Pulp and paper industry of Japan

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Pulp and paper industry of Japan
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Seidl, Robert J
Forest Products Laboratory (U.S.)
University of Wisconsin
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U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory ( Madison, Wis )
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
    Summary
        Page ii
    Main body
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Figures 1 to 13
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Back Cover
        Page 28
Full Text
Ir O-L J *i


3, ,~ I


I. I


-. No. I?1~54V


UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
FOREST SERVICE
FOREST PRODUCTS LABORATORY
Madison, Wisconsin
In Cooperation with the University of Wisconsin


I


IPULP ANU PAPIT INUSTU Y
Of JAPAN
FIebruary 1947


fOREST1,5ERVI.Ct
U l.Tjk
#S
EOTDFA-w
3







Summary


Wood pulp mills in Japan Proper (Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku) at wars'
end numbered about 90, and machine-paper mills about 275. Most of the mill
are mall and outmoded, with certain notable exceptions, Eight pulp mlls
are classified as manufacturers of rayon pulp, and the remainder produce
l ull of the Croundwood, sulfate, kraft, and soda types. Of about 500 paper
machines, about 100 are Fourdriniers of the ordinary type and the remainder
are cylinder or Yankee or modified types. The centuries-old hand-made paper
industry is not described in this report.

More than one-h'ilf of the total production of pulpwood and nearly one-half
of the wood pull. produced in Japan during the 10-year period up to 1945 was
concentrated in Karafuto. The loss of this area, coupled with the loss of
imports of both pulpwood and wood pulp, considerably reduces the raw material
available to the raper industry and other users of pulp. The less of these
facilities was especially severe with respect to chemical paper pulp of the
sulfate and kraft types. Sulfite pulp is the only chemical pulp formerly
made in large volume in Japan, but 6E percent of the 1930-1940 production
of this pulp was made in :arafuto. Zcarly all of the kraft pulp was made
ix Karafuto during the same period, but by 1945 a considerable portion of
the rated productive capacity for kraft was located in Japan Proper. Most
of the capacity for the production of rayon pulp and mechanical pulp was
located in Japan Proper. Soda pulp was produ-ced in Japan Proper and Formosa.
Mills producing this pulp are numerous but small and Inefficient.

Production of all t.'pos Of pulp in the peak year of 1941 was 1.408,000 short
tons, of which 77 percent was paper pull, and 23 percent was rayon pulp
grade. Production of all types of pulp in 1945 was only about 18 percent
of the 1941 production. Th- chief reasons for low production were shortages
of coal, chemicals, and wood. The production of paper and paperboard, in
1941 was about 1,670,000 tons.

The rayon pulp industry displayed a singular growth ix recent prewar years,
and, in general, mills producing this pulp are among the most modern in
J-apan. Domestic production of rayon pulp expanded from an estimated 4,000
tons in 1932 to more than 325,000 tons in 1941, but as rrnduction did not meet
demands, Japan depended heavily on imlOrts of this type of pulp. Production
of rayonr pulp in 1945 was only 11,400 tons or about 5 percent of the rated
productive capacity of remaining rayon pulp mills.


reportt "'o. R1640







PULP AND PAPER ..DUSTRY OF JAPAN


By


RO0ERT J. SEIDTL,I Chemical Engineer
2
Forest Products Laboratory.- Forest Service
U, S. Department of Agriculture





The manufacture of pulp and paper in Japan originated over 1,000 years ago#
and for centuries before paper was known to the Western world the highly
developed art of producing high-quality hand-made papers was practiced. To
present day Western peoples, the manufacture of pulp and paper by hand
methods was and is nothing mere than a quaint household industry. The
development in the 80's of methods of utilizing wood fiber for paper led to
the introduction of foreign-style paper to Japan and in turn to the develop-
ment of the domestic machine-paper industry of recent years. The advent
of the machine-paper industry came in 1872 with the formation of a joint
stock company, the Oji Seishi Kabushiki Kaisha (Oji Paper Manufacturing
Company). This was the first company in Japan to produce European or
"foreign style" paper as distinguished from hand-made or "Japan paper."
The natives of Japan accepted the foreign style papers as supplemental to,
rather thax a replacement for, the conventional hand papers, and the machine
industry enjoyed a moderate growth for a number of years. Commercial sig-
nificance on a world scale was attained for the first time under the impetus
of shortages caused by the World War of 1914, resulting in the development
of a domestic pulp and paper industry which in 1940 was the largest in the
Orient and which placed Japan among the leading pulp and paper producing
nations of the world.

The proper use of wood resources in Japan is extremely important to the
existence of its population because of the high concentration of people
per unit area of its land and the great dependence on such forest products
as fuel, charcoal and lumber. Industries converting wood to pulp consume
much less wood than certain other wood-using industries such as lumber and
charcoal; the consumption of wood by pulp mills has not exceeded about 15
percent of the total wood consumption in any year.

-The material here reported was obtained by the author in 1946 on assign-
ment to the Natural Resources Section, General Headquarters, Supreme
Commander for the Allied Powers, Tokyo. Acknowledgement is made to Lt.
C01. W. E. Cohen, Australian Scientific Mission, and Lt. M. L. Markell,Jr.,
U,S.A., for assistance in the preparation of this report.
2-Maintained in cooperation with the University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis.
-Maintained in cooperation with the University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis.


Report No. R1640


-1-








Early pulp mills were located chiefly on the island 'df Honshu, but because
of the abundant supply of desirable coniferous woods in northern lands,
much of the new production capacity moved to Hokkaido and Karafuto. Owing
to the ever-increasing demands of the paper Industry, a considerable portion
of pulp requirements was met by importation, but by expanding pulp producing
facilities Japan attained virtual self-sufficiency in paper pulp by 1938.
In the Thirties, the rayon industry emerged as another large consumer of
pulp and its needs were at first imported because Japan had neither the
capacity nor the industrial technique to produce quality rayon pulp. Soon
after 1933, the dormentic production of rayon pulp was developed and exhibited
a phenomenal growth until 1941. The sulfite and groundwood pulp processes
were the first to be extensively used in Japan. Zraft pulp was originally
made in Karafuto, and the manufacture of kraft and soda pulps was not
developed in Japan Proper until about 1938. Soda pulp was produced in
numerous small and inefficient mills, which yielded an inferior and non-
uniform grade of pulp. As in the United States, straw is used chiefly
in making paper boards and is processed by cooking with lime. Although
some waste paper was deinked, it was usually converted into paper board
without special chemical treatment. In addition to wood fiber, other fibers
used for special purposes include cotton, hemp, flax, rice, or wheat straw,
and the inner bark of branches of certain plants of the mulberry family.
Tnese fibers are used in small quantities to prepare a large number of
special papers.


Wood

Of estimated forest resources of 67 billion cubic feet in Japan Proper
(Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, and Shikoku), about 19.2 billion cubic feet in
Old Japan (Honshu, Kyushu, and Shikoku), and about 8.5 billion cubic feet
in Hokkaido are composed of wood species commonly used for pulping. The
preferred species are the spruce and fir (yezomatsu and todomnatsu) which
grow abundantly in Hokkaido, and the red and black pines (akamatsu and
kuromatsu) of Old Japax. Other species used for pulping include beech and
hemlock.

The volume of wood consumed for pulp manufacture was approximately 120
million cubic feet annually for a 7-year period up to 1944. The consump-
tion of pulp wood by locality is shown in figure 1, More than one-half of
the total pulp wood used ix Japan during the 10-year period up to 1945 was
concentrated in Karafuto, l:ot all of the wood wan pulped in Karafuto,
arnd many mills on the other islands were dependent upon this peninsula for a
source. nof high-quality pulp wood. The loss of Karafuto to the Russians,
coupled with the loss of iml orts of both pulp wood and wood pulp greatly
reduced the raw material available to the paper industry and other users of
pulp. A severe shortage of beth pulp wood and wood pulp therefore resulted.


Report No. ?.140


-2-







Attempts are being made to make up present pulp wood deficiencies through
the use of sawmill wastes. In some cases,/pulp mill operations have been
integrated with sawmill operations to use slabs and edgings from lumber
manufacture for pulping. Special small chippers with adapters to fit
small miscellaneous material are sometimes used to reduce this wood to
chip form. The bark of pulp wood is removed chiefly by hand, although the
larger mills have drum-barking equipment. The logs are slashed after peel-
ing and the largest sometimes reduced in size by a splitting device.

Present requirements for. pulp wood to supply remaining pulp mills are affected
by factors other than rated capacity, such as the ability of mills to con-
sume wood despite present shortages of coal, chemicals and other necessities.
Future needs therefore are best considered in terms of past production and
modified according to current shortages. From the standpoint of remaining
pulp productive capacity, although a maximum output of nearly 900,000 short
tons was attainr.ed in Japan Proper in 1941, an estimated production of 600,000
tons, which alproximrtes a past 7-year average, appears to be the maximum
reasonable possibility after bomb damage is repaired, assuming adequate
supplies of coa], wood and chemicals to be available. In addition, wood
requirements are,,f course, dependent on the proportions of the various
pulps made. On the b.sis of rated pulp mill capacity,- the percentage
capacity for each type of pulp has been estimated and if conversion factors
for the calculation of wood volume per ton of pulp are applied to the
assumed maximum production, the wood requirements would be over 70 million
cubic feet annually. It should be emphasized that this estimate is given
as a sample condition and that because of various shortages and altered
emphasis on certain products the actual production is not likely to coincide
with the indicated rated capacity of mills. Production of pulp wood has
been hindered by reluctance on the part of pulp mill operators to use less
desirable wood species such as the hardwoods in mixture with long-fibered
coniferous woods. A notable exception to this has been in the production of
rayon pulp; for this product, beech in some proportion is considered advan-
tageous. Technical advances for increasing the yield of pulp per unit
volume of wood also appeared to be lacking.


Pulp

The yearly average volume of wood pulp available (production plus imports)
for consumption by the paper, rayon yarn, staple fiber, and other chemical
industries of Japan for the years 1935 to 1942 was approximately 1,350,000
short tons. About 250,000 tons of this amount were obtained by importation.
Nearly 45 percent of the average domestic production and about 36 percent
of the total pulp available for this 7-year period had Karafuto as its
source; small amounts were produced in Korea and Formosa. The production
of all types of wood pulp and the magnitude of imports are illustrated in
figure 2. Although the over-all dependency on importation has not averaged
over 21 percent of the total for the years 1930 to 1940, an individual
consideration of paper pulp and rayon pulp reveals the past dependency on
imports of rayon pulp and the near self-sufficiency in paper pulp. This
is illustrated in figures 3 and 4. Production of wood pulp in Japan by
locality is given in figure 5.


Report No. R1640


-3-







The loss of Karafuto is greater from a consideration of pulp types than
is indicated from theover-all loss of tonnage because proLuction in
Karafuto was mostly of the important chemical pulps, notably sulfite and
kraft. This is typified by a breakdown of pulp production by types for
Japan Proper, Karafuto, Korea, and Formosa for the year 1941 given in
figure 6, The rise and decline of production of chemical paper pulp,
mechanical pulp, and rayon pulp since 1930 are shown in figure 7. In the
peak production year of 1941, a total of 1,407,993 short tons consisted of
619,132 tons of chemical paper pulp, 462,402 tons of mechanical pulp, and
326,459 tons of rayon pulp. Total pulp production for 1945 was only
255,657 tons, or about 18 percent of the 1941 production and about 25 per-
cent of the rated production capacity of remaining. mills. Principal reasons
for low production are shortages of coal, chemicals, and wood, and to a
lesser degree, bomb damage. Data on the production of pulp by types for
1945 and the rated productive capacities are given in the accompanying
tabulation.


*
Rated productive : 1945
Type of : capacity (Jan. 1946) : production
pulp -------------------.---- -------------------------------
Percent : : Percent of
of total : Short tons : Short tons : capacity
--------*--------- ---------- ---*--------- -------------- ---------4----------

Mechanical 52 : 499,900 : 125,907 : 25
Sulfite 15 : 145,760 : 101,348 : 70
Rayon 24 230,600 : 11,422 : 5
Kraft 5 53,200 15,225 : 29
Soda 4 40,000a : 1,755 : 4

TOTAL 100 969,460 255,657

-Estimate.
Source: Oji Paper Mfg. Co. Ltd.


The equipment capacities given appear to be somewhat in excess of that
substantiated by pre-war records of the mills in Japan Proper.

Because of the numerous fibrous raw materials used in the production of
paper and paper board, no simple factor is available for use in calculating
the wood pulp requirements for total paper production. As an illustration,
however, the fibrous materials consumed by the Japanese paper industry and
the resultant paper products for 1941 might be considered. In that year,
1,211,321 short tons of wood pulp were used in the production of 1,668,765
tons of paper and paper board, which is a proportion of about 0.73 tons of
wood pulp per ton of paper and paper board. Cn this basis, assuming a per
capital consumption of paper at the approximate recent pre-war level of
about 30 pounds per annum, and assuming a population la Japan of 80 million,


Report No. r:1640


-4-







wood pulp requirements of the paper industry would be nearly 880,000
short tons per year. Requirements for rayon pulp for the production of
rayon are about 1.17 short tons of pulp per ton of viscose rayon, and
about 1.40 tons of pulp per ton of cupra-ammonium rayon ("Bemberg silk").

A locF-tion map of pulp mills, including a classification according to
approximate productive capacity, is given in figure 8. In summary, these
data show that of 93 pulp mills, eight have a capacity of over 30,000
short tons per year; 15 mills have a capacity of 10,000 to 30,000 tons;
30 mills, of 1,000 to 10,000 tons, and 40 mills produce less than 1,000
short tons per year. About 40 percent of the total capacity is concentrated
in five mills in Hokkaido.


A. Mechanical Pulp

Over one-half of the remaining pulp capacity is for the production of
mechanical pulp. Mechanical pulp, in admixture with unbleached sulfite,
is widely used in Japan for papers where permanence is not required, such
as newsprint, school books, printing, and a variety of wrapping papers.
Wood requirements for the manufacture of groundwood are more exacting than
for some chemical processes, and the species which are most suitable for
grinding are the spruce and fir (yezomatsu and todomatsu) of Hokkaido. In
the central and southern regions where spruce and fir are not available
red and black pines (akamatsu and kuromatsu) are used. Pulps produced
by the grinding of pine are lower in strength, darker in color, and
generally require lon;er drainage time for water removal in the manufacture
of paper. The latter fact has resulted in an appreciable decrease in
paper machine operating speeds, particularly in the high-speed machinery
generally employed in newsprint manufacture. Little or no hardwood is
used in the production of groundwood. It is expected that experiments on
the production of hardwood groundwood will be stimulated by severe shortages
of the more desirable species. The use of groundwood in paper in as large
a proportion as possible is to be encouraged in Japan where wood economy
is of prime importance and power is reasonably abundant. The production
of mechanical pulp in Japan for 1930 to 1945 is shown in figure 9. Average
annual production for 1930 to 1940 was about 360,000 tons, representing
about 44 percent of the total production of all types of pulp made during
this period. A peak production of 462,420 was reached in 1941. Nearly
88 percent of the groundwood production of recent prewar years was centered
in Japan Proper. Since the loss of pulp sources in Karafuto was confined
largely to chemical pulps, the result has been a substantial increase in
the position of groundwood pulp in comparison with other pulp types. The
proportion of groundwood to chemical pulp may be considered as an over-all
evaluation of the quality of papers produced, and the increased proportion
of groundwood capacity is likely to be reflected in the production of
inferior papers. Thirty-five mills are classified as producers of ground-
wood pulp. The total rated capacity of these mills, disregarding bomb
damage, is estimated to be about 500,000 short tons per annum. By far
the largest mill is the Tomakomai plant of the Oji Paper Manufacturing
Company, Ltd.; this mill has a rated capacity of 191,000 short tons of


Report No. B1640


-.5-







groundwood per annum. Two mills have a capacity of more than 30,000 tons
per annum, 9 mills from 10,000 to 30,000 tons per annum, and 24 mills fewer
than 10,000 tons per annum.

B. Sulfite Pulp

Sulfite pulp is the only chemical pulp produced in large volume for use
in pmier in Japan, and it is in great demand by the paper industry. It is
an important total or partial constituent of such papers as newsprint,
printing, bond, document, blueprint, wrapper, and paper bag;. Before the
.iar much sulfate pulp was bleached and used in high-quality papers, but,
because of th-e lack of bleaching powder caused by the shortage of malt,
the production of bleached sulfite at this time is very small.

Spruce cnd. fir (yezomateu and todomatsu) are considered superior for sul-
fite pulpin,r Becau:se of the availability of these woods and of the raw
materials, lime :.nd sulfur, large sulfate pulping facilities were developed
in Ka-rafuto anl Eokkaido. Sulfite pulp is ilso produced from red and black
pines (akamatsu and kuromatau) of Honshu and Kyushu, although the sulfite
process is not generallyy considered to be well suited for pulping pine
wood. In order to cook pine successfully in Japan and to minimize diffi-
culties caused by resin in the wood, drastic cookidn conditions are used.
The pulp obtained is inferior in strength and brightness to that obtained
from spruce, -nd the yield of pulp per unit of wood is lower.

The avera-e production of sulfite paper pulp from 1930 to 1940 was about
390,000 short tens. This represents about 48 percent of the total paper
pulp, for the same period. Much of the prewar production of sulfite pulp
was concentrated in five mills of the Oji Paper Manufacturing Company in
Kirafuto. The dependency upon Karafuto for this type of pulp is shown in
figure 10. Over 65 percent of the total domestic -roduction of sulfite
pulp during 1930 to 1940 was centered in Karafuto; about 5 percent was
produced in Iorea. The total rated capacity of remaining mills, disregard-
ing bomb dai1age, is 145,760 short tons per annum. It is evident that the
loss of Karafuto as a source of pulp is particularly severe to consumers
of sulfite paper pulp in Japan.

nine pulp mills are classified as producers of sulfite paper pulp, but a
certain a.mouint of this type of pulp is also supplied by rayon pulp mills.
The largest mill (Tomnakomai, Hokkaido) has a sulfite capacity of 45,360
short tons a year. Four mills have a capacity of from 10,000 to 30,000
torn.s per annum, anc, four mills are rated at lcss than 10,000 short tons per
annum. .1:ree mills are situated in Hokkaido, three in Honshu, and three
in Kyushu.


C. Payon Pulp

Vood is the chief source of cellulose for the rayon industry in Japan.
Nearly all rayon pulp is produced by the sulfite process with certain modi-
fications in the process as it is used to produce paper pulp. Purification


Feiort 'o,. Rl-40


-6-







treatments to increase the alpha-cellulose content of sulfitepulp to the
approximate 88 percent required for viscose rayon manufacture include
chlorination, alkali treatment, and bleaching.

The rapid growth of the rayon industry of Japan in the years preceding
the war resulted in a heavy demand for rayon pulp. Although the production
of rayon pulp was expanded at a much greater rate than that of any other
type of pulp, domestic production did not keep pace with demand, and Japan
depended heavily on imports of this product. The growth of domestic produc-
tion and the amount of pulp obtained by importation are shown graphically
in figure 4, Data on production by locality are given in figure 11.
Domestic production reached a peak in 1941 with the manufacture of 325,000
short tons, and imports of rayon pulp reached a high of 325,000 tons in 1937.

Consumption of cellulose by the rayon yarn and staple fiber industries of
Japan, which in 1930 was less than 30,000 short tons, increased to a peak
of nearly 400,000 tons in 1937. Although consumption of domestic pulp
increased considerably each year through 1941, the dominant source was by
importation until about 1938, after which consumption of domestic pulp
exceeded that obtained by importation. Stimulus to the development of
facilities for domestic production arose from the inability of the Japanese
to obtain sufficient quantities of rayon pulp by importation in the years
immediately preceding 1941. Nearly all of the rayon pulp consumed after
1941 was produced in Japan. Small amounts of cotton were consumed by the
rayon industry, but consumption did not exceed 7 percent of the total
cellulose used in any year. Cotton, because of its high alpha-cellulosic
content, was considered especially desirable in the manufacture of cupra-
ammonium rayon, or "Bemberg silk," which is produced by one factory in
Kyushu. For the same reason, cotton linters or cotton rags were also used
in the manufacture of cellulosic derivatives, such as cellulose nitrate
plastics, explosives, lacquer, coatings, films, artificial leather, rocket
propellants, and dynamite. The technique in some cases was to produce a
tissue paper from alpha-cellulose pulp and cut this paper into pieces of
equal size to promote uniform nitration. Wartime effort on the part of
the Japanese resulted in the development of techniques of purification of
wood pulp to a degree considered suitable for cupra-ammonium rayon, plastics,
and explosives, although perhaps inferior to cotton cellulose at the present
stage of development.

The wood species used for the production of rayon pulp usually depends on
the locality of the mill, although in past years considerable quantities
of wood for pulping were shipped from Karafuto to mills on Honshu and
Kyushu. Spruce and fir (yezomatsu and todomatsu) are the chief species
used in Hokkaido, and mills in Honshu and Kyushu use chiefly red pine
(akamatsu), black pine (kuromatsu), and beech bunaa). Although little or
no hardwood is used in the production of paper pulp in Japan, the use of
up to 40 percent beech is considered desirable in the manufacture of rayon
pulp by certain mills. Rayon pulp produced in Japan was generally con-
sidered inferior and of less uniform quality than pulps obtained by Importa-
tion. During prewar years, imported pulp was usually employed to produce
high-grade rayon for the export market, while the domestic production was
used to supply Japan's home needs for rayon yarn and staple fiber.


Report No. R1640


-7-




7



Domestic production of rayon pulp in Japan began in Karafuto as recently
as 1932. Small amounts of pulp were obtained from Korea after 1936, but
production in Japan Proper did not begin until about 1938. In 1941
Karafuto and Korea contributed less than one-third of the total. The ex-
tremely rapid growth of this industry in Japan Proper is thus illustrated.
From a consideration of the strong situation of rayon pulp facilities in
Japan Proper, the present reduced capacity of the rayon industry, and the
shortage of caustic soda for rayon manufacture, the remaining equipment
capacity for rayon pulp manufacture appears to be in excess of the capacity
of rayon plants to consume pulp. Assuming no imports of wood pulp, rayon
pulp mills may be in a. position to furnish the pulp requirements of the
rayon industry and in addition to supply a certain tonnage of bleached or
unbleached sulfite pulp to the paper industry.

Pulp mills producing rayon pulp are in general among the largest and most
modern in Japan. The eight pulp mills in Japan Proper listed below are
classified as producers of rayon pulp.


District or :
prefacture


Company


S Mill
*
*


Rated annual
S capacity
: short tons


------------- ...-------- --------- -----------------------


Hokkaido


Yamaguchi


Akita


Miyagi


Toyama


Miyazaki


I ilgata


Aichi


Z Kokusaku Pulp
: Industrial Co.


Ltd.


: Sanyo Rayon
: Pulp Co. Ltd.

Tohoku Shinko
Pulp Co. Ltd.

: Tohoku Shinko
: Pulp Co. Ltd.

Kokoku Payon
: Pulp Co. Ltd.

: Japan Pulp
: Industrial Co6. Ltd.
U
S
Hokuetsu Paper
: Mfg. Co. Ltd.

Toyo Spinning Co. Ltd.


Asahikawa


: Iwakuni


Akita
U


: Ishinomaki


Toyama
S
S

: Obi


: Niigata


SInuyama


Total = 230,520


Report 1o. P.1640


61,600


34.520


28,000


28,000


26,880


22,400


20,160


8,960


-8-







Aggregate equipment capacity after reconversion or repair of bomb damage
is about 230,000, tons per year and this total was nearly achieved by these
mills in 1941. Production for 1945 in Japan Proper was only 10,900 tons,
or about 5 percent of remaining capacity. The scarcity of sodium hydroxide
and coal for both pulp and, rayon manufacture are the chief causes for the
low production in 1945.


D. Sulfate Pulp

The sulfate or kraft process was adopted in Japan at a time when rapid
expansion of the pulp and paper industry was taking place in Karafuto with
the result that the modern kraft pulp industry was centered in that penin-
sula. Before 1939 nearly all of the domestic kraft pulp had Karafuto as
its source, No kraft pulp was produced in Korea or Formosa. The average
production of kraft pulp in Karafuto, and therefore in Japan, for the years
1930 through 1938 was about 48,500 tons per year which was only about 6 per-
cent of the total paper pulp production for the same period. Imports of
kraft pulp during this period averaged about 26,000 tons per year. The
production of kraft in Karafuto and Japan Proper is illustrated in figure 12.
Production of kraft in Japan Proper expanded from fewer than 11,000 tons in
1939 to a peak of about 25,000 tons in 1942. By the end of the war in 1945,
the rated productive capacity of all Japan was 138,349 tons, but the combined
capacity of remaining mills in Japan Proper is only 53,220 tons. Thus it
is readily seen that the loss of over 60 percent of the kraft pulp capacity,
coupled with the loss of imports, is of serious consequence to the kraft
paper industry and to industries which require products such as paper con-
tainers or multiwalled bags.

The wood species commonly used for kraft pulp are the spruce, fir, red pine,
and jack pine. It seems peculiar that the kraft pulp industry, with its
flexibility as far as wood requirements are concerned, should have been
developed chiefly in the high-.quality spruce and fir areas such as Karafuto
and Hokkaido, while much of the sulfite pulping was developed in areas where
pine woods are the predominant pulp wood.

Remaining kraft mills are operating under difficulties caused by shortages
of coal, wood, and salt cake. Since strong and important kraft papers,
such as the cement bag paper, were produced largely in Karafuto, the plant
equipment and technical background to assume this burden in remaining mills
has not yet been acquired. Operations observed in one of the largest kraft
mills indicated that cooking procedures were yielding a pulp which would be
considered of the semlchemical type and which could not readily be prepared
for strong papers by the cascades of Kollergangs or edge-runners used as
refiners. It is fortunate for the Japanese that his mode of living thus
far has not included dependency on large tonnages of containers or grocery
bags.


Report No. R1640


-9-






E. Soda Pulp

The soda process in addition to its use in the pulping of wood has also
been applied to digestion of straw, grass, bamboo, kozo, initsumata, bagasse,
and other fibrous materials. Nearly any kind of wood in used for soda
pulp in Japan, the most important factor apparently being availability.
Most of the soda pulp produced in Japan is low in strength, poor in color,
and non-uniform, and it is consumed in small amounts in a multitude of
papers where strength and quality are not important. Such papers include
low-grade toilet tissue, box boards, certain writing papers, and Japanese-
style papers, including the hand-made variety. Although well-prepared soda
pulp has special characteristics which make it suitable for use in certain
papers, the tendency in Japan appears to be to consume the pulp wherever
it can be tolerated, rather than because of its special properties.

During the pact 8 years, soda pulp was produced chiefly in Japan Proper and
Formosa, with a small production in Korea. ITo soda pulp was produced ix
Hokkaido or in Karafuto. With one exception, all soda mills are located in
the central and southern half of Honshu, in Kyushu, and Shikoku. Because of
the small and dispersed nature of the industry, no data are available on
production prior to 1938. Total production of soda pulp increased from
about 3,000 short tons in 1938 to a high of about 117,000 short tons in
1941. In the latter year, the production was about 11 percent of the total
production of paper pulp. About one-third of the 1941 production was
centered in Formosa. Soda pulp mills total about 50; thus, in Japan Proper
in the highest production year, the average annual production per mill was
only about 1,500 short tor.ns, The largest mill has a rated annual capacity
of 5,380 short tons.

The production of soda pulp is at a virtual standstill now because of the
shortage of caustic soda. The process as practiced in Japan is wasteful
of caustic soda, because the size of the mills is so small that recovery
of chemical is not feasible. However, given sufficient chemical, these
mills are able to contribute to relief of the fiber shortage by pulping
straw, grass, bamboo, *r other materials which normally would not be used
by larger pulp mills.


Paper

TO an observer familiar with modern Western methods of producing paper, the
Japanese industry appears to be an incredible blend of the reasonably modern
with the very old, Many machines are very small in size and low in produc-
tion, and even hand-made papers seem to be capable of competition with
modern machines. This condition is perhaps due in part to the low wage
standards of the workers, and, is the case of hand-made papers, to a
historical emphasis given to the many special papers incapable of production
on modern mac-'Anery.

The manufact'are of hand-made papers in Japaa is a fascinating subject in-
volvin,-; a study of the mode of living and culture of the Orient. While it
is true that certain of these papers have a singular and distinctive beauty,


Report ITo. n1640


-10-







their charms have often been exaggerated over the centuries by writers and
artists to the point where papers are endowed in terms of attributes
usually reserved for humans such as "masculinity," "dignity," and "sweet
temper." Because of the complete dissimilarity of equipment and techniques
of manufacture of hand-made and machine-made papers, no detailed description
of the industry is given in this report. It may surprise persons familiar
with the tedious methods of making hand sheets, however, to note that the
production of hand-made papers in Japan in past years was of the order of
30,000 tons per year.

Because the Japanese produced certain papers peculiar to their culture for
hundreds of years before machine papers were known to them, the superposition
of "foreign-style" paper in relatively recent years resulted in a confusion
of classification of the various papers. Originally it was sufficient to
distinguish "foreign-style" from "Japanese-style" paper, as the former
referred clearly to a wood pulp sheet of doubtful quality, which was machine-
made and available in sufficient quantity for consumption by people of
moderate means in the form of newspapers, office papers, and wrappings. As
aachine-made papers becamee competitive with the classic hand-papers, however,
c'l further subdivision into "machine-made Japanese papers" and "hand-made
Japanese papers" was necessary. The classification is thus more dependent
onthe specific use than the origin of the paper. As an example, a ground-
wood and sulfite machine-made toilet tissue may be "foreign style" if sold
in the household roll form, or "Japanese style" if converted to the flat
packaged sheets often used by the Japanese. A machine-made paper for writing
ua with the traditional charcoal and brush may be considered "Japanese style"
paper, but the same paper applied to office typewriter use would be clearly
'foreign style." At one time, papers produced from the inner bark of the
mulberry were all hand-ma.e and thus easily distinguishable from "foreign-
style" papers, but certain machine techniques were developed to use these
long fibers to produce quality papers, and as an example some of these papers
were used i the bombing balloons and in the paper money of Japan.

The so-called "foreign-style" papers which constitute most of the total
paper tonnage in Japan are made almost entirely from common wood pulps.
The types of paper include newsprint, printing, wrapping, coated papers,
photographic, bond, ledger, blue print, drawing, cigarette, glassine, con-
denser, blotter, bank note, bible paper, toilet tissue, wadding, containers,
boards, etc. The machinery is orthodox, of the Fourdrinier, cylinder,
Yankee, or combination types. Some of the machines were produced in
England, the United States, and Switzerland, and the Japanese-built machines
in most cases appear to be copicd from imported models. Processing or
refining equipment usually consists of ordinary beaters and Jordans, and
in soma cases Kollergangs. A large amount of coated or "art" papers was
made before the war, but coating materials are not available or are very
scarce at present. Coating is usually done on conventional coating equip-
moie.t apart from the paper machines. Size-tub equipment was common, but no
modern equipment for on-machine coating was observed. Supercalenders are
common and are used in the production of glassine and other thin papers
having a high gloss. The Japanese excelled in the manufacture of thin
special papers such as a hemp paper for use as a silk wrap, high-quality


Report Yo, R1640







cigarette paper for the tobacco monopoly and export, and kraft condenser
paper as thin as 0.0005 inch. Other special high-quality watermark papers
were made for bank note paper for export to China. Since rosin for sizing
was largely imported before the war, it is now almost completely unavailable,
and tris is reflected in the poor water resistance of most papers. Papers
made from pine sulfite pulp Often had adequate water resistance without the
use of sizing, presumably due to natural resins in the wood. Little progress
was ma".e in the development of new special papers, or combinations of paper
and chemicals for war use, although certain papers are used to a limited
extent for artificial leathers or are twisted and used for fabrics. 8uch
recent special papers as moisture-vapor barriers or even wet-strengthened
pal-ers appear to be almost nonexistent.

Machine paper mills in Japan number about 275. Of a total of about 500
paper machines somewhkat Over 100 are Fourdriniers of the conventional type
varyij. in width from about 42 inches to 180 inches, and about 400 machines
are of the c:.linder, Yankee, or special types varying in width from about
20 inches to 148 inches, with nearly all of the latter group being less
than lOC inches wide. A large portion of the paper mills are clustered
about the Iprincipal cities as may be seea in the location map of paper mills
given in figure 13. The largest mill by a considerable margin is the news-
print plant of the Oji Paper Manufacturing Company at Tomakomai, Hokkaido,
This mill has ten paper machines, seven of which are 142 inches wide. The
Tomakomai mill produces nearly all of the newsprint for Japan, the balance
being-" made by the Kushiro, Yatsoshiro,and Sakamoto mills of the Oji Company.
Daraa-ie to paper mills due to bomb raids was greater than that suffered by
the pulp mills chiefly because of the location of plants. Fire damage to
certain mills ia the large city areas was great, and this fact, coupled with
shortages of coal, pulp, .nd machine parts, had reduced production to about
one-tiird of prewar. Machine wires and felts, particularly the former,
were difficult to obtrnin Immediatel;, after the end of the war. Yearly all
of the felts and wires were produced by subsidiaries of the Oji Paper
Company, Much of the wire-producing capacity was burned but was quickly
repaired in a makeshift fashion. The large and modern Nippon Felt Company
was undi-maged but is dependent upon foreign sources of wool.


By-products and Fesearch

A few of the larger sulfite pulp mills utilize their waste liquor for the pro-
duction of ethyl alcohol. Although much of the alcohol was made in Karafuto
mills, by, the end of the war new plants were under construction in Japan
Frorer. Modern oqulpment included continuous fermentation equipment, Sul-
fite waste liquor was also concentrated in crude wooden tanks Or in modern
multiple effect evap.orators to produce a material for use as a binder for
charcoal briquettes, as an adhesive for paper, arid as a tannin substitute.
For use as adhesives the waste liquor was treated with lime to a pH of 4.6
before evaporation to a concen-.tration of about 200 grams per liter. The
hr-h percentage of screenings obtained from the sulfite pulping of pines
are disposed of chiefly in the production of insulating boards, a common
name for which Is "Tex-board." The screeninLs arc usually reduced in size
in an edge runner and the boards continuously formed on a small filter,


Report Yo. R1G40







and placed in frames for air or kiln drying. Other related products of
perhaps lesser importance include crude rosin from pine stumps which is
steam distilled to yield wood rosin and turpentine, the refining of pine
root oil for fuel and lubrication, the manufacture of a building brick
from coal ashes and lime, and the manufacture of turpentine from sulfite
digester vapors.

The most important and most highly developed research on wood products
has been in the field of cellulose chemistry as related to the chemical
utilization of pulp, particularly for rayon. Principal research efforts
related to pulp and paper have been made by the Central Laboratory of the
Oji Paper Company, the Institute of Fiber Chemistry at Kyoto Imperial
University, Tokyo Imperial University, and other branches of the Imperial
universities. Shortages caused by the war have naturally altered the
emphasis of study. I-uch effort appears to be given to the alleviation of
salt and fiber shortages. Experiments observed included the continuous
electrolysis of sea water in a mercury cell to obtain caustic soda and
chlorine for use in pulping. Caustic solutions up to about 20 percent con-
centration can be made by this method. The hydrogen evolved in the elec-
trolysis was being used for experiments on the production .of fertilizer
from sulfite waste lignin and rice hulls. It was hoped that the chemicals
obtained from the electrolysis could be used in the pulping of straws,
woods, and the purification of rayon pulps, Other research efforts were
on pulping by the nitric acid method, lignin resins for plastics, sulfite
turpentine oil, alcohol produced from artichokes or potatoes, and on pine,
beech, and larch for rayon or high-alpha pulps.


Personnel

The wage and living standards of Japanese mill workers is very low by
Westernstandards. Labor-saving equipment, conveniences for employees, and
safety devices seem to be at a minimum. Female labor is widely used and in
an uncommon number of instances the difficult work such as log barking and
the hand loading of railroad cars appears to have been assigned to the girls
or women, probably because the wage scale for females is lower.

The take-home pay of a typical worker is a confused and vague mixture of
several components of which "salary" may be only about one-quarter of the
total. Other compensations include such items as "commodity allowance,"
"residence allowance," "special allowance," "service allowance," and "no
absence bonus." in addition, small amounts of fish and rice may be given,
A common convenience for employees is the traditional community hot bath
which is built for employees at principal mills. The water for this bath
is maintained at a high temperature by the use of mill process steam.


Report No. R1640


-13-





















































































































































w ilr















150


100


1937


1938


1939


1940


1941


Z M 72107 ;


FIG. 1


CONSUMPTION OF
PULPWOOD IN JAPAN
LEGEND
TTAL I----I JAPAN
TOTAL = PROPER
*KRFUTO A KOREA AND
KARAFUTO M FOMOSA
SOURCE, BUREAU OF FORESTRY,
MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE AND
FORESTRY, FEB. 1946
* VALUES FOR 1945 ESTIMATED
PRODUCTION
VALUE FOR 1946 REPRESENTS
GOAL OR PLANNED CUT ONLY.
* ONE CUBIC FOOT
a 0.0283 CUBIC METER


1942


1943


1944


1945


1946


I


m m
i. m












PRODUCTION AND IMPORTS
OF
WOOD PULP ALL TYPES
1400000
Source: Oji Pope Mfq. Co.

/ _2I0oo


10030000, -- - --- ^ -- ^ |

__ ocl ^^o S^


Z W 7210a FF


FIG. 2





PRODUCTION AND IMPORTS OF PAPER PULP IN JAPAN.


. . - -


SI I.-
5vvv~~~ __________________ -


Leqend
-- Domestic Production
I J I imports
" Source: Oji Paper Mfg. Go. Ltd. -


I I


I





600,000 -



400,0001 -1- 1_ _


193 19F '1937 l|93 1.959 1'9940 I1941 '1942 '1943 11944 194


FIG. 3


M 72109 F


I A I IT


4
C
0
I.

8
0


0
I-


200,000


-


I


-I






PRODUCTION


AND IMPORTS OF RAYON


PULP IN JAPAN


Leqend
....... ...... .. DOomestic Production
S J Imports
n I Source Oji Poper Mfg.GCo.Ltd.


1-I -


C
5250,000 ______________________ ______ ______________

0
0
0
1200,000 -... ._ ....- -. .. ...


.. p...00.


---. !-! !


1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 194Z 1943 1944 194 5


FIG. 4


300.(,, '-


Z M 711 i p




*-qI


Z M 72111 F


FIGo 5









PULP PRODUCTION BY TYPES


Mechani


Su Ifite
CL
i
I.


~\


Total
417,625


1 Total
462,402


Ray


__J


Kraft




Soda and
Others


. *' 7?112


Total
84,527



Total
116,980


Total
326,459


Production of
in Japan for


Wood Pulp
1941


Legend
MJapan Proper
MIH Karafuto
IZ..I Korea and Formosa
Source: Oji Paper Mfg.Co,


tt t

0 0 0
a 10
Tons of 2000 Pounds
Tons of 2000 Pounds


FIG. 6





WOOD PULP PRODUCTION IN JAPAN


I -M-i
Source: Oji Paper Mfg.Co.Inc.


60Q0000. __ __I I I I I_ ___1 -- -- -


- -% iwu -w %p -1 4 6. -- 1-


400,OOO
o
o
0
CY

N
S300.000

(0
C
120 t i n


L2J~zL nA n IChL 2I


rMec


KIl
hanical


A


V ran 1 1 -


100,000



0


4 4 1 .I-..----A I 4-4----'--t 4-4-4-I


- A ~ I 1 I I I ~4~4~I~ ~ .& -. - -


1930


1932


1934


1936


1938


1940


1942


1944


1946


FIG. 7


SM 72113 F






























LOCATION
OF
WOOD-PULP MILLS IN JAPAN

JANUARY 1946


-Legond-
bfSS TKA ,000 OT T CS RATCD ANhWUA. P*tOMCI'O

00 ?0 SHOUT TONS RATCO AW&AL P0ECOCTOON


k SOD ^000000 S S RATE ANNUAL PROOkCTIO

*S* 0 #'.b *-# ."I "'o4 -i









01,.
It 4. 4 V








S ) ,i


--.'

.A- I


- A


. .-*6:'
'W \ ,{~"
^ ^ ^ W < ^


^-


^
*/'*d


Z X 72114 F


FIG. 8






PRODUCTION OF MECHANICAL WOOD PULP IN JAPAN

Legend
Toto I
I J Jopon Proper
SourceII oIi Pr a f u t a
Source. 0ji Poper Mf,. Co.Ltd.


500,000


#A 400POO

0
a.
0o 300000
0
0

200.000
IA
C
0


100.000


0


-


m -a -m- -- m-4- m.-I --4-----. -- m--- m--


I


I_


I


I I I I
~.-.mill'


mm


=


1935


1936


193?


1938


1939


1940


1941


194.2


1943 1944
1943 1944


FIG. 9


1945


&_ I m i l l! III 11 !-1 a


Z 7?P15 N


I


I








PRODUCTION


OF SULFITE


WOOD


PULP IN JAPAN


Legend
~Total

] Jopon
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII K a or a f
Kore(


Proper
uto


i and Formosa


Source: Oji Paper Mfg.Co


FIG. 10


Z 1 .. 1iF r









PRODUCTION


OF RAYON PULP IN JAPAN


lZ
*HIilIMl


Legend
Total
Japan Proper


Karofuto


Korea


Source: Oji Paper


100,000


F!G. 11


V K7P11" F






OF KRAFT PULP IN JAPAN


100,000


80,000
c

0
N


40J000.


,n nnn


Legend
-Total


S...1 Japan Proper
-_ I BSource Oji Paper Mfg.Co.


=U


U


- ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ m -


U
U
=


I|


I!


.... =-~- - -- - ~ =- -- -n =


K


U


Is


Mm
I


1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945


FIG. 12


' ""L ) F


,,tpB vq


PRODUCTION


I
















































































FIG. 13


?119 F


LOCATION
OF
PAPER MILLS IN JAPAN


-Legend-

o LESS THAN WIOO SHORT TONS RATED ANNUAL PROOUCTION
S%000 10 o000 SHORT TOMS AT0 ANNUAL PRODUCTION
10,000 TO 30,000 SHORT TONS RATED ANNUAL PRODUCTION
S30.000 TO 000,00 S"O TONS RATED AMiNNUAL PRODUCTION
0,1Vorl M (tOOoDunds). *go,, mtF-r




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