Short-cut method of finding the minimum sized tree that pays its way through small sawmill operations


Material Information

Short-cut method of finding the minimum sized tree that pays its way through small sawmill operations
Series Title:
Report ;
At head of title:
Small sawmill improvement
Practical pointers to field agencies
Physical Description:
6 leaves : ill. ; 27 cm.
Telford, C. J
Forest Products Laboratory (U.S.)
USDA, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory
Place of Publication:
Madison, Wis
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Sawmills   ( lcsh )
Lumber   ( lcsh )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
"Contributed by C J. Telford, ... October 1940."--P.6.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029311183
oclc - 229914245
System ID:

Full Text



S "O.:-CT :. 07.".D OF Fi: I :- .T-1.. ,, Si7 :: w. .
T.'~.^ -J ..-71 Sb -~. .. b, ....'i L O _;'Al 1.'..S
1-HSli:L' 3A7',:'LTLc:~

Sawmill operators realize tnret lo0es s:na. result fro:- takin- s:ia, ;s,
but as a rule they or local forest-exnen'jion af oncies arc not e.,i d to r..'1 j
the detailed study required to dctermin. tr L.he in z of t r>' which h '.s i'
war. A short-cut method for obtaining t.e "bi'ak own" D5H for s:.all :;ils is1
given here in which the. mill and yard labor costs alone f'' .ri. the n vC.ry
information as to the influence of tree size o0. costs. T'n; r os'.lts obt ( id by
this method a.-re fairly' closely w7ith those found deti.iod mill-scl stud-
ies. All other costs are taken as a constant and aj.1 d to .il1 and
labor costs by tree rT-?Ks. The costs and valu s ir. dollars are tnn "Iott(d
ag-inst the DH. The intersection of the total cost 11n1e ':itn th teta value
line :-ives the "break eventi point. (See exan.,, pa;- 5). -'1._ in' r: ctior.
will usually be found in tne lower ten D3H Iled so 'at mill labor
costs and values need be determined onl1y for tne ten ..a..r D class.
Three men in four o, ratingc days can -tt the reruir d time ann cost information
from which conclusions can be deduced in a few hours of office comeutations.

To apply this method in the field requires:

(1) The cost per M board feet, lumber tally, 'cr ..-

(2) The average costs per .: board feet exclu. .-
labor costs.

(3) The milling and yard labor cost per 1, boi d fe t 2Aby -Aqvl
smaller :'BH classes.

(4) The value per 1. board feet, lumber tally, _1 7."' O
series of sizes included in (5). .-.

(1) To --:t the cost of stumpage:

(a) 7h-en tirmbhr is bo,-. t on a luTmber ,all basis, the cor') rct
price per M board feet.

(b) T.V,.en timber is bought on a l-un s .". ". ''.' '" ,:' ase
price _,y the estimated num-ber of 1, boar fre. t, 1 ..' IL.-, -. ct.

tMaintained at Madison, Wisconsin in cooperation with the J.Tniver-i1N of Wisconsin
*See outline in Small Sawmill Improvement Working Phn, March 1930, for explanation nf indexing sytern propo,'d

- I .... -II ----I II ---IIIIIIII I -- --

(c) .h n timber is bou. "t on .a o1- scale basis, go to t0 f Lli.
area of tne major producer and mnrk on each lo- ti:c tree BhL for i tr ,;.
in the lower ten DIiBH classes. "".,' n these marke logs are scaled at .' .il,
record tne total scale by l"". classes. If lo.-. are graded, also r, cor' b
rale. From this compute the total cost of th 1o: scaie foaoz.: in x
class. This total cost per 73': class divided by .he lunber tall, ,-r I- "
gives the sttu :-.-:e cost per M. board feet lumber tally.

(2) The total costs, exclusive of stua'e and. mill lab or, 7-1ill v'-ry
the me!hod of bw,'ing timber. If timber is bou -ht on a li m. tn' L basis ("
or on a l:up su basis (ib), the costs include all log;-in tran.; or'a-
tion, mill 2ovil n, maintenance, depreciation, t', so.I ina', :x suerviio:

If timber is bought on a 1og0 scale basis at tne mill (ic) total co:ts,
excluding mill and yard labor, include mill movin-, maint'!.ancc, Kerecituic.,
taxes, sellinV:, and supervision.

These total costs arc arrived at from records s-, ,pI n ei if necessar
with estimates.

(3) To .7-rt the millin- and yard labor cost per M' bo':rdl i,. t' i.n:b.r ',ll
b 3 ":'K classes:

One man at the fellin(- area marks on each log, t-,, tree D377 from ",'l it
is cut for all trees cut in the lower ten DH classes. -o lo," di':..tCs nr',id
to be taken.

One man at the mill gets the headsav' time required for e'ch r:i'dlo -.
S'artin ; time begins when the cmrty carriage stops ,o r eceive t:-e log. It
should be taken with a stop watch to tthe nerest C.01-) minut. ,e ti'n. for
each lo.- is recorded under its proper D5H1 class. This man sho- also ., ,.
record of all delays during paid time v'ne not sanvin- for a c 1of '
days. This delay,- time is totaled, ani from it te percent of non.'roict iv-
time is determined. T:.. recorded total time for eac. DBH cl.'ss is ircr-;e
by the amount of tnis delay. time.

A second man at tine mill allies :and lroles the rodct fro;.e'.ch t? .r: o'-d
lo.-, entering, footage and grad un der tne D`H class of tne tre, fror. v:'hic he
lo.- was cut. Thne -rades are those uron r-uich tne l'j..r ns sol b" orr-
ator. If any quantity discount from the -re tta r. y is ri li ie by tn c'r-
chaser of the lmber, this must be applied to tall, cr ited to t ::;iL..

The total time for erich "'.: class dividd bl t.{ o.'l ,-1' for c
DF: class -iv s nmi ii n ti n, u r I boo'.rI fe for re r( 3. ct iv *K:. c1 ;,- sC
chosen. -'.is infor.-.ation is i-lott d nd co)vrr' ( to !'o costs c'ar.-n.
the labor cost )cr hour of million.

(4) To .-,-t the value per :: board f, t, L: nbI r 'l -iJ "th,'l foctna-e
in each -r.--. within -H class by the valu r-c1 'iv: for r t:,ctiv
grades, c1'.i..-, to valu. er ;: board f -t l, dividin. t, e .t,'' vno Li .in
the D3K class '-, the amount in '" board f et, and plot t,.- s ri.s of v.'1 ;

"- n '-1 -2

TTS'.: the labor cost -er !.L board f(et l'unber tall i s fo ;n in () .
base, add the stn.. ,.-e value as found in (.1) "r.d tri averate cc. xcl.. of
i mill Enl yard labor cost found in (2) to build ut a total cost c rv.. for n
smaller u-'i classes chosen.

Transfer the values as read from the cu rve for cor.'esondin.--' i cl'is:2
found in (4), and the intersection is. taken as the "breaK !ven" Dlv.

h.eorye icaIll,, this method is onen to criticism beca'-u, : ll cost;', *,-<.'t,
mill labor costs, are taken as a constant uninfluenced by tre- siz. n ,
check based uron more detailed lcr--in: and r,-.ill scale studio ti :.'o i -:,vi
the same "break even IC in five, instances, in ten instances it w-a or. in.c:.
different, aijd in one instance two inches.

In usin,- this method, distortion of the "break e.ven" D'H riill r frol
inaccurate anaLysis of costs other than r mill .1n yard Labor, nc't'' si-
mates of th'I iuL bcr talI, of stnndin timber (ib), and t:, o:i:;io:K cf wx-
los marked for the sample It is reco;.:nded oni L a: rlativ;.l chWa
method of findi.. the "break even" 3 on srnall o'0t r -tionL :'-iv rou. : I:;bcr.
Planer Oterations should not be included.


10 /

I__L t9JWt_15I
/2 13 14 15 16

0 -

A* W347 ?


The followinC forms ar ... ..stud as .-; id in rcor fili 1
previewi of the specific OP.r'tion shoold1 ib mad nd nodi UK cat ion i r,...
tions incorporated to co!.form vw'ith tn, objectives of b:;i'iu; da sr T -
the voliLume in each value grour deait in by the operator.

Form for l(c) Lo S1cale

breast : Grade i : Grade II :7"e _I


10 ... -
10 ____ :_ :

12 _____ _____
et__c._ __ __ __:_:

Prices per b,' board feet lo: seac::

Grade I _____-rade II ____Grade Il_____

For each diameter class multilyv the total lo-- ;cal,1 (:: boord
feet) in each lo,' ;,r:lde by price ;"ai( per ', board .['et. Th r-
sultant total price paid divided by the footaj-e (: boar fet) for
the DBH class in tnhe lIu.bcr tally s:.iet is tri vliu er ': board
feet l'unber tall.

Form for milling time (3)___
Dia oter :
breast : Snawin& time required
high :


9 __
10 _ _ _
11 :______ _____ _____ _____ _____
etc. :______

N-vmber of men in crew and '" ,;': or hoi;r:
Del..: time _________D_'_____
Interval covorcdI or total ti:-._____________
ID C]y ti'C :! within int -rv1al
Record to the nc-nrrst 0.0 .inrt( T' ...a..v. 'I. r,-
q9iiredi for each ::arkec lo- in the D3 class fro::', nich
thr lor or4 -inateId.

Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013



Diameter breast 7c

4/4-inch thickness 8/4-incc flia-'s
Width Lenth --- -------------------------
:3 ?- 3tr. :,To. iC:Zio 2C: o. 30: 3 --tr. :"To. 1 :'o.
: .... t C "
3 : :_:_: ____6:_:::::.....

10 __
12 '" :_:_:
: _12 : : _____:

S14 : : : : : ________
5 16 : : __________'_:
: : : ::

: i0 :* : :: :_:_

10 __________ _______ ________
S 14 : : : :: : : : -
: 16 : : : : ____: :
5 : : : : : :: : :_

: : : : :: : __ _____
: lO : : : : : : : ________ : -

: 14 : : : : :: :_ _ :
__'_16 _____:_______ ____:_

8 6...._____________ _____
S:10* -

--s -- -- -- f _____3_-__
ib4 : : :: : ::

r * 0

To : C : : :______________
S : ____________________
: 10 :___ : : : __________ __________
i4 6 : : : :

Pi16 Of :C:li I

102 6 r of :r -- t yriC-o__
: S :.':. : :: : :


10 : ~ _____ ______________________ __

'M bo rd i c~i:10' to a"*.,,,"
i4 : : : : :-: : : ______ __
12 g: : : : :: : :

____ l6__:___ :_-__:__________.
10 : : : : : f .-
14 : : ::.:
16 : '

sales pr" m4de for th. sri~ or' orputior. I''* on th's c:' ri .;G of w.-.:..~r 01
pieces of specfi:d iekne s, 'id>., 'K. t K co: K *: ':',
.mltiply tii nurinor of :: hoard fi t by :'ic r C 2 r : : :'-'t i'o
* thi 0rade, :otal r."s' 1>rt : i for a:: jri- *uA iid; L 7 0:
., board feet in t.' .B c'.s to : v '& :r : oard for : -

" ,'-l3


.',a7-,Lter breast high, 12 inches

: surface measure by -rade
Thickness : --------------------------------------------------------------
: F. A. S. No. 1 Common ::o. 2 Co:mon No. 3 Co o..

White Oak
4/4 :______
S/4 :
.es, timbers, and sr. cial items by grades and sizes.

Rod 0Oak
4/L4, ILL :
,, ,, /f :. . :______

ies, timbers, and special items by grades and sizes.

Bas -,-od
__ / : -- :__
1 8/4'; : d

-Sr..cial items by grades and sizes,

_' 6/4 : : __
8/4 ....;
."! ^ c i F i t -- r : ^ y r .- ,i d -' a n s i z e s .

Use a s-r'arate tally sheet for each DBH class. Use a hardwood lumber
tally stick to .-7t the surface measure and enter surface measure foota,"e
under pro',er division as to s'e;cies, thickness, and -rade. H-ardwood lLmber
.ally stir.-s are available that either sho', the actual surface feet or the
s-rface feet discounted for drying shrinkace. Use the former. r.en lumber
is sold green, use full tally; if sold dry, discount full tall'-. Convert
surface measure as tallied to board foot :measure and com::posite value
per M board f<'ot as described for softrood.

ContributtLd by C. J for
Jor(;'st products L_,1-orator.,
Octo- r I<<40


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