


11.''I. F r: it' 'it,'1
G b ', c 'i '12


- V



~ It S
4


j, : >ucts ,- .... r'cip" .......r

3. F r~r,
I ULL.. : 0:1 r i'i T~ 'K.


1i, .'' K'. .J ^ ...


Lir;t of Refi'r c'


Conf. -iu


r^:i *''I'.'x





1. Hedin, L.
1929. Sur quelques essences forestieres exploitees au Cameroun. Rev.
'ot. Appl. et d'Acr. Irrpicale. Vol. 9, No. 69, pp. 39-51.
(T7vie'ed in TroTical 7oods ;o. 20, p. U3-50, 129).

15. 0 qkinsor., .. P.
17 12. veitr ue zur -ikro-raphie troisc.cer lolzer. BP itr. bnt. Zbl.
ol. 29, No. 2 p. .p1i -1^(

16. hCI-ard, k. L.
1, (. w.'uai of th Timbcrs ro f the 7' rld, 3rd ed., p. 66. Lc-don.

17. i't .ls nJ and -"a Iz -1 f, r .
i F' ". Flora of Vest Tropical cI ric a, Iol. I. (Reviewed in Tropical
:o .ds ?o. iW, p. 27.)

1c. _____ ____
IL. 1l a of 7'est Tropical Nfrica, Vol. 2.

IP:. l".po+rial Institute (Lot.don)
lIP) Timbers from Soutcern r'-ri', Imper! al stitute Tull, ,o, 6,
p luu-l<. London.

20. _____
19k *e f Lonlira alataj fr-, rierra Leone. Imperial In.t. Bull,,


21. ____________
0 st African Timbers. Imperial I--rtitute 7ull. No. 8,
231-21j,. odon, d.

22.______
I...'o...i.rs fro old oat, Im.r ia institute pull. No 2L,
Ft. 3, pp. il-U<3. London. (lev>'-ed in tropical Toods :o. 9,
p. 3u, 1927.)

23. Irvine, F. I.
193 ). F ants of tie '*'old Cnar-t (.or d, FEn'land.

2h. Jay, P.
1 .. T'iLmbers of VWest Africa, 3rd ed., pp. 32-33. Timber DP-velopment
,SOc., Ltd., Lodon

2$. Jo2 :tsc, F. and Ap-el, ,
l?(. :izop ora rrale, -oprhra procera, Chiorophora excelsa, 'ousanga
... i r eibtr,- tr, lizor a-s de2:. 7ralde KaIneruns !eitschr.
I14rYW(Af ivdrts ci t, Vol. ~ np. .1.0-12-, 23 5-2 6 331-31,
S7-tY06. (i'evievicd in Tropcal ,:ods o. 50, f, 37.)

26. Koll a,. .7
19)9. .tzeK c ...i. ncafttafel (ockolz und n, ..r... Hiolz als Rohlund
V,.. r'e r .k s f f '-o l 2 ,' p U9 .


Hepo-r't 1,ho. I


-P -






/I^2, liol ZK Ig'noh'rfctstafol Pookholz urd T.cr.i-se,
Holz als Rohund Werkstoff, Vol p. 183.

28. _____________________
29,
I.. TochnolojiQ des Holzeo, Voi, I*

29, Lamb, G( N.
1 ) r' ?or !ign 'Toods -- Lo2)hira. Wood Froducts. Vol. 55 No. 5, p 23.

30. L~coipte, H*
1 j2 Le Bois Coloni'aux. Paris,

31. ________________
,'1 : "* ,:. owll d' In doc i.,e, B'II. Mis. Hist. :xt.
Pur is, Vol. 3, pp* -1

3?. Lly. V .
1925. 7 usefull Trees of :ort orn :igri-t. London.

335 ar se, Pierre
1i-31. Contribution a 1'1tude a2 C ;ltiq e de q',elq ies bois coloniau.y,
Assn. Colonies -- Sciences a: Comi te 1N7.tl. des 3ois Coloniaux.
r'ris. (Rt 'vie.'d in ?ropIc l Toods, No. 2) . 1)1)

34. K, niaud, Joan
1)30. L'action du service forester do la Cote dt Ivoire, ilI.
Revue International des Products Coloniaux. Vol. 5, No. 51,
pp. 113-116. Earis. (Rv i. ,d in Tropical Woods l-o. 2,
p. 37, 1i930.)

35. _______
1 7. L'Azob e et ses utilisations. (Translated bv E G'3r", r: l515)
Bois et Forets des Tropiij^ls 'o. 15-3 'rimestre, p- 21-266,
if1us.

36. Y tcalfo, C. R. and Chalk, L.
1 k). Anatomn:- of the Dicotyledons, pp. 219, 330, 338. Oxford, ..n..land.

37- Monnin, h-.
i)25. Comparison entire bois coloniaux ot bois netropolitains.
fravaux du Coni]rrs forestier inte-rnational de Grenoble do
1925. Grenoble, France.

538. _______________________
_.1 .. '"..oAj, r-. do.ionalo d'e 'ai `t de dbit d3s bois.
Y:@thode francaise des essais de bois, pY pp.
Coniunications au Conf-r'Ts IntornatI. du bois et do la
cylviculture, Paris.

39- Nornand, D.
1i34. Note sur qjuelquos bois du Gabon. Re,. Bot. apple. Vol. 154,
IP. 414-421.


reportt No. R1913





40. Record, S. J. and Mell, C. D.
1924. Timbers of Tropical America. p. 433. New Haven, Conn.

41. Scott, V. H.
1950. Notes on the more important African timbers imported into the
Union (S. Afr.) with special reference to Portuguese East
African species. Jour. S. Afr. For. Assoc. No. 19, pp. 18-62,
illus.

42. Sierra Leone (Wv. Africa) Forest Department.
1942. Sierra Leone Native Timbers. Sierra Leone Forest Dept. Notes.
Freetown, Sierra Leone, W. Africa.

43. Stabbing, E. P.
1937, Forests of 'jest Africa and the Sahara. London and Edinburgh.

44. Stone, H.
1924. The Timbers of Commerce. London.

45. ____________ and Cox, H. A.
1922. A guide to the identification of the more useful timbers of
Nigeria. London.

46. Thieme, Hans 17. (Institut fur angewandte Bot., Hamburg)
1929. Das Bongosiholz und seine abstammung. Bet. Archiv., Vol. 26,
Nos. 1-2, pp. 164-233, illus. Leipzig, Germany (see Chalk).
(Reviewed in Tropical Woods :'o. 24, p. 49, 1929.)

47. Thompson, H. N.
1920. Statements by Nigerian Forest Authority for British Empire Forestry
Conference. London.

48. Unwin, A. H.
1920. 71est African Forests and Forestry, pp. 26, 356-359. London.

49. Vestal, P. A.
1937- The significance of comparative anatomy in establishing the
relationship of the Hypericaceae to the Guttiferae and their
allies. Philipp. J. 3ci., Vol. 64, pp. 199-256.

50. Wehmer, C.
1931. Die Pflanzenstoffe, p. 776, Jena, Germany.

51. Wiesner, J. von
1;28. Die Rohstoffe des Pflanzenreichs, Vols. 1-2, pp. 763, 1532-3.
Leipzig, Germany.


R{oport Io. R1913


-10-






1e l.--Reults of mechianlcal tests on Lophira procera- conducted by the Imerial
Institute, London (22)


Results


Mechanical test


: Maximum


: Minimum


Static I .:
Maximum calculated longitudinal
shear ......................... lb. per sq. in.;
Fiber stress at elastic
limit ......................... lb. per i. in.:
M .i.l of rupture .............. lb. per sq. in.:
Modulus of elasticity........... lb. per sq. in.:
Work in b,-niirig to elastic
limit ..................... in.-Ib. per cu. in.:
Work in bending to maximum
l' ad...................... in.-Ib. per cu. in.:

Compression parallel to grain:
Fiber stress at elastic
limit ......................... lb. per sq. in.:
Maximum crushing
strength ...................... lb. per sq. in.:
Modulus f
elasticity .................... lb. per sq. in.:

Compression perpendicular to grain:
Fiber stress at elastic
limit......................... lb. per sq. in.:

i ring parallel to grain:
Shearr'n 3trtngth:
S.... ....................... lb. per sq. in.:
.T r. ltial.................... lb. per aq. in.:

Cleavage:
Splitti ng strength:
Radial.................... lb. per inch width :
Si:.g. ratial................ lb. per inch width :

Ti.-',ion perpendicular to grain:
Tensile 3trengi.:
Radial........................ lb. per sq. in.:
T-ir.o-r.tial .................... lb. per sq. in.:

Hardness:
Load required to imbed a 0.444-inch-diameter
steel sphere to a depth equal to one-half
its diameter:
Radial surface .......................... lb.:
Tangential surface...................... lb.:
Eni surface............................. lb.:

Specific gravlty- ................................
Moisture .................................. percent:
Weight per cubic foot ......................... lb.:

1The material used was two air-dry planks, 10 feet

.=Basl..i on weight when oven-dry and volume at test.


15,420
25,460
5,000,(

4.12

44.6



10,J'

11,610

5,388,000



2,870



2,650
2,790



682
869



1,452
2,515





4,140
3,^'
4,650

0.968:
20.8
70.5


695


19,400
2,240,000

2.82

16.5



6,700oo

8,990

1,674,000



2,140



1,680
2,460




603



813


5,4
3,5
4,(


L,14U





350
58o
)10

0.872:
12.2
65.6


81o


22,.;
2,732,000

3.56

33.5



8,470

10,450

2,734,000



2,420


483
727



1,226
l,1-





3,810
3,810
4,310

0.'
17.5
68.5


long, 33 inches wide, and 5 inches thick.


Report No. R1913
7 '1 9)5 iF


: Mean


1








Table 2.--ihl rrnC' : I for i;i:.; azbr


': dturecontent olf the: e,rc r
wette"4t tInber on the air-inlet : (dry '1i1 )1
ie( a' .icl chart s are L c

--ade-


Fp rcent


2: .. .......................... :



3 0............. . . . . . . .*. . :

0.... ... .. ...... .. ..... ...C :
2". . . C C 4. C C C C C * C C C 4 C C C C



22....... . .. ...... ... . .. ....:




0 ....... ..... .............. .. .


0'
* r
* .. '.


lO5.


ii0;

1103

115

11$

120

123



130


L




9

0




19~

i, t


9


pi p: l( a : T la r v<
: : ..... t



: : (.r : :::t
: : :
^--------- ._---------- ----- --- -------.---- ---








: 3 .5
: : *



* 4 -4.0 :
: I 1





7: ; 1
: iL'M? ,) .0 : iO_


': 13: 3 : 6

iii0 : li .o : r;o


-Revised Kiln Sclhedule 2 1ore't ra 'ct. (car L laboratory (E..i.)
Leaflet No. 42, 2-t. iLesbury, Enrland.


Report ::. R1913







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


3 1262 08927 5258