Sulfate pulping of ponderosa pine thinnings

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Title:
Sulfate pulping of ponderosa pine thinnings
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Creator:
Martin, J. Stanley
Forest Products Laboratory (U.S.)
University of Wisconsin
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U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory ( Madison, Wis )
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Full Text
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SULfATE PULPINC OrI
PONIZIPUSA lPINE TIHINNINGS
October 19I51


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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
FOREST SERVICE
FOREST PRODUCTS LABORATORY
Madison 5, Wisconsin
In Cooperation with the University of Wisconsin


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SULFATE PULPING Or PONDEROSA PINE THIDNNINGS


BY

J. STANLEY IT.iRTIN, Chemical Engineer

Forest Products Laboratory,: Forest Service
U. S. Department of .gr-.culture


Introduction

Ponderosa -:,ine (Pinus ponderosa) wood obtained in thinning operations on a stand
near Blanchard in western Idaho was experimentally pulped c: the sulfate process
to deterr.inc its pulping characteristics. In such thinning o icrauions, some
trees arc cuc to give better spacing to the remaining trees and some trees of
poor form and vigor are removed to improve the quality of the stand. If satis-
factory -:ul.Ds could be produced from the pine thinnings, a use wjculd be provided
for the xrood cut in such forest-management practices.


Test Material and Pulping Procedures


The test- material consisted of 33 bolts, each 4 feet in lenL'th, and was repre-
sentative of wood o'Ctained by a comb-ination of thinning o.cra.ons at the crown
and lover levels of the tree. It was obtained from a small stand of puru
ponderosa iine containing trees 20 to 40 years old, 4 to i .Lfnches in diameter
at breast ,height, and 15 to 30 feet in height. i:ure stands of lodgepole pine
occurred in the general area.

The physical characteristics of the ponderosa pine are given in the following
tabulation) ;ihich lists average values obtained on renrcscncaz-ve -cransverse
sections, a:.-'roximately 1 inch thici::

Specific gravity ................................ .. 0.40
Density......................pounds per cubic foo6 25.0
Di 4ame ter.... ........ .... ..............inches 4..0
"/-s *. Q. ... .. .. ... .. .. e euB o......... o .o .y ar ao p "
Rate of growth..................... rings pecr inch l4.-'
Xocartwood, b: volumc.......................pcrcent 1C
Lar by byum volume
3arl:, by volume.............................. do... 2C .
tar::, by weigh, (drj basis)..................do... lS.)


hMaintamned at Madison, '.is., in cooperation wit-' the Unwversit.- of Wisconsin.
2
. -Pinus ponderosa. Shipment No. 2314.


S.A riculture-Madison


Report IHo. E1909






The density of the ponderosa pine, 25 pounds per cubic foot (based on weight of
moisture-free wood and volume of green wood), was within the range of common
northern coniferous pulpwoods, such as jack pine, Douglas-fir; western hemlock,
Pacific silver fir, and lodgepole Dine. If it is satisfactory as a pulpwood,
the ponderosa pine might be expected to compete in the same market as these woods.

The ponderosa pine resembled jack pine, a wood used extensively in the Lake
States pulping industry, closely enough in chemical composition to indicate
similar sulfate-pulping characteristics for both species. It has a slightly
lower lign.n content and a little higher solubility in alcohol-benzene and in
ether than jack pine (table 1).

Various ratios of pulping chemical to wood were used to produce sulfate semi-
chemical, hr-aft, and bleaching sulfate pulps. The pulping digestions were made
in a spherical, rotary autoclave, which was indirectly heated by steam and had
a capacity of 0.5 cubic foot. Semichemical pulps were fibcrized in an attrition
mill having an 8-inch, single rotating disk, and yields and strength properties
of the fibcrized pulps were determined.


Results and Discussion


In the semichemical pulping series, an increase in the amount of chemicals
(calculated as sodium oxide) fror 7,8 to 11.7 percent of the weight of moisture-
free uood caused a normal decrease in pulp yield from 75 to 54 percent, a
decrease in chemical consumption, an increase in the density of the black liquor,
and procrcssively higher strength properties of the semichcramcal .ulps
(tables 2, 5). The pulps cooked with less than 11.7 percent of chemicals were
very dark in color, as measured by brightness values, and were similar in bright-
ness to high-yield pulps from softwood species. In the di tion in which the
smallest amount of chemicals was used, cooking was stopped '..'hen the maximum
temperature was reached, thereby -making the total cooking time one-half that of
the other digestions. The result was a higher pulp yield of 75 percent and lower
strength -:.;.o-:rties, except for tearing strength, which shovec-d no change. While
all the sulfate semichemical pulps appeared to have more than adequate strength
for corrugating board, the ponderosa pine sulfate pulp produced in a yield of
54 percent also appeared to have sufficient strength for use in liner board of
high quality.

The pul ing of ponderosa pine by conditions suitable for producing a kraft-type
pulp (15.7, 15,6,and 17.6 percent of sodium oxide) showed that the lowest
quantity of chemicals was sufficient to produce the maximum yield of screened
pulp, a low yield of screening rejects, and the highest pulp strength (tables 2,
5). Thei yields of screening rejects obtain:-d for the kraft digcstions
were lower than those normally obtained fro' jack pine and nany softwood species,
which indicated very favorable puling characteristics for Qonderosa pine by the
sulfate process. Ponderosa pine raft pulps were higher in bursting strength
and lower in tearing strength (table 5) than southern pine pulps. The bursting
strength of ponderosa pine kraf'L, ::ulps was considerably lower than that of spruce
and balsam ]3raft pulps. The kraft culps frora pondurosa pine were quite similar
in strcngth to those from jack -ino and ap,-ar to be suited for use in the same


Report To. ER1909


-2-







types of papers, such as wrapping and kraft specialties, as the jack pine kraft
pulps.

Ponderosa pine was readily cookcd. to produce a bleaching sulfate pulp that wai
suffic-cn-ly low in lignin contcniL and permanganate numbers and sufficiently
high in brightnesss after a onc-szage 'leach test 'o indicate satisfactory bleach-
ing quali ies w'th a normal quantity of chlorine (table 2). The aCdditional
amounts of chemicals used for -:rocducing the bleaching pulis over those required
for the ]:rafZ-type pulps caused a normal reduction in pulp yield and in i-ulp
strength and an improvement in the chemical i.urity of the p.uls.


Conclusions


Except for the lowcr chemical requirements and the lower :.cldc of screening re-
jects :.n production of ponderosa pine kraft pulps, rondcrosa i.n-2 was, in
general, very similar in sulfatc-Oulpling characteristics and in the strc-ngth of
the pulps -..roduccd to jack pin-c a pulpwood of accepted sat.Is_.actory quality.


Report o. 1909 -


-3-







TabOle 1.--Chemical Constituents of ponderosa pine chips and
sulfate pulps



Chemical constituent : Type of material produced in --

Chips : Pulp

: :Digestion No.:Digestion Ho.:Digestion No.
S. 2165:: 2G9 2106X


Lignin................percent.: 25.1 26.6 : 4.6 : 2.9

Holocellulose............do...: 67.7 69. : 95. : 95.6
Alpha cellulose..........do...: 45.0 55.8 78.1 : 80.0

Total pentosans.......... do...: 10.2 : 10.7 : 10.2 : 6.8

Ash ... 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ... do...: .5 :. ... . .66.6. 66666.66.6* 0 ." .......

Alcohol-'enzene extract-
ables .................. do. .. 5 .6 6 .... ................. ..66

Ethyl ether e::tractables.do...: 4.1 .: ...66 66 :6 6 .............6

3ot weter e:xtractables...do...: 2.9 :........6 ..... .... ... ..... ...... ....

Sodium hiydroxie.de :
cxtrac-cables ......... .. d ...: 15.4 6. 6 ..6 6 . .............



1
The concentration of sodium hydroxide in v.ater solution was 1 percent by weight.


















Report ITo. -1909







Table 2.--Cooking conditions and yield data for sulfate pulping of pomderosa pine


Digestion :Moisture :Cooking and yield data :Brightneas o "PerMn-
number : content :---------------------------------------------------------------------------. pulps :ganatu
: of wood : Chemicals charged :Chemicals:Black :Duration: Yield of pulp (moisture-: ------------------- number
S-- ----------------- :consumed :liquor :at maxi-: free) per 100 pounds of :Unbleached: Pulp : of
S: Initial :Per 100 pounds: :density:mum tern-: moisture-free wood pulp bleached: p lr.ns
S:concentra-: of moisture- : : at 15:perature: -------------------------: with
S:tion cal- : free wood : : C. :Screened:Screen-:Total : : 8.75
: :culated as: ---------------- : ings : : : percent:
S: Na20 : NaOH :Calcu- : : : :chlorine:
: : plus : lated: :
.: Na3 :as Na2O: :
-- - - - - --------- -- -- : ------ : ------- : -- - -- - ......... -- -- -- -- -- --......- -- - -- -


: Percent :Grams per
liter


:Pounds:Pounds : Percent :


OB. : Hours


: Pounds :Pounds : Pounds : Percent


Sulfate Semichemical Pulps


2166x

2165x, 2167x
2]UOX
2fl10X

2104X

2103X


2097X,

20098,

2099X,


2100X, 2181x:

2101X, 2182X:

2102X, 2183X:


2163X, 2164X

2106X, 2107X


15.1
35.8

58.56

58.6 :

58.6



54.6 :

54.6 :

54.6


58.7

58.9


19.5

19.5

22.0 :

24.4

29.3



35.2 :

39.1 :

43.9 :



48.8 :

53.7


10.0 : 7.8

10.0 : 7.8

11.25: 8.8

12.5 : 9.8 :

15.0 : 11.7


17.5 :

20.0 :

22.5 :


13.7

15.6

17.6


95.3

98.2

97.5

95.5

91.2


5.4 : 0

5.6 : 1-1/2

6.2 : 1-1/2

7.0 : 1-1/2

8. : 1-1/2


Kraft-type Pulp.

S87.0 9.7 1-1/2

82.1 : 10.6 : 1-1/2

: 78.1 11.4 : 1-1/2

Bleaching Sulfate Pub


25.0 : 19.5 : 75.2 : 12.2

27.5 : 21.5 : 68.3 : 13.1
: *


1-1/2

1-1/2


- 0*Saa*a ......-.





: 47.8 : 0.6

: 6.7 : .1 :

': 44.5 ...


41.8
41.8


: .1 :
*


74.0

72.9

67.5 :

62.9

54.1



8.4 :

46.8 :

44. :


43.3

41.9


12.8 ........a .........
:
11.9 :........ .........

12.1 :....... .........
12.7 ........ .......
12-7 : ........ :.........


25.8

28.3


29.0

32.2 :


: 59.0 :


61.9 :

75.1 :


31.0

24.6

20.6



18.6

14.9


-The cooking conditions other than those tabulated were as follovews:
Weight of moisture-free wood, 4.0 pounds; maximum temperature, 17060 *C.;
temperature-pressure increase period, 1.5 hours; sulfidity (based on active
alkali), 50.0 percent; and liquor-wood ratio (including moisture in chips), 4 to 1.

Rept. No. R1909


T M 88723 F


:Percent :











Table 3.--Strength properties- of sulfate pulps made from ponderosa pine


: Duration of : Bursting : Tearing Breaking Folding : Sheet
: beating to : strength at strengtL at : length at endurance at density at
: freeness of? : freeness of? freeness of? freeness of. freeness of2 freeness of2
------------------- ------------------- ------------------- ------------------- ------------------- -------------------
450 cc. : 250.cc. : 450 cc. : 250 cc. : 450 cc. : 250 cc. : 450 cc. : 250 cc. : 450 cc. : 250 cc. : 450 cc. : 250 cc.


:Minutes : Minutes


: Points : Points : Grams : Grams : Meters
:per pound:per pound:per pound:per pound:
:per ream :per ream :per ream :per ream :

Sulfate Semichemical Pulps


2166X

2165x, 2167X

2110X


2104X

2103X


0.73

.82

.95

1.05

1.22


0





1

1


.77

.89

.98

.14

.26


1.13

1.16

1.22

1.54

1.51


0.97

.92

.97

1.01

1.40


6,100 : 6,800 : 190

6,900 : 7,600 : 350

7,200 7,900 : 475

7,500 : 800 : 860

7,700 : 8,300 : 1,650


310

500

510

1,020

2,150


Kraft-type Pulps


2097X, 2100X, 2181X:


2098X, 2101X,

2099X, 2102X,



2163X, 2164X

2106x, 2107X


2182X:

2183x:


6o :

58 :

57 :


87 : 1.34 :

83 : 1.33 :

86 : 1.25 :


: 51 :

: 56 :
*


1.20 :

1.17 :


1.45

1.42

1.32



1.30

1.19


1.60

1.52 :

1.55


1.59

1.37

1.33


9,100

8,600

8,400


9,700 :

9,600 :

8,900 :


1,800 : 2,300

1,700 : -2,00o0-

1,550 : 2,000


Bleaching Sulfate Pulps


1.28

1.49


1.15

1.31 :


9,400 : 10,100

7,500 : 8,100


: 1,600 : 2,000

: 1,350 : 2,100


lInterpolated
humidity.


test-beater strength data on unbleached pulp. Test sheets were conditioned and tested at 235 C. and 50 percent relative
Ream size was 500 sheets, each 25 by 40 inches.


2Canadian-standard freeness.
-Canadian- standard freeness.


Rept. No. R1909


Digestion
number


: Meters


: Double
: folds


: Double
: folds


: Grams
: per cc.


: Grams
: per cc.


0.68

.73

.74

.77

.80


0.61

.67

.68

.69

.74



.78 :

.80 :

.82


.83 :

.74















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