Uses for slabs, edgings, and trims

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Title:
Uses for slabs, edgings, and trims
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Mixed Material
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University of Wisconsin
Forest Products Laboratory (U.S.)
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory ( Madison, Wis )
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Resource Identifier:
aleph - 29265910
oclc - 755009239
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AA00020532:00001

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@ USES FOR SLABS, EDGINGS, AND TRBIMS


By

S Fore-stP od cts Laboratory)!. Forest Service
U. Department of Agriculture
ri: .,POSITORN


Marked increases in utilization of slabs, edgings, and trims for various
products have been made over the years to a point where at many mills there
is not much waste left for uses other than fuel. Slabs and edgings are
ordinarily the offal of lumber manufacture for which use is most easily found
and that most readily offer a margin of profit. Moreover, better lumber-
manufacturing practices have led to thinner slabbing and closer edging, so
that in some mills little salvageable material remains.

There are many mills, however, where much room for improved practices exists.
The cutting of small lo.s tends to increase the slab thickness. Also, at
small mills that have little equipment for conversion of logs to lumber beyond
the stage of primary log breakdov.wn, the problem of utilizing or of profitably
marketing slabs, edgings, and trims still remains unsolved.

To assist mills inquiring of the Forest Products Laboratory as to methods of
Utilization of such waste materials, a list of their possible uses is
presented in tables 1 to 4 of this report under four headings.

(1) Sawed products
.(2) Fuel products
(3) Fiber products
(4) Chemical products

The bulk of the slabs, edgings, and trims is produced at sawmills, and, there-
fore, is green. Green material introduces a seasoning problem that, although
usually more complicated for cuttings from slabs, edgings, and trims than for
lumber, is not insolvable. Factory trims and edgings are usually from dry
lumber and thus offer no such seasoning probl Low cost and efficient
methods of segregation and handling this type o r unseasoned
or seasoned, constitute a basic problem, howN ,8otPf8 story.

Usually, first consideration should be given to working up the slabs edgings,
and trims into finished or semifinished prod cts ato" tj0ii f the r produc-
tion. At sawmills additional equipment oft must be provide for is pur-
pose; at factories, at least part of the ne essary equipment is at and.
Especially at swimills, it is often desirab Ft.,jo. nlpart way i the
production of a finished product; that is, to produce ..0 inls,



1 --Maintained at Madison 5, Wis., in cooperation with the University of Wiscon-
sin.


Report No. R1666-2


Tuze iLae








squares, and the like for sale to handle plants, small-dimension plants, and
to toy and novelty factories for final processing.

A possibility of waste utilization not to be overlooked is the pooling of
waste from mills or plants in one locality to provide adequate volume for
efricient remanufacture in another plant. Factory waste at many plants is
in small sizes and odd shapes that are costly to rehandle for manufacture
into byproducts. In some cases, however, the cuttings that do not fit into
the products of the originating plant are of such a size that they are well
suited for the products of some other plant. A wood-waste-exchange plan
has been put into effect in some instances with sufficient success to
warrant some attention. Such exchanges have been operated by trade
journals, associations, and individual concerns, and also by public
agencies. The results, although not spectacular, have been sufficiently
profitable to justify adoption of the plan elsewhere if local conditions
f orrit.

A fairly recent development that deserves careful consideration in locali-
ties near pulp mills, is the conversion of green slabs and edgings, after
all possible sawed products have been removed, for shipment to fiber plants
either in the form of chips or as defiberized material. This tyFe of mill-
waste utilization frequezLtly permits the inclusion of a reasonable amount of
bark. The feasibility of removing the bark, in the case of the more valu-
able pulpinr species, to permit use of chips in the more exacting lines of
pulp production, is receiving increased attention by some progressive
operators.


- J


P-tior'. :,o. %60;^-2

















Table 1.--Typical sawed products from slabs, edginge, and trims


Use : Species : Users or purchasers : Remarks


Plocking ant Machine Skids 'Most hardwoods and softwoods


:Industrial plants and shippers :Rough. sound, cut to order


Bo.x and Crating Stock
Box shook
Crating
Fruit and vegetable crates

Bread- and Meat-board Stockt

Brush-bacK Stock

Building Materials
Moulding strips
Sash stock
Mullion stock
Frame stock
Poultry feeders

Hog feeders
Threshold stock
Quarter-rounde
Floor shoes
Short trim
Picture moulding
Flooring
Screen moulding
Floor bridging

Clotries-racA Stock

Cooperage and Basket Stock
Slack heading
Basket tops and bottoms


Dowel Stock


Fence ickets

Furni'ure flat Stock
Bed slats


Upholstery frames
Seat stock
Chair backs
Chair posts
Furniture poets
Cleats
Olue blocks
Core blocks
Core stock

Furniture Squares
Chair legs


Chair spindles
.Chair posts
Chair stretchers
Furniture posts


;Numerous softwoods and hardwoods :Various industrial plants
. ............... do................... I .............. do................ ;
................do................... :Individual growers and shippers :

:Birch, maple, beech, soft pines :Kitchen-equipment manufacturers

;Maple, birch, beach, and other ;Makers of brushes
hardwoods :


Cut to specified sizes
Do.
Do.

Surfaced, often glued-up

Cut to rough sizes


:Pines, Douglas-fir :Millwork plants :Clear stock. Finished at factory
: ............... do................... : .............. do................ : Do.
S.............. do ................... ; ........... .. do ................ : Do.
S............... do................... : ............ .. do. ........ ....... : Do.
:Douglas-fir, pines :Retail lumber yards *Good grade. Sizes specified by
S: : buyers. Air-seasoned
:Douglas-fir (some hard), pines s ..............do ................ ; Do.
:Maple, birch, oak, Douglas-fir : ..............do................ : ..............................
:Pines, Douglas-fir, oak, birch : .............. do .. ........... .. : ... .... .........................
S.............. do................... I .............. do................ ................................
S............... do................... ; .............. do ................ ................................
: ............... do................... : .............. do................ :...............................
:Maple and oak : .............. do ............... ................................
:Pines .............. do ................ ................................
*Hemlock, Douglas-fir, southern pine : ..............do................:Cut to specified dimensions


IPine, aspen, basswood, beech, birch,:Specialty plants
maple

:Gum, oak, pine, elm, and others :Cooperage plants
:Most hardwoods and some softwoods tBasket factories


:Maple. birch, beech, other hardwoods:Furniture plants


:Chiefly softwoods :Retail lumber yai


:Made from squares, clear; turned or
by dowel machine

:Sound stock, surfaced
:Rough, sound stock. Solid or sawed
or sliced veneer

:Clear. straight grain thoroughly
seasoned


rds and builders:Usually surfaced


;Largely oak, maple, birch, gum, .:Furniture plants :Delivered air-dry or kiln-dry. May
: beech, Douglas-fir, pines, redwood, be rough to approximate dimen-
Sand other softwoods sione or sawed and surfaced to
............... do ............................... do................... exact sizes; rough, senifinished
............... do ............................... do................... or fully finished ready to fabri-
:............... do ............................... do .................. cate. Stock is clear and
S............... do ..............................do.................. reasonably straight-grained.
S...............do .............................. do ................... Cut to order of purchaser and not
S.............. do................... ............ do................... to stock sizes
: ............... do ............................... do ..................
:Largely soft pines :Door and millwork plants
:Largely close-textured, lightweight :Furniture and panel plants
i hardwoods

:Largely oak, maple, birch, gum, :Furniture plants ODelivered air-dry or kiln-dry. May
: beech, Douglas-fir, pines, : : be rough to approximate dimen-
: redwood, and other softwoods : sons or sawed and surfaced to
S............... do................... ............ do .................. : exact sizes; rough, semifinished
S............... do ................... ........... do .................. or fuily finished ready to fabrl-
:............... do................... : ............do.................. .cate. Stock is clear and reason-
S...............do................... ............ do.................. ably straight-grained. Cut to
: : : order of purchaser and not to
: : stock sizes


(Sheet 1 of 2)
Report No. R1666-2

Z ?73U54 t





















Table 1 - T-I l ssa.d .r_,i -l._ from @la': eagl ge. __at lrl-, (contltaud)


Use Species
- -- --- -- --- - -- ---- -- - - - - - - -


I Users or p.irc-asers


Nar;, Ilr t .C_ anIU ?s a
3&rdon.

Grain Doors

Lh.'i_."LL .ijarq
Broom

Mop
Kettle
Tool

Lath
Snow fence

fiull I L.

Tobacco sticks



Pallet&


Phpar-A.-l. J1.Lgv_

RdA- roller Stock

M.hde- rol .,r Stj':&


Shims. Railroad

S.io. Iarn.













Toyartsin ?e
it. e it ,:


51 r, aor a' 3thkas












"!ll _j^ L __. 1^;
ToyA ferti







c5 i r
$cootera
Sleds
*agons*
Kite stick


rhjaO r ts


;Varlous hard and softwood,


:Low-rade stock of various species


:Southern pine, ZZ-gi.-fir, maple,
oak, beech, gum
... . .......... ...................
lHardwoods
:Birch, maple, ash, oak, hickory


:Largely oak, maple, elm, beech,
: Doigl&a-flr, hemlock, pine
iSpruce, Joie lsB-flr, pines

iBeech, oak, southern pine



:Various hardwoods and softwoods


Rtoall stores ar lrmber yards :Clear, or sound dIfecti. Spec i od
: t llllt

aairoae.s shippers :SI&rfaced cut and naIlvd to detlled


:Handil- turning plant. :;Wte from clear, -reen, or ely-driied
: Square Of artv ios izes
Si ....... .... do ................ .I Do.
*............ do .................. DO .
S............. (to .................. I no.
I a

tSnow-fence plants :augh, sond. 1/2 z 1-1/2 z
I : 4S inches
;Betail lumber yards :An ff,. casefly .lear, 316 Z 1-1/2 X
1 t 12 axd 49 ilrre
MTobacco growers Hardwood 3/' 1 I-.4'4 inces X faet
: 2 inches; southern pine Wisconsin
1 1/2 x 1-1/2 iZChes A 4 feet

lInduastrial plants end arenrousem.Go.-r or irface; clr or d
: : stock


:Birc, .maple, beech tPaper mill.

:Do., 1%ig-flr and other species :Rug manufacturers and dealers

;Wite and ponderosa pines, basswood, ItMakers of window shades
a Do..les-fir

:Mple, oak, beech, a :Railroads

*Soft pines, and other softwoods ISign oompanles

:Lo,'laB-t lr, hemlock :Shingle mills

Southern pine, basswood. Douglmas- :Ladder factories
fir. and others

:MoaLly softwoods :Retail lumber yards

:Mostly hardwoods :aTent and awoming cocpla is

*Softwoods and iardwoods, elm, :Railroads
iugl -fir, gums, pine, and
Sthe llke


:Blrcn, maple, gul :Mlakers of toilet seats

:Birch. soft pines. and others :Makers of m.ll toys

S............. . do.................. ............ .do .................


I
_o9thly turned and cored

:Soiund, turned to ipecllaac Sit*

:Clear, cut to sp.z.Ilsd *sie


:at to ro-. sitei

t ............... .. ........

aCut to appr-jximate dal.&estone. 1044gt


lout to p'clflatloianI

;Varloos sizes, often rout.

:For 51/g-Imet *epie: 5/8 x 5/1
a i.-.caei; for j/l>-icB
a spite: ;l it 1,'l x 'a-l/2 -
5 inm-es. Ein4r. dry

:ut to rougo size*

;Pieces cut to speclfited sizes

Do.


:Mhl.,B a lrcl, beech, ash Makers of outdoor toys (Cat to specifl sizess, air-dry
: ... ......... .do ............................... do ................. : Do.
a. ............. do................... ........... ao .................. iDo.
lSoft pines. spruce ............o................ Piece cut to S;. I:e'; lizes

:Mnple oak,. asI, beech iMakers of factory trucks awmdI to Ipeclfcatiola

:Douglas-fir, pine, elm, snh, gum iWoodworking plants :;ut to exact r;.-. .fbd $it* s
a a a


(Shet 2 of ;Z'


RaIrko


------ ; -------------- ----------------









Table 2.--Fuel products from slabs, edings and trims


: Specifications


: Users or purchasers :


Producing Plant Fuel:Largely green. All
(hogged or rough) : mill waste, includ-:
ing sawdust

Hogged Tuel for In- :Largely green soft- :Western power plants.:Important only in
dustrial Use : woods. Sawdust :Factories, hotels, :the western states.
Public utilities : desired in mixture : and the like :Hogged-wood
Public buildings : :measure: a unit
Factories, hotels: : :equals 200 cubic
:feet

Domestic Tuel :Largely hardwoods in:Householders and fuel:In eastern states
Bulk : East; softwoods in : yards :largely used as
: West. Dry or green: :kindling or spring
: Sold in 12-inch to : :and fall fuel. In
: 48-inch lengths :western states
:often used year
:long for heat,
:especially in saw-
:mill towns


:Dry stock. Short,
: irregular shapes,
: sizes,and lengths


:Retail lumber and
: fuel yards and
: householders


:Convenient package
:for buyer pick-up
:and home storage.
;Retails at high
:price on ton or
:cord basis


:Short, even lengths : ........do...........:


Processing Fuel
Bakers' wood


Tobacco drying


Brooder heating


:Dry wood. Users
: not like bark.
Maple, birch,
beech, oak

:No special types


:Air-dry


do :Bakers, for making :Chicago reported
: foreign-type bakery :to use about 3,600
: goods :cars each year


: Farmers, curing
: tobacco


:Poultry raisers,
: chiefly farmers


Report No. R1666-2


Use


Remar's


Bagged


Bundled


Do.








Table 3.--Fiber products from slabs, edgings, and trims


-Specifications


S Users or
: purchasers


Fiberized 'ood
Saturating or
roofing felt
Structural board
Container board

Pulp Chips
Saturating or
roofing felt



Insulating board
Container and
boxboard
Soda pulp
Kraft pulp

Pulpwood
Pulps
Various grades
of paper


Container and
boxboard




Saturating or
roofing felt

Insulation board


:Various species


:Coimmon hardwoods
and softwoods



......... do .......
......... do ......

......... do.......
......... do .......




:Mostly softwoods



:Mostly softwoods






:Softwoods and
hardwoods

:Softwoods and
: hardwoods


:With or without bark.:Asphalt roofing
: Green :manufacturers,
: :board mills


:Chipped with or with-:Asphalt roofing
: out bark. Green. :manufacturers, chem-
: Reduced to fiber at :ical and semi-
: roofing plant :chemical pulp mills,
:board mills
S......... do .......... : Do.
: ......... do........... : Do.


: ......... do ..........
: ......... do.......... :


Do.
Do.


:From bark-free slabs :Pulp mills. Fairly
: and the like. Dry :general use in West.
or green -Sporadic in East

With or without bark.:Container-board
Dry or green :manufacturers. An
:increasing outlet
:for solid, chipped,
and hogged waste

:With or without bark.:Asphalt-roofing
Green : manufacturers

:With or without bark.:Insulating-board
: Dry or green :manufacturers


Report No. R1566-2


Use


: Species


------- ------- ---- : ------ ---- -W--- -w- : --n-.-ww---- -- -- !~ -- - - - -







Table 4.--Chenical products from slabs, edgings, and trims


: Specifications


S Users or
S purchasers


Distillation
Destructive


:Hardwoods (beech, :Usually 4-foot
Sbirch, maple, oak,: lengths. Large
: and the like) and : sizes desired
: softwoods


S: Wood-distillation
:plants as operated
:in connection with
:sawmills


Cedar oils


:Juniper heartwood. :Chipped and ground to:Plants in southern
: Eastern redcedar, : wood-flour fineness.:states, mostly in
: Mexican cedar : Heart stock :Tennessee

:Osage-orange, sumac:Chipped, heart stock :Not known. Little
:current importance


Ethyl Alcohol


Fodder Yeast


Smoking Meat


Special Chips
Vinegar
manufacture


:Various species
*

:Any softwoods and
: hardwoods


:Hogged mill waste


:Hogged mill waste


:Hickory, maple, :Cut to specified
: birch, beech, oak,: length. No
: gum, walnut : softwoods


:Beech preferred


Gas purification :Hardwoods


:One pilot plant now
:in operation

:At present experi-
:mental only

:Packing plants and
:meat processors


:Cut to specifications:Used by vinegar manu-
: of users for special:facturers to provide
: shape to present :bacterial aeration
maximum surface area:
for absorption

......... do.......... :Used by gas-produc-
:ing plants after
:impregnation with
:iron oxide to remove
sulphur


Tanning Extracts


Wood Sugar


:Chestnut, black oak:Chipped wood
* 4
* 4
* 4
:Various hardwoods :Hogged mill waste
: and softwoods


Tannin-extract
:plants

:One pilot plant now
:in operation


Report No. R1666-2


Use


Species


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