Uses for forest waste

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Title:
Uses for forest waste
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Creator:
Reineke, L. H
Forest Products Laboratory (U.S.)
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory ( Madison, Wis )
Publication Date:

Record Information

Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 29235244
oclc - 237089035
System ID:
AA00020522:00001

Full Text
-. /

USES FOR FOREST WASTE


By L. H. REIITEK, Technolozist

Forest Products Laboratory,-^' Forestfviee------.
U. S. Department of Agriculture----- .



:_^J 1-.. ?PO'-^O 17,'.,R ,

Increased attention is being directed toward the utilization of
forest wastes in the ii.terests of conservation and better business manage-
ment. Information on the subject is being requested constantly of the
Forest products Laboratory by people in the forest and wood-using indus-
tries, by those who contemplate entering these industries, and by others
interested in the conservation of timber supplies. For such information to
be useful to the greatest number of inquirers, therefore, consideration of
the problems involved necessitates the discussion of some aspects of waste
utilization that are quite obvious to the experienced operator but less
apparent to others.

The existence of forest waste is proverbial. Ytuch of this waste
is uncontrollable, yet a large portion of it is capable of reduction. Since
wood lacks the plastic flow qualities necessary for such major reshapir.n as
is done with metals, the irregularly round shape and varying dimensions of
the tree must be reduced to the required shape and size by removal of ex-
traneous material. Parts of the trees, or entire treesqj,. rejected for
a specific use because of size, shape, qu Wra--r e I Such forest
residue is often increased by poor o erarcl[ By 1ismanufacture,
and some woeds mis'manufacture is the d UIuse1 of waste i later stages
of processing. 3 \

The total amount of forest re idues wA1se.d through no usc can be
reduced by preventive measures. The portion of the residue dy to the
nature of the raw material is unavoid le, of cour.ee.fOr* vezrznts in
operating practices and processir.- cqu 1 "lTe waste of
usable material. Some residues unsuit ct may be usable for
another; hence, the harvesting of several products, such as ties and pulp-
wood in addition to logs, rather than sawlo.s alone, is both a Ireventive
and a salvage measure.

Possibilities of using forest residues are often severely limited
by difficulties in handling and se'rceating them, or by their unad-ptability
to the consumer's needs or to his manufacturing processes. The consumiring
market may not be favorably located with respect to the source of the ma-
terial or capable of absorbing all of it. The quantities available may be


-Maintained at Madison 5, Wis., in cooperation with the University of
Wisconsin,


Report No. R1666-3


June 1947






too limited for lcw-cost handling. Costs of fuel or construction materials
r..r.dL-d to replace residues sold reduce the gains from sale of wastc. Final-
ly, wood. residues :.':y b'e of sich form, condition, or species th.Lt serious
tcch'nic;il difficulties will preclude their use for regular products with
rer-ul, r e qaik-...nt.


I-. ste irv:-ntionr

It is a s.:-uc principal that the conversion of rw materials irto
hc'ir principal, products is more profit..blr than the roc.orking cf w-stos
into sc ccnrdc. ry products, because the market dcrand 4s usuw-lly ere.-Atr for
the principal products and they are in .,ctter form for efficient rcmanu-
facture. Within limits, then, it pays to put extra effort into increasing
t:..- yields of the primary operation, through training of labor, correction
of equipjcnt defects, ,,nd diversification of products. Logging crews c:.n
1b trained to avoid breaka;e in falling trees and dama-e to the residui.l
st.nd., Special attention in bucking has to be given to proper trimming
allowance (so that boards will not lack -n inch or two in length and have
to be trim.ed lack, in the case of softwoods, to the next even 2 feet), to
selection of log lengths that will eliminate crook, sw-.eep, or grouped de-
fects, and to placemcnt of cuts to improve log gr'.de -and get additional
products, such as ties or josts from the upper portions of the trees,
Woods labor requires trainirng to use wood from tops and low-va-lue trees
or species, instead of from straight yoang trees of desirale species, for
road construction, cribbing, corduroy, drains, cordwcod stokes, truck stakes,
I od-tightening levers, skidwfys, camp structures, or like purposes,. Camp
fuel should be derived from logging slash or unmarketable species.


n-rvesting Equipment

Harvesting equipment is recognized to h".ve in i-portant bearing on
both wnste r.revention and salvae- of waste. When the equipcr.nt is not
adapted to the legging chance, or it is too heavy for the material handled,
it may not be able to handle -rofita'ly material th t could be taken, at
a profit, with lighter or bettcr-."dnpted equipment. For exnaple, in cutting
smn.ll southern pine for pulpwood on the flatl.nds of the South, the wheel-
mounted circul-.tr power saw makes Fround-level stumps possible at a 0,2 cord
per acre increase in yicld, 1-nd light tractors in the Northwest can profit-
ably recover slash and smr.ll trees on which the custom".ry-j hea-vy equipment
would lose m.oney. ,-intcn-ncc :f euipmncnt in first-class working con-
dition, plus organization of work to -inimi'e handling, mr.kes it possible
to recover more matcri.il profitably r.nd to reduce waste accordingly,

Careful planning of the opFr;-.tion .also makes it possible to remove
a diversity of products, inste?,d cf somc such singrilc product ".s sawlogs.
Multiple ]-roducts not only utilize mcre of the tree but permit raising of
e-r:-.ccs by pIroviding a grc'.t-r r-.nge for selection. Foles, pulpwood, mine
props, ties, posts, boxboc"rd bolts, -"nd cordwood are some of the products
th'.t mry 7c removed in conjunction with veneer or s-wlog cuttings.


RL.ort Tc. Rloo2-5


-2--







Salvage of Waste

The woods operator has some opportunities to utilize waste in his
own operation, as indicated previously. Additional and more extensive
opportunity is provided by the recovery of marketable secondary products.
The sale of cordwood for fuel or pulpwood is an important outlet in some
regions for material from tops, defective trees, noncommercial species, or
thinnings. The production of charcoal, or of chipped wood for various
uses, may be practical. Short logs of good material may be recovered for
sawed products, such as boards, squares, and the like, or for staves and
numerous small products. Short billets of clear material may be cut from
between branch whorls for such items as rotary-cut or sliced beox veneer
and paper cores. Slicer billets may be cut from hollow butts or from
trimmings cut from logs to improve their grade. Other outlets for forest
waste, especially from thinnings, include fencing of varied types, bean
and hop poles, grape, tree, and oyster-bed stakes.

Unfortunately, there are no dealers purchasing woods waste for
resale to a variety of users; the nearest approach to it is the retail
fuel wood dealer. Both for the finished items made from waste (posts,
ties, etc.) and the rcugh billets for other products, individual customers
usually must be sought. For some products produced in relatively small
quantity by individual operators, where sales or processing are difficult
and costly, a cooperative concentration yard or secondary processing plant
serving a group of operators may be feasible.


Field of Utili7ation

Forest waste is potentially usable in varied forms: (1) in original
or natural form (fuelwood, posts, litter for mulch); (2) in mechanically
modified form (sawed or shaped, chipped, defibered, ground, laminated);
(3) in chemically modified form (chemical pulp, distillation, saccharifica-
tion, extraction, hydrogenation, impregnation); and (4) in biochemically
modified form (as in composted litter or in yeast and other fermentation
products following sccharification).

Numerous properties and characteristics are exploitable, and in
many products it is the mechanical and physical properties that are employed.
Uses for mechanical properties are common-place. Waste wood constitutes a
large source of fiber, heat energy, or chemicals. In some cases, appearance
is the exploited characteristic, as in rustic furniture, in figured veneer
products made from burls, stumps, crotches, etc., and in novelty or deco-
rative products, such as holly leaves, mistletoe, pine boughs and cones,
autumn leaves, tops of evergreens as Christmas trees, and birch Irark. Also,
odor is exploited in fir pillows and pine-oil soaps. Bulk and heat-insula-
tinz values of forest litter are utilized in bedding and mulching. Sound
and thermal insulation, as well as strength properties of wood fiber, are
employed in insulating boards, papers, and other pulp products. Use of
wood for chemicals may involve simply the extraction of soluble constituents
by leaching (tannin), vaporizing by steam (wood oils), or chemical treatment


Report No. R1666-3


-3-







to liberate the desired constituents, Other chemicals not present as such
'ay be derived by conversion of the wood by hydroLnnation, hydrolysis,
bacterial action, or destructive distillation. By combustion, useful heat
cneray is released for power and other uses. The resulting chemical products
a:re discarded, except for some use of ashes as fertilizer.

Any program for the utilization of forest waste will depend in
large measure on the vigor and the bWfiness acumen of the individual manage-
rent in adapting the program to the circumstances peculiar to the materials
oni location anc' on the seizing of temporary market opportunities as well
as the finding of existing or the encouraging of new stable outlets, Best
control of marketing obviously results from internal adjustments of the
operation by which the needs of the operator can be met by using waste or
lower-quality material to release better material for production, or by
which secondary products from wrste can be produced by the operator and
marketed through the regular sales channels. For example, a sawnnill cutting
its own timber and selling part of it as box material may work '*ith the boZ
manufacturer to develop a line of boxes to be made from veneer sliced from
billets taken from tops, branches, broken trees, or partially defective
logs; or a forest owner may promote a cooperative concentration yard for
accumulating salable quantities of props, veneer-grado logs, or other spe-
cialty items for which the quantity produced by the individual operator is
too small for ready sale.

In setting up a program for waste utilization, the individual
operator must make his own selection of outlets, since uses that are profit-
able in one region or under one set of circumstances may be money losers in
another. Knowledge of conditions on the operation and of kinds and quan-
tities of waste availatlo, plus :'mo.olodge of nearby markets, is necessary
to an intelligent choice of product to be made from the waste. To assist
in such choice, the following tables 1-4 give, as fully as present informa-
tion permits, a fairly complete list of uses for forest waste, with supple-
mentary information on specifications, markets, consu-mption, and the like.

In column two of these tables the heading "Unmerchantable" applies
to species of wood.


Report :Yo. T.666-3


J^


















%Abhi I.-tyeolal use. of forest waste


Material I Condition
a------------------ -----------------------a
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purchasers. I Mini- TOWtIa Rl aJo- at: ok-
markst* man csau qu iral- aiol-i
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-- -- -- -- -- -- -- - - -- -- -


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MaI o i : : I i : i l : : ; : l i :
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1 : : . .. .. .. .loal

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Spaalab noe a ..a..i..a.. i..a..a...:..a. a.. ........a.a........................... ................................................ Isllfo packers., locls...... tSall


a....... :IWaica aiij' collected by uer frm
S a aoe or nliohborlng properties

S....... :loca ; Do.
I ...... :Locall Do.
a.......1ioce0.1_ ..........................


a I a I a : : a a a a a : a a a a I a a a a a a a
Dolts. lillat.. ahort a a : a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a
Boatt, llets, 11sort I I s I I I : I 1 : 1 1 3 1

Singles a.. a,. an a. an a ..a.. a .. an a....... a.kai. pie, -etero cedar.. cyprest, aboItn 52 inches loag aStraight grain, free of *hoke.0Sblnugle &IIU in South, .... a ..;odlum a. a. aMost ahiaglo. except cedar and
a a a a a othra pin. opruce. pond roes lor log chock. rot (bht hollow butte a t. line Stat., 1 a t redwood. are used locally
S i a a I I a a a i a a I a apiO redwood. Wlestorn rdoedar. a acceptable) iaorthwiott. Cltforn"iaI 1 a a
a a a a a a a Mstemrhinlock. pen I a
I I t 1 I t I 1 I t t t I 1 1 : !
LCelidor ..I.. a.. IIx Ia...I ..a.. ix I..I a ..:.. .. i.Cottonwaood. aspen. ba swood. soauth- a4-Ilncb dwiinter. 37 ayros of defects. reaiwably aMet, lake State. ...... a aedium Ialone :dfrilolto are recut to hr arer
a a aIft i : : a lOa pins, wIllow, yellow-poplar, taed 56 is cue los isitrlght isftclfic Coast *lelotor a 300 :lesothb. By arragmaent with
S a 1 a 1 1 1 a a 1 1 1 whL pnla, swoetspo, red mapl, a Ianaufacture I I I ll uactrr It should be pol-
S a a a a a a a a a : I mBlockl. cedalr. pondroa pl. I a a a a a ato allege a id driver
ai c i i ai a aDoIaag-fr. Norway pIsa a a a a a a ahrter bolto
I ; ; t t I l 1 I 1 I : : 1 : i I
PFluter lath a I ax ..t an.. a..a. .i I ...a.:..a...a Softwood and hardwoods 14-foot leoathj or loostalnling. allable species aS amille. all region i ...... iMdlim i lo I ..... aCan be produced In onjuctioa
a a a a a a a a a : i omiltipii required for later lath. t I I I :lth box materll
a a a a a a a a a a a a a aid species acceptable for I a a a
a a aa l a: a a a a other uses I I a
l*nowfnco lath a x an Ia 1..tx I.. I. i.. a.t. . *.. ........... do ...................... I ........ do........... ............. o............... i ........ do........... ...... M dif a ll oa s ..... I Do.
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hta, hoops a a :red: white, and southern pins, aend larger ainto staves. lower quality ailll having heedIng a a ito be AsIpped. Far foods. wood
a a I a a a ichestnut, ehite oak, red oak, sproce.a zalto headiaag all. a a a 1 and maot not tawrt flavor
S : : a l : l : ahb, tupelo, cottlloood, bis.ood., i I I ; a or color
a a a a a a a a a a i a asycinorsa. Iaemlock, spruc.o tanaracka a a a
t t 1 1 I ; ; l : 1 ; I I :DOu lB-{i l t I 1 1 i
1 1 | 1 1 1 1 1 1 : 1 1 : : : t t I: I I
lsBdloo ... .1. .. . a. .*.. a.l.; ;aa. a. 1Sea wlaed Paoducts", Forlest ........... .................................. ......... .... ..... .... ..... ...... ... .... .. ..... .......... ..................
Disnuion stock a........:..;.....i........t.... a. .... rodcts Laboratory Report ........... .... ... ................................... ................. .. ...... ..... ....... .. .......... ...................
Shack@R l. ..a. a........a. 1 ..................... ........................... ....................... ............. ........ ................................


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a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a* a a aperi t ted a a a a a
I : I 1 f i S : : : I i nc 1 f 1: I : :. .
rotary I x I..I,.ix I..I..t1 I .. t..t..;..:..tlhle f ll er 1Z iochel . Clw ;Boi-Tloear ill1 ...... iiIWsdlua iSoio I ..... Out from top# between successlTe
S ; a a a a : 1 ; a : a : a Ilegath 36 Inches I a Ibhorls of branches
1 1 I i ; 1 1 :* 1 : l ; ; I 1 : I I 1
riguried venera stamp a... as..a.,i., a X., a. .. E. t x .. Ia x a..a..a.. a.. aBiack eelaut. black cherry a..................a ........................... arancy veneer mills ...... .............. .. raanc7y-garlnd material In high
; I a 1 : a l ; : : : a ; : : 1 1 a t d a a dd, ieually sold by wlit
orotFbi...a .. IanIa..t..a..a ..aI..ana t1..am1..a Ia ..........do..................... ................ : ................... ................. ...................... s ...... ..... Do.
bulls a.. z..aa aa a a....... .. ...alnlout. redwood. blrch, miple a................... .............................. ;lovolty inaa.faictutir ..... :Sll a .... .. ............. t...........
-Turning took : I
ug, hade rollers ... I, po F dt. . P .. ........................ .............* d t .......o .... ... .. .......
S : : : : : : : : : ; ducts Laboratory Report oNB...o.a6-8 : R. l ; t
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-$pool stock .... .............. ....... .................... do ..................... ................... .......................................... .....a a. ....................................
Lemionae4 flooring a. a n t i ; x t x x a a a i.. a .oos ................................ ....................... ...... ....... .......i... nl one plat to operation making
a a : a aI : : a a a a a I a a a a a im lnsted flooring stiltsisei
a I I 1 1 a :AIocara from low-gra1s logs
"Boayi,~ ~ ala a a a a a a a a ..!,.;. d..... a ..,...,.a...,...... .,..... a .. .......i....... .....; a ...,...,.........,.


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avery afree ofi a
1 It IPlmal I I

..... a..... ..... .. i..... prlr~lit


mall .|i.p UJ

a a

..... i...... klllt

P.! ......
tt 41111I0o


IF..**
!Ip111

I .l.. I


.1i-1.% pekr
t


aU.tl.4 Os aol..laj 0p4' .
4i. ....... 4 .... .
a 40


a ..... ...tO. .......a..

S. ........ *o ... ........ 1.
a a


a+ .... .. .... + .+ .,.

..... a ...... + ......... ...4 .
++ + +.........to+............i.


11 crtt.lt< bait tI


t I



,.. .. ... ... ....... .. .. *....,
l




a am. bil Pi M



a f ... l. . ... ...l .mI

.i.tt0*11 to use WitS Irt.in,
rtwl tj I,. or rtr .4

f -4 .t



i
a. . .it U ... af firet

a... c..



.4... a 3~ i.,.1 a i


.1 t.. gi.rt.S S, be
A."


Isto- a of 3)


UinrO.


_1 11 k


*^i I


Soo, i i l a 11'-
':Se il ,l lt.

500til a o.r... I tIsso P1,a I. .




........1....... *a ru.1 .o~oytltie o2 et*o.1
a iesa m I,, Ii o0!4 -at-1 to

* a 3.51 U tr or-eIm








S a : Ct... oit di am
a.. a...... ... ai... r ^UritoM. .?mi3.


* I


i






* *.




i*I i .*i

.+


I a
I A

t
I :*
i x
I
+ I



I I







Table l.--Physical uses of forest waste continuedd)


Material : Condititoa I ; : :

Use : : : : ; : : ; : : : : ; f : : : Species Sie : Specfications, Purcoasrer Minil- total
i eq; uroeeennt* s atm : B kRMS ; coo-
~' c ~:~S o1t etoop-
S3; j - .. 3 3 :tiso
+++:+++,.- :. .3+:
j |;S.:i : ] j ,. i-; : : : uoE

-- -- -- -- -- -- ^_ L - - -- !,; : : -:1 ;. ;. -----------,---.----.---- --- ;----,---------.-,----------;------ --------.-------------- ~--------.--- .- -,--- ~--- ;--- ---- ;-- .--- -

Louis. 2odad, Hibnways t
Corduroy t ;. : x 1 t. :.; :.. X: :..... Any :3 to 6 Inches, ro&ad-wildth ;Nodorate stralghtaes. :Self-cosuaned, usually t .....;......
A :takma frra material z
Cribbing A 3:x :..;..: x s, :x :.. ..:. ..:. oy t i ., vIrloua :Moderate durability In :cut along right-of-weay
. . ; ;!I :I lengths :twoporary road. :
Culvertl, drains : x .. a i.. A X. .!... :.l x: :.:.3.0 ti 8 inche., various I ... ..... .do ................ .......... do ...... :. .....
: : ; ; : ; : : : t I t s length& : : ;
Bridges. trestles t x ... ; ;....;x : x : z ; .. : x 3. 0 a3 specio Various ;Straigtness. strength ...... do .......
Erosion control : : : ; : : ; :
(brueb) ;... ; : .: .. :.. x ; ..: i. : ..... .......... .. ... .... .
(bafflwe) :...x ::t :z .. -X I.;. :.: :Zto 6 inches. various :Moderate stralghtnes :........ ... ......
; : : : i : : : I : :; : : ; length e : !
Guard posts i :. :x :x : :.;. X .;x :x .i. ;:.;Stronaer :.ardmooda softwood* :Vary wit, purchaser :Straight, few knots. See :Public hlghay depart-. ......:....
: ; ; i ; : : ; ; ; ; : ;p:spoclficatioo of buyers :mnto throughout the :
Guard ralls V x3 t i. .;.:... . :. .:....-: -. : .. .- ....... d4 .... ....... ........... do. . . ... do ... .......... :ountry :.. :Udov
Sign posts ;x :Z X :x .. xx i ... i..: ......... do ... ._ _. .. . ... do .......o . .. i ....... ..... do ............. .......... do........ ... : ... . ; ...
Snow fence x :x x X tX ....;..x ;.x ....:...Varou :4-foot bolts. 5* inch :Froe of large knots and rot :ioghway departioente, ITruck- odr-
S: ; ; ; : : ; : ; : : diameter :durblo ifarmore load. late

Sprags : x : x . :;.. x ..:.:....:.. Oake, hickory, 550, suar maple,. 2-1/3 to 3-1/4 nlch eirdaas and touhnei. :oI minos ...... t:atall
; : ; ; : : : : ; : : ; iboecl dogwood, bormbame :diaetor. 21 inches long tconlcal pointed ends :
Prop* :t... 3 x 0 .. : .:..:. .. ha..;Brdwood,. softiood IDiaaoter small end under Specifilcatlon protlded by Minizg operators iTruck- :iArgo
: : : ; i ; : : bark 6to 8 inches, 10 to:aine operators load :
S: : e : 1 0 feet slog : or
Timbers .: .. x t0.3x t. x ... .. 1..:-.-.:; ... ...... udo .......... Dluetar sal nd uder .......... do............. ........ do... . Large
S : : ; : : : : l : bark 6 to l4 inches, 10 : :load I
S 3 i 3 : i : l 3 t l i I t t :to 30 feet long ;
Mine ties x 0x to 3.* .: . :.. . .. : .. ... ...... d ..... .... :Bolt 6-inch diajneter, ............. do ... .. ... U do ... .. ; ..do .:Larg
S 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 i l ;: 5 feet long
mine ralls ...x : .: A. ....:.. :.. .. . : .. : i:Hardoods :3 x 5 Ianche. 10 to 16 : ......... do .......... ... .... .. o.. d.do. .torge
S ; : : : t t : feet long : i


R:51.. II.

Balm.-fir pillows
Pol.e and Stakes
Ellctrlcal polo


Piling


Booa pole.
Hop poles

Tobacco- shod tent

'!ur-ry- h~ai. p
OCytar-b od atiEc

Hkayttawk polee
troo *take.

Grape stake#


Converter pole.

_..Bd j
T, i standard

ow itch
natrrow-geu


Car takes
1 Blocking sd br,1i

loadlag-dock found
Lttona
later Trnosettl ot
Flum. boots
rl? e trestl.,
Splash-potd works
crhan.ol litprno7
IUt booms
Halt .oint rctlto


RNon.


3Ilona


Boos
SNone
iNema

iioS


:3
ym

m

ym


; : : : : : : . ; : ;.. .. : p r b r ...... ..... ,; : ..,.. ..- ... ...; ol t d S i a ....;. .:..,,
:..a:. 30 ..Pper birch ... .................. .......... ....... :Collected by "sor. ..
!---x3.:.0 :W..: B nfir.......... ... .. .... ......... ..do... .......
.... . .;+ ,, t >, + )x ; . .. .; : .. ;* ; : : l* a f r + . . . .............. .......... .. .......... ....... ............ .- ...........- ,do ............ . ;. ....... ; ....... ; ....... .. :


S 1 .x i...: x3.. 3;.. ;x :tx x x 1..... Som hrdwoods, chiefly coaliere:to 8 inich top., 20 to Straight. slow taper, sound, :Troatting plants, co- t ..... ;l.rge :1
3 ; ; : : : 75 iaet long :durhib or troatablie muialtioa ad power 3 ; a
: : ; : :; : u : ; : l ; i l : i eof l.., rallway. i : :
l x x0 . ..:.:. x ; .. 3 x ..: . rd oda. 3i00avy oftwroos :Tops 0+ lioees, 16 to 40 iStraight. large butte., sound, tTreatlg pllrts. ral- ..... ;Lpag. ...... gl1
S: : ; ; ; : ; feet long idarable, or treatable tvwys, shpping C -- : I :

Sx :x:..;. 0x i-. ;. '. x ;.. .T:.p:s dwoods1 and o tWood Top I tO l-1/ 1 i 3ches :Straight. little taper. Trc grower :... ;Small .... i
; x ixt .; .. .. 0. x3 A. .S-.-. I; . ... ... do .. .. . ...... ....... .... :durable in o l Hop gro r., New Torik, .. a l . L
: ; ; !!; : ; i ; : : : : o 1 tfllfortia : t :
: i ; . ; :.. . x !.:x .. :.:.. Dr e hare .woo r d o lt-od :5- to 9-iV ch top. 10 to ........... : -tobacr o Sbwar .r.., S41 .. .
: ; ; i : : 1; le .. t long3g; c tici
r 0 : A 30.01 A .. : .. .... .......... d. . ..... ..._. _.ry.e. :. . .
; t .: : :, .:0 .:0 ;3,; : : le r.d c dar, Atlt ;ii :2-to 4- o tops ................. ... Oter growers . 1
S ; : : : ; t : te- codar ; ;
0 0 x 3.x .:. x .;.;..:x : ...... : :2- to 3-lich tops ;. ......... ........ ...... PIa F mer I r t ... .. ..
i++x -.'. 3,. : .. 30 ::.-' : .c.t:..;..;So err w,3lte-codst :2- to 3-0nch top diameter ....... ....... . ..... City parks, ladcaping .... la11 . .. .
: ; : ; : ; : : i ; : ; l ; ; ; ; ; :cchipajle ; ; ;
Si x :.. : ......... ..:..... ... ... .... . .... lb- r .alr5 Vit :.3slt
; ; y n : c; ; ; : ; : ; : : : ;yar Caiornla, l ee : t :
.. :York
it : x : ; A .; . i x i ; ; . ; H ; : : l t rdwooda . ...... .


i.. !x : x x .. :. ; 3 3.. 0 :. 3x 3. x0. Hardwood A nd den r or oftwod :Bolts 10 ice, to ; Specificatione vary wlt. pur : Self-coneaoed on log- t... ......
S : : : ; : : : : : feet long :c nBr. Spsifiations :&lng raillway. Ti- ; : :
.. ;x ;x I. .. . . ....... .. do. ...... ... : tt varilble ;av filoble front railway agents ;loge purchased by Law- i .... ... .. . ....
a x : ..x :. .: .. : : .;x ;.. : ; . ... ................. :10 i lcn diaiter. 6 feet: ... .... do ........ ... ;ailll ; purchased by tlist ..... : ..... .... .

:carriers
: ; : ; : : : : : ; : : ; ; ; ; ~ : ;c~ir rlt r i C O : : :

Sx :. x;x x ... ;.:x ; x i 3 A .... rdood softood ............ ....... ;Very soft ood not delred. :Self-consum ed ..... .... . :1,
x x 3 ; 0 :.A.. . ;.. ;.. ;Al lu-b-r .poelco ;Various Lower grades rough lumber ISold through lmlber ...... Moder- .......
:dealer.. :.
3 ; 30 00 30 3 0 3. .. ' d~a: !t


t


l. . 3 : :... ;. .cally vAil tlo 0 e .ito ed .................. .... aepodeo.t upon SI0 e and type :Used oi lo lg opera- :.... .
I.. x x A . .. .... ...... .. d ... ........ ..... ....... .of osatructiton iato3 on y ..... .

. ;:... ... .. o ..... ...... ..... ...... d.._ ... ......... do. .......
. : ... ......... ......... . .. ... ...... ... A rqi, by i. an typ .... do ........ .....
a .3 1 .lied by Vie 004 type 40.
i~0 :o0.rai


203.........


list:
bbes:



3 ....... .. ....... .... .....
Ileal
2 0O : . . . . .
il,


S.Md itto novelties by iltitiiaws
i.. to : pi00o0 by lidl oi uali


0S4w t blo tt-30 .. b ot< l


00-Slgh perrent folly cremooted
l~es.

ocrl ;UllOii rt frmom nmod lot b7
o 0.farr+ but rose are purchoasd







.... Supports for planted troes,
streetss. prks, and ths lie






..Criootint aad iso of tie-plates
ifa. poorittad use of lese drab ls
an ofterr species



DC1 : . . . . . . . . .. . .


:ro.* :Co iSas .. for *1XiOting 3trlpmat*t
n.... None it3 Do.
; pot s
.. o.. ; :. do I Do.
..... :looe ;. 3 ., ts
... 0o ofdo: 3.


b3..oet 3 of 3)


s: shipping :

1 Re- :co- RmBarks

; : : dl ";-
t~."%a nCal-:

: ;taaco;



t iss..... Sa. a for *Loggteng Zquipeomt

...... Do.
-: : o






,. ; .. .. ... : ..... : i o .


.: .... .. .d : Do.

tciloiproseoratile trwataaots desired
t.; ..... da.: Do.

i _....... :150 :Also ue1d for cor storage bit,
I hillew:


I :1 .i ;. ;X : .+ .

A


































Me1* tial Caai~jlal4fijaii

4.1 .,; afl a Conditions s t


spmtf I Sizes&



--- --- -- -- --- --
Wsanttsr e sa* au aa^ S 4 41, 4 l rg 5 : C fl QO



aS ^ . .' l 4 4s 4' 4 '4'l a '



Di-a a I I X I . a a 1 a .a -fir. ;.

*BIE (rc i i ix i :* i.... ..ix .. .;. ;. . ..i f or [o l o


4f~rl y .. .s . i.. s. a


j~~~g ~ s., sa i ,s













i 4 4


fltsrlMe aiSii a t*t at. a a. S- i. ,:





*- ; 4^....^. ^ _ l : ^: 4.... .. ..J 1 J -


a S~44lI1C~tlQfl5 a
r544greaeents 4


sI Shipping
a----------.-4
ra-rca:ers. Iab 1aisah ?atosi Ia a- Ic- a
Markets a lot tcoeuomption aiaqr- aitl-a
~ ~ :wate!cl ha

ta41m54


;Lo-graIdo matorlal amit Corp.. *Math itrucn sLarge
!oulzablo. but *xsag- I tloai s
:*two rot uAfdettrobU I

;Bark of old-growth. ......... ....m.a......... .. ? fX o
:%roe* preferred 4 i s



"0 tift t

... .. .. ... .. sba l ..


S a 4 i S 4 s woo








_t i: .. i I !1 s r.: 4~t~l -~ too i~ssv ro no :- 110" k 1

: ; ; ais r. worious taccpt#4. :Acoi i . 4 a
i 1 : 4 X c.. in t4rook r4dffls s a l I I
ii f*.t ;4outs of cord, 4 i t.
s 4 a 4 4 4 i a I i s





s x A a a a t .. s4 a rla? 1Oar.* (n5 l- ".1. o .i 4ef-i. f.11 rtTruMlt IZram
f 4: t. *-4 i 4 aserl-re a d Z s ika be.d a

:~~~~~~~ MA! ; : paa* O|) l ts -a iM f-t ....ar o: ii
t r % S to r r daI I f t a
S 4 i x. x a s 4 : 4 i
-i ~~ ~ a-a W i-aa ; ;: ; ;laawiultatlis, Ist caxes-. ataaers, oi2sJcllbaast is(Nd abd
4 4 4 4 a: 4 410(44 befareast!* rot aaadela'ellmei aei e~ St~g~r i i
a a pi4~s 3( a abar esaa afaI r


ab- eof rdaaaed to rhMIs it psleatl
I
aposslble 11.4 tor dI-posl ot itef





abark from ponlp:ood eaod a otai,.




ab -p rin f fldbarklag; oe fiauod or
:-!lo aoEn be pmr-cesd laot secera
atljpe of flb-* proadrt f.,r -se a.
aflliers by ace p rocess d-lapsa by
Wey*rbe"tser


a... aBakr xreOua to1r fardj fie powder


aloBe at aoNst p o-aii.1.4 sea elwpree Mrket
a asisaffr enodi 81. of p7sl:Eto .1.41.
I a abat sdjoesastst to palo.0 -1' 1.
I I i ex"peat8 bea..... f l. er I- soli!
t a -I-,lue per corH sad geat~er beast INM
4 a adefeat value




aIace ;f at .rreBc-atI. afM be **d t. a.-
I alt,., in O-ftoo 5O(4LLm recovery of
t 1 a.to Cam teo lDaram.d Wal balk
I al-1ltrA d-vel Sed


I a
t I


[agod -o- b, Ctppd 1, thl fret or
:at a lendian -ab s> .,lJid b? truca
or raIl. ol-A to.-. for Ioading
aens aOloslzdI


_L_. a _


I


+




























Table 3.--tel uses of forest vste


I Material : Condition I S Shipping
----------._-,------------ -------------: -----"* -----*------- 1 a I I- - - -- g
1 1 I Species Sizes Specifications, Purchasers, ilnimuml Total IBe- ino.- Remarks
use : : : : : : : a requirements Markets I lot :consumption:quire-inomal-
Uee S' : Y : i ; = s ii . .. aent el z

I meta ca I
a : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Itancel


Charcoal .... : x x ... ... ..: : x :I.....:.... :Hardwoods, :3- 5-foot :Free of serious rot, :Must be coaled by :Bushel Larga Bagged!Any iSpecial types of charcoal produced
:: :oftwoods :lengths; maxi- straight enough to lower. Fuel dealers, or il : ifron special "pecies such as will..
m : : : : um width of permitt close stacling tobaccoo growers, car- : bulkk i distillationn products recovered ina
: : : : : : : : face, 6 Inches: ;heating companies, s: :ome permanent plants, not "Ted in
: : : ; : : : railways (dining car : i:pit, cicader-block kiln, portable-
S: : : : ; : : : : : :use), chemical firms, : tel-kiln methods. Can be saved
: : : : : : : : : : : : individuals I: iiith portable kerosene kiln

; : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : ; : ;
Lc ..........: ..........................................Sebrush ..................................... lntermountain region .........a ; ....;Sml............

Loging Operations : : : : : :
Cooking : x : x :... .... ... .... x A x :......: x :....... Aany iStovewood size:Fast-burning species Used on logging opera-: ....... :S'al Lone iLoOal:Soea substitution of coal and oil io
S : ; : : : : ; preferred :tions only I occurring

Caimp heating x x :x x x .. :... x ...,:.. .Any Stovewoud site:Deo.se, heavy species :Used on logging opera-: ....... none iLoc&.iSoe substitution of coal sand oil it
: : : : : : : : : preferred tonss only i loccurring

Donkey engines z x : x x : : x ..:...;... x x x ..:..: x .,,: Any :4-foot lengthse:...................... Used on logig opera-: ....... Small :one LocaliObeoleacent us**es converting to
: : : : : ; : : tonss only : [coal or oil

Locomotives x : x x : x x .. :. :... t i...: x :.. : x .. ... :n :4-foot Ingths: ................... :Used on logging opera-: .... :Sall :None :i.OcalObsolescent uses* converting to
S ; : : : : tions only I :coal or oil
Sales to Dealer : : : : : : : : : : ;
Users...........................
Domestic x ax x x x ; x .:..,.._ : A x a x :....A: x n:. :. Stove and :Larger diameters usu- ;ood and fuel dealers. :Truck- 160 million . :Piae cones, dry; also used as
S : : : : : ; : ; fireplacee :ally split to 5-inch :direct consumers :load ;cords kindling
: : :face .
lodustriae l : : ; : : : ; : : : :
processing t I I. .. .i
(brass) x : x : x x ;.... .. ... ... x x :.. ..: x :.... :Hardwooda :Cordwood :larer diameters usu- :Brass works :Truck-, Small total ...... x5O toiUfsed for annealing cartridge brass.
; : ; l : : ; aliy split to 5-inch carload;(large per 200 tBeing replaced by gS ith se ulphur-
: : : : : : : : : : : : : face : user) : :mileeelialnating accessories
Public Utilities : : I I :
Electric power x x :o as-ir: ...........a ........... .. :....... i as-ir ..Only one utility (at arge-, ..... ...... :i00 Itajor portion of fuel used Is mi
.... : . : ; : : : :row lsed; Portland) operates oo :truck-, : :miles:refusea. but source of hogged4 wood
; : ; : others :wood fuel, chiefly :carload I lie unimportant
S i : : : acceptable :mill waste I 1 I
: _L __-_ 1 :-- --- L..... I ...... .



Report Ho. R1666-3

z M 73315 F







at I -,*tk 1f .l.I


-- - - K -


.. : 4~~ ~ ~ ^ 5 iS^, *i -d* "
;~~~~ 3 ai( ae.s f.a .t' ?* *ia


loao to. 11l:S,


Ip. 111a.0tlqaaM
,.aa.araab.


Isar~aa.er Mii -~ Ia 4- aka'~


0 .00134 aia
I t t iSI-
i i j ^~f14e 0


0 ....I


ia ite i i* >







Via

4144
Tallll i..+








a*roxa l 1 i1::. -

:*11.J 3~


, t A 0 * ... ;.


akaa!4.004. a(.o!a1~aa4


0 1 IE La X ,X**i .,*S X Xa K... .. .! .> .laioatSftlbfd ally
:fir)o *



i a .i a. .. . a s x *s.*^ a. I^IIC^ o'l'o


ai al al alai+xi...a ..+ a l a...

+ I X I X i . .<-i


AW9 ~ X 1: : 1 i i+1-*-i-




T+t~ ~ .-- + i 1 :X + t-. 1 :l1 -.
1 i t S t' i t i
a a a a I al a
ay, a.. . l a a. a a. aS. ,t .;


1 I t + S i i S t
a a a 1 a i a a a
a a I t a a aI a I






GiaIIl * ... +, t .., ^ ,+ +,+t + + + + +, ., + I,>,^ ..!.. .

i I + :! i i ; S
I i + i I t i I i
S I I a a a a I a I
i a a i ..i*a s * i i. i

a i i a a a a a a a

011 I a .. ..a,.. a.. a.... ... a,.. i i.. .+E, ..






S I ++ ) i t I + I i
a a a + i a a a a a a






S :8 i t i i t S i
l||,if Il~iIi I 1+ + + + + .I I E I t+ +t + I+
h.isoe .., a I a a a,


a+ ,I a ,Ia aI+ I+I+i,a, a+
a a a a a a a
V1.ap1 ,a a a.,.asa,, a.
a a a a a a a a a a
aI .a a,.a,. a,.,,. a. a,


I0lli 41mM,.
",b-.
k i t. uuuru


a l i I a a a a i a
i ,,.l . t l lt i* i.* +,.


,Poil I aliay


t ; !

1 i :





I 1 l
* ^. 1. S. .






t il E
t I t

I i .
. f .. S. |. ..
i s s
i I 1

. t i , S ,. I ..
t I S
I I i
I I t
i 1 I

% I t


a i ,.i. . .. .. a. ...
i i sca oaka






Si t itiajsf
+; ., + t, ilI N O h fi" +It ,. .
a; f or~iiaB
a i allan oka
a a :a^rc11ro/.a





Si S if~t
a a avn





a a, alte Rs fir aBtoadlaa





I I ip a a


a ,, -- ; -- ~ a riiiflra*>


.i .. ...I++ ... + .. .. .. m .
a a I a a aI l+ I


1 I I l I tiTll .liI
a a a a al ao i

aI ah,+ +, a a +, ...a ..


a......


aho


*4.0* a Of
ella! .3..'

U;e.O 11. iioIlaao
aA..O.





.Voitoa (CIfa .11. allOt a. .a~ a


oe.4, ,,;.o01,. ;rookal*d..41e1111.Iloo
aaaaadntflll. ajaiPaCts


Pflr.e.aaI Of pO.p .aei *1a4, t ~Otaa
pa' ~#o~*


at.., l~aat


aI!nwt- a .aboo, aW tea
ato.4 a a1~~a


roOaa t~ f.m. tall;. of
00.4



i~.,e 0 ma'.s1 .miOo r.oa(tI# of
ml pill1.. 1.00 0*0100 s.14
ol I ~.t.


a ^aalt-M~i 4 foos U4ftlO


I OuV tloe> C. rp.,e I
a fo. Chi-aift Co., a


t a a a

Sa..! to ratin afar.. i, anlitto~r i roapn...

a MI zl~
f t ar sha a


of t;attnut, tarkahtracl plsst a .. .. a






.. .. I h i .L i A 10r.
!Q(~look a a I a a












s1 iv 5 11 I l t i. t ...
pr-- -.a. a. a1. at a< al.0"9@ m il:. 1 ..

I.a a1- :ra C. g


Or~o~a ,so.. a o boa ffasl lai a a1..aa* *1. .. a..
,'.r.aiaa 4ini 4.aSir tof apa&hri a: a a
--:---.* is'a0* Criia~ fe A t O~t l oa Ift i nf at-...4 a a:r afll ...,-

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